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Sample records for superior frontal sulcus

  1. Dissociated roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in audiovisual processing: top-down and bottom-up mismatch detection.

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    Takeshi Uno

    Full Text Available Visual inputs can distort auditory perception, and accurate auditory processing requires the ability to detect and ignore visual input that is simultaneous and incongruent with auditory information. However, the neural basis of this auditory selection from audiovisual information is unknown, whereas integration process of audiovisual inputs is intensively researched. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal sulcus (STS are involved in top-down and bottom-up processing, respectively, of target auditory information from audiovisual inputs. We recorded high gamma activity (HGA, which is associated with neuronal firing in local brain regions, using electrocorticography while patients with epilepsy judged the syllable spoken by a voice while looking at a voice-congruent or -incongruent lip movement from the speaker. The STS exhibited stronger HGA if the patient was presented with information of large audiovisual incongruence than of small incongruence, especially if the auditory information was correctly identified. On the other hand, the IFG exhibited stronger HGA in trials with small audiovisual incongruence when patients correctly perceived the auditory information than when patients incorrectly perceived the auditory information due to the mismatched visual information. These results indicate that the IFG and STS have dissociated roles in selective auditory processing, and suggest that the neural basis of selective auditory processing changes dynamically in accordance with the degree of incongruity between auditory and visual information.

  2. Surgical management of superior sulcus tumors.

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    Dartevelle, P; Macchiarini, P

    1999-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumor refers to any primary lung cancer presenting with constant pain in the nerve distribution of the eighth cervical, first and second thoracic nerve roots and Horner's syndrome caused by invasion of the stellate ganglion. The pain is steady, severe, and unrelenting, involving the shoulder, the vertebral margin of the scapula and ulnar distribution of the arm to the elbow and finally to the ulnar surface of the forearm, and the small and ring fingers of the hand (Pancoast-Tobias syndrome). Weakness and atrophy of the hand muscles can also occur as the lesions spreads to involve the first and second ribs and vertebrae. Radiologically, there is a small shadow at the extreme apex of the lung with rib and possible vertebral body invasion. Pulmonary symptoms are less frequent because of the peripheral location of the lesions. Since Shaw and Paulson approached superior sulcus tumors in 1961 by using preoperative radiation-therapy (30 to 45 Gy in four weeks including the primary tumor, mediastinum and supraclavicular region) followed by surgical resection, this radiosurgical approach shortly became the standard treatment yielding better disease control and survival than that offered by other treatment modalities. It has now become evident that en bloc resection of the chest wall, involved adjacent structures as well as lobectomy must be considered the standard surgical approach for superior sulcus tumors combined with external radiation (preoperative, postoperative, or both). The goal of the operation is the complete and en bloc resection of the upper lobe in continuity with the invaded ribs, transverse processes, subclavian vessels, T1 nerve root, upper dorsal sympathetic chain and prevertebral muscles.

  3. Management of Lung Cancer Invading the Superior Sulcus.

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    Kratz, Johannes R; Woodard, Gavitt; Jablons, David M

    2017-05-01

    Superior sulcus tumors have posed a formidable therapeutic challenge since their original description by Pancoast and Tobias in the early twentieth century. Initial therapeutic efforts with radiotherapy were associated with high rates of relapse and mortality. Bimodality therapy with complete surgical resection in the 1960s paved the way for trimodality therapy as the current standard of care in the treatment of superior sulcus tumors. The evolution of treatment approaches over time has provided outcomes that come increasingly closer to rivaling those of similarly staged nonapical lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

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    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  5. Multisensory speech perception without the left superior temporal sulcus.

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    Baum, Sarah H; Martin, Randi C; Hamilton, A Cris; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration of auditory and visual information during speech perception. We report a patient, SJ, who suffered a stroke that damaged the left tempo-parietal area, resulting in mild anomic aphasia. Structural MRI showed complete destruction of the left middle and posterior STS, as well as damage to adjacent areas in the temporal and parietal lobes. Surprisingly, SJ demonstrated preserved multisensory integration measured with two independent tests. First, she perceived the McGurk effect, an illusion that requires integration of auditory and visual speech. Second, her perception of morphed audiovisual speech with ambiguous auditory or visual information was significantly influenced by the opposing modality. To understand the neural basis for this preserved multisensory integration, blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine brain responses to audiovisual speech in SJ and 23 healthy age-matched controls. In controls, bilateral STS activity was observed. In SJ, no activity was observed in the damaged left STS but in the right STS, more cortex was active in SJ than in any of the normal controls. Further, the amplitude of the BOLD response in right STS response to McGurk stimuli was significantly greater in SJ than in controls. The simplest explanation of these results is a reorganization of SJ's cortical language networks such that the right STS now subserves multisensory integration of speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

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    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  7. Social cognition and the superior temporal sulcus: implications in autism.

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    Saitovitch, A; Bargiacchi, A; Chabane, N; Brunelle, F; Samson, Y; Boddaert, N; Zilbovicius, M

    2012-10-01

    The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is social interaction impairment, which is associated with communication deficits and stereotyped behaviors. Based on brain-imaging results, our hypothesis is that abnormalities in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are highly implicated in ASD. These abnormalities are characterized by decreased grey matter concentration, rest hypoperfusion and abnormal activation during social tasks. STS anatomofunctional anomalies occurring early across brain development could constitute the first step in the cascade of neural dysfunctions underlying autism. It is known that STS is highly implicated on social perception processing, from perception of biological movements, such as body movements or eye gaze, to more complex social cognition processes. Among the impairments that can be described in social perception processing, eye gaze perception is particularly relevant in autism. Gaze abnormalities can now be objectively measured using eye-tracking methodology. In the present work, we will review recent data on STS contributions to normal social cognition and its implication in autism, with particular focus on eye gaze perception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

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    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  9. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus.

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    Noesselt, Tömme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the "auditory leading (A(L))" and "visual leading (V(L)) areas" lie closer to "synchrony areas" than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony.

  10. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language...

  11. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  12. ?Walk the Rim, Feel the Bone? Technique in Superior Sulcus Filling

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    Looi, Audrey L.G.; Yong, Kai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Superior sulcus filler injection is a nonsurgical method to rejuvenate the upper face. Blindness and stroke are devastating complications of facial filler injection. This study describes an injection technique that minimizes the risk of blindness and includes a case study demonstrating the cosmetic benefits of this procedure. To avoid retrograde injection of filler embolus into the ophthalmic artery, we advocate a ??walk the rim, feel the bone? approach. Small boluses of hyaluronic a...

  13. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

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    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  14. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

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    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Thunnissen, E. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartemink, K.J. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R{sup 2} = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  15. Ion therapy within the trimodal management of superior sulcus tumors: the INKA trial.

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    Hauswald, Henrik; Rieken, Stefan; Dienemann, Hendrik C; Thomas, Michael; Kieser, Meinhard; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2015-03-28

    The standard trimodal treatment concept in locally advanced and non-metastasized non-small-cell superior sulcus tumors consists of a preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgical resection. High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation as, for example, C12 heavy-ion beam therapy theoretically offers biological advantages compared to high energy x-ray therapy as, for example, higher biological efficiency. In the present prospective, single-armed, open pilot study performed at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Heidelberg, the radiation treatment within the standard trimodal concept will be exchanged against C12 heavy-ion beam treatment and apply 39GyE in 13 single fractions in combination with a chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and vinorelbine (local standard). The primary endpoint is feasibility and safety measured by the incidence of NCI-CTCAE grade 3/4 toxicity and/or discontinuation due to any reason. Secondary endpoint is the degree of regression in the histological specimen. The main inclusion criteria are histologically confirmed non-small-cell superior sulcus tumor, nodal disease stage ≤ N2, Karnofsky performance score ≥70%, patient age between 18 and 75 years as well as written informed consent. The main exclusion criteria include medical contraindications against elements of the trimodal treatment concept, PET confirmed nodal disease stage N3, stage IV disease, prior thoracic irradiation and decompensated diseases of the lung, cardio-vascular system, metabolism, hematopoietic and coagulation system and renal function. Furthermore, patients with implanted active medical devices without certification for ion-beam therapy are not allowed to take part in the study. DRKS00006323 ( www.drks.de ).

  16. An effective and safe surgical approach for a superior sulcus tumor: A case report.

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    Oka, Soichi; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Matsumiya, Hiroki; Kanayama, Masatoshi; Shinohara, Shuichi; Shinohara, Shinji; Taira, Akihiro; Kuwata, Taiji; Takenaka, Masaru; Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Ayako; Tashima, Yuko; Imanishi, Naoko; Kuroda, Koji; Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2017-01-01

    Superior sulcus tumors, frequently referred to as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading a section of the apical chest wall called the thoracic inlet. For this reason, a surgical approach and complete resection may be difficult to accomplish. We experienced a locally advanced superior sulcus tumor (SST) located from the anterior to posterior apex thoracic inlet and performed complete resection after definitive chemoradiation. A 71-year-old Japanese male presented at our hospital due to left back pain and an abnormal chest computed tomography (CT) scan showing 80×70×60-mm tumor located in the left middle apex thoracic inlet. This tumor was located near the subclavian artery, and the subclavian lymph nodes were swollen. The tumor was found to be an adenocarcinoma (clinical-T3N3M0 stage IIIB). Therefore, we performed definitive chemoradiation therapy. Slight reduction in the tumor size was noted after the treatment, and the subclavian lymph nodes were not swollen. We next performed surgical resection for this SST. Regarding the surgical approaches, the anterior approach was a transmanubrial approach, and the posterior approach was a Paulson's thoracotomy. In this manner, we were able to perform complete en-bloc resection of this tumor. This surgical approach was effective and safe for treating a SST located from the anterior to posterior apex of the thoracic inlet. The patient remains healthy and recurrence-free at 2.5 years after the operation. Surgical approach for SST is difficult. Therefore, this approach is effective and safety. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Superior Intraparietal Sulcus Controls the Variability of Visual Working Memory Precision.

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    Galeano Weber, Elena M; Peters, Benjamin; Hahn, Tim; Bledowski, Christoph; Fiebach, Christian J

    2016-05-18

    Limitations of working memory (WM) capacity depend strongly on the cognitive resources that are available for maintaining WM contents in an activated state. Increasing the number of items to be maintained in WM was shown to reduce the precision of WM and to increase the variability of WM precision over time. Although WM precision was recently associated with neural codes particularly in early sensory cortex, we have so far no understanding of the neural bases underlying the variability of WM precision, and how WM precision is preserved under high load. To fill this gap, we combined human fMRI with computational modeling of behavioral performance in a delayed color-estimation WM task. Behavioral results replicate a reduction of WM precision and an increase of precision variability under high loads (5 > 3 > 1 colors). Load-dependent BOLD signals in primary visual cortex (V1) and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), measured during the WM task at 2-4 s after sample onset, were modulated by individual differences in load-related changes in the variability of WM precision. Although stronger load-related BOLD increase in superior IPS was related to lower increases in precision variability, thus stabilizing WM performance, the reverse was observed for V1. Finally, the detrimental effect of load on behavioral precision and precision variability was accompanied by a load-related decline in the accuracy of decoding the memory stimuli (colors) from left superior IPS. We suggest that the superior IPS may contribute to stabilizing visual WM performance by reducing the variability of memory precision in the face of higher load. This study investigates the neural bases of capacity limitations in visual working memory by combining fMRI with cognitive modeling of behavioral performance, in human participants. It provides evidence that the superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a critical brain region that influences the variability of visual working memory precision between and

  18. Neural responses to expression and gaze in the posterior superior temporal sulcus interact with facial identity.

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    Baseler, Heidi A; Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2014-03-01

    Neural models of human face perception propose parallel pathways. One pathway (including posterior superior temporal sulcus, pSTS) is responsible for processing changeable aspects of faces such as gaze and expression, and the other pathway (including the fusiform face area, FFA) is responsible for relatively invariant aspects such as identity. However, to be socially meaningful, changes in expression and gaze must be tracked across an individual face. Our aim was to investigate how this is achieved. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found a region in pSTS that responded more to sequences of faces varying in gaze and expression in which the identity was constant compared with sequences in which the identity varied. To determine whether this preferential response to same identity faces was due to the processing of identity in the pSTS or was a result of interactions between pSTS and other regions thought to code face identity, we measured the functional connectivity between face-selective regions. We found increased functional connectivity between the pSTS and FFA when participants viewed same identity faces compared with different identity faces. Together, these results suggest that distinct neural pathways involved in expression and identity interact to process the changeable features of the face in a socially meaningful way.

  19. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

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    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Dynamic changes in superior temporal sulcus connectivity during perception of noisy audiovisual speech.

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    Nath, Audrey R; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2011-02-02

    Humans are remarkably adept at understanding speech, even when it is contaminated by noise. Multisensory integration may explain some of this ability: combining independent information from the auditory modality (vocalizations) and the visual modality (mouth movements) reduces noise and increases accuracy. Converging evidence suggests that the superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical brain area for multisensory integration, but little is known about its role in the perception of noisy speech. Behavioral studies have shown that perceptual judgments are weighted by the reliability of the sensory modality: more reliable modalities are weighted more strongly, even if the reliability changes rapidly. We hypothesized that changes in the functional connectivity of STS with auditory and visual cortex could provide a neural mechanism for perceptual reliability weighting. To test this idea, we performed five blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral experiments in 34 healthy subjects. We found increased functional connectivity between the STS and auditory cortex when the auditory modality was more reliable (less noisy) and increased functional connectivity between the STS and visual cortex when the visual modality was more reliable, even when the reliability changed rapidly during presentation of successive words. This finding matched the results of a behavioral experiment in which the perception of incongruent audiovisual syllables was biased toward the more reliable modality, even with rapidly changing reliability. Changes in STS functional connectivity may be an important neural mechanism underlying the perception of noisy speech.

  1. Effect of head orientation on gaze processing in fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus.

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    Pageler, Natalie M; Menon, Vinod; Merin, Noah M; Eliez, Stephan; Brown, Wendy E; Reiss, Allan L

    2003-09-01

    We used functional MRI with an event-related design to dissociate the brain activation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) for multiple face and gaze orientations. The event-related design allowed for concurrent behavioral analysis, which revealed a significant effect of both head and gaze orientation on the speed of gaze processing, with the face and gaze forward condition showing the fastest reaction times. In conjunction with this behavioral finding, the FG responded with the greatest activation to face and gaze forward, perhaps reflecting the unambiguous social salience of congruent face and gaze directed toward the viewer. Random effects analysis showed greater activation in both the FG and posterior STS when the subjects viewed a direct face compared to an angled face, regardless of gaze direction. Additionally, the FG showed greater activation for forward gaze compared to angled gaze, but only when the face was forward. Together, these findings suggest that head orientation has a significant effect on gaze processing and these effects are manifest not only in the STS, but also the FG.

  2. Biological motion processing: the left cerebellum communicates with the right superior temporal sulcus.

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    Sokolov, Arseny A; Erb, Michael; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Grodd, Wolfgang; Tatagiba, Marcos S; Pavlova, Marina A

    2012-02-01

    The cerebellum is thought to be engaged not only in motor control, but also in the neural network dedicated to visual processing of body motion. However, the pattern of connectivity within this network, in particular, between the cortical circuitry for observation of others' actions and the cerebellum remains largely unknown. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with functional connectivity analysis and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we assessed cerebro-cerebellar connectivity during a visual perceptual task with point-light displays depicting human locomotion. In the left lateral cerebellum, regions in the lobules Crus I and VIIB exhibited increased fMRI response to biological motion. The outcome of the connectivity analyses delivered the first evidence for reciprocal communication between the left lateral cerebellum and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Through communication with the right posterior STS that is a key node not only for biological motion perception but also for social interaction and visual tasks on theory of mind, the left cerebellum might be involved in a wide range of social cognitive functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

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    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The posterior superior temporal sulcus is involved in social communication not specific for the eyes.

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    Materna, Simone; Dicke, Peter W; Thier, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that the superior temporal sulcus (STS) region is involved in eye gaze processing. Hence, the STS region is suggested to be the location of the "eye-direction detector", a key element in the "mindreading model" proposed by Baron-Cohen [Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge: The MIT Press]. Not only the eyes, but also a pointing finger of another person can inform us about the direction of attention of the other one. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, healthy human subjects actively followed a directional cue provided either by the eyes or, alternatively, the pointing finger of another person to make an eye movement toward an object in space. Our results show clearly that the posterior STS region is equally involved in processing directional information from either source. The only difference between the two cues was found in the lingual gyrus, in which a stronger blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response was observed during the finger pointing compared to the gaze following task. We suggest that different structures might be involved in the initial processing of directional information coming from the eyes or the pointing finger. These different streams of information may then converge in the posterior STS region, orchestrating the usage of a wider range of socially relevant directional cues able to inform us about the direction of attention and the intentions of another person.

  5. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  6. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

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    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  10. Underconnectivity of the superior temporal sulcus predicts emotion recognition deficits in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Daniel G.; Steyaert, Jean; Di Martino, Adriana; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disconnections have been assumed to cause behavioral alterations in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here, we combined measurements of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with task-based fMRI to explore whether altered activity and/or iFC of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) mediates deficits in emotion recognition in ASD. Fifteen adults with ASD and 15 matched-controls underwent resting-state and task-based fMRI, during which participants discriminated emotional states from point light displays (PLDs). Intrinsic FC of the right pSTS was further examined using 584 (278 ASD/306 controls) resting-state data of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Participants with ASD were less accurate than controls in recognizing emotional states from PLDs. Analyses revealed pronounced ASD-related reductions both in task-based activity and resting-state iFC of the right pSTS with fronto-parietal areas typically encompassing the action observation network (AON). Notably, pSTS-hypo-activity was related to pSTS-hypo-connectivity, and both measures were predictive of emotion recognition performance with each measure explaining a unique part of the variance. Analyses with the large independent ABIDE dataset replicated reductions in pSTS-iFC to fronto-parietal regions. These findings provide novel evidence that pSTS hypo-activity and hypo-connectivity with the fronto-parietal AON are linked to the social deficits characteristic of ASD. PMID:24078018

  11. The Superior Frontal Transsulcal Approach to the Anterior Ventricular System: Exploring the Sulcal and Subcortical Anatomy Using Anatomic Dissections and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsarnakis, Christos; Liakos, Faidon; Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Skandalakis, Georgios P; Komaitis, Spyros; Christidi, Fotini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Liouta, Evangelia; Stranjalis, George

    2017-10-01

    To explore the superior frontal sulcus (SFS) morphology, trajectory of the applied surgical corridor, and white matter bundles that are traversed during the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach. Twenty normal, adult, formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres and 2 cadaveric heads were included in the study. The topography, morphology, and dimensions of the SFS were recorded in all specimens. Fourteen hemispheres were investigated through the fiber dissection technique whereas the remaining 6 were explored using coronal cuts. The cadaveric heads were used to perform the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach. In addition, 2 healthy volunteers underwent diffusion tensor imaging and tractography reconstruction studies. The SFS was interrupted in 40% of the specimens studied and was always parallel to the interhemispheric fissure. The proximal 5 cm of the SFS (starting from the SFS precentral sulcus meeting point) were found to overlie the anterior ventricular system in all hemispheres. Five discrete white matter layers were identified en route to the anterior ventricular system (i.e., the arcuate fibers, the frontal aslant tract, the external capsule, internal capsule, and the callosal radiations). Diffusion tensor imaging studies confirmed the fiber tract architecture. When feasible, the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach offers a safe and effective corridor to the anterior part of the lateral ventricle because it minimizes brain retraction and transgression and offers a wide and straightforward working corridor. Meticulous preoperative planning coupled with a sound microneurosurgical technique are prerequisites to perform the approach successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontal and superior temporal auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Edgar, J Christopher; Huang, Mingxiong; Hunter, Michael A; Epstein, Emerson; Howell, Breannan; Lu, Brett Y; Bustillo, Juan; Miller, Gregory A; Cañive, José M

    2013-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies show superior temporal gyrus (STG) auditory processing abnormalities in schizophrenia at 50 and 100 ms, EEG and corticography studies suggest involvement of additional brain areas (e.g., frontal areas) during this interval. Study goals were to identify 30 to 130 ms auditory encoding processes in schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) and group differences throughout the cortex. The standard paired-click task was administered to 19 SZ and 21 HC subjects during MEG recording. Vector-based Spatial-temporal Analysis using L1-minimum-norm (VESTAL) provided 4D maps of activity from 30 to 130 ms. Within-group t-tests compared post-stimulus 50 ms and 100 ms activity to baseline. Between-group t-tests examined 50 and 100 ms group differences. Bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity was observed in both groups. HC had stronger bilateral 50 and 100 ms STG activity than SZ. In addition to the STG group difference, non-STG activity was also observed in both groups. For example, whereas HC had stronger left and right inferior frontal gyrus activity than SZ, SZ had stronger right superior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus activity than HC. Less STG activity was observed in SZ than HC, indicating encoding problems in SZ. Yet auditory encoding abnormalities are not specific to STG, as group differences were observed in frontal and SMG areas. Thus, present findings indicate that individuals with SZ show abnormalities in multiple nodes of a concurrently activated auditory network.

  13. Mapping the macaque superior temporal sulcus: functional delineation of vergence and version eye-movement-related activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew K; Bolding, Mark S; Schultz, Kevin P; Gamlin, Paul D

    2015-05-13

    It is currently thought that the primate oculomotor system has evolved distinct but interrelated subsystems to generate different types of visually guided eye movements (e.g., saccades/smooth pursuit/vergence). Although progress has been made in elucidating the neural basis of these movement types, no study to date has investigated all three movement types on a large scale and within the same animals. Here, we used fMRI in rhesus macaque monkeys to map the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for BOLD modulation associated with visually guided eye movements. Further, we ascertained whether modulation in a given area was movement type specific and, if not, the modulation each movement type elicited relative to the others (i.e., dominance). Our results show that multiple areas within STS modulate during all movement types studied, including the middle temporal, medial superior temporal, fundus of the superior temporal, lower superior temporal, and dorsal posterior inferotemporal areas. Our results also reveal an area in dorsomedial STS that is modulated almost exclusively by vergence movements. In contrast, we found that ventrolateral STS is driven preferentially during versional movements. These results illuminate an STS network involved in processes associated with multiple eye movement types, illustrate unique patterns of modulation within said network as a function of movement type, and provide evidence for a vergence-specific area within dorsomedial STS. We conclude that producing categorically different eye movement types requires access to a common STS network and that individual network nodes are recruited differentially based upon the type of movement generated. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357428-15$15.00/0.

  14. The Superior Temporal Sulcus Is Causally Connected to the Amygdala: A Combined TBS-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David; Japee, Shruti; Rauth, Lionel; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2017-02-01

    Nonhuman primate neuroanatomical studies have identified a cortical pathway from the superior temporal sulcus (STS) projecting into dorsal subregions of the amygdala, but whether this same pathway exists in humans is unknown. Here, we addressed this question by combining theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) with fMRI to test the prediction that the STS and amygdala are functionally connected during face perception. Human participants (N = 17) were scanned, over two sessions, while viewing 3 s video clips of moving faces, bodies, and objects. During these sessions, TBS was delivered over the face-selective right posterior STS (rpSTS) or over the vertex control site. A region-of-interest analysis revealed results consistent with our hypothesis. Namely, TBS delivered over the rpSTS reduced the neural response to faces (but not to bodies or objects) in the rpSTS, right anterior STS (raSTS), and right amygdala, compared with TBS delivered over the vertex. By contrast, TBS delivered over the rpSTS did not significantly reduce the neural response to faces in the right fusiform face area or right occipital face area. This pattern of results is consistent with the existence of a cortico-amygdala pathway in humans for processing face information projecting from the rpSTS, via the raSTS, into the amygdala. This conclusion is consistent with nonhuman primate neuroanatomy and with existing face perception models. Neuroimaging studies have identified multiple face-selective regions in the brain, but the functional connections between these regions are unknown. In the present study, participants were scanned with fMRI while viewing movie clips of faces, bodies, and objects before and after transient disruption of the face-selective right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS). Results showed that TBS disruption reduced the neural response to faces, but not to bodies or objects, in the rpSTS, right anterior STS (raSTS), and right amygdala. These results are

  15. Time course of superior temporal sulcus activity in response to eye gaze: a combined fMRI and MEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2008-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we analyzed the brain areas involved using fMRI. A group analysis revealed activation of the STS for averted compared to straight gazes, which was confirmed in all subjects. We then measured brain activity using MEG, and conducted a 3D spatial filter analysis. The STS showed higher activity in response to averted versus straight gazes during the 150–200 ms period, peaking at around 170 ms, after stimulus onset. In contrast, the fusiform gyrus, which was detected by the main effect of stimulus presentations in fMRI analysis, exhibited comparable activity across straight and averted gazes at about 170 ms. These results indicate involvement of the human STS in rapid processing of the eye gaze of another individual. PMID:19015114

  16. Naturalistic fMRI Mapping Reveals Superior Temporal Sulcus as the Hub for the Distributed Brain Network for Social Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life. PMID:22905026

  17. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  18. Convergent BOLD and Beta-Band Activity in Superior Temporal Sulcus and Frontolimbic Circuitry Underpins Human Emotion Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kohn, Philip D.; Nash, Tiffany; Ianni, Angela; Coutlee, Christopher; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W.; Chen, Qiang; Cropp, Brett; Kippenhan, J. Shane; Robinson, Stephen E.; Coppola, Richard; Berman, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    The processing of social information in the human brain is widely distributed neuroanatomically and finely orchestrated over time. However, a detailed account of the spatiotemporal organization of these key neural underpinnings of human social cognition remains to be elucidated. Here, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the same participants to investigate spatial and temporal neural patterns evoked by viewing videos of facial muscle configurations. We show that observing the emergence of expressions elicits sustained blood oxygenation level–dependent responses in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region implicated in processing meaningful biological motion. We also found corresponding event-related changes in sustained MEG beta-band (14–30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the STS, consistent with the possible role of beta-band activity in visual perception. Dynamically evolving fearful and happy expressions elicited early (0–400 ms) transient beta-band activity in sensorimotor cortex that persisted beyond 400 ms, at which time it became accompanied by a frontolimbic spread (400–1000 ms). In addition, individual differences in sustained STS beta-band activity correlated with speed of emotion recognition, substantiating the behavioral relevance of these signals. This STS beta-band activity showed valence-specific coupling with the time courses of facial movements as they emerged into full-blown fearful and happy expressions (negative and positive coupling, respectively). These data offer new insights into the perceptual relevance and orchestrated function of the STS and interconnected pathways in social–emotion cognition. PMID:24464944

  19. Convergent BOLD and Beta-Band Activity in Superior Temporal Sulcus and Frontolimbic Circuitry Underpins Human Emotion Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kohn, Philip D; Nash, Tiffany; Ianni, Angela; Coutlee, Christopher; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W; Chen, Qiang; Cropp, Brett; Kippenhan, J Shane; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Berman, Karen F

    2015-07-01

    The processing of social information in the human brain is widely distributed neuroanatomically and finely orchestrated over time. However, a detailed account of the spatiotemporal organization of these key neural underpinnings of human social cognition remains to be elucidated. Here, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the same participants to investigate spatial and temporal neural patterns evoked by viewing videos of facial muscle configurations. We show that observing the emergence of expressions elicits sustained blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a region implicated in processing meaningful biological motion. We also found corresponding event-related changes in sustained MEG beta-band (14-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the STS, consistent with the possible role of beta-band activity in visual perception. Dynamically evolving fearful and happy expressions elicited early (0-400 ms) transient beta-band activity in sensorimotor cortex that persisted beyond 400 ms, at which time it became accompanied by a frontolimbic spread (400-1000 ms). In addition, individual differences in sustained STS beta-band activity correlated with speed of emotion recognition, substantiating the behavioral relevance of these signals. This STS beta-band activity showed valence-specific coupling with the time courses of facial movements as they emerged into full-blown fearful and happy expressions (negative and positive coupling, respectively). These data offer new insights into the perceptual relevance and orchestrated function of the STS and interconnected pathways in social-emotion cognition. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349173-05$15.00/0.

  1. Superior sulcus non-small cell lung carcinoma: A comparison of IMRT and 3D-RT dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Pierre; Antoni, Delphine; Santelmo, Nicola; Schumacher, Catherine; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Quoix, Elisabeth; Massard, Gilbert; Noël, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by TomoTherapy to conformational 3D radiotherapy (3D-RT) in patients with superior sulcus non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). IMRT became the main technique in modern radiotherapy. However it was not currently used for lung cancers. Because of the need to increase the dose to control lung cancers but because of the critical organs surrounding the tumors, the gains obtainable with IMRT is not still demonstrated. A dosimetric comparison of the planned target and organs at risk parameters between IMRT and 3D-RT in eight patients who received preoperative or curative intent irradiation. In the patients who received at least 66 Gy, the mean V95% was significantly better with IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043). IMRT delivered a lower D2% compared to 3D-RT (p = 0.043). The IH was significantly better with IMRT (p = 0.043). The lung V 5 Gy and V 13 Gy were significantly higher in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.043), while the maximal dose (D max) to the spinal cord was significantly lower in IMRT (p = 0.043). The brachial plexus D max was significantly lower in IMRT than 3D-RT (p = 0.048). For patients treated with 46 Gy, no significant differences were found. Our study showed that IMRT is relevant for SS-NSCLC. In patients treated with a curative dose, it led to a reduction of the exposure of critical organs, allowing a better dose distribution in the tumor. For the patients treated with a preoperative schedule, our results provide a basis for future controlled trials to improve the histological complete response by increasing the radiation dose.

  2. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  3. Top-down modulation from inferior frontal junction to FEFs and intraparietal sulcus during short-term memory for visual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, Markus H; Magnussen, Svein; Alnæs, Dag; Endestad, Tor; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Visual STM of simple features is achieved through interactions between retinotopic visual cortex and a set of frontal and parietal regions. In the present fMRI study, we investigated effective connectivity between central nodes in this network during the different task epochs of a modified delayed orientation discrimination task. Our univariate analyses demonstrate that the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) is preferentially involved in memory encoding, whereas activity in the putative FEFs and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) remains elevated throughout periods of memory maintenance. We have earlier reported, using the same task, that areas in visual cortex sustain information about task-relevant stimulus properties during delay intervals [Sneve, M. H., Alnæs, D., Endestad, T., Greenlee, M. W., & Magnussen, S. Visual short-term memory: Activity supporting encoding and maintenance in retinotopic visual cortex. Neuroimage, 63, 166-178, 2012]. To elucidate the temporal dynamics of the IFJ-FEF-aIPS-visual cortex network during memory operations, we estimated Granger causality effects between these regions with fMRI data representing memory encoding/maintenance as well as during memory retrieval. We also investigated a set of control conditions involving active processing of stimuli not associated with a memory task and passive viewing. In line with the developing understanding of IFJ as a region critical for control processes with a possible initiating role in visual STM operations, we observed influence from IFJ to FEF and aIPS during memory encoding. Furthermore, FEF predicted activity in a set of higher-order visual areas during memory retrieval, a finding consistent with its suggested role in top-down biasing of sensory cortex.

  4. Functional connectivity indicates differential roles for the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnæs, Dag; Sneve, Markus H; Richard, Geneviève; Skåtun, Kristina C; Kaufmann, Tobias; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor; Laeng, Bruno; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-12-01

    Attentive tracking requires sustained object-based attention, rather than passive vigilance or rapid attentional shifts to brief events. Several theories of tracking suggest a mechanism of indexing objects that allows for attentional resources to be directed toward the moving targets. Imaging studies have shown that cortical areas belonging to the dorsal frontoparietal attention network increase BOLD-signal during multiple object tracking (MOT). Among these areas, some studies have assigned IPS a particular role in object indexing, but the neuroimaging evidence has been sparse. In the present study, we tested participants on a continuous version of the MOT task in order to investigate how cortical areas engage in functional networks during attentional tracking. Specifically, we analyzed the data using eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) analysis, which provides estimates of individual voxels' connectedness with hub-like parts of the functional network. The results obtained using permutation based voxel-wise statistics support the proposed role for the IPS in object indexing as this region displayed increased centrality during tracking as well as increased functional connectivity with both prefrontal and visual perceptual cortices. In contrast, the opposite pattern was observed for the SPL, with decreasing centrality, as well as reduced functional connectivity with the visual and frontal cortices, in agreement with a hypothesized role for SPL in attentional shifts. These findings provide novel evidence that IPS and SPL serve different functional roles during MOT, while at the same time being highly engaged during tracking as measured by BOLD-signal changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

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    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  6. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  7. Virtual lesion of right posterior superior temporal sulcus modulates conscious visual perception of fearful expressions in faces and bodies.

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    Candidi, Matteo; Stienen, Bernard M C; Aglioti, Salvatore M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    The posterior Superior Temporal Suclus (pSTS) represents a central hub in the complex cerebral network for person perception and emotion recognition as also suggested by its heavy connections with face- and body-specific cortical (e.g., the fusiform face area, FFA and the extrastriate body area, EBA) and subcortical structures (e.g., amygdala). Information on whether pSTS is causatively involved in sustaining conscious visual perception of emotions expressed by faces and bodies is lacking. We explored this issue by combining a binocular rivalry procedure (where emotional and neutral face and body postures rivaled with house images) with off-line, 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We found that temporary inhibition of the right pSTS reduced perceptual dominance of fearful faces and increased perceptual dominance of fearful bodies, while leaving unaffected the perception of neutral face and body images. Inhibition of the vertex had no effect on conscious visual perception of neutral or emotional face or body stimuli. Thus, the right pSTS plays a causal role in shortening conscious vision of fearful faces and in prolonging conscious vision of fearful bodies. These results suggest that pSTS selectively modulates the activity of segregated networks involved in the conscious visual perception of emotional faces or bodies. We speculate that the opposite role of the right pSTS for conscious perception of fearful face and body may be explained by the different connections that this region entertains with face- and body-selective visual areas as well as with amygdalae and premotor regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional and spatial segregation within the inferior frontal and superior temporal cortices during listening, articulation imagery, and production of vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinini, Alessandra Cecilia; Handjaras, Giacomo; Leo, Andrea; Cecchetti, Luca; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2017-12-05

    Classical models of language localize speech perception in the left superior temporal and production in the inferior frontal cortex. Nonetheless, neuropsychological, structural and functional studies have questioned such subdivision, suggesting an interwoven organization of the speech function within these cortices. We tested whether sub-regions within frontal and temporal speech-related areas retain specific phonological representations during both perception and production. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern analysis, we showed functional and spatial segregation across the left fronto-temporal cortex during listening, imagery and production of vowels. In accordance with classical models of language and evidence from functional studies, the inferior frontal and superior temporal cortices discriminated among perceived and produced vowels respectively, also engaging in the non-classical, alternative function - i.e. perception in the inferior frontal and production in the superior temporal cortex. Crucially, though, contiguous and non-overlapping sub-regions within these hubs performed either the classical or non-classical function, the latter also representing non-linguistic sounds (i.e., pure tones). Extending previous results and in line with integration theories, our findings not only demonstrate that sensitivity to speech listening exists in production-related regions and vice versa, but they also suggest that the nature of such interwoven organisation is built upon low-level perception.

  9. Intraoperative subcortical mapping of a language-associated deep frontal tract connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area in the dominant hemisphere of patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Motomura, Kazuya; Futamura, Miyako; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Koba, Itsuko; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    The deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca's area, recently named the frontal aslant tract (FAT), is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. Injury to the deep frontal lobe is known to cause aphasia that mimics the aphasia caused by damage to the supplementary motor area. Although fiber dissection and tractography have revealed the existence of the tract, little is known about its function. The aim of this study was to determine the function of the FAT via electrical stimulation in patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery. The authors analyzed the data from subcortical mapping with electrical stimulation in 5 consecutive cases (3 males and 2 females, age range 40-54 years) with gliomas in the left frontal lobe. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography of the FAT were performed in all cases. A navigation system and intraoperative MRI were used in all cases. During the awake phase of the surgery, cortical mapping was performed to find the precentral gyrus and Broca's area, followed by tumor resection. After the cortical layer was removed, subcortical mapping was performed to assess language-associated fibers in the white matter. In all 5 cases, positive responses were obtained at the stimulation sites in the subcortical area adjacent to the FAT, which was visualized by the navigation system. Speech arrest was observed in 4 cases, and remarkably slow speech and conversation was observed in 1 case. The location of these sites was also determined on intraoperative MR images and estimated on preoperative MR images with DTI tractography, confirming the spatial relationships among the stimulation sites and white matter tracts. Tumor removal was successfully performed without damage to this tract, and language function did not deteriorate in any of the cases postoperatively. The authors identified the left FAT and confirmed that it was associated with language functions. This

  10. Reconstrucción total del párpado superior mediante colgajo frontal Whole repair made in the upper eyelid using a frontal flap

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    Yamilé León Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes que han sido sometidos a resecciones quirúrgicas por cáncer, que han sufrido lesiones por quemaduras de espesor total o traumas avulsivos con pérdida extensa de tejidos que engloban la totalidad del párpado superior, acuden con relativa frecuencia a consulta por presentar la cornea expuesta, y dicha exposición resulta en ulceraciones, cicatriz y ceguera. En estos pacientes se observa una gran insatisfacción por el inconveniente que representa no poder usar una prótesis ocular y algo no menos importante, el gran defecto estético. Se presenta el caso de un paciente del sexo masculino, de 30 años de edad, que sufrió múltiples lesiones por el estallido de un artefacto explosivo, con pérdida total del párpado superior derecho y enucleación ocular. Se le realizó reconstrucción palpebral total mediante el colgajo dermograso frontal y se obtuvieron buenos resultados estéticos.Patients underwent to surgical resections from cancer and whole thickness burn lesions or avulsion traumata with an extent loss of tissues which shape the upper eyelid, came with a relative frequency to consultation due to corneal exposition and this exposition resulting in ulcerations, scar, and blindness. These patients are very unsatisfied because they can not use of an ocular prosthesis, and something less important, the big aesthetic defect. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 30 with multiple lesions from explosion of an explosive artifact with loss of right upper eyelid and ocular enucleation. A total palpebral reconstruction was performed using a frontal dermal fatty flap with good aesthetic results.

  11. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  12. Visual Field Map Clusters in High-Order Visual Processing: Organization of V3A/V3B and a New Cloverleaf Cluster in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2017-01-01

    The cortical hierarchy of the human visual system has been shown to be organized around retinal spatial coordinates throughout much of low- and mid-level visual processing. These regions contain visual field maps (VFMs) that each follows the organization of the retina, with neighboring aspects of the visual field processed in neighboring cortical locations. On a larger, macrostructural scale, groups of such sensory cortical field maps (CFMs) in both the visual and auditory systems are organized into roughly circular cloverleaf clusters. CFMs within clusters tend to share properties such as receptive field distribution, cortical magnification, and processing specialization. Here we use fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to investigate the extent of VFM and cluster organization with an examination of higher-level visual processing in temporal cortex and compare these measurements to mid-level visual processing in dorsal occipital cortex. In human temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been implicated in various neuroimaging studies as subserving higher-order vision, including face processing, biological motion perception, and multimodal audiovisual integration. In human dorsal occipital cortex, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) contains the V3A/B cluster, which comprises two VFMs subserving mid-level motion perception and visuospatial attention. For the first time, we present the organization of VFMs in pSTS in a cloverleaf cluster. This pSTS cluster contains four VFMs bilaterally: pSTS-1:4. We characterize these pSTS VFMs as relatively small at ∼125 mm2 with relatively large pRF sizes of ∼2-8° of visual angle across the central 10° of the visual field. V3A and V3B are ∼230 mm2 in surface area, with pRF sizes here similarly ∼1-8° of visual angle across the same region. In addition, cortical magnification measurements show that a larger extent of the pSTS VFM surface areas are devoted to the peripheral visual

  13. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts.

  14. Altered Medial Frontal and Superior Temporal Response to Implicit Processing of Emotions in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Patriquin, Michelle A; Black, Briley S; Channell, Marie M; Wicker, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting emotional expressions appropriately poses a challenge for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, difficulties with emotional processing in ASD are more pronounced in contexts where emotional expressions are subtle, automatic, and reflexive-that is, implicit. In contrast, explicit emotional processing, which requires the cognitive evaluation of an emotional experience, appears to be relatively intact in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we examined the brain activation and functional connectivity differences underlying explicit and implicit emotional processing in age- and IQ-matched adults with (n = 17) and without (n = 15) ASD. Results indicated: (1) significantly reduced levels of brain activation in participants with ASD in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) during implicit emotion processing; (2) significantly weaker functional connectivity in the ASD group in connections of the MPFC with the amygdala, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and fusiform gyrus; (3) No group difference in performance accuracy or reaction time; and (4) Significant positive relationship between empathizing ability and STG activity in ASD but not in typically developing participants. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying implicit, but not explicit, emotion processing may be altered at multiple levels in individuals with ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. S2-3: Double Dissociation between the Extrastriate Body Area and the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus during Biological Motion Perception: Converging Evidence from TMS and fMRI

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    Joris Vangeneugden

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our brains engage numerous regions when exposed to biological motion, with the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS being the primary locus. The exact roles of hMT+ and the extrastriate body area (EBA remain unclear. Here, we set out to determine the specific roles of pSTS and EBA during biological motion perception, focusing on walker orientation and walking direction. To obtain converging evidence, we conducted separate TMS and fMRI experiments within the same subjects (N = 12. Two separate tasks were used in the TMS study: walker orientation probing form processing and walking direction probing motion/sequence processing. Task performance was compared before and after applying repetitive offline TMS (1 Hz over EBA and pSTS (based on fMRI-guided stereotaxy. In the fMRI study, EBA and pSTS were mapped in separate scans using standard localizers. Subsequently, runs with point-light walkers were subjected to MVPA, determining the amount of static (orientation and dynamic (direction information present within EBA and pSTS. Both TMS and MVPA revealed a strong double dissociation between inferred functions of EBA and pSTS. Disrupting EBA impaired performance on the walker orientation task, while leaving walking direction performance intact. In contrast, disruption of pSTS processing resulted in the opposite effect (p < .001. Similarly, EBA BOLD response revealed significant walker orientation information and no walking direction information, while (again pSTS BOLD response displayed the opposite pattern (p < .005. We provide converging and causative evidence that dissociates EBA (static body processing from pSTS (dynamic body sequence processing during action perception.

  16. Association fibers connecting the Broca center and the lateral superior frontal gyrus: a microsurgical and tractographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Shinohara, Harumichi; Hori, Osamu; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no detailed reports that demonstrate the anatomical connection between the LSFG and other well-known language cortices, such as the Broca center. To show the existence of the structural connection, white matter association fibers between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the LSFG were examined using fiber dissection (FD) and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging-based tractography. Eight cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were dissected to reveal the association fibers between the IFG and LSFG. The DT imaging-based tractography studies targeting the prefrontal cortex were obtained in 53 right-handed patients who had no organic cerebral lesions. The association fiber tract between Brodmann area 44/45 (the Broca center in the dominant hemisphere) and LSFG were detected in all specimens by FD. In the DT imaging-based tractography studies, the tract was identified in all patients bilaterally, except for the 4 in whom the tract was detected only in the left hemisphere. This tract was spread significantly wider in the left than in the right hemisphere, and left lateralization was evident in male patients. Based on its character, this tract was named the Broca-LSFG pathway. These findings suggest a close relationship between this pathway and language organization. The structural anatomy of the Broca-LSFG pathway may explain speech disturbances induced by LSFG stimulation that are sometimes observed during intraoperative language mapping.

  17. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  18. The neural basis of humour comprehension and humour appreciation: The roles of the temporoparietal junction and superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren W; Wallace, Marc G; Modirrousta, Mandana; Polimeni, Joseph O; McKeen, Nancy A; Reiss, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Psychological well-being and social acumen benefit from the recognition of humourous intent and its enjoyment. The enjoyment of humour requires recognition, but humour recognition is not necessarily accompanied by humour enjoyment. Humour recognition is crucial during social interactions, while the associated enjoyment is less critical. Few neuroimaging studies have explicitly differentiated between the neural foundations of humour comprehension and humour appreciation. Among such studies, design limitations have obscured the specification of neural correlates to humour comprehension or appreciation. We implemented a trichotomous response option to address these design limitations. Twenty-four participants rated 120 comics (90 unaltered with humourous intent and 30 caption-altered without humourous intent) as either funny jokes (FJ), not funny jokes but intended to be funny (NFJ), or not intended to be funny or non-jokes (NJ). We defined humour comprehension by NFJ minus NJ and humour appreciation by FJ minus NFJ. We measured localized blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) neural responses with a 3T MRI scanner. We tested for BOLD responses in humour comprehension brain regions of interest (ROIs), humour appreciation ROIs, and across the whole-brain. We found significant NFJ-NJ BOLD responses in our humour comprehension ROIs and significant FJ-NFJ BOLD responses in select humour appreciation ROIs. One key finding is that comprehension accuracy levels correlated with humour-comprehension responses in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). This finding represents a novel and precise neural linkage to humour comprehension. A second key finding is that the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) was uniquely associated with humour-appreciation. The SFG response suggests that complex cognitive processing underlies humour appreciation and that current models of humour appreciation be revised. Finally, our research design provides an operational distinction between humour

  19. DETACHING FROM THE NEGATIVE BY REAPPRAISAL: THE ROLE OF RIGHT SUPERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS (BA9/32

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    Rosalux eFalquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself, i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and grey matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI. Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM analysis was run, in which healthy participant’s REAPPself ability scores were correlated with grey matter intensities. Results showed that 1 regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9 and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, were associated with patient’s impaired down-regulation of arousal, 2 a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, 3 REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased grey matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32 might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research

  20. A role for left inferior frontal and posterior superior temporal cortex in extracting a syntactic tree from a sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    On reading the sentence "the kids who exhausted their parents slept", how do we decide that it is the kids who slept and not the parents? The present behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the processes underlying the extraction of syntactically organized information from sentences. Participants were presented with sentences whose syntactic complexity was manipulated using either a center-embedded or an adjunct structure. The goal was to vary separately the sentence syntactic structure and the linear distance between the main verb and its subject. Each sentence was followed by a short subject + verb probe, and the participants had to check whether or not it matched a proposition expressed in the sentence. Behavioral and fMRI data showed a significant cost and enhanced activity within left inferior frontal and posterior superior temporal cortex whenever participants processed center-embedded sentences, which required extracting a nontrivial subtree formed by nonadjacent words. This syntactic complexity effect was not observed during online sentence processing but rather during the processing of the probe and only when the verification could not rely on a superficial lexical analysis. Moreover, the manipulation of linear distance affected performance and brain activity mainly when the sentences did not have a center-embedded structure. We did not find evidence suggesting that tree-extraction, a fundamental operation of a core syntax network, takes place during sentence comprehension. The present finding showed that the syntactic complexity effect, which is an outcome of this operation, became detectable later on, whenever we need to extract structural information not obvious in the superficial sequence of words. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dysregulation of fragile × mental retardation protein and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in superior frontal cortex of individuals with autism: a postmortem brain study

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi S Hossein; Folsom Timothy D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fragile × syndrome is caused by loss of function of the fragile × mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and shares multiple phenotypes with autism. We have previously found reduced expression of the protein product of FMR1 (FMRP) in vermis of adults with autism. Methods In the current study, we have investigated levels of FMRP in the superior frontal cortex of people with autism and matched controls using Western blot analysis. Because FMRP regulates the translation of multiple...

  2. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

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    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  3. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

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    Thiago Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  4. Auditory enhancement of visual memory encoding is driven by emotional content of the auditory material and mediated by superior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, A M; De Benedetto, F

    2017-12-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how auditory background interacts with learning and memory. Both facilitatory (e.g., "Mozart effect") and interfering effects of background have been reported, depending on the type of auditory stimulation and of concurrent cognitive tasks. Here we recorded event related potentials (ERPs) during face encoding followed by an old/new memory test to investigate the effect of listening to classical music (Čajkovskij, dramatic), environmental sounds (rain) or silence on learning. Participants were 15 healthy non-musician university students. Almost 400 (previously unknown) faces of women and men of various age were presented. Listening to music during study led to a better encoding of faces as indexed by an increased Anterior Negativity. The FN400 response recorded during the memory test showed a gradient in its amplitude reflecting face familiarity. FN400 was larger to new than old faces, and to faces studied during rain sound listening and silence than music listening. The results indicate that listening to music enhances memory recollection of faces by merging with visual information. A swLORETA analysis showed the main involvement of Superior Temporal Gyrus (STG) and medial frontal gyrus in the integration of audio-visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Superior temporal sulcus and social cognition in dangerous drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinková, J.; Shaw, D. J.; Mareček, R.; Mikl, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Peterková, L.; Zámečník, P.; Brázdil, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, December (2013), s. 1024-1030 ISSN 1053-8119 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fMRI * antisocial behavior * social cognition * STS Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.132, year: 2013

  6. The M. obturator internus sulcus on middle and late Pleistocene human ischia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, E

    1996-12-01

    Recent human ischia and those of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids exhibit variation in the cranio-caudal location of the sulcus for the internal obturator muscle as it rounds the ischium through the lesser sciatic notch, from being fully cranial of the ischial tuberosity, to bordering the tuberosity, to crossing the superior tuberosity. Among two recent human samples, all three forms exist, with the cranial position of the sulcus being more common in a 20th century Euroamerican sample whereas the intermediate one predominates in a horticultural late prehistoric Amerindian sample. The available Pleistocene Homo fossil remains exhibit the full range of variation with no one form being dominant in Middle Pleistocene archaic humans and Middle Paleolithic late archaic and early modern humans. It is only within the Upper Paleolithic that the cranial and intermediate locations for the sulcus become predominant. These patterns therefore indicate that it is inappropriate to use this feature for distinguishing later Pleistocene hominid groups.

  7. Structural connectivity of right frontal hyperactive areas scales with stuttering severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Bütfering, Christoph; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants. Using a newly developed structural connectivity measure, we calculated voxel-wise correlations between connection strength and stuttering severity within tract volumes that originated from functionally hyperactive right frontal regions. Correlation analyses revealed that with increasing speech motor deficits the connection strength increased in the right frontal aslant tract, the right anterior thalamic radiation, and in U-shaped projections underneath the right precentral sulcus. In contrast, with decreasing speech motor deficits connection strength increased in the right uncinate fasciculus. Additional group comparisons of whole-brain white matter skeletons replicated the previously reported reduction of fractional anisotropy in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculus as well as at the junction of right frontal aslant tract and right superior longitudinal fasciculus in adults who stutter compared to control participants. Overall, our investigation suggests that right fronto-temporal networks play a compensatory role as a fluency enhancing mechanism. In contrast, the increased connection strength within subcortical-cortical pathways may be implied in an overly active global response suppression mechanism in stuttering. Altogether, this combined functional MRI-diffusion tensor imaging study disentangles different networks involved in the neuronal underpinnings of the speech motor deficit in

  8. Ab interno sulcus placement of glaucoma tube implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, Larissa; Noecker, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A modified technique for sulcus placement of glaucoma silicone tubes is described. Sulcus placement can be useful in patients with penetrating keratoplasty or in those who are at risk for corneal endothelial decompensation. However, correct placement can be difficult to confirm with a traditional ab externo approach. An ab interno technique for sulcus placement of glaucoma tube implants that both offers an easier approach and facilitates accurate positioning is described.

  9. What makes a frontal area of primate brain the frontal eye field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre ePouget

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal eye field region (FEF of the oculomotor pathways has been intensely studied. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate the phylogenetic displacement of the FEF locus in primate species. The locus is arrayed along the arcuate sulcus in monkeys and abuts into the primary motor strip region in humans. The strengths and limitations of the various functional, anatomical and histological methodologies used to identify such regions are also discussed.

  10. Visualisation of Rouviere’s Sulcus during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabin Bikram Thapa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe dissection of Calot’s Triangle is important during the performance of laparascopic cholucystectomy. The purpose of the study is to determine the frequency of demonstrable Rouviere’s sulcus in patients with symptomatic gall stones and its role in safe dissection in Calot’s triangle. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study design done in Department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Patients who were posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. During laparoscopy, Rouviere’s sulcus was noted in the operative note and classified according to following: Type I: Open type was defined as a cleft in which the right hepatic pedicle was visualized and the sulcus was opened throughout its length. Type II: if the sulcus was open only at its lateral end. Type III If the sulcus was open only at its medial end. Type IV: Fused type was defined as one in which the pedicle was not visualized. Results: A total of 200 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during period of 2 years. Out of which Rouviere’s sulcus was visualized in 150 patients (75 %.Type I (open type was commoner in 54%, type II in 12%, Type III in 9% and type IV (fused type in 25%. Conclusions: Rouviere’s Sulcus is an important extra biliary land mark for safe dissection of Calot’s triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Keywords: Rouviere’s Sulcus, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, bile duct injury.

  11. Frontal Eye Field, Where Art Thou? Anatomy, function and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eVernet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.

  12. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  13. Evacuating Hypertensive Intracerebral Hematoma with a Cortical Sulcus Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhibo; Qian, Lingtao; Niu, Chaoshi; Chen, Bin; Guo, Hongjun; Sun, Pengju; Wang, Yongzhi; Ning, Liang; Li, Qi; Fu, Xianming

    2016-11-01

    To study the curative effect and prognosis of patients with basal ganglia cerebral hemorrhages treated using a transcortical-sulcus approach and compare with results obtained using the traditional cerebral cortex approach. Clinical data were collected from 106 patients with hypertensive hemorrhage in the basal ganglia who were treated using either a transcortical-sulcus approach or traditional cerebral cortex approach. The rate of rehemorrhage, incidence of epilepsy, and 3-month efficacy (defined by an activities of daily living score) rate between the 2 groups were compared. The 3-month efficacy rates of patients treated using the transcortical-sulcus and traditional cerebral cortex surgical approaches were 78.4% and 60%, respectively (P seizures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors, stroke, infection or traumatic injuries — in the brain's frontal lobes. Frontal lobe seizures are also associated with a rare inherited disorder called autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. If one of your ...

  15. Auditory attention enhances processing of positive and negative words in inferior and superior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Herbert, Cornelia; Ethofer, Thomas; Flaisch, Tobias; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing. A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study manipulating word valence and attention allocation was performed. Participants heard negative, positive and neutral words to which they either listened passively or attended by counting negative or positive words, respectively. Regardless of valence, active processing compared to passive listening increased activity in primary auditory cortex, left intraparietal sulcus, and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). The attended valence elicited stronger activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left SFG, in line with these regions' role in semantic retrieval and evaluative processing. No evidence for valence-specific attentional modulation in auditory regions or distinct valence-specific regional activations (i.e., negative > positive or positive > negative) was obtained. Thus, allocation of auditory attention to positive and negative words can substantially increase their processing in higher-order language and evaluative brain areas without modulating early stages of auditory processing. Inferior and superior frontal brain structures mediate interactions between emotional content, attention, and working memory when prosodically neutral speech is processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subcortical connections of an 'oculomotor' region in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Y; Miyashita, E

    1989-12-01

    Subcortical connections of an 'oculomotor' region in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AESo), where eye movements were evoked by intracortical microstimulation, were studied in cats using a wheatgerm agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) tracing method. Following injection of WGA-HRP into the AESo, both anterogradely-labeled terminals and retrogradely-labeled cells were found with the highest concentration in the suprageniculate nucleus and the medial zone of the lateroposterior nucleus of the thalamus. In the brainstem, anterogradely-labeled terminals were found in the superior colliculus, the pontine reticular formation, the pontine tegmental reticular formation and the pontine nuclei.

  17. Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryvlin, Philippe; Rheims, Sylvain; Risse, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a condition primarily characterized by seizures occurring exclusively or predominantly during sleep, the semiology of which suggest a frontal lobe origin and, more specifically, the involvement...

  18. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging.

  19. Superior sulcus (Pancoast) tumors: current evidence on diagnosis and radical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Foroulis, Christophoros N.; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Huang, Haidong; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Pancoast tumors account for less than 5% of all bronchogenic carcinomas. These tumors are located in the apex of the lung and involve through tissue contiguity the apical chest wall and/or the structures of the thoracic inlet. The tumors become clinically evident with the characteristic symptoms of the “Pancoast-Tobias syndrome” which includes Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome, severe pain in the shoulder radiating toward the axilla and/or scapula and along the ulnar distribution of the upper ar...

  20. Superior sulcus (Pancoast) tumors: current evidence on diagnosis and radical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroulis, Christophoros N; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Huang, Haidong; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-09-01

    Pancoast tumors account for less than 5% of all bronchogenic carcinomas. These tumors are located in the apex of the lung and involve through tissue contiguity the apical chest wall and/or the structures of the thoracic inlet. The tumors become clinically evident with the characteristic symptoms of the "Pancoast-Tobias syndrome" which includes Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome, severe pain in the shoulder radiating toward the axilla and/or scapula and along the ulnar distribution of the upper arm, atrophy of hand and arm muscles and obstruction of the subclavian vein resulting in edema of the upper arm. The diagnosis will be made by the combination of the characteristic clinical symptoms with the radiographic findings of a mass or opacity in the apex of the lung infiltrating the 1(st) and/or 2(nd) ribs. A tissue diagnosis of the tumor via CT-guided FNA/B should always be available before the initiation of treatment. Bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy and biopsy of palpable supraclavicular nodes are alternative ways to obtain a tissue diagnosis. Adenocarcinomas account for 2/3 of all Pancoast tumors, while the rest of the tumors are squamous cell and large cell carcinomas. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic inlet is always recommended to define the exact extent of tumor invasion within the thoracic inlet before surgical intervention. Pancoast tumors are by definition T3 or T4 tumors. Induction chemo-radiotherapy is the standard of care for any potentially resectable Pancoast tumor followed by an attempt to achieve a complete tumor resection. Resection can be made through a variety of anterior and posterior approaches to the thoracic inlet. The choice of the approach depends on the location of the tumor (posterior - middle - anterior compartment of the thoracic inlet) and the depth/extent of invasion. Prognosis depends mainly on T stage of tumor, response to preoperative chemo-radiotherapy and completeness of resection. Resection of the invaded strictures of the thoracic inlet should me made en bloc with pulmonary parenchyma resection, preferably an upper lobectomy. Invasion of the vertebral column is not a contraindication for surgery which, however, should be performed in oncologic centers with experience in spinal surgery. Surgery for Pancoast tumors is associated with 5% mortality rate and the complication rate varies from 7-38%. The overall 2-year survival rate after induction chemo-radiotherapy and resection varies from 55% to 70%, while the 5-year survival for R0 resections is quite good (54-77%). The main pattern of recurrence is that of distant metastases, especially in the brain.

  1. Superior sulcus (Pancoast) tumors: current evidence on diagnosis and radical treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foroulis, Christophoros N; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Darwiche, Kaid; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Huang, Haidong; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    .... The tumors become clinically evident with the characteristic symptoms of the "Pancoast-Tobias syndrome" which includes Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome, severe pain in the shoulder radiating toward...

  2. Frontal Lobe Decortication (Frontal Lobectomy with Ventricular Preservation) in Epilepsy-Part 1: Anatomic Landmarks and Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hung Tzu; Da Róz, Leila Maria; Rhoton, Albert L; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2017-02-01

    An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is a paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. We sought to present the anatomic landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals were to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserve the frontal horn. The anatomic study was based on dissections performed in 15 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads. The clinical experience with 15 patients is summarized. FLD consists of 5 steps: 1) coagulation and section of arterial branches of lateral surface; 2) paramedian subpial resection 3 cm ahead of the precentral sulcus to reach the genu of corpus callosum; 3) resection of gray matter of lateral surface, preserving the frontal horn; 4) removal of gray matter of basal surface preserving olfactory tract; 5) removal of gray matter of the medial surface under the rostrum of corpus callosum. The frontal horn was preserved in all 15 patients; 12 patients (80%) had no complications; 2 patients presented temporary hemiparesis; and 1 Rasmussen syndrome patient developed postoperative fever. The best seizure control was in cases with focal magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities limited to the frontal lobe. FLD is an anatomy-based surgical technique for extensive frontal lobe resection. It presents reliable anatomic landmarks, selective gray matter removal, preservation of frontal horn, and low complication rate in our series. It can be an alternative option to the classical frontal lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PRESENTATION OF FRONTAL MUCOCELE.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caused expansile erosion of the frontal bone with significant pressure effect on the adjacent structures. At operation a large ... encroachment on the underlying brain tissue. ... Anterior protrusion of the mass into subcutaneous space adjacent to ...

  4. Keyhole supracerebellar transtentorial transcollateral sulcus approach to the lateral ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Sarkar, Hrishikesh; Mindermann, Thomas; Reisch, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Meningiomas of the lateral ventricles are commonly located in the atria. Surgical access to such tumors is challenging because of their deep location and proximity to critical neurovascular structures, particularly if situated on the dominant side. Although a number of approaches have been described in the literature, most carry the risk of postoperative neuropsychological, visual, or speech deficits, especially when operating on the dominant hemisphere. The supracerebellar transtentorial transcollateral sulcus (STTCS) approach offers the potential to circumvent functionally important structures, reducing the risk of these approach-related neurological deficits. Two patients with dominant hemisphere trigonal meningiomas underwent surgical resection with the use of the STTCS approach. Neuronavigation was used to carefully plan the incision, craniotomy, and exposure, and also intraoperatively to orientate the operating surgeon at key steps, particularly when raising the tentorial flap in line with the tumor. Endoscopy was used to provide increased light intensity, an extended viewing angle, and higher magnification in comparison with a microscope. Specially designed tube-shaft instruments were also used to assist with manipulation through the narrow surgical corridor. In both cases, the tumors were fully resected without approach-related morbidity. The STTCS approach provides good access to tumors located in the trigonal region, reducing the risk of iatrogenic language or visual field deficits. In dominant hemisphere lesions, in the hands of an experienced neurosurgeon, the STTCS approach is an effective alternative to existing techniques.

  5. The effect of handedness on the shape of the central sulcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhong Yi; Klöppel, Stefan; Rivière, Denis

    2012-01-01

    in dextrals than in sinistrals. Sinistrals forced to write with their non-preferred right hand display a pattern of central sulcus size asymmetry which is typical of dextrals, yet forced dextrality does not shift the handedness-specific location of the "hand knob". Hence, cortical morphology in adults holds...... sulcus is largely unexplored. In this paper, we propose first an original strategy based on manifold learning to quantify the shape of the central sulcus. Using this approach we show that the "hand knob", a major landmark of the hand motor representation, is sited more dorsally in the left hemisphere...

  6. Clearly Superior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Fussell Policastro

    2009-01-01

      To provide safe drinking water as well as protect the environment, Thunder Bay set a goal to implement laketo-lake water management - taking water from Lake Superior through the treatment process...

  7. Isolated Central Sulcus Hemorrhage: A Rare Presentation Most Frequently Associated with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy R. Chamarthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central sulcus hemorrhage is a rare imaging finding that can be related to cerebral amyloidosis in a normotensive non-traumatic elderly patient and present as an isolated finding or in association with other areas of involvement. We report a case presenting with an isolated central sulcus hemorrhage on computed tomography. Further imaging work-up excluded other potential causes of peripheral hemorrhages and established a putative diagnosis of cerebral amyloidosis.

  8. Effect of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis: A single case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajasudhakar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulcus vocalis is a structural deformity of the vocal ligament. It is the focal invagination of the epithelium deeply attaching to the vocal ligament. There is a dearth of literature on the outcome of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis condition.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document voice characteristics of sulcus vocalis and the secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of voice therapy in a patient with sulcus vocalis.Method: A trial of voice therapy was given to the client who was diagnosed as having sulcus vocalis. Boon’s facilitation techniques were used in voice therapy along with other techniques such as breath holding and push and pull approach prior to surgery. Acoustic, aerodynamic, perceptual, quantitative measures of voice quality and self-rating measurements were performed before and after voice therapy.Results: Improvement was noticed in 10/10 acoustic, 4/4 aerodynamic, perceptual, dysphonia severity index and voice handicap index scores, which hinted that voice therapy can be an option critically for clients with sulcus vocalis in the initial stage.Conclusion: Voice therapy showed promising improvement in the study and it must be recommended as the initial treatment option before any surgical management.

  9. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: An evidence-based formula of Frontal integration (NeM)1 may be used to assess options of optimization calculating the first derivative with respect to autonomic activation (x): dC/dx = Rc2/L where R indicates semantic knowledge (STS), c is the attention (vmPFC) and L is a constant...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...

  10. Genetic Factors and Orofacial Motor Learning Selectively Influence Variability in Central Sulcus Morphology in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Coulon, Oliver; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Autrey, Michelle; Davidek, Kendall; Mahovetz, Lindsay; Pope, Sarah; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Schapiro, Steven J

    2017-05-31

    Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been shown to learn the use of novel attention-getting (AG) sounds to capture the attention of humans as a means of requesting or drawing their attention to a desired object or food. There are significant individual differences in the use of AG sounds by chimpanzees and, here, we examined whether changes in cortical organization of the central sulcus (CS) were associated with AG sound production. MRI scans were collected from 240 chimpanzees, including 122 that reliably produced AG sounds and 118 that did not. For each subject, the depth of CS was quantified along the superior-inferior plane with specific interest in the inferior portion corresponding to the region of the motor cortex where the mouth and orofacial movements are controlled. Results indicated that CS depth in the inferior, but not superior, portion was significantly greater in chimpanzees that reliably produced AG sounds compared with those who did not. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated that overall CS surface area and depth were significantly heritable, particularly in the superior regions, but less so in the inferior and central portions. Further, heritability in CS depth was altered as a function of acquisition of AG sounds. The collective results suggest that learning to produce AG sounds resulted in region-specific cortical reorganization within the inferior portion of the CS, a finding previously undocumented in chimpanzees or any nonhuman primate.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have shown that some can learn to produce novel sounds by configuring different orofacial movement patterns and these sounds are used in communicatively relevant contexts. Here, we examined the neuromorphological correlates in the production of these sounds in chimpanzees. We show that chimpanzees that have learned to produce these sounds show significant differences in central sulcus (CS) morphology, particularly in the inferior

  11. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're having signs or symptoms of a seizure. Call 911 or call for emergency medical help if you observe someone having a ... which seizure activity lasts much longer than usual. Seizures that last longer than ... emergency. Injury. The motions that occur during frontal lobe ...

  12. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  13. The differing roles of the frontal cortex in fluency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Fluency tasks have been widely used to tap the voluntary generation of responses. The anatomical correlates of fluency tasks and their sensitivity and specificity have been hotly debated. However, investigation of the cognitive processes involved in voluntary generation of responses and whether generation is supported by a common, general process (e.g. fluid intelligence) or specific cognitive processes underpinned by particular frontal regions has rarely been addressed. This study investigates a range of verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks in patients with unselected focal frontal (n = 47) and posterior (n = 20) lesions. Patients and controls (n = 35) matched for education, age and sex were administered fluency tasks including word (phonemic/semantic), design, gesture and ideational fluency as well as background cognitive tests. Lesions were analysed by standard anterior/posterior and left/right frontal subdivisions as well as a finer-grained frontal localization method. Thus, patients with right and left lateral lesions were compared to patients with superior medial lesions. The results show that all eight fluency tasks are sensitive to frontal lobe damage although only the phonemic word and design fluency tasks were specific to the frontal region. Superior medial patients were the only group to be impaired on all eight fluency tasks, relative to controls, consistent with an energization deficit. The most marked fluency deficits for lateral patients were along material specific lines (i.e. left—phonemic and right—design). Phonemic word fluency that requires greater selection was most severely impaired following left inferior frontal damage. Overall, our results support the notion that frontal functions comprise a set of specialized cognitive processes, supported by distinct frontal regions. PMID:22669082

  14. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  15. Looking for the lunate sulcus: a magnetic resonance imaging study in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John S; Bruss, Joel; Damasio, Hanna

    2006-08-01

    The position of the lunate sulcus in fossil endocasts (when it can be determined) may serve as a potential marker of cognitive development in extinct hominid species. While the lunate sulcus is reliably present in the brains of great apes and forms the anterolateral boundary of the primary visual cortex, in humans its presentation is much more variable, and even if present, it does not correspond to a functional region. Grafton Elliot Smith, who named the lunate sulcus, claimed that it was homologous in humans and the great apes. Using high-resolution MRI, we assessed the presence/absence and course of the lunate sulcus in 110 adult subjects. We found that in the vast majority of cases, lunate sulci identified on the surface of the occipital lobe are actually composed of smaller sulcal segments that converge into an apparently continuous composite lunate sulcus. We found only 3 examples in 220 hemispheres (1.4%) of continuous lunate sulci that resembled ape lunates in form (albeit in a more posterior position). Composite lunate sulci were found in 32.7% of left hemispheres and 26.4% of right hemispheres. These results, combined with those from histological and functional imaging studies, indicate that human and ape lunate sulci are not homologous structures. We suggest that the extent of functional reorganization of the occipital region during hominid evolution has been underestimated, and that changes in this region were not just passively shaped by expansion of parietal association cortex.

  16. Frontal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinheiro, Bruno Henrique; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the epidemiology, treatment, and complications of frontal bone fractures associated, or not, with other facial fractures. This evaluation also sought to minimize the influence of the surgeon's skills and the preference for any rigid internal fixation system. The files from 3758 patients who attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, from March 2004 to November 2011 and presented with facial trauma were scanned, and 52 files were chosen for the review. Eleven (21.15%) of these patients had pure fractures of the frontal bone, and trauma incidence was more prevalent in men (92.3%), whites (61.53%), and adults (50%). Despite the use of helmets at the moment of the trauma, motorcycle crashes were the most common etiological factor (32.69%). Fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus with displacement was the main injury observed (54.9%), and the most common treatment was internal fixation with a plate and screws (45.09%). Postoperative complications were observed in 35.29% of the cases. The therapy applied was effective in handling this type of fracture, and the success rate was comparable to that reported in other published studies.

  17. [Morphological classification of frontal sinuses on digital X-ray films and its forensic identification indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Deng, Zhen-Hua

    2010-06-01

    To explore morphological classification of the Caldwell view of frontal sinuses in computer radiography (CR) for forensic identification and to construct a forensic identification system with digital X-ray films with assistance of identification indexes coding. Four hundred CR films of the Caldwell view of frontal sinus were selected from Sichuan Han ethnic Chinese. The frontal sinuses were classified according to the relationship between the tangential line above the upper edge of the bilateral orbits and the location of the frontal sinus. Then to code the identification indexes for the frontal sinus. The Caldwell view of frontal sinuses were classified into 6 categories. Eight identification indexes for the frontal sinus were identified, including degree of asymmetry, superiority of side, ratio of the left frontal sinus area and orbit area (A(LFS)/A(LOR)), ratio of the right frontal sinus area and orbit area ((RFS)/A(ROR)), outline of the left upper border, outline of the right upper border, occurrence of partial septa and location of frontal median margin. Initial identification by the Caldwell view classification of frontal sinuses followed with coding the frontal sinuses with 8 indexes is likely a novel approach for forensic identification of the frontal sinuses in CR.

  18. Transcortical sensory aphasia due to a left frontal subcortical haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, S; Kuwata, T; Masuo, O; Yamaga, H; Okita, R; Ozaki, F; Moriwaki, H; Roger, P

    1999-11-01

    A case of transcortical sensory aphasia caused by a cerebral haemorrhage in the left frontal lobe is presented. A 72-year-old right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital, with a history of acute onset of speech disturbance and headache. On initial assessment, her spontaneous speech was fluent. She had no difficulty initiating speech, articulated normally, and did not exhibit logorrhea. Her ability to repeat phonemes and short sentences (5-6 words) was fully preserved, however she had severe difficulty with visual recognition of words, and with aural comprehension at the word level, although she was able to read words aloud. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebral haemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, involving the superior and middle frontal gyrus. Single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left frontal lobe, including the superior, middle and inferior frontal gyrus. The aphasia symptoms, mainly poor comprehension, disappeared quickly several weeks after the event. This may have been due to a reduction in the size of the haematoma and a resolution of the oedema around the haematoma. Clinically, the transcortical sensory aphasia in this case was indistinguishable from that caused by damage to the posterior language areas. Further case reports of transcortical sensory aphasia associated with frontal lobe lesions would help to confirm whether a relatively rapid recovery is characteristic in cases such as this.

  19. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A

    2012-10-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  20. An evaluation of traffic-awareness campaign videos: empathy induction is associated with brain function within superior temporal sulcus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinková, J.; Shaw, D. J.; Mikl, M.; Mareček, R.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Havlíčková, D.; Zámečník, P.; Haitová, P.; Brázdil, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 27 (2014) ISSN 1744-9081 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fMRI * Traffic-awareness campaign * Socio-emotional processing Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014 http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/10/1/27

  1. Out of sight but not out of mind : The neurophysiology of iconic memory in the superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, C; Xiao, DK; Foldiak, P; Perrett, DI

    2005-01-01

    Iconic memory, the short-lasting visual memory of a briefly flashed stimulus, is an important component of most models of visual perception. Here we investigate what physiological mechanisms underlie this capacity by showing rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequences with and without

  2. Instrumentation in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D

    2016-08-01

    Frontal recess dissection proposes many challenges to the surgeon. These challenges stem from its highly variable nature, small caliber, difficult visualization, and proximity to vital structures such as the skull base and orbit. As such, delicate mucosal-sparing dissection of the frontal recess with proper instrumentation is paramount to minimize scar formation and ensure patency. Here, the article explores key instrumentation in frontal recess surgery with an emphasis on hand instruments and adjunctive technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Lew, S; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between the CSF and GM (Thielscher et al. 2011; Bijsterbosch et al. 2012), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al. 2008). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. PMID:23787706

  4. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Lew, S; Aydin, U; Wolters, C H; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F

    2013-07-21

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  5. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  6. Effects of tongue movements on lingual sulcus depth while border molding in mandibular complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizoglu, Saip; Yanikoglu, Nuran; Yilmaz, Burak; Kürklü, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    In general, people speak and swallow frequently in their daily lives rather than making exaggerated tongue movements. The aim was to compare the effect of tongue movements on lingual sulcus depth, during the border molding process of impression making of mandibular complete dentures. In total, 32 double master impressions were made. One of these pairs was obtained by allowing the patient to swallow and the other by enabling the tongue to make excessive movements. Measurements were taken from different regions of the lingual sulcus by determining the length of the parallel lines drawn from fixed points marked on the residual ridge crest to the deepest point of the alveolingual sulcus. These measurements were performed using a RMI three-dimensional measurement system. Data were compared using the paired t-test (alpha = 0.05). The high value found in casts with border molding, while swallowing was statistically significant in vertical and horizontal directions of the anterior lingual sulcus region (movement of the tongue.

  7. Analysis of olfactory function and the depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Youn; Lee, Won Yong; Chung, Eun Joo; Dhong, Hun-Jong

    2007-08-15

    Olfactory deficit is known to occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to explore olfactory deficit in PD and to investigate its possible correlation with the disease severity or the depth of the olfactory sulcus. Fifty-nine PD patients and 25 normal controls were examined by the odor identification test with the crosscultural smell identification test (CC-SIT). Among these subjects, the depth of the olfactory sulcus of 42 PD patients and 8 controls was measured in the plane of the posterior tangent through the eyeballs using the coronal view brain MRI. The CC-SIT scores of the PD patients were significantly lower than those of the normal control (P0.05). Our study confirms that CC-SIT is a helpful test in detecting the olfactory deficit in Korean PD patients. The absence of correlation of olfactory deficit with the disease severity or the depth of olfactory sulcus may suggest that olfactory loss precede the development of motor signs and not be a primary consequence of damage to the olfactory sulcus. Copyright (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Evaluation of efficacy of different gingival displacement materials on gingival sulcus width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, G S Renuka; Reddy, Kesava; Kumar, R K Naveen; Shivaprakash, S

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present in vivo study was to measure the efficacy of different gingival displacement materials in achieving gingival tissue displacement and to compare the efficacy of Expasyl displacement paste (Pierre Rolland, France) and gingival displacement cord for gingival displacement. Sixteen subjects were included in the study. Premolars were prepared to receive full veneer crown, gingival displacement was carried using gingival retraction cord and gingival displacement paste. Impression of the gingival sulcus was made. Sulcus width after displacement was measured under magnification. The mean displacement value of sulcus width was 0.21 ± 0.01 mm for the gingival retraction cord and 0.26 ± 0.02 mm for the gingival displacement paste. 'F' test was used for statistical analysis. Difference among the two test agents was statistically significant (p paste showed better response in achieving horizontal displacement of the gingival sulcus than gingival retraction cord. Gingival displacement helps in recording the unprepared tooth surface adjacent to the finish line in the impression being made, thereby helping a better marginal adaptation and emergence profile in the extracoronal restoration.

  9. The frontal eyes of crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf

    2006-12-01

    Frontal eyes of crustaceans (previously called nauplius eye and frontal organs) are usually simple eyes that send their axons to a medial brain centre in the anterior margin of the protocerebrum. Investigations of a large number of recent species within all major groups of the Crustacea have disclosed four kinds of frontal eyes correlated with taxonomic groups and named after them as the malacostracan, ostracod-maxillopodan, anostracan, and phyllopodan frontal eyes. The different kinds of eyes have been established using the homology concept coined by Owen [Owen, R., 1843. Lectures on the comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals. Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, London] and the criteria for homology recommended by Remane [Remane, A., 1956. Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik. 2nd ed. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest und Portig, Leipzig]. Common descent is not used as a homology criterion. Frontal eyes bear no resemblance to compound eyes and in the absence of compound eyes, as in the ostracod-maxillopodan group, frontal eyes develop into complicated mirror, lens-mirror, and scanning eyes. Developmental studies demonstrate widely different ways to produce frontal eyes in phyllopods and malacostracans. As a result of the studies of recent frontal eyes in crustaceans, it is concluded by extrapolation that in crustacean ancestors four non-homologous frontal eye types evolved that have remained functional in spite of concurrent compound eyes.

  10. con lesión frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Cristina Quijano Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la ejecución en las pruebas neuropsicológicas para lesión frontal y el desempeño de los pacientes según una Escala de Actividades de la Vida Diaria (AVD. Material y método. La muestra estuvo conformada por 14 pacientes con lesión frontal y 10 sujetos a controles de edad y escolaridad similar. La batería neuropsicológica incluyó: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, la Torre de Londres, la prueba de Stroop, el Test de clasificación de Piaget, todas las ejecuciones de las pruebas neuropsicológicas se compararon con los resultados de la escala AVD. Resultados. Los hallazgos muestran que la ejecución neuropsicológica en pacientes con lesión frontal se asocia con una pobre estrategia de planeación, organización, síntesis de la información, mostrando puntajes bajos en la pruebas de Torre de Londres, el Stroop y de Piaget. Cuando se compararon los resultados con la escala de AVD no se encontró correlación con los resultados en las ejecuciones de las pruebas neuropsicológicas. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren que las actividades mentales superiores son más complejas y que las pruebas neuropsicológicas sólo se centran en un aspecto de funciones que son multimodales. El análisis de la función, a través de la escala AVD, se propone como parte de la evaluación que se requiere para detectar el daño frontal

  11. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  12. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  13. Chapter 35: the frontal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The frontal lobes occupy an exalted position in neuroscience. The largest and most recently evolved of the cerebrum's four lobes, these regions have long been regarded as harboring unique capacities most specific to the human mind. Understanding has been steadily developed, but a unitary function that captures the role of the frontal lobes has proven elusive. In antiquity, Hippocrates and Galen speculated that mental activities were located in the brain, and in the Renaissance, Leonardo and Vesalius made important advances in brain neuroanatomy. The 17th century witnessed Willis recognizing frontal brain regions, and in the 18th, Swedenborg first associated these areas with intellect. Defined neuroanatomically by Chaussier in 1807, the frontal lobes were soon assigned higher faculties by Gall and Spurzheim, and later, the case of Phineas Gage and the work of Broca clarified comportmental and linguistic dimensions of frontal lobe function. In the 20th century, progress came with Luria's observations of frontal lobe injuries and from the psychosurgery era, followed by contributions of behavioral neurology, neuroimaging, and neuroanatomy, which helped delineate frontal regions, circuits, and networks relevant to specific cognitive and emotional operations. Today, a host of important societal implications merit attention as neuroscientific investigation continues to enrich knowledge of the frontal lobes by identifying the basis of singular human behaviors.

  14. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging – the first description of a divided central sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate eSchweizer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation – bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the postcentral sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the postcentral sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented postcentral sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus.

  15. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging - the first description of a divided central sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Renate; Helms, Gunther; Frahm, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation - bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the post-central sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the post-central sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented post-central sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus.

  16. [Frontal fibrosing alopecia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanique, C; Reygagne, P

    2014-04-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) was first described in 1994. It is characterized by scarring alopecia in bands involving the anterior area of the scalp. Alopecia of the eyebrows is frequently associated, as are pubic, facial and body hair alopecia. The clinical and histologic features are evocative of lichen planopilaris (LPP), and AFF is in fact regarded as a special pattern of LPP. Histology reveals a lymphocytic infiltrate located around the isthmus and follicular infundibulum associated with a decrease in the number of follicles, which are supplanted by fibrous tract. AFF most commonly affects post-menopausal women, but instances have been described in men and in young women. This orphan disease has increased in recent years, with more than 37 articles dedicated to this condition since it was first described in 1994. The pathophysiology remains unknown. The condition develops slowly with spontaneous stabilization over several years but it is impossible to predict the degree of expression prior to stabilization. In this article we review the various treatments proposed, for none of which formal proof of efficacy has been provided to date. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Origami by frontal photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeang; Wu, Jiangtao; Mu, Xiaoming; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H. Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2017-01-01

    Origami structures are of great interest in microelectronics, soft actuators, mechanical metamaterials, and biomedical devices. Current methods of fabricating origami structures still have several limitations, such as complex material systems or tedious processing steps. We present a simple approach for creating three-dimensional (3D) origami structures by the frontal photopolymerization method, which can be easily implemented by using a commercial projector. The concept of our method is based on the volume shrinkage during photopolymerization. By adding photoabsorbers into the polymer resin, an attenuated light field is created and leads to a nonuniform curing along the thickness direction. The layer directly exposed to light cures faster than the next layer; this nonuniform curing degree leads to nonuniform curing–induced volume shrinkage. This further introduces a nonuniform stress field, which drives the film to bend toward the newly formed side. The degree of bending can be controlled by adjusting the gray scale and the irradiation time, an easy approach for creating origami structures. The behavior is examined both experimentally and theoretically. Two methods are also proposed to create different types of 3D origami structures. PMID:28508038

  18. Opacification of the C-flex 570C intraocular lens after sulcus fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Patrick; Carbonneau, Marjorie

    2017-09-08

    To report a case of diffuse intraocular lens (IOL) opacification in a patient who started complaining of blurred vision in his left eye over the course of three years after having phacoemulsification surgery combined with capsular bag fixation of a C-flex 570C IOL. The IOL had been repositioned in the ciliary sulcus following its subluxation. An IOL exchange was performed, and the explanted IOL was sent for histopathological analysis. Scanning electron microscopy identified multiple crystalline-like deposits on both sides of the IOL. The optic was more extensively involved than the haptics. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the predominance of calcium within the deposits. The breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier seems to be a key component of this calcification process. Ciliary sulcus fixation is not a suitable option for C-flex 570C IOLs.

  19. Cryoclast distribution on the damascus sulcus region of enceladus moon (saturn) using vims images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, L. M.; Sánchez, J.; Saavedra, F.

    2017-07-01

    At Damascus Sulcus area within SPT (South Polar Terrain) there were interpreted a series of images where it was analyzed the distribution of different size particles that are ejected by distinct criovolcanic sources based on the analysis of the morphology, tectonic, reflectance and spectral signature of the surface material. This work shows these observations by comparing high resolution images of VIMS and ISS in combination with a Digital Elevation Model.

  20. [Pott's puffy tumor: a rare complication of frontal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aínsa Laguna, D; Pons Morales, S; Muñoz Tormo-Figueres, A; Vega Senra, M I; Otero Reigada, M C

    2014-05-01

    Pott's puffy tumor is a rare complication of frontal sinusitis characterized by swelling and edema in the brow due to a subperiosteal abscess associated with frontal osteomyelitis. Added complications are cellulitis by extension to the orbit and intracranial infection by posterior extension, with high risk of meningitis, intracranial abscess, and venous sinus thrombosis. Early diagnosis and aggressive medical or surgical treatment are essential for optimal recovery of affected patients. In the antibiotic age it is extremely rare, with very few cases described in the recent literature. A case is presented of a Pott inflammatory tumor in a 7 year-old boy, as a complication of acute pansinusitis who presented with front preseptal swelling and intracranial involvement with thrombosis of ophthalmic and superior orbital veins and frontal epidural abscess extending to the subarachnoid space. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of small incision transscleral sulcus fixation of Akreos Adapt AO foldable intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:to observe the effect of modified surgery of small incision transscleral sulcus fixation of Akreos Adapt AO foldable intraocular lens.METHODS:The study included 37 patients(37 eyeswho could not be performed the regular implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens for the rupture of posterior capsule or for the zonular dialysis caused by trauma, congenital or surgery. Bausch & lomb Akreos Adapt AO fordable intraocular lens, VE22000 implantation device were applied in this study. Regular 2.4mm transparent cornea incision and pocket-like sclera incision were made. The intraocular lens were transscleral sulcus fixed by 10/0 prolene suture and the suture was buried within the scleral incision.RESULTS:The intraocular lenses were all well posited and the postoperative visual acuity(VAwas improved in all patients. Three eyes(8%were≥0.8 while 18 eyes(49%>0.4~≤0.6 and the remaining 16(43%were ≤ 0.4 at 3mo after surgery.Cornea astigmatism was 1.73D±1.22D and 1.62±1.34D before and after surgery, no statistic significance was observed(PCONCLUSION:The modified surgery of 2.4mm small incision transscleral sulcus fixation of Akreos Adapt AO foldable intraocular lens has the following advantages such as:good visual results, less postoperative astigmatism, small surgery incision, steady intraocular lens, less manipulation, less complication and more effective.

  2. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from

  3. Self Organization via Frontal Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojman, John

    2007-03-01

    There are three modes of frontal polymerization: Isothermal, Photo and Thermal Isothermal frontal polymerization (IFP) is a directional polymerization that utilizes the Norish-Trommsdorff effect, to produce optical gradient materials. When a solution of methyl methacrylate and thermal initiator contacts a polymer seed (a small piece of poly(methyl methacrylate), a viscous region is formed in which the polymerization rate is faster than in the bulk solution. PhotoFP is driven by a continuous input of light. Thermal frontal polymerization is the propagation of a localized reaction zone through the coupling of thermal transport with the Arrhenius dependence of the kinetics of an exothermic polymerization. We will examine IFP and its use in making Gradient Optical Materials (GRIN) and our work on elucidating the mechanism. We will consider how thermal frontal polymerization can be used rapid rapid repair, making gradient materials and to study interesting nonlinear modes of thermal front propagation.

  4. Total ear reconstruction: The role of bilateral triangular post-auricular flaps for creation of the cephaloauricular sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2017-03-01

    Results: The technique was simple and effective with no post-operative complication regarding flaps viability. Patients requiring glasses have worn frames soon after the tie-over was removed and no sulcus problems have resulted.

  5. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-01-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pu...

  6. Single buccal sulcus approach with fluoroscan assistance for the management of simple zygomatic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Mao, Shih-Hsuan; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2015-05-01

    Zygomatic fractures are associated with functional and aesthetic problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of management and the surgical satisfaction of patients with simple zygomatic fractures treated through a single buccal sulcus approach and fluoroscan assistance. Between 2008 and 2012, 42 patients with simple zygomatic fractures were included in the study. The surgical procedure was performed through a single buccal sulcus incision. The fracture sites were aligned under direct vision and fluoroscan assistance and stabilized with rigid internal fixation. The adequacy of reduction was evaluated based on postoperative plain radiographic films and computed tomographic scans using mirror image analyses. The satisfaction of functional and aesthetic results was also evaluated subjectively using a visual analog scale during follow-up. Twenty-nine male and thirteen female patients with a mean age of 33.2 years were evaluated. Motorcycle crashes (78.6%) were the most common mechanism of trauma. Based on follow-up imaging studies, 2 patients had inadequate reduction of zygomatic body, and there was a slight depression of the zygomatic arch in one patient. Ninety-three percent (39/42) of patients had satisfactory results, although one patient complained of malar asymmetry and another felt a depression in the arch area. Two patients complained of persistent hypesthesia during follow-up at 6 months. Our results suggest that a single buccal sulcus approach without lower eyelid or lateral eyebrow incision in the repair of simple fractures of the zygoma can be achieved with high patient satisfaction if the reduction and fixation are adequate and stable.

  7. OSTEOMYELITIS OF THE FRONTAL BONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOfori-Adjei

    2007-06-01

    Jun 1, 2007 ... commonest complication of skull osteomyelitis. This is usually associated with subperiosteal ab- scess. Frontal lobe abscess present as subtle perso- nality changes. Radiological features vary with the duration of the infection. Early features are seen as islands of normal bone with increased or diminished ...

  8. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  9. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given...

  10. Spatial working memory and spatial attention rely on common neural processes in the intraparietal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Timothy J; Bellgrove, Mark A; Wrafter, Pia; Mattingley, Jason B; Cunnington, Ross

    2010-11-01

    Our ability to remember locations in space (spatial working memory) and our ability to direct attention to those locations (spatial attention) are two fundamental and closely related cognitive processes. A growing body of behavioural evidence suggests that spatial working memory and spatial attention share common resources, while neuroimaging studies show some overlap in the neural regions that mediate these two cognitive functions. The current study used fMRI to directly examine the extent to which spatial working memory and spatial attention rely on common underlying neural mechanisms. Twenty healthy participants underwent functional MRI while performing a dual task of spatial working memory incorporating a visual search task during the working memory retention interval. Working memory and visual search task loads were parametrically modulated. A wide network of prefrontal, premotor, and parietal regions showed increasing activity with increased spatial working memory load. Of these areas, part of the right supramarginal gyrus, lying along the intraparietal sulcus, showed a significant interaction such that the neural activity associated with spatial working memory load was significantly attenuated as visual search load in the dual task was increased. This interaction suggests that this part of the supramarginal gyrus, along the intraparietal sulcus, is critical for mediating both spatial working memory and shifts in spatial attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Axonal disruption in white matter underlying cortical sulcus tau pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Laurena; Kim, Joong Hee; Gangolli, Mihika; Stein, Thor; Alvarez, Victor; McKee, Ann; Brody, David L

    2017-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology. To test this hypothesis, formalin-fixed post-mortem tissue blocks from the superior frontal cortex of ten individuals with an established diagnosis of CTE were obtained from the Veterans Affairs-Boston University-Concussion Legacy Foundation brain bank. Advanced diffusion MRI data was acquired using an 11.74 T MRI scanner at Washington University with 250 × 250 × 500 µm3 spatial resolution. Diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and generalized q-sampling imaging analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. Following MRI acquisition, tissue sections were tested for phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity in gray matter sulcal depths. Axonal disruption in underlying white matter was assessed using two-dimensional Fourier transform analysis of myelin black gold staining. A robust image co-registration method was applied to accurately quantify the relationship between diffusion MRI parameters and histopathology. We found that white matter underlying sulci with high levels of tau pathology had substantially impaired myelin black gold Fourier transform power coherence, indicating axonal microstructural disruption (r = -0.55, p = 0.0015). Using diffusion tensor MRI, we found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was modestly (r = 0.53) but significantly (p = 0.0012) correlated with

  12. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Parallel pathways from whisker and visual sensory cortices to distinct frontal regions of mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Mateo, Celine; Jaeger, Dieter; Petersen, Carl C H

    2017-07-01

    The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices. In addition, secondary hotspots in the frontal cortex were evoked by whisker and visual stimulation, with the frontal hotspot for whisker deflection being more anterior and lateral compared to the frontal hotspot evoked by visual stimulation. Investigating axonal projections, we found that the somatosensory whisker cortex and the visual cortex directly innervated frontal cortex, with visual cortex axons innervating a region medial and posterior to the innervation from somatosensory cortex, consistent with the location of sensory responses in frontal cortex. In turn, the axonal outputs of these two frontal cortical areas innervate distinct regions of striatum, superior colliculus, and brainstem. Sensory input, therefore, appears to map onto modality-specific regions of frontal cortex, perhaps participating in distinct sensorimotor transformations, and directing distinct motor outputs.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic-based analysis of severe dysphonia in patients with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Hee; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.; Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a nonlinear dynamic approach to the acoustic analysis of dysphonia associated with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis. Study Design Case-control study. Methods Acoustic voice samples from scar/sulcus patients and age/sex-matched controls were analyzed using correlation dimension (D2) and phase plots, time-domain based perturbation indices (jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]), and an auditory-perceptual rating scheme. Signal typing was performed to identify samples with bifurcations and aperiodicity. Results Type 2 and 3 acoustic signals were highly represented in the scar/sulcus patient group. When data were analyzed irrespective of signal type, all perceptual and acoustic indices successfully distinguished scar/sulcus patients from controls. Removal of type 2 and 3 signals eliminated the previously identified differences between experimental groups for all acoustic indices except D2. The strongest perceptual-acoustic correlation in our dataset was observed for SNR; the weakest correlation was observed for D2. Conclusions These findings suggest that D2 is inferior to time-domain based perturbation measures for the analysis of dysphonia associated with scar/sulcus; however, time-domain based algorithms are inherently susceptible to inflation under highly aperiodic (i.e., type 2 and 3) signal conditions. Auditory-perceptual analysis, unhindered by signal aperiodicity, is therefore a robust strategy for distinguishing scar/sulcus patient voices from normal voices. Future acoustic analysis research in this area should consider alternative (e.g., frequency- and quefrency-domain based) measures alongside additional nonlinear approaches. PMID:22516315

  15. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  16. Aphasia induced by gliomas growing in the ventrolateral frontal region: assessment with diffusion MR tractography, functional MR imaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, Alberto; Nava, Simone; Ferrè, Francesca; Castelli, Gianmarco; Aquino, Domenico; Ciaraffa, Francesca; Broggi, Giovanni; DiMeco, Francesco; Piacentini, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    Lesions in the ventrolateral region of the dominant frontal lobe have been historically associated with aphasia. Recent imaging results suggest that frontal language regions extend beyond classically defined Broca's area to include the ventral precentral gyrus (VPCG) and the arcuate fasciculus (AF). Frontal gliomas offer a unique opportunity to identify structures that are essential for speech production. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation between language deficits and lesion location in patients with gliomas. Nineteen patients with glioma and 10 healthy subjects were evaluated with diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance (MR) tractography, functional MR (verb generation task) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. Patients were divided into two groups according to lesion location with respect to the ventral precentral sulcus: (i) anterior (n=8) with glioma growing in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and underlying white matter; (ii) posterior (n=11) with glioma growing in the VPCG and underlying white matter. Virtual dissection of the AF, frontal intralobar tract, uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior frontal occipital fasciculus (IFOF) was performed with a deterministic approach. Seven posterior patients showed aphasia classified as conduction (4), Broca (1), transcortical motor (1) and an isolated deficit of semantic fluency; one anterior patient had transcortical mixed aphasia. All posterior patients had invasion of the VPCG, however only patients with aphasia had also lesion extension to the AF as demonstrated by tractography dissections. All patients with language deficits had high grade glioma. Groups did not differ regarding tumour volume. A functional pars opercularis was identified with functional MR imaging (fMRI) in 17 patients. Gliomas growing in the left VPCG are much more likely to cause speech deficits than gliomas infiltrating the IFG, including Broca's area. Lesion extension to the AF connecting frontal to parietal

  17. Historical Evolution of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, W.A.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of

  18. Frontal photopolymerization for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João T; Hudson, Steven D; Harrison, Christopher; Douglas, Jack F

    2004-11-09

    Frontal photopolymerization (FPP) offers numerous advantages for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. Quantitative utilization of this method, however, requires a control of the vertical dimensions of the patterned resist material. To address this fundamental problem, we study the ultraviolet (UV) photopolymerization of a series of multifunctional thiolene resists through a combination of experiments and analytical modeling of the polymerization fronts. We describe this nonlinear spatio-temporal growth process in terms of a "minimal" model involving an order parameter phi(x, t) characterizing the extent of monomer-to-polymer conversion, the optical attenuation T(x, t), and the solid front position h(t). The latter exhibits an induction time (or equivalent critical UV dose) characterizing the onset of frontal propagation. We also observe a novel transition between two logarithmic rates of growth, determined by the Beer-Lambert attenuation constants mu(0) and mu(infinity) of the monomer and fully polymerized material, respectively. The measured frontal kinetics and optical transmission of the thiolene resist materials are consistent with our photopolymerization model, exhibiting both "photodarkening" and "photoinvariant" polymerization. This is apparently the first observation of photodarkening reported in FPP. On the basis of these results, multilevel fluidic devices with controlled height are readily fabricated with modulated illumination. A representative two-level microfluidic device, incorporating a chaotic mixer, a T junction, and a series of controlled flow constrictions, illustrates the practical versatility of this fabrication method.

  19. Non-symbolic and symbolic notations in simple arithmetic differentially involve intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, F. van der; Takashima, A.; Segers, E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Verhoeven, L.

    2016-01-01

    Addition problems can be solved by mentally manipulating quantities for which the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is likely recruited, or by retrieving the answer directly from fact memory in which the left angular gyrus (AG) and perisylvian areas may play a role. Mental addition is usually

  20. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  1. The Balanced Two-String Technique for Sulcus Intraocular Lens Implantation in the Absence of Capsular Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm. Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°. Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  2. [Transcortical sensory aphasia in a patient with metastatic brain tumor in the left frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Maeshima, S; Nakai, M; Ozaki, F; Itakura, T; Komai, N; Kuriyama, T

    1994-11-01

    We reported a case of a 62-year-old right-handed woman who had transcortical sensory aphasia caused by a metastatic brain tumor in the left frontal lobe. She had mild right hemiparesis involving the face, without hyperactive tendon reflexes. She had neither sensory disturbance nor other cranial nerve deficits. Her spontaneous speech was fluent, and she sometimes had echolalia. Her object naming, word fluency, verbal comprehension and writing were severely disturbed. This contrasted with full preservation of repetition of phonemes and short sentences. Reading of words was preserved. CT scan revealed a subcortical lesion in the left superior frontal gyrus. Gd-enhanced MRI showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in the frontal lobe outside of Broca's area. We thereby concluded that transcortical sensory aphasia may be caused by frontal lobe lesion independent of the perisylvian speech areas.

  3. A Case Study on Uruk Sulcus, Ganymede: How Variations in Fault Strike and Stress Distribution can Affect Shear Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Burkhard, L. M.; Collins, G. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    Ganymede's fractured surface reveals many morphologically distinct regions of inferred distributed shear and strike-slip faulting that may be important to the structural development of its surface. To better understand the role of strike-slip tectonism in shaping Ganymede's complex icy surface, we perform a detailed mapping of key examples of strike-slip morphologies from Galileo and Voyager imagery. We investigate the role of tidal stresses using the numerical code SatStress to calculate both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) tidal stresses at Ganymede's surface. We then compute Coulomb failure conditions, which are a function of fault strike and regional stress magnitudes, for the mapped regions. Previous work at Dardanus Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, and Uruk Sulcus, regions with an inferred right-lateral sense of slip, suggests that global tidal stress models of both diurnal and NSR stress contributions readily generate shear and normal stress magnitudes ( 1.1 MPa) that could give rise to shear failure at depth ( 2 km). While models for both Dardanus and Tiamat Sulcus accurately predict right-lateral motion, stresses at Uruk Sulcus suggest a left-lateral sense of slip for the current fault strike orientation. This presents an opportunity to examine the role of temporal fault strike variations, as well as changes in the distribution of stresses, on shear failure and sense of slip. We find that models with a 10 - 40° clockwise rotation of Uruk's fault strike predict the expected right-lateral slip. Strain ellipses derived from morphological mapping efforts suggest as much as 50° of rotation may have occurred here. Such a rotation may be plausible if the feature formed in a different orientation than it presently possesses due to migration of the ice shell. Further investigation of changes in distribution of stress, perhaps due to a NSR bulge shift or true polar wander, help provide insight into how features on Ganymede may have evolved through time.

  4. Ritidectomía frontal bicoronal subaponeurótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Gálvez Chávez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el tratamiento del envejecimiento del tercio superior de la cara se han empleado diversas técnicas quirúrgicas. El abordaje bicoronal ha sido el más utilizado, pero a su vez el que más variantes y modificaciones ha tenido. Con este trabajo los autores se proponen evaluar los resultados de la ritidectomía frontal bicoronal siguiendo un mismo procedimiento dado por la disección subaponeurótica hasta los rebordes orbitarios, sección horizontal múltiple del músculo frontal y prócer, así como disección y sección de los músculos corrugadores. Solo se modificó la localización de la incisión frontal en dependencia de la longitud de la frente. Fueron operados 31 pacientes y se evaluaron los resultados a los 6 meses de la operación. Con la técnica empleada se modificaron las arrugas frontoglabelares hacia el borramiento o la desaparición, la ptosis de las cejas se corrigió de forma armoniosa y las complicaciones fueron escasas y poco relevantes. No se produjo afectación de la mímica frontoglabelar

  5. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Baker, Laura A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy. PMID:25676553

  6. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  7. Reconstructive surgery of the sulcus of glans penis for balanopreputial adhesion due to lichen sclerosus. Our experience and medicolegal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alei, Giovanni; Letizia, Piero; Alei, Lavinia; Massoni, Francesco; Ricci, Serafino

    2014-01-01

    Our exeperience with the reconstructive surgery of the adhesion of the glans with the preputial skin due to lichen sclerosus. Twentyeight patients (mean age, 44 years; range, 28-69) underwent reshaping of the balanopreputial sulcus at our institution. All patients presented with trapped penis resulting from adhesion at the sulcus of glans due to Lichen Sclerosus. The procedure entailed separating the coronal adhesion along its entire length with the use of a blunttipped forceps, then reshaping the balanopreputial sulcus. Though simple, the maneuver is delicate and requires scrupulous attention to the ventral aspect to avoid damaging the urethra. The adhesion is removed circumferentially around the glans by means of electrobistoury. The duration of the follow-up period was 24 months. All patients stated they were satisfied with the cosmetic results and functional outcome. Recurrence of the condition occurred in 7% of the patients and was treated medically; recurrence of adhesion occurred in 2% of the patients and was treated with repeat surgery. The indication for medical therapy in early LS is a selective criterion restricted to less severe cases; otherwise, the physician may be held responsible for treatment failure, justified claims for reimbursement, disease progression and the decidedly greater damage that may ensue. Such consequences can be averted when assessment is based on recent scientific evidence and the approach to treatment is appropriate in terms of efficacy and effectiveness. Surgical management is definitive and restores normal penile anatomy and function, including sexual and urinary function, thus enabling the patient to regain sexual confidence Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a rare disease, however, its management is not devoid of medicolegal considerations. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown but progression to carcinoma of the penis has been reported in untreated cases. Consequently, timely diagnosis holds medicolegal relevance

  8. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-14

    REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain

  9. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  10. Orbital cortical approach to lesions around the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle: indication and surgical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha; Ramdasi, Raghvendra; Patni, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    An orbital cortical approach to lesions in the region of the frontal horn is described on the basis of surgical experience with five cases and dissections of three cadaveric brain specimens. The approach involves cortical incision over the orbital surface of the frontal brain and directing the surgical trajectory superiorly. The possible indications of the approach and the critical surgical parameters are described. To assess the landmarks that could be used to employ the approach, three formalin-fixed frozen cadaveric brains were appropriately dissected. A number of parameters were analysed to identify the safe entry points and the trajectory to approach the frontal horn. Five lesions located in the region of the frontal horn were operated upon by employing the discussed approach. The frontal horn is located at the depth of approximately 18 mm (range, 17-20 mm) from the orbital surface of the frontal brain. In a lateral perspective, the tip of the frontal horn is in line with the tip of the temporal pole. Wide opening of the Sylvian fissure, relaxation of the brain and lateral basal frontal exposure can be used effectively to obtain a suitable angulation for conduct of surgery. Avoidance of olfactory tracts and Heubner's perforating artery at the site of medial orbital gyrus cortical incision and appropriately directing the corticectomy that avoids the association fibre tracts, caudate head and internal capsule can lead to a safe exposure of the frontal horn. The approach is suitable for lesions involving or in the vicinity of the inferior aspect of the frontal horn and in the region of the caudate head. Neuronavigation can be of assistance during surgery and avoid critical misdirection. All the five lesions were treated without consequence. For selected indications, an inferior frontal or orbital cortical approach can be used effectively and safely to approach lesions in relation to the frontal horn. The approach needs to be precise to avoid injury to vital

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of Gingival Sulcus Microbiota and Pathogenesis of Periodontitis Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, E A; Balmasova, I P; Mkrtumyan, A M; Kostryukova, S N; Vakhitova, E S; Il'ina, E N; Tsarev, V N; Gabibov, A G; Arutyunov, S D

    2017-10-01

    Biofilm of the gingival sulcus from 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontitis, 30 patients with periodontitis not complicated by diabetes mellitus (reference group), and 22 healthy volunteers without signs of gingival disease (control group) was studied by quantitative PCR. Quantitative analysis for the content of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, A. ctinomycetemcomitans, T. denticola, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum/periodonticum, and P. endodontalis in the dental plaque was performed with a Dentoscreen kit. The presence of other bacterial groups was verified by metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to evaluate some specific features of the etiological factor for periodontitis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Specimens of the Porphiromonadaceae and Fusobacteriaceae families were characterized by an extremely high incidence in combined pathology. The amount of Sphingobacteriaceae bacteria in the biofilm was shown to decrease significantly during periodontitis. Metagenomic analysis confirmed the pathogenic role of microbiota in combined pathology, as well as the hypothesis on a possible influence of periodontitis on the course and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Visual motion responses in the posterior cingulate sulcus: a comparison to V5/MT and MST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elvira; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bartels, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Motion processing regions apart from V5+/MT+ are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to perform a detailed functional analysis of the recently described cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. We used distinct types of visual motion stimuli to compare CSv with V5/MT and MST, including a visual pursuit paradigm. Both V5/MT and MST preferred 3D flow over 2D planar motion, responded less yet substantially to random motion, had a strong preference for contralateral versus ipsilateral stimulation, and responded nearly equally to contralateral and to full-field stimuli. In contrast, CSv had a pronounced preference to 2D planar motion over 3D flow, did not respond to random motion, had a weak and nonsignificant lateralization that was significantly smaller than that of MST, and strongly preferred full-field over contralateral stimuli. In addition, CSv had a better capability to integrate eye movements with retinal motion compared with V5/MT and MST. CSv thus differs from V5+/MT+ by its unique preference to full-field, coherent, and planar motion cues. These results place CSv in a good position to process visual cues related to self-induced motion, in particular those associated to eye or lateral head movements.

  13. The relative contributions of frontal and parietal cortex for generalized quantifier comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Olm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifiers, like some or few, are frequent in daily language. Linguists posit at least three distinct classes of quantifiers: cardinal quantifiers that rely on numerosity, majority quantifiers that additionally depend on executive resources, and logical quantifiers that rely on perceptual attention. We used BOLD fMRI to investigate the roles of frontal and parietal regions in quantifier comprehension. Participants performed a sentence-picture verification task to determine whether a sentence containing a quantifier accurately describes a picture. A whole-brain analysis identified a network involved in quantifier comprehension: This implicated bilateral inferior parietal, superior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and right inferior frontal cortex. We then performed region-of-interest analyses to assess the relative contribution of each region for each quantifier class. Inferior parietal cortex was equally activated across all quantifier classes, consistent with prior studies implicating the region for quantifier comprehension due in part to its role in the representation of number knowledge. Right superior parietal cortex was up-regulated in comparison to frontal regions for cardinal and logical quantifiers, but parietal and frontal regions were equally activated for majority quantifiers and each frontal region is most highly activated for majority quantifiers. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that majority quantifiers rely on numerosity mechanisms in parietal cortex and executive mechanisms in frontal cortex. Also, right inferior frontal cortex was up-regulated for logical compared to cardinal quantifiers, which may be related to selection demands associated with logical quantifier comprehension. We conclude that distinct components of a large-scale fronto-parietal network contribute to specific aspects of quantifier comprehension, and that this biologically-defined network is consistent with cognitive theories of

  14. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  16. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  17. It's not what you say, but how you say it: a reciprocal temporo-frontal network for affective prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Leitman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans communicate emotion vocally by modulating acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity and voice quality. Research has documented how the relative presence or absence of such cues alters the likelihood of perceiving an emotion, but the neural underpinnings of acoustic cue-dependent emotion perception remain obscure. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 subjects we examined a reciprocal circuit consisting of superior temporal cortex, amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus that may underlie affective prosodic comprehension. Results showed that increased saliency of emotion-specific acoustic cues was associated with increased activation in superior temporal cortex (planum temporale (PT, posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, and posterior superior middle gyrus (pMTG and amygdala, whereas decreased saliency of acoustic cues was associated with increased inferior frontal activity and temporo-frontal connectivity. These results suggest that sensory-integrative processing is facilitated when the acoustic signal is rich in affective information, yielding increased activation in temporal cortex and amygdala. Conversely, when the acoustic signal is ambiguous, greater evaluative processes are recruited, increasing activation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and IFG STG connectivity. Auditory regions may thus integrate acoustic information with amygdala input to form emotion-specific representations, which are evaluated within inferior frontal regions.

  18. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  19. Mucocele formation after frontal sinus obliteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, F. S.; van der Poel, N. A.; Freling, N. J. M.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    A possible complication of frontal sinus obliteration with fat is the formation of mucoceles. We studied the prevalence of mucoceles as well as and the need for revision surgery. Retrospective case review of forty consecutive patients undergoing frontal sinus obliteration from September 1995 to

  20. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The mid-fusiform sulcus: A landmark identifying both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of human ventral temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Golarai, Golijeh; Caspers, Julian; Chuapoco, Miguel R.; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2014-01-01

    Human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) plays a pivotal role in high-level vision. An under-studied macroanatomical feature of VTC is the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS), a shallow longitudinal sulcus separating the lateral and medial fusiform gyrus (FG). Here, we quantified the morphological features of the MFS in 69 subjects (ages 7–40), and investigated its relationship to both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of VTC with four main findings. First, despite being a minor sulcus, we found that the MFS is a stable macroanatomical structure present in all 138 hemispheres with morphological characteristics developed by age 7. Second, the MFS is the locus of a lateral-medial cytoarchitechtonic transition within the posterior FG serving as the boundary between cytoarchitectonic regions FG1 and FG2. Third, the MFS predicts a lateral-medial functional transition in eccentricity bias representations in children, adolescents, and adults. Fourth, the anterior tip of the MFS predicts the location of a face-selective region, mFus-faces/FFA-2. These findings are the first to illustrate that a macroanatomical landmark identifies both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of high-level sensory cortex in humans and have important implications for understanding functional and structural organization in the human brain. PMID:24021838

  2. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R.; O’Shea, Andrew M.; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C.; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p working memory function. PMID:28101053

  3. Transcortical sensory aphasia following left frontal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, M; Soma, Y; Koyama, A; Yoshimura, N; Furukawa, H; Tsuji, S

    1998-02-01

    Two right-handed patients who exhibited language disability after left frontal infarction are described. The patients spoke fluently and exhibited excellent repetition ability from the onset of infarction without exhibiting any oral apraxia, but had deficits in auditory comprehension, naming, reading and writing. In both patients, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed infarction in the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus and the anterior part of the lower precentral gyrus. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed decreased blood flow in the same regions as those shown to be infarcted by MRI. The MRI and SPECT findings and the symptoms of these patients suggest that left frontal lesions that encompass Broca's area produce fluent aphasia if the posterior part of the left precentral gyrus or motor cortex remains intact and that lesions anterior to Broca's area and the middle frontal gyrus produce a deficit in auditory comprehension of single words as well as sentences.

  4. [Olfactory bulb volume and depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Gang; Hang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    To explore the olfactory abilities in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), analyze the correlation between olfactory bulb (OB) volume with depth of olfactory sulcus (OS) and olfactory function in patients with AR. One hundred patients with AR were compared with one hundred controls in terms of olfactory function T&T testing, OB volume and depth of OS assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T&T testing and MRI were done after a year in 100 AR patients,the results were compared with the initial results. The OB volume in AR patients was (29.53±3.95) mm3 on the left, (29.67±14.21)mm3 on the right, (29.61±4.05) mm3 on average; The OB volume in controls was (48.93±6.73)mm3 on the left side, (48.81±7.43)mm3 on the right side, (48.85±7.11)mm3 on average; The OB volume in AR patients was less then the control group(t= 6.321, 6.141, 6.221, P0.05). Olfactory discriminate threshold was negatively correlated with OB volume in AR patients (r=-0.46, P0.05). Among 100 followed-up AR patients, 43 showed increased in OB volume and olfactory function after a year, but there was no statistical difference (t= 0. 811,0. 843, 0.826, P>0.05; Z=1.911, P>0.05) ,and the other 57 showed no significant changes of OB volume and olfactory function. In AR patients, the OB volume and olfactory function decreased, but the depth of OS had no significant changes. The OB volume is correlated with olfactory function, while the depth of OS is no correlated with olfactory function. Conservative treatment had some clinical significance on the recovery of olfactory function in patients with AR.

  5. Peri-Implant Sulcus Fluid (PISF) Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) -8 Levels in Peri-Implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierbach, René; Maier, Kurt; Sorsa, Timo; Mäntylä, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) -8 plays crucial role in pathogenesis of periodontitis and is also a possible biomarker candidate in peri-implantitis. The aim of the study was to analyse MMP-8 levels in peri-Implant Sulcus Fluid (PISF) from peri-implantitis affected implants in smoking and non-smoking patients with different periodontal health status of natural teeth before and after peri-implantitis treatment. Altogether 29 patients with peri-implantitis were recruited and divided into two study groups (11 with healthy periodontium or gingivitis, i.e. no marginal bone loss, and 18 with chronic periodontitis). PISF sample from one implant with peri-implantitis from each patient was collected at the baseline and six months after conservative and surgical peri-implantitis treatment, and clinical parameters were registered. Samples were analysed for MMP-8 with dento ELISA method applying a monoclonal antibody. Mucosal cell samples were also analysed for IL-1 gene polymorphism. PISF MMP-8 levels' differences between periodontal diagnosis groups and between smokers' and non-smokers' were analysed. Also, IL-1 polymorphism profiles were compared between study groups. PISF MMP-8 levels were higher at the baseline compared to and after the treatment when all sampled implant sites were analysed together (p = 0.001). MMP-8 levels' distribution was broader in periodontitis patients' PISF samples, and only in periodontitis patients' group levels decreased statistically significantly after the treatment (p = 0.005). Smokers'and non-smokers' PISF MMP-8 was at similar level both at the baseline and after the treatment. No difference between distributions of IL-1 genotypes was found between study groups. MMP-8 levels increase in peri-implantitis affected implants both in non-periodontitis and periodontitis patients, but levels still after treatment of the condition reflect intensified host response around implants and indicate challenges of controlling peri-Implantitis with any

  6. Clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve in anterior chamber versus ciliary sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, A; Önol, M

    2017-04-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube insertion through the anterior chamber angle (ACA) or through the ciliary sulcus (CS).Patients and methodsIn this case-control study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive glaucoma patients who had undergone AGV implantation either through the ACA or the CS between March 2009 and December 2014. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications prescribed, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), glaucoma type, success rate, complications, and survival ratios. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS.ResultsThere were 68 eyes in the ACA group and 35 eyes in the CS group. There were no significant differences between the groups for age, sex, laterality, IOP, preoperative glaucoma medication number, BCVA or glaucoma type (P>0.05). The postoperative follow-up period was 27.2±16.5 months and 30.2±17.7 months for the ACA and the CS groups (P=0.28); IOP values were significantly reduced at the last visit to 16.4±7.2 mm Hg and 14.4±6.8 mm Hg. The difference in the last-visit IOP between the groups was not significant (P=0.06), but the IOP reduction ratio was higher in the CS group (P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the number of postoperative medications (P=0.18). Postoperative complications were similar, but the incidence of flat anterior chamber was higher in the ACA group (P=0.05).ConclusionsThe use of an AGV can control IOP in the majority of cases whether placed in the ACA or the CS. The IOP reduction ratio seemed to be higher in the CS group.

  7. Superiorization with level control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Andrzej; Al-Musallam, Fadhel

    2017-04-01

    The convex feasibility problem is to find a common point of a finite family of closed convex subsets. In many applications one requires something more, namely finding a common point of closed convex subsets which minimizes a continuous convex function. The latter requirement leads to an application of the superiorization methodology which is actually settled between methods for convex feasibility problem and the convex constrained minimization. Inspired by the superiorization idea we introduce a method which sequentially applies a long-step algorithm for a sequence of convex feasibility problems; the method employs quasi-nonexpansive operators as well as subgradient projections with level control and does not require evaluation of the metric projection. We replace a perturbation of the iterations (applied in the superiorization methodology) by a perturbation of the current level in minimizing the objective function. We consider the method in the Euclidean space in order to guarantee the strong convergence, although the method is well defined in a Hilbert space.

  8. Subbrow Approach as a Minimally Invasive Reduction Technique in the Management of Frontal Sinus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFrontal sinus fractures, particularly anterior sinus fractures, are relatively common facial fractures. Many agree on the general principles of frontal fracture management; however, the optimal methods of reduction are still controversial. In this article, we suggest a simple reduction method using a subbrow incision as a treatment for isolated anterior sinus fractures.MethodsBetween March 2011 and March 2014, 13 patients with isolated frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through a subbrow incision. The subbrow incision line was designed to be precisely at the lower margin of the brow in order to obtain an inconspicuous scar. A periosteal incision was made at 3 mm above the superior orbital rim. The fracture site of the frontal bone was reduced, and bone fixation was performed using an absorbable plate and screws.ResultsContour deformities were completely restored in all patients, and all patients were satisfied with the results. Scars were barely visible in the long-term follow-up. No complications related to the procedure, such as infection, uncontrolled sinus bleeding, hematoma, paresthesia, mucocele, or posterior wall and brain injury were observed.ConclusionsThe subbrow approach allowed for an accurate reduction and internal fixation of the fractures in the anterior table of the frontal sinus by providing a direct visualization of the fracture. Considering the surgical success of the reduction and the rigid fixation, patient satisfaction, and aesthetic problems, this transcutaneous approach through a subbrow incision is concluded to be superior to the other reduction techniques used in the case of an anterior table frontal sinus fracture.

  9. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  10. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  11. New Perspectives on Southern Ocean Frontal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) frontal detection method, introduced in Chapman (2014). This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming frontal occurrence frequency maps and then approximating these occurrence-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meandering remains relatively constant. Contrary to many previous studies, little no southward migration of the fronts over the 1993-2014 time period is found, and there is only weak sensitivity to atmospheric forcing related to SAM or ENSO. Finally, the implications of splitting and merging for the flux of tracers will be discussed.

  12. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Description of a Rare Case of Nodular Fasciitis of the Apical Aspect of the Upper Buccal Sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a rare case of nodular fasciitis (NF of the oral cavity, discussing the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Histopathologic diagnosis of this type of lesion can be challenging due to its differential diagnosis, which principally includes sarcoma. The patient presented with a painless, well-defined nodule, reported as increasing in size, located at the apical aspect of the upper left buccal sulcus. Histologically, the lesion revealed spindle cell proliferation arranged in fascicles, while immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for smooth muscle actin. Eight months after complete surgical excision, no signs of local recurrence have been observed.

  14. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... motor threshold. We pseudorandomly stimulated six targets located on a straight mediolateral line corresponding to the overall orientation of the central sulcus with a fixed coil orientation of 45° to the mid-sagittal line (STRAIGHT-450 FIX) or seven targets in the posterior part of the crown...

  15. Frontal sinus carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.D.; Ljaz, T.; El-Sayed, S. [Manitoba Cancer treatment and Research Foundation, Winnipeg, Manitoba, (Canada). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1997-11-01

    A rare case of frontal sinus carcinoma is reported. The CAT scan demonstrated a 4 cm soft-tissue mass that was medial and superior to the right orbit. The patient developed early recurrence following surgery, demonstrated by a postoperative CT scan, and was managed by accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatinum-based systemic chemotherapy. The patient has remained disease-free for 30 months following the end of combined-modality treatment. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The Behavior Of Asymmetric Frontal Couplings With Permanent Magnets In Magnetic Powder And High Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DOBROTA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of the behavior of frontal couplings with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in difficult environments, specific to metallurgy – such as environments with magnetic powders and high temperature – in two constructive variants: symmetric couplings and asymmetric couplings (with divided poles. The results show the superior performance of asymmetric couplings under the given conditions

  17. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  18. Green tea extract enhances parieto-frontal connectivity during working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Hammann, Felix; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that green tea extract may have a beneficial impact on cognitive functioning, suggesting promising clinical implications. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this putative cognitive enhancing effect of green tea extract still remain unknown. This study investigates whether the intake of green tea extract modulates effective brain connectivity during working memory processing and whether connectivity parameters are related to task performance. Using a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design, 12 healthy volunteers received a milk whey-based soft drink containing 27.5 g of green tea extract or a milk whey-based soft drink without green tea as control substance while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Working memory effect on effective connectivity between frontal and parietal brain regions was evaluated using dynamic causal modeling. Green tea extract increased the working memory induced modulation of connectivity from the right superior parietal lobule to the middle frontal gyrus. Notably, the magnitude of green tea induced increase in parieto-frontal connectivity positively correlated with improvement in task performance. Our findings provide first evidence for the putative beneficial effect of green tea on cognitive functioning, in particular, on working memory processing at the neural system level by suggesting changes in short-term plasticity of parieto-frontal brain connections. Modeling effective connectivity among frontal and parietal brain regions during working memory processing might help to assess the efficacy of green tea for the treatment of cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders such as dementia.

  19. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  1. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is elevated in superior frontal, parietal and cerebellar cortices of autistic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, J A; Fatemi, S H

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood with both genetic and environmental origins. Immune system dysregulation has been hypothesized to be involved in this disorder. We quantified levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ss-actin in three areas of the brain, namely, area 9, area 40 and cerebellum, in age matched autistic and control postmortem specimen using SDS-PAGE and western blotting techniques. Significant elevations in levels of GFAP were observed in all three brain areas in autism. This report confirms a recent report showing microglial and astroglial activation in autism. Increased GFAP levels in autistic brains signify gliosis, reactive injury, and perturbed neuronal migration processes.

  3. Damage to superior parietal cortex impairs pointing in the sagittal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Goldberg, Lana; Broderick, Carol

    2009-05-01

    Neurophysiology and neuroimaging research implicates distinct regions of posterior parietal cortex for reaching versus grasping and for completing these movements in central versus peripheral space. Typically, visuomotor tasks only examine movements made in the frontoparallel plane. We examined a patient with a right superior parietal lesion encompassing the parietal-occipital junction, the intraparietal sulcus and the putative human homologue of V6A on pointing tasks in the sagittal or frontoparallel planes. The patient did not demonstrate a speed-accuracy trade-off, but did show larger times post-peak velocity for all movement directions. Her movements in the sagittal axis were more disordered than movements in the frontoparallel plane. These data indicate a role for superior parietal cortex in fine tuning of visually guided movements and more particularly for movements made back towards the body.

  4. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  5. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  6. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  7. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  8. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential roles of the frontal and parietal cortices in the control of saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Julia; Tark, Kyeong-Jin; Reuter, Benedikt; Kathmann, Norbert; Curtis, Clayton E

    2013-10-01

    Although externally as well as internally-guided eye movements allow us to flexibly explore the visual environment, their differential neural mechanisms remain elusive. A better understanding of these neural mechanisms will help us to understand the control of action and to elucidate the nature of cognitive deficits in certain psychiatric populations (e.g., schizophrenia) that show increased latencies in volitional but not visually-guided saccades. Both the superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are implicated in the control of eye movements. However, it remains unknown what differential contributions the two areas make to the programming of visually-guided and internally-guided saccades. In this study we tested the hypotheses that sPCS and IPS distinctly encode internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades. We scanned subjects with fMRI while they generated visually-guided and internally-guided delayed saccades. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis to test whether patterns of cue related, preparatory and saccade related activation could be used to predict the direction of the planned eye movement. Results indicate that patterns in the human sPCS predicted internally-guided saccades but not visually-guided saccades in all trial periods and patterns in the IPS predicted internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades equally well. The results support the hypothesis that the human sPCS and IPS make distinct contributions to the control of volitional eye movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of postoperative vault height predictability using white-to-white or sulcus diameter-based sizing for the visian implantable collamer lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Lovisolo, Carlo F; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2013-01-01

    To compare vault height predictability of Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL; Staar Surgical) sizing using a sulcus diameter-based formula or the manufacturer-recommended white-to-white-based method. In 50 myopic eyes, ICL size was calculated using both a formula including sulcus diameter and the traditional formula based on white-to-white diameter. Sulcus diameter was measured using Artemis 2 very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound (ArcScan Inc). Implantation was based on the sulcus diameter derived size. Actual postoperative vault height achieved was measured by VHF digital ultrasound scanning. Circle segment trigonometry was used to calculate the vault height that would have resulted had lens sizing been based on the white-to-white formula. The same lens size would have been used in 60% of eyes, a smaller lens would have been used in 34% of eyes and a larger lens in 6% of eyes had lens sizing been based on the white-to-white formula. Mean vault for eyes with lenses sized using the sulcus diameter formula was 0.37±0.16 mm (range: 0.08 to 0.92 mm), with 2% trigonometry predicted that the vault height would have been 0.24±0.28 mm (range: -0.31 to 0.92 mm), with 26% <0.09 mm had lens sizing been based on the white-to-white formula. Significantly better predictability of postoperative vault height was achieved by including sulcus diameter into the ICL sizing formula compared with using the traditional white-to-white-based formula. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  12. Osteite frontale tuberculeuse revelant une tuberculose multifocale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons un cas d'ostéite frontale tuberculeuse chez une patiente de 4 ans dont la sérologie VIH est négative. La découverte a été faite devant un retard de cicatrisation d'une plaie frontale iatrogène. Le bilan révèle une atteinte vertébrale et pulmonaire associée. L'amélioration a été bonne sous traitement médical ...

  13. New insights in the homotopic and heterotopic connectivity of the frontal portion of the human corpus callosum revealed by microdissection and diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Descoteaux, Maxime; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Corsini, Francesco; Dallabona, Monica; Chioffi, Franco; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive studies revealed that the human corpus callosum (CC) plays a crucial role in providing large-scale bi-hemispheric integration of sensory, motor and cognitive processing, especially within the frontal lobe. However, the literature lacks of conclusive data regarding the structural macroscopic connectivity of the frontal CC. In this study, a novel microdissection approach was adopted, to expose the frontal fibers of CC from the dorsum to the lateral cortex in eight hemispheres and in one entire brain. Post-mortem results were then combined with data from advanced constrained spherical deconvolution in 130 healthy subjects. We demonstrated as the frontal CC provides dense inter-hemispheric connections. In particular, we found three types of fronto-callosal fibers, having a dorso-ventral organization. First, the dorso-medial CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between the homologous medial cortices of the superior frontal gyrus. Second, the ventro-lateral CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between lateral frontal cortices, including both the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as heterotopic connections between the medial and lateral frontal cortices. Third, the ventro-striatal CC fibers connect the medial and lateral frontal cortices with the contralateral putamen and caudate nucleus. We also highlighted an intricate crossing of CC fibers with the main association pathways terminating in the lateral regions of the frontal lobes. This combined approach of ex vivo microdissection and in vivo diffusion tractography allowed demonstrating a previously unappreciated three-dimensional architecture of the anterior frontal CC, thus clarifying the functional role of the CC in mediating the inter-hemispheric connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4718-4735, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  15. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery is sensitive to frontal lobe damage in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2013-11-16

    The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a brief battery of six neuropsychological tasks designed to assess frontal lobe function at bedside [Neurology 55:1621-1626, 2000]. The six FAB tasks explore cognitive and behavioral domains that are thought to be under the control of the frontal lobes, most notably conceptualization and abstract reasoning, lexical verbal fluency and mental flexibility, motor programming and executive control of action, self-regulation and resistance to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. We examined the sensitivity of performance on the FAB to frontal lobe damage in right-hemisphere-damaged first-ever stroke patients based on voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping of FAB performance revealed that the integrity of the right anterior insula (BA13) is crucial for the FAB global composite score, for the FAB conceptualization score, as well as for the FAB inhibitory control score. Furthermore, the FAB conceptualization and mental flexibility scores were sensitive to damage of the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; BA9). Finally, the FAB inhibitory control score was sensitive to damage of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA44/45). These findings indicate that several FAB scores (including composite and item scores) provide valid measures of right hemispheric lateral frontal lobe dysfunction, specifically of focal lesions near the anterior insula, in the MFG and in the IFG.

  16. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Hilde M H; Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Debeij-van Hall, Mariette H J A; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A M; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls. Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy age-matched controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional brain MRI. We investigated to which extent brain regions activated in response to a working memory task and assessed functional connectivity between distant brain regions. Data of patients were compared to controls, and patients were grouped as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Children with FLE showed a global decrease in functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, whereas brain activation patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment of functional integrity within the frontal lobe network, as well as its connections to distant areas, provides new insights in the etiology of the broad-range cognitive impairments in children with FLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  18. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  19. Impulsivity, Frontal Lobes and Risk for Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton Timm; Boettiger, Charlotte Ann

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and substance abuse disorders involve continued use of substances despite negative consequences, i.e. loss of behavioral control of drug use. The frontal cortical areas of brain oversee behavioral control through executive functions. Executive functions include abstract thinking, motivation, planning, attention to tasks and inhibition of impulsive responses. Impulsiveness generally refers to premature, unduly risky, poorly conceived actions. Dysfunctional impulsivity includes deficits...

  20. Manual de uniones atornilladas frontales pretensadas

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Herrera, Jesús; Hernando García, José Ignacio; Cervera Bravo, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    El manual presenta de manera detallada y extensa los criterios y procedimientos de análisis, de comprobación y de puesta en obra de uniones atornilladas frontales pretensadas, con inclusión de ejemplos y herramientas informáticas para su mejor comprensión y manejo.

  1. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  2. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  3. Medial frontal cortex and response conflict: Evidence from human intracranial EEG and medial frontal cortex lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Haupt, S.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been implicated in the monitoring and selection of actions in the face of competing alternatives, but much remains unknown about its functional properties, including electrophysiological oscillations, during response conflict tasks. Here, we recorded intracranial

  4. Changes in the Ratio of the Sulcus Acusticus Area to the Sagitta Area of Pomatoschistus-Minutus and P-Lozanoi (Pisces, Gobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, R.V.; Hamerlynck, O.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.; Hostens, K.; Gijselinck, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas) and P. lozanoi (de Buen) stock of the ebb-tidal delta of the former Grevelingen estuary was sampled monthly from September 1992 to October 1993. Sagittae were extracted and the areas of the sagitta and sulcus acusticus were measured with a digitizer. The frequency

  5. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions ADNFLE Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy ( ADNFLE ) is an uncommon form of epilepsy ...

  7. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Aneurysmal bone cyst of the frontal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Predrag; Antić, Branislav; Radić-Tasić, Olga

    2005-06-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign, expansive, osteolytic lesion that mainly occurs in young people, and involves the skull bones only exceptionally. The origin of ABC is controversial: secondary reactive bone lesion, or primary disease that represents an independent nosological entity. Blunt head trauma was suggested as a possible etiological factor. A case of a 19-year-old man with primary ABC of the right frontal bone was reported. The lesion was totally excised through frontal craniotomy, and the skull bone defect primarily reconstructed with an acrilate cranioplasty. Five years after the surgery, the patient was without signs of local recurrence. Clinical and neuroradiological presentation of the skull ABC was not specific. Pathohistology confirmed the diagnosis. Total excision was the treatment of choice.

  9. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the frontal bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC is a benign, expansive, osteolytic lesion that mainly occurs in young people, and involves the skull bones only exceptionally. The origin of ABC is controversial: secondary reactive bone lesion, or primary disease that represents an independent nosological entity. Blunt head trauma was suggested as a possible etiological factor. Case report. A case of a 19-year old man with primary ABC of the right frontal bone was reported. The lesion was totally excised through frontal craniotomy, and the skull bone defect primarily reconstructed with an acrilate cranioplasty. Five years after the surgery, the patient was without signs of local recurrence. Conclusion. Clinical and neuroradiological presentation of the skull ABC was not specific. Pathohistology confirmed the diagnosis. Total excision was the treatment of choice.

  10. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF VEHICLE FRONTAL IMPACT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mík

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possible improvement of road vehicle safety by using eCall – a system which initiates an emergency call in case of traffic accident. A possible way of better description of a frontal impact accident of a vehicle is examined and enriched by the information from the onboard e-call unit. In this article, we analyze results of frontal crash tests with different types of barriers and overlapping area and look for the correlation between the individual vehicle and collision parameters in order to provide a better description of the severity of the accident by the eCall system. The relation among the selected parameters is described using the correlation analysis.

  11. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus and allowing the frontal lobe to rest against the anterior wall of the sinus).[1] The objective of surgery is to stop or avoid a potential CSF leak and to avoid the risk of future meningitis. The frontal sinus is usually obliterated during the osteoplastic flap procedure, separating it from the rest ...

  12. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the frontal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Perić Predrag; Antić Branislav; Radić-Tasić Olga

    2005-01-01

    Background. Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign, expansive, osteolytic lesion that mainly occurs in young people, and involves the skull bones only exceptionally. The origin of ABC is controversial: secondary reactive bone lesion, or primary disease that represents an independent nosological entity. Blunt head trauma was suggested as a possible etiological factor. Case report. A case of a 19-year old man with primary ABC of the right frontal bone was reported. The lesion was totally excise...

  13. Does the frontal airbag avoid thoracic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, G; Schmucker, U; Lignitz, E; Huth, M; Ekkernkamp, A; Seifert, J

    2006-10-01

    The airbag is an established car safety device. However, recent studies pointed out that even the airbag might cause injuries. Nevertheless, most physicians do consider a lower risk in accident victims sustaining severe injury of the chest, when a deployed frontal airbag has been reported. We set out to verify the frequency and pattern of thoracic injury in car drivers protected by a frontal airbag during traffic accidents. This investigation was conducted as part of a prospective surveillance analyzing traffic accidents. Enrolled were car drivers included in a databank between January 2001 and December 2004 consecutively. The chance for sustaining chest injury with or without a frontal airbag was described using the relative risk. A total of 188 car drivers were included in the analysis. In 54 (28.7%) cases a deployed airbag and in 134 (71.3%) the absence of an airbag has been documented. Out of those cases 16 (29.6%) drivers with airbag and 30 (22.4%) without airbag sustained a chest injury. The mean abbreviated injury scale (AIS) of chest injuries in drivers with deployed airbag was 2.3 (1-5; SD +/- 1.45; mean injury severity scale [ISS] 21.1 [SD +/- 17.18]), in drivers without airbag 1.6 (1-4; SD +/- 1.12; mean ISS 15.8 [SD +/- 20.6]). For belted drivers with an airbag the relative risk to sustain chest injury was 1.96 compared to those without an airbag. The airbag does not avoid chest injury definitively. Much more, it has been demonstrated that the relative risk to sustain relevant thoracic injury seems to be almost higher in restrained drivers with a frontal airbag.

  14. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  15. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  16. Long range frontal/posterior phase synchronization during remembered pursuit task is impaired in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Nithin; O'Neill, Hugh; Sánchez-Morla, Eva María; Thaker, Gunvant K

    2014-08-01

    Although smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) is a reliable endophenotype of schizophrenia, exact underlying cognitive and neural substrates remain unknown. A simple mechanistic model of SPEM assumes an efficient interaction in integrating sensory input from the medial temporal (MT)/medial superior temporal (MST) brain regions and subsequent motor response through the frontal eye field (FEF). Poor functional connectivity between these two regions could explain impaired motion perception and SPEM maintenance in schizophrenia. In the present study, we combined an eye tracking paradigm with electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to investigate the putative functional connectivity among frontal/posterior brain regions in mediating the modulation of SPEM. Twenty four schizophrenic (SZ) and 22 healthy control (HC) participants performed remembered pursuit tasks with EEG recordings. Behaviorally, HC subjects showed significant improvement in SPEM response on repeated presentations of target compared to SZ subjects. Neurophysiologically HC subjects showed higher frontal/posterior phase synchronization in the beta to low gamma range frequency bands during all target presentations. In addition there was a significant increase in phase synchronization in the beta-2 frequency band in HC subjects during late compared to early target presentation. In contrast, higher frontal/posterior phase synchronization in the beta-2 frequency predicted better performance during late target presentation and lower enduring psychosis in SZ subjects. These data suggest a pathologically perturbed connectivity between frontal and posterior cortical regions during SPEM in SZ. The integrative eye tracking-EEG approach used in this study to dissect the endophenotype may reveal novel targets for studying schizophrenia psychopathology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Unilateral spatial neglect due to right frontal lobe haematoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeshima, S; Funahashi, K; Ogura, M; Itakura, T; Komai, N

    1994-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral spatial neglect caused by right frontal lobe lesions underwent cerebral blood flow studies. A 54-year-old, right-handed woman developed left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect associated with cerebral haemorrhage after surgical excision of a frontal tumour. A 66-year-old, right-handed woman developed a haemorrhage in the right frontal lobe caused by rupture of an aneurysm. This was followed by left hemiplegia and frontal lobe neglect. In both cases, 123I-iodoamph...

  18. [Assessing frontal lobe function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by frontal assessment battery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Obi, Tomokazu; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Mizoguchi, Kouichi

    2010-06-01

    Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is short neuropsychological battery for the bed side screening of frontal lobe function. Several studies have indicated that frontal lobe dysfunction is the main neuropsychological feature in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We examined frontal lobe function in patients with ALS and in age-matched normal subjects by using the FAB. We examined 24 patients with sporadic ALS aged 66.0 +/- 10.1 years, with a mean disease duration of 2.0 +/- 0.7 years, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of > or = 24, a normal self-rating depression score, no dyspnea, and no or only slight disturbances in speech, cutting food, and handling utensils on the ALS Functional Rating Scale. Total FAB score, similarity score, and lexical fluency score were significantly lower in ALS patients. Total FAB score did not correlate with age, disease duration, ALS Functional Rating Scale, spirometry, or blood gas analyses. These results suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in ALS patients.

  19. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: relato de seis casos Frontal fibrosing alopecia: report of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia frontal fibrosante é forma progressiva de alopecia cicatricial. Os casos iniciais foram relatados a partir 1994, na Austrália, em pacientes do sexo feminino pós-menopausa. Desde então inúmeros casos foram descritos na literatura sugerindo que ela é mais prevalente do que inicialmente se supunha. Seu curso progressivo se assemelha ao da alopecia androgenética; histologicamente, entretanto, o infiltrado liquenóide é evidente. O artigo relata seis casos brasileiros e discute a alopecia frontal fibrosante dentro do grupo das alopecias cicatriciais, como variante do líquen plano pilar.Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a progressive cicatricial alopecia. The first cases were described in Australia in postmenopausal women, in 1994. Since then, numerous cases were reported, suggesting that frontal fibrosing alopecia is more prevalent than initially thought. Its progressive course in postmenopausal women, clinically resembles androgenetic alopecia; however, histologically, lichenoid infiltrate is evident. This article report six brazilian cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia and discusses them in the context of cicatricial alopecias, as a variant of lichen planopilaris.

  20. Substance abuse risk in emerging adults associated with smaller frontal gray matter volumes and higher externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Barbara J; Korycinski, Steven T; Soules, Mary; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2014-04-01

    During emerging adulthood, alcohol and substance use peak. Previous research has suggested that prefrontal and subcortical brain volumes may relate to risk for development of substance abuse. Epidemiological studies indicate that early initiation of alcohol or drug use significantly increases the likelihood of later substance use disorder diagnoses. We hypothesized that frontal regions would be smaller in young adults with early substance use and related problems (early-risk, ER), compared with a control group without early use/problems (C). We further hypothesized that these volumes would be associated with more externalizing behaviors, an additional robust predictor of substance abuse. One hundred and six subjects, ages 18-23, underwent high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance image scanning. Individuals were categorized as C (n=64) or ER (n=42) using a composite-score of early alcohol/drug use and problems based on prospectively collected assessments; externalizing behaviors were also previously assessed during adolescence. Neuroanatomical volumes were compared between groups and correlated with behavioral measures. ER subjects exhibited more externalizing behaviors than their control counterparts. Total left frontal cortex and left superior frontal cortex volumes were significantly smaller in the ER group, controlling for family history of alcoholism and current substance use. Total gray matter volumes were negatively associated with substance risk score. Further, externalizing behavior score was negatively correlated with both left superior cortical and left total cortical volumes. These findings suggest that smaller frontal cortical volumes, specifically the left superior frontal cortex, represent an underlying risk factor for substance abuse in emerging adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y

    2013-08-01

    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  2. [Implantation of a sulcus-fixated toric additive intraocular lens in a case of high astigmatism after a triple procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, K; Auffarth, G U; Kretz, F T A

    2014-08-01

    Residual refractive errors, especially high-grade astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty, often lead to a significant loss of vision. If high anismetropia could not be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, different kinds of surgical procedures are available for visual rehabilitation (intraocular lens exchange, astigmatic keratotomy, Excimer laser treatment, intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation and additive intraocular lens implantation). Toric add-on IOLs are especially designed for sulcus implantation and correcting high astigmatism in pseudophakic eyes. All toric IOLs are individually manufactured according to subjective refraction and biometry. Depending on the underlying manufacturer high-grade astigmatism can be corrected with a cylindrical power up to + 30.0 D. A 74-year-old patient presented with endothelial decompensation and an uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 1.0 logMAR for penetrating keratoplasty on the right eye due to a Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Postoperatively, the uncorrected distance visual acuity improved to 0.8 logMAR, with pinhole correction to 0.5 logMAR. After removing the sutures a high and irregular corneal astigmatism of 21.0 D was found. The corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) with a refraction of + 5.5 D sph, - 21.0 D cyl 90° was 0.24 logMAR. Therefore an individually manufactured toric additive intraocular lens of + 25.0 D cylindrical and - 18.0 D spherical power for sulcus implantation was chosen and implanted uneventfully. Eight months after surgery refractive astigmatism was reduced significantly to - 0.75 D with an UDVA of 0.08 logMAR and a CDVA of 0.02 logMAR. During the 8-months follow-up period the additive IOL remained centered and no IOL rotation could be observed. Toric add-on IOLs are a safe and successful method for reducing high astigmatism and anisometropia after penetrating keratoplasty. One of the main advantages is the reversibility of the procedure by an explantation of

  3. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  4. Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Unal, Seher N; Ozturk, Erdinc

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there were any characteristics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in dissociative identity disorder. Twenty-one drug-free patients with dissociative identity disorder and nine healthy volunteers participated in the study. In addition to a clinical evaluation, dissociative psychopathology was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale. A semi-structured interview for borderline personality disorder, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were also administered to all patients. Normal controls had to be without a history of childhood trauma and without any depressive or dissociative disorder. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc99m-hexamethylpropylenamine (HMPAO) as a tracer. Compared with findings in the control group, the rCBF ratio was decreased among patients with dissociative identity disorder in the orbitofrontal region bilaterally. It was increased in median and superior frontal regions and occipital regions bilaterally. There was no significant correlation between rCBF ratios of the regions of interest and any of the psychopathology scale scores. An explanation for the neurophysiology of dissociative psychopathology has to invoke a comprehensive model of interaction between anterior and posterior brain regions.

  5. Frontal lobe decortication (frontal lobectomy with ventricular preservation) in epilepsy: anatomical landmarks and surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Maria Da Róz

    2016-01-01

    A lobectomia frontal é um procedimento neurocirúrgico frequentemente realizado para o tratamento de tumores cerebrais, epilepsia refratária, e outras patologias que requerem remoção extensa do lobo frontal. Embora seja um procedimento relativamente comum, foram encontrados apenas alguns relatos na literatura acerca da técnica cirúrgica, com pouca consideração acerca da anatomia relevante para esse procedimento. OBJETIVOS: O principal objetivo desta tese é apresentar parâmetros anatômicos e co...

  6. Attentional orienting to mnemonic representations: reduction of load-sensitive maintenance-related activity in the intraparietal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Sabrina; Lepsien, Jöran

    2012-10-01

    The orienting of attention to internal or mnemonic representations held in visual working memory (VWM) has recently become a field of increasing interest. While a number of studies support the hypothesis that attention to selected representations in VWM reduces memory load, conclusive findings are still missing. In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly investigated whether attentional orienting to mnemonic representations reduces activity in VWM storage-related areas of the brain. VWM load was manipulated by asking subjects to memorize two, four or six items. A retro-cue during the subsequent delay period asked subjects to attend to just one of these items for a subsequent test. This was compared to trials where subjects were required to continue attending to all items for the subsequent test. Data show reduction of load-sensitive maintenance-related activity along the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), directly linked to attentional orienting. While activity in the anterior IPS reflected the number of representations in the focus of attention, the activation pattern in the posterior IPS suggested residual activation related to unattended items. This dissociation is in line with a functional subdivision of the right IPS according to attentional and mnemonic properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Femtosecond cataract laser capsulotomy enabling optic capture and secondary sulcus iol insertion in an eye with traumatic aniridia and aphakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Dilraj S; Basti, Surendra

    2014-06-01

    To describe a surgical technique and intraoperative modifications to create a secondary capsulotomy using the femtosecond cataract laser in an eye with traumatic aphakia and aniridia. The expanded use of the femtosecond cataract laser (Catalys Precision Laser System; Optimedica, Sunnyvale, CA) for creation of a well-centered and circular secondary capsulotomy in the capsular remnants of an eye with traumatic aphakia and aniridia. Using software modifications based on intraoperative anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging, and customizing the capsulotomy settings, the femtosecond cataract laser was able to penetrate through most of the fused anterior and posterior capsular leaflets and a circular capsulotomy was achieved. The latter permitted optic capture and excellent centration of a three-piece intraocular lens placed in the sulcus with good postoperative visual rehabilitation. The femtosecond cataract laser can be customized to create a well-centered and circular secondary capsulotomy in aniridic and aphakic eyes where optic capture is critical for long-term intraocular lens stability. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  9. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the frontal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Newcomer, M T; Murray, A D; Myer, C M

    2001-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign, vascular, cystic osseous tumors. Approximately 2% of all aneurysmal bone cysts are found in the head and neck region, with the most common site being the mandible. We report a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst arising from the frontal sinus in a pediatric patient. The diagnosis was suggested through various radiographic studies, with the final pathologic diagnosis confirmed after tumor excision. Complete en-bloc excision was performed by using a bifrontal craniotomy approach, with immediate reconstruction of the defect by using a split calvarial bone graft.

  10. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  11. Fragmento de hueso frontal del musteriense de Cueva Horá (Granada, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María HABER URIARTE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia un hueso frontal procedente del nivel III de Cueva Horá (Darro, Granada, ubicada al sureste de la Península Ibérica. Es uno de los yacimientos que, junto a la Cueva de La Carigüela, presenta una larga estratigrafía en la que se puede seguir la evolución de las industrias. El fragmento óseo a analizar se localiza en los niveles superiores del Musteriense, definido como Típico, que refleja una pervivencia musteriense durante el Pleniglacial Superior. No sólo se plantea el estudio antropológico de este fragmento neurocraneal, sino que se analiza el contexto en el que aparece, así como sus implicaciones.

  12. Female verbal memory advantage in temporal, but not frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Justus; Demin, Katharina; Holtkamp, Martin; Bengner, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Women show better performance than men on a range of episodic memory tasks. Evidence regarding a neuroanatomical localization of this effect remains ambiguous. It has been suggested that anterior temporal lobe structures are responsible for sex differences in verbal memory, yet temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE surgery do not affect women's verbal memory advantage. Instead, frontal lobe regions may be relevant for female verbal memory superiority, i.e. by enabling more efficient encoding and retrieval strategies in women. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether women's verbal memory advantage can be found in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and how patients with FLE and those with TLE differ with regard to sex differences in verbal memory. Fifty patients with unilateral FLE (26 women, 24 men) were compared with 183 patients with unilateral TLE (90 women, 93 men) on both verbal learning and delayed memory. We found that women showed better verbal memory than men in the TLE group, but not in the FLE group. In addition, we found that patients with TLE showed worse verbal learning than those with FLE. Our findings support the idea that women's advantage in verbal memory may be related to frontal lobe function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  14. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  15. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  16. Electrocorticography of Spatial Shifting and Attentional Selection in Human Superior Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Schrooten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial-attentional reorienting and selection between competing stimuli are two distinct attentional processes of clinical and fundamental relevance. In the past, reorienting has been mainly associated with inferior parietal cortex. In a patient with a subdural grid covering the upper and lower bank of the left anterior and middle intraparietal sulcus (IPS and the superior parietal lobule (SPL, we examined the involvement of superior parietal cortex using a hybrid spatial cueing paradigm identical to that previously applied in stroke and in healthy controls. In SPL, as early as 164 ms following target onset, an invalidly compared to a validly cued target elicited a positive event-related potential (ERP and an increase in intertrial coherence (ITC in the theta band, regardless of the direction of attention. From around 400–650 ms, functional connectivity [weighted phase lag index (wPLI analysis] between SPL and IPS briefly inverted such that SPL activity was driving IPS activity. In contrast, the presence of a competing distracter elicited a robust change mainly in IPS from 300 to 600 ms. Within superior parietal cortex reorienting of attention is associated with a distinct and early electrophysiological response in SPL while attentional selection is indexed by a relatively late electrophysiological response in the IPS. The long latency suggests a role of IPS in working memory or cognitive control rather than early selection.

  17. Mirror observation of finger action enhances activity in anterior intraparietal sulcus: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Murayama, Takashi; Takasugi, Jun; Monma, Masahiko; Oga, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy can be used to promote recovery from paralysis in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, There are a lot of reports that mirror-image observation of the unilateral moving hand enhanced the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand in healthy subjects. but the neural mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are currently unclear. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in brain regions related to visual information processing during mirror image movement observation. Thirteen healthy subjects performed a finger-thumb opposition task with the left and right hands separately, with or without access to mirror observation. In the mirror condition, one hand was reflected in a mirror placed above the abdomen in the MRI scanner. In the masked mirror condition, subjects performed the same task but with the mirror obscured. In both conditions, the other hand was held at rest behind the mirror. A between-task comparison (mirror versus masked mirror) revealed significant activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) while performing all tasks, regardless of which hand was used. The right aIP was significantly activated while moving the right hand. In contrast, in the left aIP, a small number of voxels showed a tendency toward activation during both left and right hand movement. The enhancement of ipsilateral aIP activity by the mirror image observation of finger action suggests that bimodal aIP neurons can be activated by visual information. We propose that activation in the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand can be induced by information passing through the ventral premotor area from the aIP.

  18. Incidence of deepening of upper eyelid sulcus after topical use of tafluprost ophthalmic solution in Japanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiko Maruyama,1 Asako Tsuchisaka,1 Jumpei Sakamoto,1 Shiroaki Shirato,2 Hiroshi Goto11Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yotsuya Shirato Eye Clinic, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To investigate the incidence of deepening of upper eyelid sulcus (DUES with topical use of tafluprost in Japanese glaucoma patients.Methods: This study was a prospective, open-label, non-controlled case series conducted at a single center. Thirty-six primary open-angle glaucoma Japanese patients who had no history of surgery were enrolled. The patients were prescribed 0.0015% topical tafluprost once daily to one eye that had the more severe visual field disorder, and observed during outpatient visits before and at 30, 60, and 90 days after starting treatment. At every visit, three examiners judged the presence of DUES unanimously by facial photographs including eyebrows and lower eyelids. The primary outcome variable was the incidence of DUES at the end of day 90 in the study as assessed by observer-masked facial photography. The patients were also asked if they noticed any subjective symptom of DUES. Gender, refraction, and intraocular pressure were evaluated as potential risk factors.Results: Thirty-two patients completed this clinical trial. DUES were identified objectively in 19% (6/32 of the patients after 90 days of treatment. The incidence was not related to gender, refraction, baseline or post-treatment intraocular pressure, or intraocular pressure reduction. Finally, 17% (1/6 of patients with objectively diagnosed DUES noticed the presence of DUES by themselves. No patient dropped out of the study because of DUES.Conclusion: Similar to other prostaglandin analogs, topical use of tafluprost ophthalmic solution is associated with DUES as a local adverse reaction.Keywords: prostaglandins, tafluprost, eyelid, deepening, side effect

  19. Mirror Observation of Finger Action Enhances Activity in Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Takasugi, Jun; Monma, Masahiko; Oga, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy can be used to promote recovery from paralysis in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, There are a lot of reports that mirror-image observation of the unilateral moving hand enhanced the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand in healthy subjects. but the neural mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are currently unclear. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in brain regions related to visual information processing during mirror image movement observation. Thirteen healthy subjects performed a finger-thumb opposition task with the left and right hands separately, with or without access to mirror observation. In the mirror condition, one hand was reflected in a mirror placed above the abdomen in the MRI scanner. In the masked mirror condition, subjects performed the same task but with the mirror obscured. In both conditions, the other hand was held at rest behind the mirror. A between-task comparison (mirror versus masked mirror) revealed significant activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) while performing all tasks, regardless of which hand was used. The right aIP was significantly activated while moving the right hand. In contrast, in the left aIP, a small number of voxels showed a tendency toward activation during both left and right hand movement. The enhancement of ipsilateral aIP activity by the mirror image observation of finger action suggests that bimodal aIP neurons can be activated by visual information. We propose that activation in the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand can be induced by information passing through the ventral premotor area from the aIP. PMID:25792898

  20. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E.; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  1. Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  3. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  4. Frontal affinity chromatography in characterizing immobilized receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleri, E; Temporini, C; Massolini, G

    2011-04-05

    The state-of-the-art in frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) applied to receptor of pharmaceutical interest is here reported. This review will first discuss the principles of FAC for ligand characterization (K(d) determination) and for screening studies, and will examine the different strategies that have been followed for the immobilization of a broad range of receptors (cytosolic and membrane receptors). Several reported applications will then be presented demonstrating that FAC is an interesting tool enabling convenient and efficient screening in the identification of new potential ligands. Moreover new applications of FAC including dual binding site assay, receptor subtype characterization, and multi-receptor binding experiments will be underlined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal affinity chromatography: sugar-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography using fluorescence detection (FAC-FD) is a versatile technique for the precise determination of dissociation constants (Kd) between glycan-binding proteins (lectins) and fluorescent-labeled glycans. A series of glycan-containing solutions is applied to a lectin-immobilized column, and the elution profile of each glycan (termed the 'elution front', V) is compared with that (V0) for an appropriate control. Here we describe our standard protocol using an automated FAC system (FAC-1), consisting of two isocratic pumps, an autosampler, a column oven and two miniature columns connected to a fluorescence detector. Analysis time for 100 sugar-protein interactions is approximately 10 h, using as little as 2.5 pmol of pyridylaminated (PA) oligosaccharide per analysis. Using FAC-FD, we have so far obtained quantitative interaction data of >100 lectins for >100 PA oligosaccharides.

  6. Adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse demonstrate altered frontal lobe activation during Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M; Rogowska, Jadwiga; McCaffrey, Alexandra; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2011-02-01

    Children and adolescents, family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism, exhibit differences in brain structure and functional activation when compared to family history negative (FH-) counterparts. Given that frontal brain regions, and associated reciprocal connections with limbic structures, undergo the most dramatic maturational changes during adolescence, the objective of this study was to compare functional brain activation during a frontally mediated test of response inhibition in 32 adolescents separated into low-risk (FH-) and high-risk (FH+) groups. Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent data were acquired at 1.5 Tesla during performance of Stroop Color Naming, Word Reading, and Interference. Preprocessing and statistical analyses, covaried for age, were conducted in SPM99 using a search territory that included superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri (trigone region), anterior cingulate gyrus (CG), and left and right amygdala. Significantly greater activation in the fronto-limbic search territory was observed in FH+ relative to FH- subjects during Stroop Interference. In addition, a significant regression between brain activation and family history density was observed, with a greater density being associated with increased activation in regions including middle frontal gyrus (BA9) and CG (BA24). These data demonstrate a significant influence of FH status on brain activation during the performance of a response inhibition task, perhaps reflecting a neurobiological vulnerability associated with FH status that may include reduced neuronal efficiency and/or recruitment of additional neuronal resources. These findings are important given that the adolescent developmental period is already associated with reduced inhibitory capacity, even prior to the onset of alcohol use. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Why do patients with neurodegenerative frontal syndrome fail to answer: 'In what way are an orange and a banana alike?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Valabrègue, Romain; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Garcin, Béatrice; Volle, Emmanuelle; Le Ber, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2015-02-01

    in the frontal-basal-ganglion network. Two types of errors were observed in frontal patients. The most frequent was discriminating instead of grouping items ('linking deficit'). Patients also linked items on a concrete instead of an abstract basis ('abstraction deficit'). Linking and abstraction deficits were related to partially different areas: the linking deficit to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, right middle frontal gyrus and both inferior parietal lobules and the abstraction deficit to the head of the caudate nuclei and the left superior frontal gyrus. These data suggest that verbal concept formation requires the integrity of the prefrontal-basal-ganglion functional network. In addition, it can be divided into two distinct cognitive processes, which are underlain by two partially different neural networks. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Aplicaciones médico-quirúrgicas de la anatomía ósea del seno frontal en relación al trauma cráneo facial

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, S.; Micheloud, M.; Ferreiro, P.; Viscuso, M.; Scarpinelli, Liliana; Mayo, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Los senos frontales son dos cavidades en forma de pirámide triangular, de vértice superior y base inferior, a cada lado de la línea media y excavados en el espesor de este hueso. La anatomía y morfología de los senos frontales se utiliza desde hace años en la medicina forense para la identificación de cadáveres dada su gran versatilidad. En lo que respecta a la cirugía maxilofacial es de suma importancia la presencia de megasenos frontales en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de fracturas hundimie...

  10. Vena cava superior izquierda persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Restrepo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La vena cava superior izquierda persistente es la anomalía más común del drenaje venoso del tórax y con frecuencia acompaña a otras anomalías congénitas. Generalmente, su hallazgo es incidental durante la inserción de catéteres venosos centrales. Su diagnóstico puede hacerse por medio de múltiples técnicas de imagen. El principal hallazgo ecocardiográfico es un seno coronario dilatado que sugiere la presencia de vena cava superior izquierda persistente. Cuando ésta drena en la aurícula izquierda, urge la corrección del defecto. Aunque habitualmente tiene un curso benigno, siempre que se documente vena cava superior izquierda conviene buscar otras anomalías congénitas.

  11. Vena cava superior izquierda persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Restrepo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La vena cava superior izquierda persistente es la anomalía más común del drenaje venoso del tórax y con frecuencia acompaña a otras anomalías congénitas. Generalmente, su hallazgo es incidental durante la inserción de catéteres venosos centrales. Su diagnóstico puede hacerse por medio de múltiples técnicas de imagen. El principal hallazgo ecocardiográfico es un seno coronario dilatado que sugiere la presencia de vena cava superior izquierda persistente. Cuando ésta drena en la aurícula izquierda, urge la corrección del defecto. Aunque habitualmente tiene un curso benigno, siempre que se documente vena cava superior izquierda conviene buscar otras anomalías congénitas.

  12. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (pshooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  13. Trans-falcine and contralateral sub-frontal electrode placement in pediatric epilepsy surgery: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindrik, Jonathan; Hoang, Nguyen; Tubbs, R Shane; Rocque, Brandon J; Rozzelle, Curtis J

    2017-08-01

    Phase II monitoring with intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG) occasionally requires bilateral placement of subdural (SD) strips, grids, and/or depth electrodes. While phase I monitoring often demonstrates a preponderance of unilateral findings, individual studies (video EEG, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], and positron emission tomography [PET]) can suggest or fail to exclude a contralateral epileptogenic onset zone. This study describes previously unreported techniques of trans-falcine and sub-frontal insertion of contralateral SD grids and depth electrodes for phase II monitoring in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients when concern about bilateral abnormalities has been elicited during phase I monitoring. Pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing stage I surgery for phase II monitoring involving sub-frontal and/or trans-falcine insertion of SD grids and/or depth electrodes at the senior author's institution were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-operative technical details of sub-frontal and trans-falcine approaches were studied, while intra-operative complications or events were noted. Operative techniques included gentle subfrontal retraction and elevation of the olfactory tracts (while preserving the relationship between the olfactory bulb and cribriform plate) to insert SD grids across the midline for coverage of the contralateral orbito-frontal regions. Trans-falcine approaches involved accessing the inter-hemispheric space, bipolar cauterization of the anterior falx cerebri below the superior sagittal sinus, and sharp dissection using a blunt elevator and small blade scalpel. The falcine window allowed contralateral SD strip, grid, and depth electrodes to be inserted for coverage of the contralateral frontal regions. The study cohort included seven patients undergoing sub-frontal and/or trans-falcine insertion of contralateral SD strip, grid, and/or depth electrodes from February 2012 through June 2015. Five

  14. The Human Frontal Lobes and Frontal Network Systems: An Evolutionary, Clinical, and Treatment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe syndromes, better termed as frontal network systems, are relatively unique in that they may manifest from almost any brain region, due to their widespread connectivity. The understandings of the manifold expressions seen clinically are helped by considering evolutionary origins, the contribution of the state-dependent ascending monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, and cerebral connectivity. Hence, the so-called networktopathies may be a better term for the syndromes encountered clinically. An increasing array of metric tests are becoming available that complement that long standing history of qualitative bedside assessments pioneered by Alexander Luria, for example. An understanding of the vast panoply of frontal systems' syndromes has been pivotal in understanding and diagnosing the most common dementia syndrome under the age of 60, for example, frontotemporal lobe degeneration. New treatment options are also progressively becoming available, with recent evidence of dopaminergic augmentation, for example, being helpful in traumatic brain injury. The latter include not only psychopharmacological options but also device-based therapies including mirror visual feedback therapy. PMID:23577266

  15. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  16. Case Report: Frontal lobe tuberculoma: A clinical and imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal ...

  17. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  18. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained

  19. Post-Traumatic Pneumocele of the Frontal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Demet; Calisir, Cuneyt; Adapinar, Baki [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2008-08-15

    A pneumocele is an abnormal dilatation of a paranasal sinus, most commonly affecting the frontal sinus. Although the etiology of pneumocele is not entirely known, several causative factors have been suggested including trauma, surgery, tumor and infection. We report here a case of post-traumatic pneumocele of the frontal sinus following a head trauma.

  20. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  1. Minimally invasive approach for lesions involving the frontal sinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional open surgery for frontal sinus pathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is complex and involves a craniotomy. Minimally invasive options offer an alternate solution. We describe and assess the outcome of a minimally invasive approach for lesions and defects involving the frontal sinus.

  2. Frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A; Allen, John J B

    2004-10-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry appears to serve as (1) an individual difference variable related to emotional responding and emotional disorders, and (2) a state-dependent concomitant of emotional responding. Such findings, highlighted in this review, suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may serve as both a moderator and a mediator of emotion- and motivation-related constructs. Unequivocal evidence supporting frontal EEG asymmetry as a moderator and/or mediator of emotion is lacking, as insufficient attention has been given to analyzing the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of moderators and mediators. The present report reviews the frontal EEG asymmetry literature from the framework of moderators and mediators, and overviews data analytic strategies that would support claims of moderation and mediation.

  3. Asymmetrical involvement of frontal lobes in social reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Shuren, Jeffrey; Sheesley, Laura; Grafman, Jordan

    2004-04-01

    The frontal lobes are widely implicated in logical reasoning. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that frontal lobe involvement in reasoning is asymmetric (L>R) and increases with the presence of familiar, meaningful content in the reasoning situation. However, neuroimaging data can only provide sufficiency criteria. To determine the necessity of prefrontal involvement in logical reasoning, we tested 19 patients with focal frontal lobe lesions and 19 age- and education-matched normal controls on the Wason Card Selection Task, while manipulating social knowledge. Patients and controls performed equivalently on the arbitrary rule condition. Normal controls showed the expected improvement in the social knowledge conditions, but frontal lobe patients failed to show this facilitation in performance. Furthermore, left hemisphere patients were more affected than right hemisphere patients, suggesting that frontal lobe involvement in reasoning is asymmetric (L>R) and necessary for reasoning about social situations.

  4. An evaluation on the activity level of Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase nzymes in peri-implant sulcus fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknegad M. Assistant Professor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The correlation between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes in gingival sulcular fluid (GCF with inflammation and periodontal attachment loss has been proved, however there are not adequate studies about dental implants. Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the presence and activity level of AST & ALP and their correlation with pocket depth (PD and bleeding of peri-implant slcular fluid (PISF, and to evaluate the possibility of using these assessments as a diagnostic index in oral implantology. Material and Methods: In this study, 41 implants as test group and 41 contralateral teeth as control group, in 21 patients were evaluated. At first visit, the general information about implants and the values of pocket probing depth (PPD, modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBl and modified plaque index (mPI were recorded. At the second visit, samples of GCF/PISF were collected. AST & ALP activity was determined spectrophotometrically and data were analyzed by "t", "Mann-Whitney" tests and Pearson Spearman correlation coefficient."nResults: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the activity of AST between two study groups (P<0.0001. The average activity of ALP in test group was more than control group but the difference was not significant. After elimination of the confounding variables, the average AST in test group was 54.6 (S£=2.3 and in control groups was 44.8 (SE=2.3 (P=0.004. The average ALP in test group (SE=2.2 and in control (SE=2.2 were 36.6 and 35.4, respectively. Values of AST and ALP were positively correlated with other clinical parameters such as PD and mSBI which was significant in test group."nConclusion: The present study suggests that PISF analysis could be considered as a proper diagnostic strategy in the evaluation of dental implant success.

  5. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

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    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  6. Clinical seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Silvia Beatrice; Lurger, Stefanie; Zimprich, Fritz; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Assem-Hilger, Eva; Baumgartner, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    We systematically analyzed the lateralizing value of clinical seizure semiology in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). We studied the incidence, positive predictive value (PPV), and the lateralizing significance of various clinical symptoms in 228 seizures (s) of 31 patients (p) with medically refractory FLE (17 with left-sided and 14 with right-sided seizure onset). Seizures recorded during prolonged video-EEG monitoring were assessed by two independent reviewers blinded for the patient's clinical data. Analysis was performed both for patients and seizures. Version [16 p (52%); PPV, 94%; p=0.001; 47 s (21%); PPV, 75%; p=0.001], unilateral clonic movements [16 p (52%); PPV, 81%; p=0.021; 32 s (14%); PPV, 81%; p=0.001], unilateral dystonic posturing [eight p (26%); PPV, 75%; p=0.289; 46 s (20%); PPV, 80%; p=0.001], unilateral tonic posturing [10 p (32%); PPV, 80%; p=0.109; 19 s (7.4%); PPV, 79%; p=0.019], and unilateral grimacing [10 p (32%); PPV, 100%; p=0.002; 19 s (8%); PPV, 100%; p=0.001] were of lateralizing significance, indicating a contralateral seizure onset. Asymmetric ending [five p (16%); PPV, 80%; p=0.375; nine s (4%); PPV, 89%; p=0.039] after secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures was significantly associated with an ipsilateral seizure onset. Pure ictal vocalizations occurred significantly more frequently in seizures of right hemispheric onset [13 p (42%); PPV, 62%; p=0.581; 63 s (28%); PPV, 73%; p=0. 001], whereas in individual patients, this symptom showed no lateralizing significance. The remaining clinical symptoms (figure 4 sign, unilateral hand automatisms, early head turning, postictal nose wiping, and unilateral eye blinking) were not of lateralizing significance in our patients. The results of clinical seizure lateralization corresponded with the final lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in 81% of our patients. Clinical seizure semiology can provide correct information on the lateralization of the seizure-onset zone in >80

  7. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

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    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  8. Laser iridotomy to treat uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome secondary to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed intraocular lenses: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmanjit; Modabber, Milad; Safran, Steven G; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2015-10-01

    To present cases of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome due to reverse pupillary block in sulcus-placed posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) that were managed with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Community-based subspecialty clinics. Retrospective interventional case series. A chart review of patients with a sulcus-placed PC IOLs presenting with UGH syndrome and reverse pupillary block with posterior iris bowing as diagnosed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography was carried out. Laser peripheral iridotomy was performed in the eyes included in the study. The main outcome measure was clinical resolution of UGH syndrome. The study included 6 eyes of 6 patients with a mean age of 59.8 years (range 43.0 to 66.0 years) who presented with unilateral UGH syndrome a mean of 28.7 months (range 0.3 to 84.0 months) after PC IOL implantation. All patients were previously myopic, with 5 (83.3%) having a history of vitrectomy. The mean axial length was 27.0 mm ± 1.4 (SD). An LPI was used to treat the reverse pupillary block with resultant improvement in iris profile and resolution of UGH syndrome in all eyes. The mean intraocular pressure decreased from 30.5 ± 10.0 mm Hg on 0.5 ± 0.8 glaucoma medications to 15.5 ± 3.2 mm Hg postoperatively on 0.7 ± 1.2 medications. The UGH syndrome due to reverse pupillary block occurred after sulcus-placed PC IOLs in susceptible patients, those with axial myopia, and post-vitrectomized eyes. The cases were managed with LPIs. Dr. Ahmed is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc. and Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ella S M; Chan, Nora W C; Lewis, Darren F; Hindsgaul, Ole; Schriemer, David C

    2007-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a biophysical method for the discovery and characterization of molecular interactions in a flow-based system. Several different modes of analysis are possible by interfacing to the mass spectrometer, including robust single-compound characterizations as well as high-throughput screening of over 1,000 compounds per run. The method supports thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of interactions for a wide range of molecular species and possesses similarities to flow-based biosensors such as surface plasmon resonance. It offers sensitive detection of ligands present well below their respective dissociation constants, and can be assembled from readily available laboratory components. Direct coupling of the FAC cartridge to the mass spectrometer is useful for the interrogation of single compounds or mixtures of limited complexity. An offline fractionation schema is more appropriate for discovery-mode applications. A high-performance FAC system enabling both modes can be assembled in 2-3 h. Measurements of dissociation constants can be made with such a system in 0.5-3 h, and the system supports higher-throughput screening modes at a rate of 10,000 compounds d(-1).

  10. Hyperpigmentation following Treatment of Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia

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    Irma Margarita Pérez-Rodríguez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA is a scarring alopecia characterized by progressive recession of the frontotemporal hairline. Current treatment is aimed at stopping progression, and the combination of dutasteride and pimecrolimus is the most effective therapy. Side effects associated with dutasteride are erectile dysfunction as well as breast tenderness and enlargement, while pimecrolimus produces a burning sensation. Case Report: We present a 57-year-old postmenopausal female with a 3-year history of a scarring alopecic plaque in her frontotemporal region. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of FFA, and she was started on dutasteride 0.5 mg p.o. q.d., and later, topical pimecrolimus 1% b.i.d. was added. Eight months after initiating treatment, she showed hyperpigmentation on her metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints, as well as on the cheeks and on the chin; dutasteride and pimecrolimus were discontinued. After 5 months of follow-up, her hyperpigmentation improved by 80% only by using photoprotection. Conclusion: Because of the variable clinical course of FFA, treatment is focused on halting its progression. Several therapeutic agents have been evaluated and the combination of dutasteride and pimecrolimus has shown a high response rate. There is no reported evidence of hyperpigmentation associated with this combination.

  11. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. PMID:26350727

  12. Cirurgia de osteoma de seio frontal Surgery of frontal sinus osteoma

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    Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira Fobe

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Os osteomas do seio frontal correspondem a 57% dos osteomas dos seios paranasais, com incidência variando de 0,01% a 3%. A remoção cirúrgica nos osteomas frontais é indicada nos pacientes sintomáticos. Nos pacientes assintomáticos pode-se adotar a conduta conservadora ou cirúrgica em todos os pacientes independente da sua localização ou extensão. Cinco pacientes com diagnóstico de osteoma de seio frontal foram operados entre 1995 e 1999. A idade média foi 38,4 anos (extremos de 12 a 55 anos, sendo 3 homens e 2 mulheres. O período de sintomatologia variou de 6 meses a 3 anos com média de 10,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentaram cefaléia. Um paciente apresentou epistaxe. Os exames complementares realizados foram: radiografia simples e tomografia computadorizada de seios paranasais com cortes axiais e coronais. Em dois pacientes o diâmetro do osteoma foi maior que 3 cm, e menor que 3 cm em três. A decisão da técnica cirúrgica entre coronal e supraciliar foi estética, reservando-se a abordagem supraciliar para um paciente com calvície, apesar do tumor ser volumoso com extensão para seio etmoidal. Nenhuma dificuldade técnica intra-operatória foi atribuída à escolha da abordagem. O óstio nasofrontal não foi obstruído no intra-operatório. O seguimento pós-operatório mínimo foi de dois anos. Em todos os casos a remoção foi total sem recidiva ou resíduos tumorais. Os sintomas clínicos, achados radiológicos e abordagens cirúrgicas são discutidos. Não ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias.Frontal sinus osteomas are 57% of all paranasal sinus osteomas, with an incidence of 00.1 to 3%. Surgical removal of the frontal sinus osteomas is done in symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients can be managed conservatively or submitted to surgery in spite of its location or extension. Five patients having the diagnosis of frontal sinus osteoma were operated on between 1995 and 1999. Medium age was 38.4 years (from 12

  13. Pensamiento Superior y Desarrollo Territorial

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    Víctor Manuel Racancoj Alonzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta reflexión pretende explicar el papel, fundamental, que juega el pensamiento superior, en la formulación y la práctica de modelos de desarrollo territorial local; para que contribuyan de forma sustantiva, en la transformación de las condiciones socioeconómicas adversas que hoy viven comunidades indígenas y rurales de muchos países, como Guatemala, situación que puede resumirse en altos índices de pobreza y desnutrición. Pero, el pensamiento superior, debe ser competencia de la población con pertenencia a lo local, pues si y solo si esta condición existe, se dará validez y viabilidad al desarrollo territorial. Para alcanzar competencias de pensamiento superior, en los espacios locales, se tiene que superar obstáculos en el modelo de universidad, que hoy estamos familiarizados a ver y pensar; modelos que tienen las características de: herencia colonial, disfunción con la problemática económica, cultural, social y política de la sociedad y la negación de los saberes ancestrales.

  14. Prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior

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    Nikolić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosopomorphic vessels from Moesia Superior had the form of beakers varying in outline but similar in size. They were wheel-thrown, mould-made or manufactured by using a combination of wheel-throwing and mould-made appliqués. Given that face vessels are considerably scarcer than other kinds of pottery, more than fifty finds from Moesia Superior make an enviable collection. In this and other provinces face vessels have been recovered from military camps, civilian settlements and necropolises, which suggests that they served more than one purpose. It is generally accepted that the faces-masks gave a protective role to the vessels, be it to protect the deceased or the family, their house and possessions. More than forty of all known finds from Moesia Superior come from Viminacium, a half of that number from necropolises. Although tangible evidence is lacking, there must have been several local workshops producing face vessels. The number and technological characteristics of the discovered vessels suggest that one of the workshops is likely to have been at Viminacium, an important pottery-making centre in the second and third centuries.

  15. Frontal lobe epilepsy manifesting with seizures consisting of isolated vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Ricardo; Arnold, Stephan; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2006-12-01

    Vocalizations may occur in focal epileptic seizures, which typically arise from frontal and temporal regions. They are commonly associated with other motor phenomena such as automatisms, tonic posturing, or head version. We report on a patient whose seizures were documented by video-EEG monitoring, but in whom the observable ictal semiology consisted solely of a brief, monotonous vocalization. Ictal EEGs showed left frontal seizure patterns. Isolated vocalizations can constitute an ictal epileptic event and may be the only observable clinical manifestation of a left frontal lobe epilepsy. [Published with video sequences].

  16. Frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Cagigal, Beatriz; Barrientos Lezcano, Javier; Floriano Blanco, Raúl; García Cantera, José Miguel; Sánchez Cuéllar, Luis Antonio; Verrier Hernández, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    Frontal sinus mucoceles can present with a multitude of different symptoms including ophthalmic disturbances. Even benign, they have a tendency to expand by eroding the surrounding bony walls that displaces and destroys structures by pressure and bony resorption. A 32-year-old man with diplopia, proptosis of the right eye and headache was presented. The diagnosis was frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial and intraorbital extension. Possible clinical manifestations of mucoceles, diagnostic imaging techniques and treatment used are discussed. Frontal mucoceles are benign and curable, early recognition and management of them is of paramount importance, because they can cause local, orbital or intracranial complications.

  17. Frontal Dynamics of Powder Snow Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, M. Y.; Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.

    2012-04-01

    We model the dynamics of the head of dilute powder snow avalanches sustained by a massive frontal blow-out, arising as a weakly cohesive snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. Such material eruption just behind the front acts as a source of denser fluid thrust into a uniform ambient air flow at high Reynolds number. In such "eruption current", fluidization depth is inversely proportional to a bulk Richardson number representing avalanche height. By excluding situations in which the snow cover is not fluidized up to its free surface, we derive a criterion combining snow pack friction and density indicating which avalanches can produce a sustainable powder cloud. A mass balance involving snow cover and powder cloud sets avalanche height and mean density. By determining which solution of the mass balance is stable, we find that avalanches reach constant growth and acceleration rates for fixed slope and avalanche width. Under these conditions, we calculate the fraction of the fluidized cover that is actually scoured and blown-out into the cloud, and deduce from a momentum balance on the head that the avalanche accelerates at a rate only 14% of the gravitational component along the flow. We also calculate how far a powder cloud travels until its mean density becomes constant. Finally, we show that the dynamics of powder snow avalanches are crucially affected by the rate of change of their width, for example by reaching an apparent steady speed as their channel widens. If such widening is rapid, or if slope inclination vanishes, we calculate where and how powder clouds collapse. Predictions agree well with observations of powder snow avalanches carried out at the Vallee de la Sionne (Switzerland).

  18. Approach and Withdrawal Motivation in Schizophrenia: An Examination of Frontal Brain Asymmetric Activity: e110007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William P Horan; Jonathan K Wynn; Ian Mathis; Gregory A Miller; Michael F Green

    2014-01-01

    .... According to this model, relative left frontal activity in the resting EEG reflects enhanced approach motivation tendencies, whereas relative right frontal activity reflects enhanced withdrawal motivation tendencies...

  19. Approach and withdrawal motivation in schizophrenia: an examination of frontal brain asymmetric activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horan, William P; Wynn, Jonathan K; Mathis, Ian; Miller, Gregory A; Green, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    .... According to this model, relative left frontal activity in the resting EEG reflects enhanced approach motivation tendencies, whereas relative right frontal activity reflects enhanced withdrawal motivation tendencies...

  20. Determination of frontal offset test conditions based on crash data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the test procedure development : phase of the agencys Improved Frontal Protection : research program. It is anticipated that even after all cars : and light trucks have air bags for drivers and front seat : passengers there w...

  1. Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC): theory and basic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a versatile analytical tool for determining specific interactions between biomolecules and is particularly useful in the field of glycobiology. This article presents its basic aspects, merits, and theory.

  2. [Frontal displacement chromatography of melittin on meshed polymer ionites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarev, O A; Iunysheva, S G; Samsonov, G V

    1998-01-01

    Conditions of frontal displacement chromatography were optimized for preparative purification of the polypeptide hormone melittin from bee venom. Melittin was purified to an extent higher than that of a standard preparation described in the biochemical literature.

  3. Frontal parosteal lipoma with thickening of diploic space

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    Tsuyoshi Morishita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parosteal lipoma is a rare benign tumor that is composed mainly of benign mature lipocytes, and it has an intimate association with the underlying affected bone. Parosteal lipoma involving the head and neck is very rare, and there are only two reported cases of parosteal lipoma of the skull in English literature. This paper reports a rare case of frontal parosteal lipoma in a young child with a hard enlargement of the forehead region after blunt trauma. Computed tomography revealed a large soft tissue mass and an osseous projection of the unilateral frontal bone. The pathology report identified lipoma and thickening of diploic space of the frontal bone. Here, we present a new case of parosteal lipoma in the frontal region.

  4. Reduced frontal-subcortical white matter connectivity in association with suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, W; Han, C E; Fava, M; Mischoulon, D; Papakostas, G I; Heo, J-Y; Kim, K W; Kim, S T; Kim, D J H; Kim, D K; Seo, S W; Seong, J-K; Jeon, H J

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior have been associated with structural and functional changes in the brain. However, little is known regarding alterations of brain networks in MDD patients with suicidal ideation. We investigated whether or not MDD patients with suicidal ideation have different topological organizations of white matter networks compared with MDD patients without suicidal ideation. Participants consisted of 24 patients with MDD and suicidal ideation, 25 age- and gender-matched MDD patients without suicidal ideation and 31 healthy subjects. A network-based statistics (NBS) and a graph theoretical analysis were performed to assess differences in the inter-regional connectivity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to assess topological changes according to suicidal ideation in MDD patients. The Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Korean version of the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) were used to assess the severity of suicidal ideation and impulsivity, respectively. Reduced structural connectivity in a characterized subnetwork was found in patients with MDD and suicidal ideation by utilizing NBS analysis. The subnetwork included the regions of the frontosubcortical circuits and the regions involved in executive function in the left hemisphere (rostral middle frontal, pallidum, superior parietal, frontal pole, caudate, putamen and thalamus). The graph theoretical analysis demonstrated that network measures of the left rostral middle frontal had a significant positive correlation with severity of SSI (r=0.59, P=0.02) and BIS (r=0.59, P=0.01). The total edge strength that was significantly associated with suicidal ideation did not differ between MDD patients without suicidal ideation and healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that the reduced frontosubcortical circuit of structural connectivity, which includes regions associated with executive function and impulsivity, appears to have a role in the emergence of suicidal

  5. Frontal Mucocele following Previous Facial Trauma with Hardware Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EuDaly, Megan; Kraus, Chadd K

    2016-01-01

    Mucoceles are cysts that can develop after facial bone fractures, especially those involving the frontal sinuses. Despite being rare, mucoceles can result in serious delayed sequelae. We present a case of a frontal mucocele that developed two years after extensive facial trauma following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) and review the emergency department (ED) evaluation and treatment of mucocele. Early recognition, appropriate imaging, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential for managing these rare sequelae of facial trauma.

  6. Frontal Mucocele following Previous Facial Trauma with Hardware Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan EuDaly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoceles are cysts that can develop after facial bone fractures, especially those involving the frontal sinuses. Despite being rare, mucoceles can result in serious delayed sequelae. We present a case of a frontal mucocele that developed two years after extensive facial trauma following a motor vehicle crash (MVC and review the emergency department (ED evaluation and treatment of mucocele. Early recognition, appropriate imaging, and an interdisciplinary approach are essential for managing these rare sequelae of facial trauma.

  7. Prognostic factors in presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, C.; Engelsman, J; Alarcon, G; Binnie, C.; Polkey, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine predictors for surgical outcome in the presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy.
METHODS—Thirty seven patients were operated on for frontal lobe epilepsy between 1975 and 1996. Their medical records were reviewed for ictal semiology, age at onset, duration of the epilepsy, age at operation, preoperative interictal and ictal encephalographic findings, and abnormalities on neuroimaging and neuropsychological testing. In addition, type of re...

  8. Giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matushita, Joao Paulo, E-mail: jpauloejulieta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Matushita, Julieta S.; Matushita Junior, Joao Paulo Kawaoka [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem Dr. Matsushita, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Matushita, Cristina S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Simoes, Luiz Antonio Monteiro; Carvalho Neto, Lizando Franco de

    2013-06-15

    The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the frontal sinus in a 54-year-old male patient. This tumor location is rare, and this is the third case reported in the literature with radiographic documentation and histopathological confirmation. The patient underwent surgery, with curettage of frontal sinus and placement of a prosthesis. He died because a voluntary abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids. (author)

  9. Neuropeptides associated with the frontal ganglion of larval Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Matthews, June; Weaver, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the frontal ganglia of larvae of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea and the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis was investigated using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only three types of peptides could be identified or assigned from frontal ganglion extracts; M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS), M. sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT), and F/YXFGL-NH2 allatostatins. The peptide profiles of frontal ganglion of L. oleracea and S. littoralis were similar, with ten identical [M+H]+ ions, seven of which could be assigned to known lepidopteran peptides (Manse-AT, cydiastatin 2, 3, 4 and helicostatin 1, 5, 9). In addition, mass ions corresponding to helicostatin 7 (which was confirmed by MALDI-post source decay analysis) and Manse-AS were present in frontal ganglia of L. oleracea and helicostatin 6 in frontal ganglia of S. littoralis. Only four mass ions from M. sexta frontal ganglia corresponded to known peptides, cydiastatin 3 and 4, helicostatin 1, and Manse-AT. The only difference between the profiles of frontal ganglia from different stages of L. oleracea were mass ions which could not be assigned, and no differences were observed in the allatoregulatory peptides present. In HPLC fractions of M. sexta frontal ganglia, F/YXFGL-NH2 allatostatin-like immunoreactivity was widespread suggesting that more allatostatins were present than were identified.

  10. Clinical and tomography evolution of frontal osteomyelitis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Crisóstomo Lima Verde1, , , , ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The frontal osteomyelitis is a complication of rhinosinusitis which can evolve to acute or chronicle. There is inflammatory reaction by the increasing of intraosseous pressure, ischemia and local necrosis, leading to bone abscess formation. There is no drainage, it will occur detachment of the periosteum, soft tissue invasion and worsening of ischemia with subsequent bone sequestration. Method: Case report of an inpatient in an emergency service of another institution by the complication of rhinosinusitis who was referred to the Otorhinolaryngology Service of University Hospital Professor Edgard Santos of Federal University of Bahia. Case Report: Male patient, 16 years-old, presented himself to the ER of another institution with cephalea, vomits and fever which evolved to periorbital edema and frontal to the left, moving to palpebral fluctuation and frontal. Subjected to frontal and palpebral abscess drainage, with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with no improvement. He was referred to our service keeping edema and fluctuation in region frontal and light edema in left periorbital region. The nasal endoscopy showed edema in meatus to the left and the computerized tomography showed fronto-ethmoid sinusitis to the left and signs of frontal osteomyelitis with bone sequestration and epidural empyema. Subjected to sinasal endoscopy surgery, external Access or removal of the frontal one affected and epidural empyema drainage. Evolved to the remission of the disease. Final Considerations: Failure in the diagnosis and rhinosinusitis complication treatment can lead to sequalae and fatal complications. The diagnosis of the frontal osteomyelitis is confirmed by the clinical suspicion and confirmed by radiological examination. The surgery is indicated when the evolution is insidious, there is bone sequestration and intracranial complications.

  11. O cyberbullying no ensino superior

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Telma Filipa Félix

    2014-01-01

    O cyberbullying pode ser caracterizado por um comportamento agressivo e intencional. Aproximadamente 20 a 40% dos jovens afirmam serem vítimas de cyberbullying (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006) e cerca de 11% a 17% afirmam ter molestado alguém. O presente estudo pretende caracterizar o cyberbullying numa amostra da população universitária. Foi utilizado o Questionário de Cyberbullying no Ensino Superior (QCES) que apresenta 4 Subescalas que avaliam Vítimas, Agressores, Observadores de Agressores e Ob...

  12. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  13. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Our findings suggest that some of the regions modulated by a syntactic processing task reflect task-related functions such as working memory, attention, and executive function, specifically the anterior insula bilaterally, the supplementary motor cortex bilaterally, and left dorsal premotor cortex. In contrast, other regions were modulated only in individuals with relatively intact syntactic processing, namely the left inferior frontal junction, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left intraparietal sulcus, suggesting that these regions are important for syntactic processing.

  14. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

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    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one’s own brain activity.

  15. Reanimación palpebral con colgajo frontal miofuncional: Caso clínico

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    F. García-García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El párpado es una estructura crítica para la protección y función del globo ocular, y parte primordial en la estética facial. Su reconstrucción está determinada por la extensión de la lesión y el compromiso de las diferentes capas. Siempre se preferirán tejidos loco-regionales debido a su mayor similitud y disposición. Los métodos de reanimación palpebral se pueden dividir en estáticos y dinámicos, considerando a estos últimos como el único medio para restaurar el parpadeo. Presentamos un caso de celulitis orbitaria preseptal con lesión de espesor total del párpado superior y su reconstrucción miofuncional utilizando un colgajo frontal. Este colgajo frontal miocutáneo logró la restauración funcional del párpado comprometido mediante la adición de fibras musculares y permitiendo el fenómeno de reinervación.

  16. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Subcortical surgical anatomy of the lateral frontal region: human white matter dissection and correlations with functional insights provided by intraoperative direct brain stimulation: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Sarubbo, Silvio; Duffau, Hugues

    2012-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging and surgical results support the crucial role of white matter in mediating motor and higher-level processing within the frontal lobe, while suggesting the limited compensatory capacity after damage to subcortical structures. Consequently, an accurate knowledge of the anatomofunctional organization of the pathways running within this region is mandatory for planning safe and effective surgical approaches to different diseases. The aim of this dissection study was to improve the neurosurgeon's awareness of the subcortical anatomofunctional architecture for a lateral approach to the frontal region, to optimize both resection and postoperative outcome. Ten human hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected according to the Klingler technique. Proceeding lateromedially, the main association and projection tracts as well as the deeper basal structures were identified. The authors describe the anatomy and the relationships among the exposed structures in both a systematic and topographical surgical perspective. Structural results were also correlated to the functional responses obtained during resections of infiltrative frontal tumors guided by direct cortico-subcortical electrostimulation with patients in the awake condition. The eloquent boundaries crucial for a safe frontal lobectomy or an extensive lesionectomy are as follows: 1) the motor cortex; 2) the pyramidal tract and premotor fibers in the posterior and posteromedial part of the surgical field; 3) the inferior frontooccipital fascicle and the superior longitudinal fascicle posterolaterally; and 4) underneath the inferior frontal gyrus, the head of the caudate nucleus, and the tip of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle in the depth. Optimization of results following brain surgery, especially within the frontal lobe, requires a perfect knowledge of functional anatomy, not only at the cortical level but also with regard to subcortical white matter connectivity.

  18. Ethmoidectomy combined with superior meatus enlargement increases olfactory airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Nomura, Tsutomu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post‐operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Study Design Prospective computational study. Materials and Methods Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway. The original preoperative model was digitally edited as virtual ESS by performing uncinectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, and frontal sinusotomy. The following two post‐operative models were prepared: conventional ethmoidectomy with normal superior meatus (ESS model) and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement (ESS‐SM model). The calculated three‐dimensional nasal geometries were confirmed using virtual endoscopy to ensure that they corresponded to the post‐operative anatomy observed in the clinical setting. Steady‐state, laminar, inspiratory airflow was simulated, and the velocity, streamline, and mass flow rate in the olfactory region were compared among the preoperative and two postoperative models. Results The mean velocity in the olfactory region, number of streamlines bound to the olfactory region, and mass flow rate were higher in the ESS‐SM model than in the other models. Conclusion We successfully used an innovative approach involving virtual ESS, virtual endoscopy, and CFD to assess postoperative outcomes after ESS. It is hypothesized that the increased airflow to the olfactory fossa achieved with ESS‐SM may lead to improved olfactory function; however, further studies are required. Level of Evidence NA. PMID:28894833

  19. Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Teppei; Saito, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Junko; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2007-03-01

    The smooth pursuit system and the vestibular system interact to keep the retinal target image on the fovea by matching the eye velocity in space to target velocity during head and/or whole body movement. The caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF) in the fundus of the arcuate sulcus contains pursuit-related neurons and the majority of them respond to vestibular stimulation induced by whole body movement. To understand the role of FEF pursuit neurons in the interaction of vestibular and pursuit signals, we examined the latency and time course of discharge modulation to horizontal whole body rotation during different vestibular task conditions in head-stabilized monkeys. Pursuit neurons with horizontal preferred directions were selected, and they were classified either as gaze-velocity neurons or eye/head-velocity neurons based on the previous criteria. Responses of these neurons to whole body step-rotation at 20 degrees/s were examined during cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), VOR x1, and during chair steps in complete darkness without a target (VORd). The majority of pursuit neurons tested (approximately 70%) responded during VORd with latencies smooth pursuit. The shortest latency to the onset of target motion during smooth pursuit was 80 ms and the modal value was 95 ms. The time course of discharge rate difference of the two groups of neurons between VOR cancellation and x1 was predicted by the discharge modulation associated with smooth pursuit. These results provide further support for the involvement of the caudal FEF in integration of vestibular inputs and pursuit signals.

  20. Superior episodic memory in inconsistent-handers: a replication and extension using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ruth E; Patel, Neil; Christman, Stephen D; Carlei, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    A large body of evidence supports the existence of a robust handedness difference in episodic memory retrieval, with inconsistent-handedness being associated with superior memory across a wide variety of paradigms, including superior retrieval of lab-based and real world memories. Despite superior episidoc memory in inconsistent-handers, and despite neuroanatomical and neurophysiological differences in cortical regions between inconsistent- and consistent-handers, we are aware of no studies to date that have examined physiological activity in the brains of inconsistent- versus consistent-handers while engaged in memory tasks. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to present a first look at this issue, using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a simple, non-invasive measure of frontal lobe activity during encoding and recall of list words in inconsistent- and consistent-handers. Behaviourally, we replicated prior studies, finding a significant inconsistent-handed advantage in free recall. Using fNIRS-derived oxygenated haemoglobin (O2Hb) as a measure of frontal lobe activity, we found the first evidence for handedness differences in brain activity that are associated with the handedness differences in episodic retrieval. Specifically, the primary finding was that increased O2Hb in the right hemisphere during recall was associated with better retrieval, but for consistent-handers only.

  1. superior en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla algunos de los retos que ha traído consigo el acceso a la información existente en la red de Internet y lo que ello supone. Se abordan principalmente las consecuencias de la presencia actual de una sociedad llamada del conocimiento, si se mantiene la confusión entre conocimiento e información. Por ello, la sola gestión de la información no puede ser tomada como definitoria respecto a la función de educación superior confiada a las universidades. Hacerlo sería cometer un error aún más grave que la confusión teórica entre los términos mencionados.

  2. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C

    2013-12-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RTCV ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent anatomical regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the left hemisphere and mean global WM FA. When analyzed collectively, right hemisphere ROIs FA was significantly associated with d' independently of age. Follow-up analyses revealed that only FA of right SLF and the superior part of the right PC contributed significantly to this association. RTCV was significantly associated with right superior PC FA, but not with right SLF FA. Observed associations remained significant after controlling for FA of equivalent left hemisphere ROIs or global mean FA. In conclusion, better sustained attention performance was associated with higher FA of WM in regions connecting right frontal and parietal cortices. Further studies are needed to clarify to which extent these associations are driven by maturational processes, stable characteristics and/or experience. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.

    1988-12-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  4. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C. W. E. M.; Smulders, F. T. Y.; Meyer, T.; Peeters, F.; Merckelbach, H.; Smeets, T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. PMID:26163671

  5. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, C W E M; Smulders, F T Y; Meyer, T; Peeters, F; Merckelbach, H; Smeets, T

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relative frontal asymmetry based on individual alpha peak frequencies, including real-time average referencing and eye-correction. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to a right, left or placebo neurofeedback group. Results show a difference in trainability between groups, with a linear change in frontal alpha asymmetry over time for the right neurofeedback group during rest. Moreover, the asymmetry changes in the right group were frequency and location specific, even though trainability did not persist at 1 week and 1 month follow-ups. On the behavioral level, subjective stress on the second test day was reduced in the left and placebo neurofeedback groups, but not in the right neurofeedback group. We found individual differences in trainability that were dependent on training group, with participants in the right neurofeedback group being more likely to change their frontal asymmetry in the desired direction. Individual differences in trainability were also reflected in the ability to change frontal asymmetry during the feedback. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  7. Increased likelihood of bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus and urethra of uncircumcised men in a diverse group of HIV infected and uninfected patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological mechanism of circumcision as potentiating HIV prevention is poorly understood. Foreskin microbiota has been postulated as having a potential role; however, little is known about the relationship between bacterial pathogens and circumcision in adults. Materials and Methods: We sampled the coronal sulcus of a diverse group of circumcised and uncircumcised men (n=315 from a government chest hospital and fertility clinic in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Genital examination was conducted on three groups of men: Group 1 - HIV infected; Group 2 - TB infected; Group 3 - control. Aerobic and anaerobic specimens were cultured according to standard clinical protocols, and results were analyzed following multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred fifteen study participants - 47.6% of Group 1, 36.5% of Group 2, and 15.9% of Group 3 - were enrolled in the study and included in all analyses. Overall 37.1% of the participants were circumcised without variation across groups (P=0.29. Smegma was observed in 18.7% of the participants with no cases observed in Group 3 (P<0.001. Gram-negative pathogens were more prevalent among study participants in Group 1 (22.7% and Group 2 (30.4% as compared with those in Group 3 (6.0% (P=0.003. In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for group, age, and presence of smegma, uncircumcised men were more likely to be colonized with gram positives [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.9; P<0.05], gram negatives (AOR 2.4; P<0.05, or any pathogen (AOR 2.8; P<0.005. Conclusions: Uncircumcised men in this population in South India are more likely to harbor bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus than do their circumcised counterparts. Future studies should examine the relationship between foreskin microbiota and HIV transmission.

  8. Escuela Superior de Palos Verdes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1965-02-01

    Full Text Available Before initiating the building operations for the «Palos Verdes» School, the site was divided into two large horizontal surfaces, at different levels. The lower one served to accommodate the playing fields, a car park, the physical training building, and shop and ancillary buildings. On the higher of these two surfaces, and to the West of the access road, there is a car park and also the building and plot of ground devoted to agricultural technology, as well as the literary studies and general purpose buildings. As a complement to these, there is a series of blocks, arranged in parallel rows, which house the administrative offices, the art school, the craft's school, the general classrooms, and those devoted to higher education. The fascinating aspect of this school is the outstanding penetration of the architect's mind into the essential function of the project. Its most evident merit is the sense of comradeship and harmony that permeates the whole architectural manifold.Antes de construir el complejo escolar «Palos Verdes» se comenzó por crear, en el terreno, dos grandes mesetas a niveles diferentes. Sobre el inferior se organizaron: los campos de juegos, de deportes, un aparcamiento, el edificio para educación física y los destinados a tiendas y servicios. Sobre la meseta superior, al oeste de la vía de acceso, se dispuso un aparcamiento y el edificio y campo para adiestramiento agrícola; al este, otro aparcamiento, el edificio dedicado a materias literarias, y el destinado a usos múltiples. Completan las instalaciones de la escuela una serie de bloques paralelos: la administración, la escuela de arte, las clases de trabajos manuales, las aulas de enseñanzas generales, y las de los cursos superiores. Lo fascinante de este complejo escolar es la perfecta y magistral compenetración del arquitecto con el tema proyectado, y su mayor mérito, la sensación de cordialidad y armonía con el ambiente.

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the long-term outcome of subjects with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy during the 1970s. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of specific lesion sites. METHOD: Sixteen OCD...... subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and compared to seven well comparison OCD subjects without leukotomy. The 16 leukotomized subjects were divided into three groups according to the main lesion sites as determined by current magnetic...... significantly less. Of 11 subjects with lesions of the ventral striatum, eight had developed substance dependence postoperatively. Intellectual functions were largely preserved in subjects with ventromedial frontal lesions only or frontostriatal lesions. However, all subjects showed subnormal performance...

  10. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  11. An osmotic effect operative in frontal gel chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janado, M; Nakayama, R; Yano, Y; Nakamori, H

    1978-10-01

    The osmotic effect operative in frontal gel chromatography was quantitatively studied. When mixtures of a non-penetrating solute (Kav = 0) and a partially penetrating solute (0 less than Kav less than 1) were subjected to frontal gel chromatography, the latter formed a coextensive concentration gradient across the trailing boundary of the former, leading to the formation of a second plateau where the concentration exceeded that of the original solution plateau. It was shown that this anomaly, which we have previously predicted, was a direct consequence of osmotic perturbation of the bead size of the Sephadex gel and could be satisfactorily described by an equation based solely on the osmotic distention of the gel beads. Finally, the implications of the osmotic effect in the frontal chromatographic analysis of acceptor-ligand interactions is discussed and a method for correcting this effect is presented.

  12. Burst fractures of the lumbar spine in frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Robert P; Ching, Randal P; Willis, Margaret M; Mack, Christopher D; Gross, Joel A; Bulger, Eileen M

    2013-10-01

    In the United States, major compression and burst type fractures (>20% height loss) of the lumbar spine occur as a result of motor vehicle crashes, despite the improvements in restraint technologies. Lumbar burst fractures typically require an axial compressive load and have been known to occur during a non-horizontal crash event that involve high vertical components of loading. Recently these fracture patterns have also been observed in pure horizontal frontal crashes. This study sought to examine the contributing factors that would induce an axial compressive force to the lumbar spine in frontal motor vehicle crashes. We searched the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, 1993-2011) and Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN, 1996-2012) databases to identify all patients with major compression lumbar spine (MCLS) fractures and then specifically examined those involved in frontal crashes. National trends were assessed based on weighted NASS estimates. Using a case-control study design, NASS and CIREN cases were utilized and a conditional logistic regression was performed to assess driver and vehicle characteristics. CIREN case studies and biomechanical data were used to illustrate the kinematics and define the mechanism of injury. During the study period 132 NASS cases involved major compression lumbar spine fractures for all crash directions. Nationally weighted, this accounted for 800 cases annually with 44% of these in horizontal frontal crashes. The proportion of frontal crashes resulting in MCLS fractures was 2.5 times greater in late model vehicles (since 2000) as compared to 1990s models. Belted occupants in frontal crashes had a 5 times greater odds of a MCLS fracture than those not belted, and an increase in age also greatly increased the odds. In CIREN, 19 cases were isolated as horizontal frontal crashes and 12 of these involved a major compression lumbar burst fracture primarily at L1. All were belted and almost all occurred in late

  13. [A case of crossed aphasia with echolalia after the resection of tumor in the right medial frontal lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, K; Suzuki, K; Yamadori, A; Kumabe, T; Seki, K; Fujii, T

    2001-03-01

    We report a right-handed woman, who developed a non-fluent aphasia after resection of astrocytoma (grade III) in the right medial frontal lobe. On admission to the rehabilitation department, neurological examination revealed mild left hemiparesis, hyperreflexia on the left side and grasp reflex on the left hand. Neuropsychologically she showed general inattention, non-fluent aphasia, acalculia, constructional disability, and mild buccofacial apraxia. No other apraxia, unilateral spatial neglect or extinction phenomena were observed. An MRI demonstrated resected areas in the right superior frontal gyrus, subcortical region in the right middle frontal gyrus, anterior part of the cingulate gyrus, a part of supplementary motor area. Surrounding area in the right frontal lobe showed diffuse signal change. She demonstrated non-fluent aprosodic speech with word finding difficulty. No phonemic paraphasia, or anarthria was observed. Auditory comprehension was fair with some difficulty in comprehending complex commands. Naming was good, but verbal fluency tests for a category or phonemic cuing was severely impaired. She could repeat words but not sentences. Reading comprehension was disturbed by semantic paralexia and writing words was poor for both Kana (syllabogram) and Kanji(logogram) characters. A significant feature of her speech was mitigated echolalia. In both free conversation and examination setting, she often repeated phrases spoken to her which she used to start her speech. In addition, she repeated words spoken to others which were totally irrelevant to her conversation. She was aware of her echoing, which always embarrassed her. She described her echolalic tendency as a great nuisance. However, once echoing being forbidden, she could not initiate her speech and made incorrect responses after long delay. Thus, her compulsive echolalia helped to start her speech. Only four patients with crossed aphasia demonstrated echolalia in the literature. They showed severe

  14. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  15. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  16. Neural activity in the posterior superior temporal region during eye contact perception correlates with autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Naoya; Kitamura, Hideaki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Egawa, Jun; Endo, Taro; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2013-08-09

    The present study investigated the relationship between neural activity associated with gaze processing and autistic traits in typically developed subjects using magnetoencephalography. Autistic traits in 24 typically developed college students with normal intelligence were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The Minimum Current Estimates method was applied to estimate the cortical sources of magnetic responses to gaze stimuli. These stimuli consisted of apparent motion of the eyes, displaying direct or averted gaze motion. Results revealed gaze-related brain activations in the 150-250 ms time window in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and in the 150-450 ms time window in medial prefrontal regions. In addition, the mean amplitude in the 150-250 ms time window in the right pSTS region was modulated by gaze direction, and its activity in response to direct gaze stimuli correlated with AQ score. pSTS activation in response to direct gaze is thought to be related to higher-order social processes. Thus, these results suggest that brain activity linking eye contact and social signals is associated with autistic traits in a typical population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction between DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bongseog; Chae, Jonghee; Roh, Jaewoo; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2018-03-02

    The dopamine receptor D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and lead exposure are both thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is characterized by delay in brain maturation, most prominent in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The D2 receptor is also mainly located in the PFC, and animal studies show that lead exposure affects the dopaminergic system of the frontal lobe, indicating an overlap in neural correlates of ADHD, DRD2, and lead exposure. We examined the interaction effects of DRD2 rs1800497 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in patients with ADHD. A 1:1 age- and gender-matched sample of 75 participants with ADHD and 75 healthy participants was included in the analysis. The interaction effects of DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of 12 regions of interest in the frontal lobe were examined by multivariable linear regression analyses. When we investigated the DRD2×lead effects in the ADHD and HC groups separately, significant DRD2×lead effects were found in the ADHD group, but not in the healthy control group in multiple ROIs of the frontal lobe. There was a significant negative correlation between the cortical thickness of the right superior frontal gyrus and inattention scores. The present findings demonstrated significant interaction effects of DRD2 and lead exposure on the cortical thickness of the frontal lobe in ADHD. Replication studies with larger sample sizes, using a prospective design, are warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human identification study by means of frontal sinus imaginological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Caio Belém Rodrigues Barros; Almeida, Manuella Santos Carneiro; Lopes, Patrícia de Medeiros Loureiro; Beltrão, Ricardo Villar; Pontual, Andrea dos Anjos; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Figueroa, José Naral; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of human identification parameters, established by Tatlisumak et al. (2007), by means of cone-beam computed tomography and extraoral radiographs of the frontal sinus region. From a total of 58 dry skulls, 26 were selected. Posteroanterior, profile cephalometric radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography images were acquired, adopting a specific method for reproducibility purposes. The images were evaluated by two examiners, previously calibrated, in a darkened environment and at two distinct sessions, with a minimum of 15 days between them. The characteristics of the frontal sinus were analyzed using the Cohen's kappa test, for categorical variables, and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for continuous variables. Acceptable values of inter method variability for the categorical variables were found, while same cannot be told for continuous variables. The parameters evaluated for the frontal sinus on extraoral radiographs and cone-beam computed tomographs were mostly concordant, with the exception of three. Categorical and discrete variables showed an intra- and interexaminer concordance ranging from good to perfect, and the quantitative continuous variables showed concordance ranging from moderate to excellent. The parameters examined are applicable and reproducible using multiplanar reconstructions of cone-beam computed tomography and extraoral radiographs of the frontal sinus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Frontal Electroencephalogram α‑Asymmetry during the Luteal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Seventy percent of women with PMS and 75% of women with PMDD exhibited left frontal activity at rest, during the luteal phase of the cycle (P ... spinal cord and if they reported strong right‑handedness. All patients submitted to the ..... personality correlates in mood disorder pedigrees. Arch Womens. Ment Health ...

  20. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam.

  1. Apolipoprotein E gene and sporadic frontal lobe dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stevens (Martijn); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. de Knijff (Peter); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); J.C. van Swieten (John); P. Heutink (Peter); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe apolipoprotein E gene has been associated with various types of dementia. We studied the connection between the APOE gene and the risk and onset of disease in 34 patients with clinically diagnosed frontal lobe dementia (FLD) derived from a population-based study in the Netherlands. A

  2. Time Ordering in Frontal Lobe Patients: A Stochastic Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magherini, Anna; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Berta, Emilia; Botti, Claudio; Faglioni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Frontal lobe patients reproduced a sequence of capital letters or abstract shapes. Immediate and delayed reproduction trials allowed the analysis of short- and long-term memory for time order by means of suitable Markov chain stochastic models. Patients were as proficient as healthy subjects on the immediate reproduction trial, thus showing spared…

  3. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  4. Charting the Maturation of the Frontal Lobe: An Electrophysiological Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, S. J.; Davies, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    Tracking the functional development of specific regions of the prefrontal cortex in children using event-related potentials (ERPs) is challenging for both technical and conceptual reasons. In this paper we outline our strategy for studying frontal lobe development and present preliminary results from children aged 7-17 years and young adults using…

  5. Anthropometrical Profiles Of The Frontal Sinus In Population Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthropometrical profiles, function and variation of frontal sinus have been poorly understood. Understanding these are important in sinus operation and in paleontology, to understand the puzzle of the meaning of the supra orbital development. In the present study radiographs of 74 males and 46 females of south east ...

  6. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim ...

  7. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  8. Relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during different functional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Luke; Feger, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Increased inversion following lateral ankle sprain and in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is thought to contribute to recurrent injury and feelings of instability, however, there are no biomechanic assessment tools readily available to evaluate for excessive inversion prior to or following lateral ankle sprains. Before establishing a clinically useful biomechanic assessment tool, it is important to understand whether there is a relationship in the extent of ankle frontal plane motion across various tasks to help determine if one task or a combination of tasks would be most appropriate when evaluating patients. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during walking, step-down, and jump-landing tasks. Fifty-six recreationally active adults (gender=M:26;F:30, age=21.2±3.2, height=171.3±8.0cm, mass=75.6±15.4) volunteered. Main outcome measures were ankle frontal plane motion at initial contact and peak inversion during aerial phases across 3 tasks (walking, step-down, and jump-landing). Relationships between ankle frontal plane kinematics were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r). There were strong correlations in peak inversion during the aerial phase between the step-down and walking (r=0.68; pbiomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  10. Organic Matter Biogeochemistry In The Almeria-oran Frontal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutx, M.; Guigue, C.; Striby, L.; Bianchi, M.; van Wambeke, F.; Leblond, N.; Prieur, L.

    In the western Mediterranean, the Almeria-Oran front extends at the boundary of the Alboran-Sea. At different location through the frontal structure, drifting sediment traps (PPS5) were deployed at 100 m and 300m during a 1-1.5 d sampling period in the December 1997 and January 1998. Simultaneously, samples of dissolved and suspended matter were collected by using CTD/rosette casts from surface down to 200m. Iatroscan-analyzed lipid tracers were used to obtain a synoptic scheme of organic matter biogeochemistry in the frontal zone and to assess the role of physical- biological couplings on the quality and quantity of organic matter fluxes. The study of lipids reflected the meso-scale spatial variability of pelagic ecosystems and the effect of hydrodynamic on the carbon exportation to the deep ocean. In the frontal area, the particle flux (3.9 mg m-2 j-1 at 100 m and 1.9 mg m-2 j-1at 300 m) was low compared to the flux recorded during a previous cruise in spring (May 1991) (7.7 mg m-2 j-1 at 100 m and 3.0 mg m-2 j-1at 300 m). On the contrary, diatoms and freshly released lipid material signatures were observed at the front site as in spring. The distribution of hydrolysis lipid signature points out that heterotrophic processes actively degraded biogenic particles transported through cross-frontal sopycnals i during winter 1997-1998.

  11. Role of Frontal Cortex in Attentional Capture by Singleton Distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The role of frontal cortex in selective attention to visual distractors was examined in an attentional capture task in which participants searched for a unique shape in the presence or absence of an additional colour singleton distractor. The presence of the additional singleton was associated with slower behavioural responses to the shape target,…

  12. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner.

  13. Endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach: anatomical study from a neurosurgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Alberto; Andaluz, Norberto; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Notaris, Matteo; Dallan, Iacopo; Solari, Domenico; Zimmer, Lee A; Keller, Jeffrey T; Zuccarello, Mario; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2017-12-15

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach as a new minimally invasive route to access orbital lesions, mostly in otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgeries. The authors undertook this anatomical study in order to contribute a neurosurgical perspective, exploring the anterior and middle cranial fossa areas through this purely endoscopic transorbital trajectory. METHODS Anatomical dissections were performed in 10 human cadaveric heads (20 sides) using 0° and 30° endoscopes. A step-by-step description of the superior eyelid transorbital endoscopic route and surgically oriented classification are provided. RESULTS The authors' cadaveric prosection of this approach defined 3 modular routes that could be combined. Two corridors using bone removal lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures exposed the middle and anterior cranial fossa (lateral orbital corridors to the anterior and middle cranial base) to unveil the temporal pole region, lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, middle cranial fossa floor, and frontobasal area (i.e., orbital and recti gyri of the frontal lobe). Combined, these 2 corridors exposed the lateral aspect of the lesser sphenoid wing with the Sylvian region (combined lateral orbital corridor to the anterior and middle cranial fossa, with lesser sphenoid wing removal). The medial corridor, with extension of bone removal medially to the superior and inferior orbital fissure, afforded exposure of the opticocarotid area (medial orbital corridor to the opticocarotid area). CONCLUSIONS Along with its minimally invasive nature, the superior eyelid transorbital approach allows good visualization and manipulation of anatomical structures mainly located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae (i.e., lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures). The visualization and management of the opticocarotid region medial to the superior orbital fissure are more complex. Further studies are needed

  14. Differences in the neural correlates of frontal lobe tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Kato, Yuka; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25), the executive clock-drawing task (CLOX1), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) are used to assess executive function at the bedside. These tests assess distinct psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the neural correlates of the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based on magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-eight subjects (30 with Alzheimer's disease, 10 with mild cognitive impairment, and 18 healthy controls) participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the brain regions correlated with the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB scores. Age, gender, and years of education were included as covariates. Statistical thresholds were set to uncorrected P-values of 0.001 at the voxel level and 0.05 at the cluster level. The EXIT25 score correlated inversely with the regional grey matter volume in the left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann areas 6, 9, 44, and 45). The CLOX1 score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11) and the left supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40). The FAB score correlated positively with the regional grey matter volume in the right precentral gyrus (Brodmann area 6). The left lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 9) and the right lateral frontal lobe (Brodmann area 46) were identified as common brain regions that showed association with EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB based only a voxel-level threshold. The results of this study suggest that the EXIT25, CLOX1, and FAB may be associated with the distinct neural correlates of the frontal cortex. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  15. Management of Lateral Frontal Sinus Pathology in the Endoscopic Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bryant T; Illing, Elisa; Bush, Benjamin; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2014-07-01

    Considerable advances in endoscopic technique and experience have allowed an increasing number of patients with complex frontal sinus disease to be treated with endoscopic surgery. The objective of the current study was to evaluate management strategies and outcomes regarding treatment of lateral frontal sinus disease. Prospective case series. Academic tertiary medical center. Prospectively collected data concerning frontal sinus pathology located lateral to the plane of the lamina papyracea (lateral disease) were reviewed. Data were collected regarding demographics, etiology, surgical technique, revision rate, anatomic considerations, and clinical follow-up. Only patients with at least 24 weeks of clinical follow-up and pathology who required removal and dissection in this region were included in the study. Over 5 years, 156 patients (mean age, 47.9 years; range, 14-84 years) with 183 lateral frontal sinus pathologies and an average clinical follow up of 76 weeks (range, 24-237 weeks) were evaluated. Endoscopic or open surgery was attempted in 84 patients (54%) prior to intervention at our institution. Primary pathologies included inflammatory/obstructive diseases (n = 119), skull base defects (n = 33), and tumors (n = 31). Initial interventions included endoscopic (Draf IIA, n = 76; Draf IIB, n = 52; Draf III, n = 23), extended (IIA + trephine, n = 1; III + trephine, n = 2; III + osteoplastic flap, n = 2), and open (osteoplastic flap, n = 3; Reidel, n = 1; cranialization, n = 1) procedures. Seven patients (4%) required a subsequent revision procedure. The vast majority of lateral frontal sinus pathology was managed using endoscopic techniques with excellent outcomes and a low revision rate in the current study. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  16. Word wins over Face: Emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ovaysikia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behaviour. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-colour/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC. By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviours of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times (RT and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviours such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response (SR associations of an over-learned behaviour compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention.

  17. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Raghava, Jayachandra M; Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2/3 rece......, and psychotic symptoms appeared specifically associated with frontal fasciculi integrity. Six weeks of amisulpride treatment normalized white matter. Potential remyelinating effects of dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism warrant further clarification.......BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2...... corticospinal tract (CT). Fractional anisotropy in the right ATR correlated with positive symptoms (z = 2.64, p= 0.008). The ROI analyses showed significant associations between positive symptoms and FA of the frontal fasciculi, specifically the right arcuate fasciculus (z = 2.83, p= 0.005) and right superior...

  18. Superior dislocation hip with anterior column acetabular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Abstract. Superior variety of anterior dislocation of the hip is a rare injury. Its occurrence with acetabular fractures has been documented infrequently. We report a case of superior dislocation of the hip with anterior column acetabular fracture. Open reduction of the hip and internal fixation of the fracture was ...

  19. Puerperal Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis and Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is a rare and often misdiagnosed disorder. Its occurrence with pulmonary embolism (PE) .... and prolonged immobilization, hence, the possibility that her PE could have resulted from superior ... been forgotten and was alluded to by Diaz etal., as “a syndrome rediscovered in their report.”[20].

  20. Endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle approach for decompression of superior orbital fissure: a cadaveric study with illustrative case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Yi-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Guang; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Qing-Chu; Yu, Ming-Kun; Hou, Li-Jun

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to avoid the damage and inconvenience associated with transcranial approaches, we developed an endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle approach for decompression of the superior orbital fissure (SOF). The endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle route was performed in ten cadaveric heads. We measured important anatomic landmarks, and angles radiographically. This approach was initially attempted in one patient with traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome (tSOFS). A maxillary antrostomy was carried out with a buccal sulcus incision. The sinus ostium and the course of infraorbital nerve were used as endoscopic anatomic landmarks. Then the inferior orbital fissure was drilled out, followed by separating the Müller's muscle. The periorbita were peeled off from the lateral wall, followed by the endoscope going along the periorbital space, until the lateral aspect of the SOF could be visualized. Decompression was successfully performed in all specimens. The initial clinical application justified this approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and satisfactory recovery. This approach offers sufficient endoscopic visualization and reliable decompression of SOF. It avoids the need for brain retraction, temporalis muscle manipulation, or any external incision, and appears to be able to deliver satisfying aesthetic results as well as favourable functional recovery. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic resonance arthrography assessment of the superior labrum using the BLC system: age-related changes mimicking SLAP-2 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziak, Adrian [Queen' s School of Medicine, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Chuang, Michael J.; Jancosko, Jason J.; Nottage, Wesley M. [The Sport Clinic Orthopedic Medical Associates, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Burnett, Keith R. [Saddleback Valley Radiology, Laguna Hills, CA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to describe the variation of the superior labrum with increasing age by assessing magnetic resonance (MR) arthrograms. Inclusion criteria were used to include only the MR arthrograms of patients devoid of clinical labral pathology. Two hundred thiry-six MR arthrograms were blindly assessed for biceps-labral complex (BLC) type 1-3 and sublabral recess size by a musculoskeletal radiologist. We have chosen the BLC system, which defines normal superior labral variants, since it is established in the literature and is used by reporting musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists. The MR arthrograms demonstrated that the majority of patients <40 years old were BLC type 1 and showed a steady increase in BLC types 2 and 3 with increasing age. Assessments demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.01) mean BLC types (1.62 vs 1.29) and recess size (1.35 vs 0.66 mm) in those over 40 compared with those less than 40 years of age. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were noted between mean BLC assessments between different decades of age. There appears to be a physiologic deepening of the superior labrum sulcus with age, which becomes significant after the age of 40. These findings can contribute to whether the superior labrum is considered abnormal when assessed radiographically. The differentiation of normal age-related changes in the shoulder, from those of a type 2 SLAP tear can reduce the rates of unnecessary SLAP-2 repairs. This is the first reported series to use the BLC system; we believe it provides a common nomenclature to allow clear communication between specialists. (orig.)

  2. Paso superior en una ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  3. Impaired Activation of Visual Attention Network for Motion Salience Is Accompanied by Reduced Functional Connectivity between Frontal Eye Fields and Visual Cortex in Strabismic Amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila G. Crewther

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes. We compared fMRI activation and functional connectivity between four ROIs of the occipital-parieto-frontal visual attention network [primary visual cortex (V1, motion sensitive area V5, intraparietal sulcus (IPS and frontal eye fields (FEF], during a suprathreshold version of the motion-driven attention task, and also a simple goal-directed task, requiring voluntary saccades to targets randomly appearing along a horizontal line. Activation was compared when viewed monocularly by controls and the amblyopic and its fellow eye in strabismics. BOLD activation was weaker in IPS, FEF and V5 for both tasks when viewing through the amblyopic eye compared to viewing through the fellow eye or control participants' non-dominant eye. No difference in V1 activation was seen between the amblyopic and fellow eye, nor between the two eyes of control participants during the motion salience task, though V1 activation was significantly less through the amblyopic eye than through the fellow eye and control group non-dominant eye viewing during the voluntary saccade task. Functional correlations of ROIs within the attention network were impaired through the amblyopic eye during the motion salience task, whereas this was not the case during the voluntary saccade task. Specifically, FEF showed

  4. The role of frontal EEG asymmetry in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.; Giesbrecht, T.; Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meijer, E.H.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry, a biomarker derived from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, has often been associated with psychological adjustment, with more left-sided frontal activity predicting approach motivation and lower levels of depression and anxiety. This suggests high relevance to

  5. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  6. A common variant in Myosin-18B contributes to mathematical abilities in children with dyslexia and intraparietal sulcus variability in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K U; Sämann, P; Alexander, M; Becker, J; Bruder, J; Moll, K; Spieler, D; Czisch, M; Warnke, A; Docherty, S J; Davis, O S P; Plomin, R; Nöthen, M M; Landerl, K; Müller-Myhsok, B; Hoffmann, P; Schumacher, J; Schulte-Körne, G; Czamara, D

    2013-01-01

    The ability to perform mathematical tasks is required in everyday life. Although heritability estimates suggest a genetic contribution, no previous study has conclusively identified a genetic risk variant for mathematical performance. Research has shown that the prevalence of mathematical disabilities is increased in children with dyslexia. We therefore correlated genome-wide data of 200 German children with spelling disability, with available quantitative data on mathematic ability. Replication of the top findings in additional dyslexia samples revealed that rs133885 was a genome-wide significant marker for mathematical abilities (Pcomb=7.71 × 10−10, n=699), with an effect size of 4.87%. This association was also found in a sample from the general population (P=0.048, n=1080), albeit with a lower effect size. The identified variant encodes an amino-acid substitution in MYO18B, a protein with as yet unknown functions in the brain. As areas of the parietal cortex, in particular the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), are involved in numerical processing in humans, we investigated whether rs133885 was associated with IPS morphology using structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 79 neuropsychiatrically healthy adults. Carriers of the MYO18B risk-genotype displayed a significantly lower depth of the right IPS. This validates the identified association between rs133885 and mathematical disability at the level of a specific intermediate phenotype. PMID:23423138

  7. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Strozzi

    2017-02-01

    and synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  8. Erosion dynamics of powder snow avalanches - model of frontal entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, Michel; Sovilla, Betty

    2013-04-01

    We analyze entrainment at the head of powder snow avalanches (PSA) behaving as an eruption current. Instead of invoking an erosion model or other fitted parameters, the analysis assumes that erosion is sustained by a massive blow-out arising as the snow cover is fluidized by the very pore pressure gradients that the avalanche induces within the snow pack. The stability of a mass balance involving snow cover and flow in the PSA's head region then sets frontal speed, height, mixed-mean density, snowpack fluidization depth, frontal impact pressure and static pressure. We show that acceleration of the front is insensitive to local slope, but effectively depends on the rate of change in cloud width. We compare predictions with data collected at the Vallee de la Sionne.

  9. Short-term memory, parsing, and the primate frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribram, K H; Tubbs, W E

    1967-06-30

    Removal of the frontal cortex of primates resulted earlier in a psychological deficit usually classified in terms of short-term memory. This classification is based on impairment in performance of delayed-response or alternation-type tasks. We report an experiment in which the classical 5-seconddelay right-left-right-left (R-L-R-L) altenation task was modified by placing a 15-seconid interval between each R-L couplet: R-L . . . R-L . . . R-L . . . . This mnodification made it possible for monkeys with frontal lesions, which had failed the classical task, to perform with very few errors. The result suggests that proper division, parsing of the stream of stimuli to which the organism is subjected, is a more important variable in the mechanism of short-term memory than is the maintenance of a neural trace per se.

  10. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  11. Frontal negativity: An electrophysiological index of interpersonal guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bingbing; Wang, Xiangling; Cao, Bihua; Li, Fuhong

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the temporal course and electrophysiological correlates of interpersonal guilt. Human participants were asked to perform multiple rounds of a dot-estimation task with their partners, while event-related potential being recorded. The paired participants were informed that they would win money if both responded correctly; otherwise, both of them would lose money. The feeling of guilt in Self-Wrong condition (SW) was significantly higher than that in Both-Wrong and Partner-Wrong conditions. At approximately 350 ms after the onset of feedback presentation, greater negativities were observed in the frontal regions in the guilt condition (i.e., SW) than those in the non-guilt condition. The guilt-modulated frontal negativity might reflect the interactions of self-reflection, condemnation, and negative emotion.

  12. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

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  8. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  9. Frontal lobe seizures: from clinical semiology to localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; McGonigal, Aileen; Trébuchon, Agnès; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Giusiano, Bernard; Chauvel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Frontal lobe seizures are difficult to characterize according to semiologic and electrical features. We wished to establish whether different semiologic subgroups can be identified and whether these relate to anatomic organization. We assessed all seizures from 54 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy that were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation. Semiologic features and concomitant intracerebral EEG changes were documented and quantified. These variables were examined using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, and semiologic features correlated with anatomic localization. Four main groups of patients were identified according to semiologic features, and correlated with specific patterns of anatomic seizure localization. Group 1 was characterized clinically by elementary motor signs and involved precentral and premotor regions. Group 2 was characterized by a combination of elementary motor signs and nonintegrated gestural motor behavior, and involved both premotor and prefrontal regions. Group 3 was characterized by integrated gestural motor behavior with distal stereotypies and involved anterior lateral and medial prefrontal regions. Group 4 was characterized by seizures with fearful behavior and involved the paralimbic system (ventromedial prefrontal cortex ± anterior temporal structures). The groups were organized along a rostrocaudal axis, representing bands within a spectrum rather than rigid categories. The more anterior the seizure organization, the more likely was the occurrence of integrated behavior during seizures. Distal stereotypies were associated with the most anterior prefrontal localizations, whereas proximal stereotypies occurred in more posterior prefrontal regions. Meaningful categorization of frontal seizures in terms of semiology is possible and correlates with anatomic organization along a rostrocaudal axis, in keeping with current hypotheses of frontal lobe hierarchical organization

  10. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  11. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Hui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes. Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motor-cycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010. The sampled information included medi-cal or autopsy reports, blood alcohol concentration (BAC level, helmet use, accident witness, field sketch as well as field photos. The motorcyclist injuries were scored accord-ing to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS 2005. The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alco-hol use. Data were processed statistically with nonparamet-ric test via software SPSS 11.0. Results: A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed. The age of motorcy-clists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distri-bution and the middle-aged (30-39 years occupied the high-est percentage of fatalities. There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3% wearing helmets at the moment of collision. And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use. Impact injury was the main fatal cause, accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths, followed by tumbling injury (26% and run-over (2%. Respectively 84%, 22% and 19% of motorcyclists who sustained head, chest and abdominal trauma died. Extremity injury was the most frequently ob-served injury type. Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection de-vices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents. Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed. Key words: Motorcycles; Mortality; Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries

  12. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D’Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, MRC AIMS; Craig, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an ‘atypical connectivity’ involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a ‘whole brain’ non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate—predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms

  13. Frontal fixed prosthetic restoration in edentulous space modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Andrei; Picos, Alina M; Stratica, Doriana M; Barbur, Adina; Dinu, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This study case presents a 53 years old patient with severe aesthetic dysfunctions due to an ectopic maxillary canine associated with a frontal edentulous space. Orthodontic treatment proposition was refused by the patient. After canine extraction, metalo-ceramic fixed partial prosthesis successfully restored the aesthetic damage in the conditions of a non-gingival smile. Adapted abutment teeth preparations were made in order to provide necessary space for aesthetic alignment of artificial teeth in the pontic.

  14. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rushing, Elisabeth J. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Yaun, Amanda [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Washington, DC (United States); Santi, Mariarita [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Neuropathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-01-15

    We report a skull chondromyxoid fibroma with symptomatic intracranial extension causing initial misdiagnosis as a psychiatric disorder in a 14-year-old child. CT performed for work-up of the patient's ''stuffy nose'' revealed a large calcified frontal bone mass with extensive intracranial growth. We present this child with the diagnosis of intracranial chondromyxoid fibroma with detailed neuroimaging and neuropathology correlations. (orig.)

  15. Frontal plane stability following UKA in a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Thomas J; Tucker, Scott M; Rajak, Yogesh; Kia, Mohammad; Lipman, Joseph D; Imhauser, Carl W; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2015-06-01

    Function and kinematics following unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to be close to the native knee. Gait, stair climbing and activities of daily living expose the knee joint to a combination of varus and valgus moments. Replacement of the medial compartment via UKA is likely to change the physiologic knee stability and its ability to respond to varus and valgus moments. It was hypothesized that UKA implantation would stiffen the knee and decrease range of motion in the frontal plane. Six fresh frozen cadaver knees were prepared and mounted in a six-degrees-of-freedom robot. An axial load of 200 N was applied with the knee in 15°, 45° and 90° of flexion. Varus and valgus moments were added, respectively, before and after implantation of medial UKA. Tests were than redone with a thicker polyethylene inlay to simulate overstuffing of the medial compartment. Range of motion in the frontal plane and the tibial response to moments were recorded via the industrial robot. The range of motion in the frontal plane was decreased with both, balanced and overstuffed UKA and shifted towards valgus. When exposed to valgus moments, knees following UKA were stiffer in comparison with the native knee. The effect was even more pronounced with medial overstuffing. In UKA, the compressive anatomy is replaced by much stiffer components. This lack of medial compression and relative overstuffing leads to a tighter medial collateral ligament. This drives the trend towards a stiffer joint as documented by a decrease in frontal plane range of motion. Overstuffing should strictly be avoided when performing UKA.

  16. Decreased frontal lobe phosphocreatine levels in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Shi, Xian-Feng; Kondo, Douglas G; Lundberg, Kelly J; McGlade, Erin C; Hellem, Tracy L; Huber, Rebekah S; Fiedler, Kristen K; Harrell, Renee E; Nickerson, Bethany R; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondria-related mechanisms have been suggested to mediate methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. However, changes in brain energetics associated with high-energy phosphate metabolism have not been investigated in METH users. Phosphorus-31 ((31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate changes in mitochondrial high energy phosphates, including phosphocreatine (PCr) and β-nucleoside triphosphate (β-NTP, primarily ATP in brain) levels. We hypothesized that METH users would have decreased high-energy PCr levels in the frontal gray matter. Study participants consisted of 51 METH (age=32.8±6.7) and 23 healthy comparison (age=31.1±7.5) subjects. High-energy phosphate metabolite levels were compared between the groups and potential gender differences were explored. METH users had lower ratios of PCr to total pool of exchangeable phosphate (PCr/TPP) in the frontal lobe as compared to the healthy subjects (p=.001). The lower PCr levels in METH subjects were significantly associated with lifetime amount of METH use (p=.003). A sub-analysis for gender differences revealed that female METH users, who had lower daily amounts (1.1±1.0g) of METH use than males (1.4±1.7g), had significantly lower PCr/TPP ratios than male METH users, controlling for the amount of METH use (p=.02). The present findings suggest that METH compromises frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism in a dose-responsive manner. Our findings also suggest that the abnormality in frontal lobe high-energy phosphate metabolism might be more prominent in female than in male METH users. This is significant as decreased PCr levels have been associated with depressive symptoms, and poor responses to antidepressant treatment have been reported in those with decreased PCr levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Airbag Effectiveness on Brain Trauma in Frontal Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of frontal restraint systems in reducing the potential for head injuries, specifically brain injuries and skull fractures. The US DOT NASS database files from 1991–1998 were evaluated for drivers and right front seat occupants in frontal crashes. Of the total driver and right front seat occupants in this data set, 3.83% sustained a brain injury without skull fracture, 0.05% sustained a skull fracture without a brain injury, and 0.16% sustained both brain injury and skull fracture. The incidence of head injury was lowest among occupants who were restrained by belt alone (2.76%) and by both airbag and belt systems (3.51%). The unrestrained population had a 10.39% incidence of at least one type of head injury. In general, for maximum AIS≥2 head injuries, airbag effectiveness was greatest between 16–45 kph crash ΔV. For the more severe maximum AIS≥3 head injuries, the airbag restraint had its greatest effect up to 35 kph. It can be concluded that brain injury in frontal crashes is substantially reduced with the presence of a restraint system and the use of both airbag and belt restraint offers the greatest protection across all AV categories. Restraint system effectiveness for the non-head-injured occupant is variable but, generally, the belted occupant sustained the lowest percentage of injuries. Skull fractures in frontal impact were relatively rare and the incidence appeared to be unaffected by the presence of a restraint system. PMID:11558080

  18. Discharges in ventromedial frontal cortex during absence spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Don M; Brown, Micah; Luu, Phan; Holmes, Mark D

    2007-12-01

    Neural mechanisms of conscious attention require thalamic control of widespread cortical networks. Absence spells involve a momentary loss of voluntary control of attention, during which the person is inactive and unresponsive. The spike-wave seizure discharges of these spells rapidly engage both cerebral hemispheres in the classic sign of a "generalized" seizure. Animal evidence suggests that spike-wave seizures are caused by a disruption of thalamic circuitry, with extensive spread to cortex through thalamocortical propagation. We applied advanced methods of electrical source analysis to dense array (256-channel) electroencephalographic recordings of spike-wave discharges of absence spells. Neither the onset nor the spread of these seizures is generalized. Rather, the slow waves of the discharges are restricted to frontotemporal networks, and the spikes represent a highly localized and stereotyped progression of electrophysiological activity in ventromedial frontal networks. Given the current knowledge of the neurophysiology of absence seizures, this specificity of the frontal cortical discharges suggests the hypothesis that absence spells are associated with pathology in a circuit comprising ventromedial frontal cortex, rostral thalamic reticular nucleus, and limbic nuclei of the thalamus. Disrupted in absence, this circuit appears to regulate important aspects of the voluntary control of conscious attention.

  19. Orbital Cystic Schwannoma Originating from the Frontal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas of the orbit are very rare benign neoplasms. Intraorbital cystic schwannomas originating from the frontal nerve are even rarer, with only 1 case reported to date. This is most likely due to the fact that, in most cases, the origin of the orbital schwannoma cannot be identified intraoperatively. The nerve origin is usually speculated from histological examination of the specimen and the postoperative neurological deficits of the patient. Here, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman with a one-month history of exophthalmos, whose orbital cystic lesion was completely removed by microsurgical transcranial operation. Intraoperatively, the continuity between the tumor and frontal nerve was seen macroscopically, leading us to confirm the frontal nerve as an origin of the tumor, which was consistent with the postoperative neurological findings. The diagnosis of the tumor was established as schwannoma from the histological examination. As a differential diagnosis of the orbital cystic lesions, the possibility of schwannomas should be kept in mind.

  20. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  1. Separation of antibody monomer-dimer mixtures by frontal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Jason M; Pabst, Timothy M; Hunter, Alan K; Carta, Giorgio

    2017-06-02

    The removal of aggregates, particularly soluble dimers, from monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) remains a persistent challenge in downstream processing. In this work, we have examined the separation of an antibody monomer from its dimer on the cation exchange resin Nuvia HR-S (Bio-Rad Laboratories) using frontal analysis. In this process, a mixture of monomer and dimer is continuously fed to the column under conditions where the mixture is favorably bound, resulting in two breakthrough fronts whose monomer and dimer compositions are determined by the multi-component equilibrium and kinetics of the system. Experimentally, the selectivity for dimer was found to vary substantially with ionic strength, being lowest when conditions favor the strongest binding, and increasing to a maximum at intermediate ionic strengths where rapid exchange with the bound monomer can occur. A mechanistic model is developed to describe the competitive binding frontal analysis process, assuming pore diffusion and a significant kinetic resistance to binding as a function of ionic strength. The model was solved numerically and was able to describe both the frontal analysis processes and batch adsorption experimental data, accounting for process parameters such as feed composition and salt concentration. The resulting model can be used to optimize column operating conditions for yield and purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Frontal affinity chromatography for the screening of mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, N W C; Lewis, D F; Hewko, S; Hindsgaul, O; Schriemer, D C

    2002-08-01

    A protein stationary phase for frontal affinity chromatography was prepared, containing biotinylated beta-galactosidase immobilized to controlled pore glass beads via covalently bonded streptavidin. Single microaffinity columns of approximately 30 pmol of active beta-galactosidase were prepared from this material and characterized with a known ligand by frontal analysis. These columns were used to measure the specific interactions between the bound beta-galactosidase and a library of modified beta-galactopyranosides using electrospray mass spectrometry as the means of detection. The library contained 89 entries, each representing 4 diastereomers for a total of 356 library members. A single entry was analysed revealing differential activity among the 4 isomers. The library was grouped into 10 mixtures of 24-40 members each with each mixture infused under frontal chromatographic conditions. This deconvolution procedure led to the identification of 34 entries containing isomers with K(d) values better than 10 microM. A method based on a displacement principle was implemented as a rapid prescreen which served as the basis for a parallel column high throughput screening assay.

  3. Endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract AIM: The aim of this study was to report our experience with palliative stent treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2009, 30 patients (mean age 60.7 years) were treated with stents because of stenosed superior vena cava. All patients presented...... clinically with superior vena cava syndrome and according caval stenosis confirmed by computed tomography. The causes of stenoses were non-small cell carcinoma in 22 patients and small cell carcinoma in 8 patients. RESULTS: In all patients the stents were placed as intended in all patients....... All patients were followed clinically till death and the median follow-up period was 2.8 months (15-420 days). During follow-up three cases of stent thrombosis (one complete and two partial thrombosis) were observed. CONCLUSION: Palliative care with stent implantation for superior vena cava syndrome...

  4. Micropropagation of Jatropha curcas superior genotypes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micropropagation of Jatropha curcas superior genotypes and evaluation of clonal fidelity by target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) molecular marker and flow cytometry. MC Franco, DA Marques, WJ Siqueira, RR Latado ...

  5. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  6. Functional reorganization in the patient with progressing glioma of the pure primary motor cortex: a case report with special reference to the topographic central sulcus defined by somatosensory-evoked potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Masashi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    The concept of human brain reorganization due to slow-growing lesions, including low-grade glioma, has been gradually and generally accepted. However, few cases have been reported in which the reorganization, especially in the topographic pure primary motor cortex, was observed during brain surgery. We report a case of slow-growing oligodendroglioma located in the pure primary motor cortex, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging that could be resected in part thanks to the brain plasticity. In addition, we describe a pitfall of topographic guidance using somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) monitoring. A 36-year-old right-handed patient underwent resection of a gradually growing oligodendroglioma located in the right primary motor cortex, with no other adjacent lesions, 8 years after the initial biopsy. The central sulcus was defined with intraoperative SEP monitoring in both operations. Based on the findings of the intraoperative direct electrical stimulation under awake craniotomy, we suspect that motor function shifted posteriorly and reorganized beyond the central sulcus. Pure primary motor cortex could be reorganized by its own lesion. In reorganized brain, topographic central sulcus defined based on SEP findings may be an inappropriate guidance to estimate true functional area. In such a condition, intraoperative direct electrical stimulation under awake craniotomy makes it feasible to resect pure primary motor cortex invaded by tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Superiorization: an optimization heuristic for medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gabor T; Garduno, Edgar; Davidi, Ran; Censor, Yair

    2012-09-01

    To describe and mathematically validate the superiorization methodology, which is a recently developed heuristic approach to optimization, and to discuss its applicability to medical physics problem formulations that specify the desired solution (of physically given or otherwise obtained constraints) by an optimization criterion. The superiorization methodology is presented as a heuristic solver for a large class of constrained optimization problems. The constraints come from the desire to produce a solution that is constraints-compatible, in the sense of meeting requirements provided by physically or otherwise obtained constraints. The underlying idea is that many iterative algorithms for finding such a solution are perturbation resilient in the sense that, even if certain kinds of changes are made at the end of each iterative step, the algorithm still produces a constraints-compatible solution. This property is exploited by using permitted changes to steer the algorithm to a solution that is not only constraints-compatible, but is also desirable according to a specified optimization criterion. The approach is very general, it is applicable to many iterative procedures and optimization criteria used in medical physics. The main practical contribution is a procedure for automatically producing from any given iterative algorithm its superiorized version, which will supply solutions that are superior according to a given optimization criterion. It is shown that if the original iterative algorithm satisfies certain mathematical conditions, then the output of its superiorized version is guaranteed to be as constraints-compatible as the output of the original algorithm, but it is superior to the latter according to the optimization criterion. This intuitive description is made precise in the paper and the stated claims are rigorously proved. Superiorization is illustrated on simulated computerized tomography data of a head cross section and, in spite of its generality

  8. Frontal elution and frontal displacement methods in thin-layer chromatography and their use in concentrating of impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, V. G.; Chausov, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    A new method of TLC is proposed for concentrating and separating diluted solutions of samples. Samples being analyzed are concentrated in a narrow band on a plate using the displacement version of TLC the aim of lowering the detection limit of the impurities. We compare the frontal elution described in the first work on TLC by Izmailov and Shraiber with the frontal displacement suggested in this work for concentrating diluted solutions of samples and their further separation by linear TLC. It is demonstrated that using displacement TLC in the analytical process allows us to raise the efficiency of separating the compounds under study, and to lower their detection limit by a factor of 103. We conclude that the use of this approach for the determination of impurities in TLC is advisable in analytical practice.

  9. Superior Responsibility in International Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    International humanitarian law places a duty on leaders to ensure that their subordinates respect the rules of armed conflict during their actions. International law provides two primary bases for holding a person criminally responsible: personal criminal responsibility and superior responsibility. This is a study into the latter form of responsibility. Superior responsibility (or command responsibility) is a form of criminal liability, which can be used to establish the criminal responsibili...

  10. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation is associated with memory improvement in patients with left frontal low-grade glioma resection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C Miotto

    Full Text Available Patients with low-grade glioma (LGG have been studied as a model of functional brain reorganization due to their slow-growing nature. However, there is no information regarding which brain areas are involved during verbal memory encoding after extensive left frontal LGG resection. In addition, it remains unknown whether these patients can improve their memory performance after instructions to apply efficient strategies. The neural correlates of verbal memory encoding were investigated in patients who had undergone extensive left frontal lobe (LFL LGG resections and healthy controls using fMRI both before and after directed instructions were given for semantic organizational strategies. Participants were scanned during the encoding of word lists under three different conditions before and after a brief period of practice. The conditions included semantically unrelated (UR, related-non-structured (RNS, and related-structured words (RS, allowing for different levels of semantic organization. All participants improved on memory recall and semantic strategy application after the instructions for the RNS condition. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG during encoding for the RNS condition after the instructions. Patients with LFL excisions demonstrated increased activation in the right IFG for the RNS condition after instructions were given for the semantic strategies. Despite extensive damage in relevant areas that support verbal memory encoding and semantic strategy applications, patients that had undergone resections for LFL tumor could recruit the right-sided contralateral homologous areas after instructions were given and semantic strategies were practiced. These results provide insights into changes in brain activation areas typically implicated in verbal memory encoding and semantic processing.

  11. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (PAGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However, the inferior quadrants entail significantly more complications. It may be prudent to avoid AGV implantation in the inferior quadrants if the superior quadrants have no contraindications to surgery. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.

  12. Quantitative Anatomical Evidence for a Dorsoventral and Rostrocaudal Segregation within the Nonhuman Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Bliss, Daniel P; D'Esposito, Mark

    2017-10-24

    The intrinsic white matter connections of the frontal cortex are highly complex, and the organization of these connections is not fully understood. Quantitative graph-theoretical methods, which are not solely reliant on human observation and interpretation, can be powerful tools for describing the organizing network principles of frontal cortex. Here, we examined the network structure of frontal cortical subregions by applying graph-theoretical community detection analyses to a graph of frontal cortex compiled from over 400+ macaque white-matter tracing studies. We find evidence that the lateral frontal cortex can be partitioned into distinct modules roughly organized along the dorsoventral and rostrocaudal axis.

  13. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  14. Plasmapheresis Responsive Rapid Onset Dementia with Predominantly Frontal Dysfunction in the Context of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Endres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures.Case presentationHere, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction. She developed rapid onset symptoms, including apathy, verbal depletion up to a stuporous state, severe working memory deficits, evidence of primitive reflexes, disturbed Luria’s three-step test, and micturition disorder. Analysis of her cerebrospinal fluid was normal. The serum analyses showed increased antithyroid (antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies. In the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, supratentorial deep and peripheral white matter lesions were found; the electroencephalography showed intermittent slowing, and the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depicted medial and superior dorsolateral frontal hypometabolism. Several different psychopharmacological therapeutic approaches with various neuroleptics, antidepressants, and high doses of lorazepam were unsuccessful. Due to the organic alterations, including increased antithyroid antibodies, HE was suspected. Against expectations, treatment with high-dose corticosteroids proved to be ineffective and was associated with worsening symptoms. However, escalated treatment with plasmapheresis over 5 days led to significant improvement in all reported symptoms and in psychometric testing. The neuropsychological improvement was stable over a 6-month follow-up period, and the FDG-PET normalized.ConclusionThis case report reveals that (1 HE can mimic rapid onset dementia with predominantly frontal dysfunction; (2 this

  15. Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Department of Medical Imaging No. 9, Children' s Memorial Hospital, 2300 Children' s Plaza, IL 60614, Chicago (United States); Strife, Janet L.; Johnson, Neil D. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Atherton, Harry D.; Kotagal, Uma R. [Department of Health Policy and Clinical Effectiveness, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Pommersheim, William [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meads Hall, 2nd Floor, NC 27157, Winston-Salem (United States)

    2004-05-01

    In our cost- and radiation-conscious environment, the feasibility of performing only a frontal radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children needs to be reassessed. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the frontal radiograph alone in comparison to the frontal and lateral combined radiographs for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Three radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the frontal radiographs alone and separately reviewed the frontal and lateral radiographs of 1,268 children referred from the emergency room for chest radiographs. A majority interpretation of at least two radiologists for the frontal views alone was compared with majority interpretation of the frontal and lateral combined views for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. ''Pneumonia'' was defined as a focus of streaky or confluent lung opacity. For the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity of the frontal view alone were 85% and 98%, respectively. For the confluent lobar type of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 100%. When the frontal view alone yields a diagnosis of confluent lobar pneumonia, this is highly reliable. However, nonlobar types of infiltrates will be underdiagnosed in 15% of patients using the frontal view alone. The clinical impact of these radiographically underdiagnosed pneumonias needs to be assessed prior to implementing the practice of using only frontal radiographs for diagnosing pneumonia. (orig.)

  16. Frontal metabolic activity contributes to individual differences in vulnerability toward total sleep deprivation-induced changes in cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junling; Zhu, Yuanqiang; Fu, Chang; Sun, Jinbo; Li, Huiqiang; Yang, Xuejuan; Li, Weiling; Qin, Wei; Shi, Dapeng; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Substantial individual differences characterize the changes induced by total sleep deprivation on cognitive functions. Despite some progress having been achieved, the mechanisms of individual differences in response to total sleep deprivation have not been clearly elucidated. Cerebral metabolism in the resting state is among the key physiological processes supporting the daily function of the brain, and may play an important role in these individual differences. Twenty-two right-handed participants (nine females and 13 males) between 20 and 26 years old completed a mathematical processing task both in resting wakefulness and after 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography was used to investigate brain metabolism changes. The mathematical task was performed after the positron emission tomography scans were completed. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlations between cognitive performance changes and brain metabolism changes. Large inter-individual differences were found in the throughput changes, but these inter-individual differences were not associated with baseline or post-deprivation performance levels. Specifically, deterioration of throughput on the mathematical processing task was significantly correlated with metabolism changes in the superior frontal medial gyrus. These findings suggested that frontal metabolic activity contributes to individual differences in waking-induced impairment of cognitive performance. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 in gingival crevicular fluid of gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket using polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić-Petrović Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pathogenesis and some characteristics of periodontitis cannot be fully explained by bacterial etiology alone. Herpes viruses may bridge the gap between clinical characteristics and molecular understanding of periodontal destruction. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of healthy and damaged periodontium in Serbian population and to explore potential correlation between the presence of this virus and the level of periodontal destruction. Methods. Samples were collected from gingival sulcus/periodontal pockets by sterile paper points and the presence of viral DNA in gingival crevicular fluid was assessed by PCR. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in HSV-1 in presence between periodontitis patients (PG=38.9% and healthy controls (HC=32.3%, (Chi-square test, with Yates’ correction p=0.7574. However, HSV-1 positive patients showed significantly higher values of parameters of periodontal destruction (PPD=7.11±2.52, CAL=5.46±2.34 than periodontitis patients without HSV-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (PPD=4.70±1.79, CAL=3.39±2.65 (p values respectively, p=0.002 and p=0.023, Independent Samples T-Test. HSV-1 occurred more often in deeper (PPD≥6 mm (69.2% than in shallow pockets (3 mm

  18. Intracranial EEG in predicting surgical outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Martin; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) has a worse prognosis regarding seizure freedom than anterior lobectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. The current study aimed to assess whether intracranial interictal and ictal EEG findings in addition to clinical and scalp EEG data help to predict outcome in a series of patients who needed invasive recording for FLE surgery. Patients with FLE who had resective surgery after chronic intracranial EEG recording were included. Outcome predictors were compared in patients with seizure freedom (group 1) and those with recurrent seizures (group 2) at 19-24 months after surgery. Twenty-five patients (16 female) were included in this study. Mean age of patients at epilepsy surgery was 32.3 ± 15.6 years (range 12-70); mean duration of epilepsy was 16.9 ± 13.4 years (range 1-48). In each outcome group, magnetic resonance imaging revealed frontal lobe lesions in three patients. Fifteen patients (60%) were seizure-free (Engel class 1), 10 patients (40%) continued to have seizures (two were class II, three were class III, and five were class IV). Lack of seizure freedom was seen more often in patients with epilepsy surgery on the left frontal lobe (group 1, 13%; group 2, 70%; p = 0.009) and on the dominant (27%; 70%; p = 0.049) hemisphere as well as in patients without aura (29%; 80%; p = 0.036), whereas sex, age at surgery, duration of epilepsy, and presence of an MRI lesion in the frontal lobe or extrafrontal structures were not different between groups. Electroencephalographic characteristics associated with lack of seizure freedom included presence of interictal epileptiform discharges in scalp recordings (31%; 90%; p = 0.01). Detailed analysis of intracranial EEG revealed widespread (>2 cm) (13%; 70%; p = 0.01) in contrast to focal seizure onset as well as shorter latency to onset of seizure spread (5.8 ± 6.1 s; 1.5 ± 2.3 s; p = 0.016) and to ictal involvement of brain structures beyond the frontal lobe (23.5 ± 22.4 s; 5.8 ± 5.4 s

  19. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Representation of Cognitive Reappraisal Goals in Frontal Gamma Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35–55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  1. Anorexia nervosa associated with right frontal brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houy, Emmanuelle; Debono, Bertrand; Dechelotte, Pierre; Thibaut, Florence

    2007-12-01

    A causal association of brain lesion to the physiopathology of anorexia nervosa will be discussed. The authors report the case of a female patient who developed anorexia nervosa. A cavernoma, located on the frontal side of the right sylvian, was discovered by chance after a seizure. Surgical treatment of the lesion resulted in complete remission of the eating disorder at two years follow-up. Evidence for organic brain contribution to anorexia nervosa is strong and can be illustrated by this case report of anorexia nervosa associated with cerebral tumour. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical insights into pragmatic theory: frontal lobe deficits and sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S; Pearce, S

    1996-04-01

    The validity of psycholinguistic theories of sarcasm was explored by examining subjects with mainly frontal lobe (FL) damage and concomitant concreteness of thought. The majority of FL subjects could interpret consistent verbal exchanges but not literally contradictory (sarcastic) verbal exchanges which implied that the literal meaning of a sarcastic comment needs to be rejected in order for the inference to be detected. Subsidiary analyses confirmed that failure on sarcasm tasks was associated with poor conceptual skills. Ability to process attitude was not associated with success at recognizing sarcasm. This suggested that attitude is not pivotal to the detection of sarcastic inference.

  3. Superior-subordinate relations as organizational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuss, Birte; Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Oshima, Sae

    -subordinate relations and thus for organizing an institution. References Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: The developing research agenda. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74:473-487. Cooren, F., Taylor, J.R., & Van Every, E.J. (Eds.) (2006). Communication as organizing...... on organizational practices relates closely to an increased focus on communication as being constitutive of the organization in general and the superior-subordinate relationship in specific. The current study aims to contribute to this line of research by investigating micro-practices involved in establishing...... superior-subordinate relations in a specific institutionalized setting: performance appraisal interviews (PAIs). While one main task of PAIs is to manage and integrate organizational and employee performance (Fletcher, 2001:473), PAIs are also organizational practices where superior-subordinate relations...

  4. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  5. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail: mnaik@broadpark.no; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  7. Frontal lobe function and behavioral changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, ZhenZhen; Huang, Rui; Guo, XiaoYan; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-12-01

    Despite growing interest, the frequency and characteristics of frontal lobe functional and behavioral deficits in Chinese people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as their impact on the survival of ALS patients, remain unknown. The Chinese version of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) were used to evaluate 126 sporadic ALS patients and 50 healthy controls. The prevalence of frontal lobe dysfunction was 32.5%. The most notable impairment domain of the FAB was lexical fluency (30.7%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that an onset age older than 45 years (OR 5.976, P = 0.002) and a lower educational level (OR 0.858, P = 0.002) were potential determinants of an abnormal FAB. Based on the FBI score, 46.0% of patients showed varied degrees of frontal behavioral changes. The most common impaired neurobehavioral domains were irritability (25.4%), logopenia (20.6%) and apathy (19.0%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised scale score (OR 0.127, P = 0.001) was a potential determinant of an abnormal FBI. Frontal functional impairment and the severity of frontal behavioral changes were not associated with the survival status or the progression of ALS by the cox proportional hazard model and multivariate regression analyses, respectively. Frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal behavioral changes are common in Chinese ALS patients. Frontal lobe dysfunction may be related to the onset age and educational level. The severity of frontal behavioral changes may be associated with the ALSFRS-R. However, the frontal functional impairment and the frontal behavioral changes do not worsen the progression or survival of ALS.

  8. Superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new concepts in superior oblique muscle weakening surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Koornneef, L.; Everhard-Halm, Y. S.; Hughes, D. S.; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    We used superior oblique luxation and trochlear luxation as new surgical procedures to treat acquired Brown's syndrome and superior oblique muscle overaction. We studied nine patients (11 eyes) who underwent trochlear surgery between 1988 and 1993. Four patients had acquired Brown's syndrome and

  9. Differential frontal theta activity during cognitive and motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Choi, Youngjin; Kim, Jingu; Kim, Yujin; Chio, Sungmook

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated psychophysiological differences between cognitive and motor tasks. Participants were 16 university students (male[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]10, female[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]6) aged between 24 to 31 years (mean[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]27.6 years, SD[Formula: see text][Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] years). They were instructed to perform cognitive and motor tasks while their brain activity was simultaneously recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). A 3(task)[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]8(area)[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]4(bands) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. The results showed that the cognitive task resulted in a significantly higher spectral power in the theta band at frontal electrodes than did the motor task. This suggests that the frontal lobe might be engaged in problem solving, resulting in increased theta activity. However, there were no differences in alpha and beta activity between the two tasks. The present study provides psychophysiological evidence for classifying cognitive and motor tasks, which has been a controversial issue for task classifications in motor learning research.

  10. [Was Emmanuel Kant's dementia symptomatic of a frontal tumor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, J C

    1997-02-01

    Using a retrospective diagnostic approach based upon an analysis of the clinical data found in biographical documents, the author explores the medical peculiarities apparent in the life of Emmanuel Kant. The clinical history is globally dominated by neurological and ophthalmological symptoms. From a neurological standpoint, the philosopher started to manifest around the age of fifty a subtle deterioration of his mental powers. This disorder gradually impaired his intelligence and judgement, progressing slowly toward dementia. He also manifested signs of raised intracranial pressure, and later, frontal symptoms such as a slackening of social inhibitions, stereotypies and affective disinterest. An anosmia is also reported and several episodes of loss of consciousness are highly reminiscent of late-onset epileptic fits. Ophthalmological findings include transient visual obscurations, a bout of diplopia, and a progressive loss of vision in his left eye. Various diagnostic hypotheses found in the literature are then reviewed. These hypotheses are confronted with the clinical data and the reasons for their inadequacy are assessed. The nature of the clinical features, in conjunction with the similarity underlying the evolution of the neuro-ophthalmological symptoms and the philosopher's psychological profile, leads us to propose a diagnosis of frontal tumor, possibly of meningiomatous origin. This aetiology makes it possible to account for more biographical data than has been the case with other hypotheses presented to date.

  11. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  12. Ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal cortex lesions impair mnemonic context retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael

    2015-02-22

    The prefrontal cortex appears to contribute to the mnemonic retrieval of the context within which stimuli are experienced, but only under certain conditions that remain to be clarified. Patients with lesions to the frontal cortex, the temporal lobe and neurologically intact individuals were tested for context memory retrieval when verbal stimuli (words) had been experienced across multiple (unstable context condition) or unique (stable context condition) contexts; basic recognition memory of these words-in-contexts was also tested. Patients with lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were impaired on context retrieval only when the words had been seen in multiple contexts, demonstrating that this prefrontal region is critical for active retrieval processing necessary to disambiguate memory items embedded across multiple contexts. Patients with lesions to the left dorsomedial prefrontal region were impaired on both context retrieval conditions, regardless of the stability of the stimulus-to-context associations. Conversely, prefrontal lesions sparing the ventrolateral and dorsomedial regions did not impair context retrieval. Only patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired on basic recognition memory. The results demonstrate a basic contribution of the left dorsomedial frontal region to mnemonic context retrieval, with the VLPFC engaged, selectively, when contextual relations are unstable and require disambiguation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Frontal Cortical Atrophy as a Predictor of Poststroke Apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, Ján; Mikula, Peter; Budiš, Jaroslav; Valkovič, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify associations between the symptoms of poststroke apathy and sociodemographic, stroke-related (severity of stroke, degree of disability, and performance in activities of daily living), and radiological correlates. We determined the degree of cortical and subcortical brain atrophy, the severity of white matter and basal ganglia lesions on baseline computed tomography (CT) scans, and the localization of acute ischemia on control CT or magnetic resonance imaging scans in subacute stages of stroke. During follow-up examinations, in addition to the assessment of apathy symptoms using the Apathy Scale, we also evaluated symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The study included 47 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Correlates significantly associated with apathy, determined at baseline and during follow-up, were entered into the "predictive" and "associative" multiple regression models, respectively. Frontal cortical atrophy and symptoms of depression were most strongly associated with poststroke apathy symptoms. In order to model an interrelation between both cortical atrophy and white matter lesions and aging, we supplemented 2 additional "predictive" models using interaction variables, whereby we confirmed the role of frontal cortical atrophy as a predictor of poststroke apathy also as a function of the increasing age of patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Evaluation of chest injury mechanisms in nearside oblique frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraeus, Johan; Lindquist, Mats; Wistrand, Sofie; Sibgård, Elin; Pipkorn, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Despite the use of seat belts and modern safety systems, many automobile occupants are still seriously injured or killed in car crashes. Common configurations in these crashes are oblique and small overlap frontal impacts that often lead to chest injuries.To evaluate the injury mechanism in these oblique impacts, an investigation was carried out using mathematical human body model simulations. A model of a simplified vehicle interior was developed and validated by means of mechanical sled tests with the Hybrid III dummy. The interior model was then combined with the human body model THUMS and validated by means of mechanical PMHS sled tests. Occupant kinematics as well as rib fracture patterns were predicted with reasonable accuracy.The final model was updated to conform to modern cars and a simulation matrix was run. In this matrix the boundary conditions, ΔV and PDOF, were varied and rib fracture risk as a function of the boundary conditions was evaluated using a statistical framework.In oblique frontal impacts, two injury producing mechanisms were found; (i) diagonal belt load and (ii) side structure impact. The second injury mechanism was found for PDOFs of 25°-35°, depending on ΔV. This means that for larger PDOFs, less ΔV is needed to cause a serious chest injury.

  15. Prognostic factors in presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, C H; Engelsman, J; Alarcón, G; Binnie, C D; Polkey, C E

    1999-03-01

    To determine predictors for surgical outcome in the presurgical assessment of frontal lobe epilepsy. Thirty seven patients were operated on for frontal lobe epilepsy between 1975 and 1996. Their medical records were reviewed for ictal semiology, age at onset, duration of the epilepsy, age at operation, preoperative interictal and ictal encephalographic findings, and abnormalities on neuroimaging and neuropsychological testing. In addition, type of resection and pathology were compared with surgical outcome. Univariate statistical analysis showed that the presence of a focal abnormality on neuroimaging was associated with favourable outcome. The presence of the following ictal findings was associated with poor outcome: autonomic manifestations, eye deviation, head version contralateral to the operated side, and bilateral or multifocal ictal onset. Fifteen patients had secondarily generalised interictal discharges and, interestingly, their presence was not associated with poor outcome. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the presence of a focal abnormality on neuroimaging was significantly associated with a favourable outcome while contralateral head version was the only variable significantly associated with poor surgical outcome. A focal abnormality on neuroimaging was the only variable which was significantly associated with a favourable surgical outcome, whereas contralateral head version was the most significant predictor for a poor outcome. The presence of generalised discharges before surgery was not associated with poor outcome.

  16. Seizure semiology of lesional frontal lobe epilepsies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D; Lettori, D; Contaldo, I; Veredice, C; Sacco, A; Vasco, J; Martinelli, D; Chieffo, D; Tartaglione, T; Colosimo, C; Di Rocco, C; Guzzetta, F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the semiology of seizures in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and to compare them with other paediatric cohorts described in the literature as well as with adult counterparts. We analysed 174 registered seizures of 18 cases under 12 years with lesional epilepsy whose frontal origin was defined by the concordance of neuroimaging and ictal electrographic findings, and confirmed by surgery in the six cases operated on. Seizures were generally short, with a high daily frequency and usually related to sleep. The most characteristic semiological pattern consisted of complex motor seizures, particularly hypermotor. Often seizures corresponded to a mixture of different semiological patterns (tonic, gelastic, automotor, hypermotor, versive) presenting in the same seizure, often as a unique type in the same patient. With regard to several aspects the semiology of FLE in our cohort looks like that reported in adult series, in particular as to the frequency of complex motor seizures. However, our cohort was also characterised by a more protean array of seizure semiology, stressing the occurrence of seizures typically present in adults (versive and complex motor) and of some seizure patterns more characteristic in children such as epileptic spasms; moreover, the rare occurrence of secondarily generalised tonic clonic seizures (SGTCS) was confirmed.

  17. Normative data of frontal plane patellar alignment in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Luciana De Michelis; Ocarino, Juliana Melo; Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto; Santos, Thiago Ribeiro Teles; Barreto, Rafael Almeida; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to provide normative data of frontal plane patellar alignment according to McConnell and Arno angles, verify the association between theses angles and identify the presence of patellar rotation in different sports. Cross-sectional. Nine participants (18 knees) were assessed in a preliminary study to verify the intra and inter-examiner reliabilities of the patellar alignment measures. In the main study, 230 volleyball, basketball, gymnastics and soccer athletes (460 knees) were evaluated in order to obtain normative data of patellar alignment. Frontal plane patellar alignment (McConnell and Arno angles) measured in standing position by means of photogrammetry. The standardized method demonstrated intra and inter-examiner reliability coefficients varying from .85 to .98. The mean McConnell and Arno angles were 2.05° (±5.9) and 2.89° (±7.57), respectively. A low association was observed (r = .189, p angles. There was a difference in distribution of medial and lateral rotations, according to the McConnell angle, between different sports (p angles proved to be highly reliable. This made possible the establishment of normative data in a large sample of healthy athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and validation of the Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saceda-Corralo, David; Moreno-Arrones, Óscar Muñoz; Fonda-Pascual, Pablo; Pindado-Ortega, Cristina; Buendía-Castaño, Diego; Alegre-Sánchez, Adrián; Segurado-Miravalles, Gonzalo; Rodrigues-Barata, Ana Rita; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro; Vaño-Galván, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a scarring alopecia characterized by recession of the frontotemporal hairline and loss of the eyebrows. To design and validate a scoring system to assess the severity of FFA. The Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Severity Score (FFASS) was developed; criterion validity was assessed by the Investigator's Global Assessment, and construct validity was evaluated by the convergence of other measures of severity (the Patient's Global Assessment], the rest of the clinical features, the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index, and quality of life measures (Dermatology Life Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were determined. In total, 103 female patients were included. The FFASS showed significant correlation to the Patient's Global Assessment, occipital involvement, and the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index. Intraobserver reliability was completed for 31 subjects and showed good correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.95; P < .001). Interobserver reliability showed excellent correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-0.99; P < .001). The study was performed at a single institution, and only female patients were assessed. The FFASS is a statistically validated scale and a reliable measure of FFA severity, and it can be used in clinical practice and future research studies as an assessment tool. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  20. Puerperal Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis and Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is a rare and often misdiagnosed disorder. Its occurrence with pulmonary embolism (PE) is much rarer, more so when it occurs in the setting of puerperium. Although cerebral sagittal sinus thrombosis can occur at any time during life, women are particularly vulnerable before delivery and ...

  1. New Perspectives on Frontal Variability in the Southern Ocean Using a Local Identification Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    The frontal structure of the Southern Ocean is investigated using a sophisticated frontal detection methodology, the Wavelet/Higher Order Statistics Enhancement (WHOSE) method, introduced in \\cite{Chapman2014}. This methodology is applied to 21 years of daily gridded sea-surface height (SSH) data to obtain daily maps of the locations of the fronts. By forming `heat-maps' of the frontal occurrence frequency and then approximating these heat-maps by a superposition of simple functions, the time-mean locations of the fronts, as well as a measure of their capacity to meander, are obtained and related to the frontal locations found by previous studies. The spatial and temporal variability of the frontal structure is then considered. The number of fronts is found to be highly variable throughout the Southern Ocean, increasing (`splitting') downstream of large bathymetric features and decreasing (`merging') in regions where the fronts are tightly controlled by the underlying topography. In contrast, frontal meanderi...

  2. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Changes in Effective Connectivity of the Superior Parietal Lobe during Inhibition and Redirection of Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne J. Asscheman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive control is the ability to flexibly control behavior and is frequently studied with saccadic eye movements. Contrary to frontal oculomotor areas, the role of the superior parietal lobe (SPL in the executive control of saccades remains unknown. To explore the role of SPL networks in saccade control, we performed a saccadic search-step task while acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging data for 41 participants. Psychophysiological interaction analyses assessed task-related differences in the effective connectivity of SPL with other brain regions during the inhibition and redirection of saccades. Results indicate an increased coupling of SPL with frontal, posterior, and striatal oculomotor areas for redirected saccades versus visually guided saccades. Saccade inhibition versus unsuccessful inhibition revealed an increased coupling of SPL with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We discuss how these findings relate to ongoing debates about the implementation of executive control and conclude that early attentional control and rapid updating of saccade goals are important signals for executive control.

  4. Randomized controlled trial: hybrid technique using balloon dilation of the frontal sinus drainage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Iain F; Pace-Asciak, Pia; Habib, Al-Rahim R; Sunkaraneni, Vishnu; Javer, Amin R

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to evaluate frontal sinus ostial patency following balloon dilation with the Ventera Sinus Dilation System, compared with frontal sinusotomy (Draf 2a); and (2) to compare mean blood loss and mean surgical time for frontal sinusotomy using balloon dilation compared with traditional surgical methods. A single blinded, randomized, controlled, prospective study was performed at St. Paul's Sinus Center, Vancouver, a tertiary referral rhinology center. Thirty patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were randomized to a hybrid approach with exposure of the frontal recess using standard instrumentation and then balloon dilation of 1 frontal sinus drainage pathway and traditional frontal sinusotomy for the opposite side. Blood loss and surgical time for opening the frontal sinus drainage pathway was recorded for each side. Patients acted as their own controls. Ostial patency and size were assessed 5 weeks and 3 months postoperatively using endoscopy. Ostial patency was also recorded at 1 year following surgery. All frontal sinus ostia in both groups (n = 30) were successfully opened and were patent with both techniques 3 months postoperatively. All frontal sinus ostia assessed at 1 year (73%) remained patent and none required revision frontal surgery. Balloon dilation showed a mean surgical time of 655 seconds compared to 898 seconds for traditional FESS (p = 0.03). Mean blood loss was less with balloon dilation (58 mL vs 91 mL; p = 0.008). A hybrid balloon technique successfully dilates the frontal sinus drainage pathway with reduced blood loss. Also, short-term patency appears to be comparable to traditional frontal sinusotomy. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. Connectivity between Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Supplementary Motor Area Predicts After-Effects of Right Frontal Cathodal tDCS on Picture Naming Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Valabregue, R.; Arbizy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right frontal cortex improves language abilities in post-stroke aphasic patients. Yet little is known about the effects of right frontal cathodal tDCS on normal language function. Objective/hypothesis: To explore......DCS were applied to the right inferior frontal gyrus in 24 healthy subjects before a picture-naming task. All participants were studied with magnetic resonance imaging at pre-interventional baseline. Probabilistic tractography and dynamic causal modeling of functional brain activity during a word...

  6. Obsessions appear after the removal a brain tumor in the right frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    A series of case reports and neuroimaging research points to the underlying neuropathological substrate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the underlying associations between OCD and areas of the frontal lobe. We report a patient wherein the onset of OCD occurred after resection of meningioma of the right frontal lobe and who was treated successfully with paroxetine hydrochloride. We suggest that the onset of secondary (organic) OCD is associated with the frontal lobe, and we propose that the origin of obsessions is located in the right frontal lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Massage and music therapies attenuate frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N A; Field, T

    1999-01-01

    EEG asymmetry, specifically greater relative right frontal activation, is associated with negative affect. Depressed adults show stable patterns of this asymmetry. The present study assessed the effects of massage therapy and music therapy on frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Thirty adolescents with greater relative right frontal EEG activation and symptoms of depression were given either massage therapy (n = 14) or music therapy (n = 16). EEG was recorded for three-minute periods before, during, and after therapy. Frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated during and after the massage and music sessions.

  8. Frontal EEG asymmetry and later behavior vulnerability in infants with congenital visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle A; Bathelt, Joe; Sakkalou, Elena; Sakki, Hanna; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi J; de Haan, Michelle

    2017-11-01

    Young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) are at increased risk of behavioral vulnerabilities. Studies on 'at risk' populations suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry may be associated with behavioral risk. We investigated frontal asymmetry at 1year (Time 1), behavior at 2years (Time 2) and their longitudinal associations within a sample of infants with VI. Frontal asymmetry in the VI sample at 1year was also compared cross-sectionally to an age-matched typically sighted (TS) group. At Time 1, 22 infants with VI and 10 TS infants underwent 128-channel EEG recording. Frontal asymmetry ratios were calculated from power spectral density values in the alpha frequency band. At Time 2, Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist data was obtained for the VI sample. 63.6% of the VI sample and 50% of the TS sample showed left frontal asymmetry; no significant difference in frontal asymmetry was found between the two groups. 22.7% of the VI sample had subclinical to clinical range 'internalizing' behavior difficulties. Greater left frontal asymmetry at one year was significantly associated with greater emotionally reactive scores at two years within the VI sample (r=0.50, p=0.02). Left frontal asymmetry correlates with later behavior risk within this vulnerable population. These findings make an important first contribution regarding the utility of frontal EEG asymmetry as a method to investigate risk in infants with VI. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational analysis of a car chassis frame under a frontal collision.

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvão, Diogo; Moore, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the frontal collision of a car frame using non-linear FEA (Finite Element Analysis). Three frontal crash situations are evaluated: a full frontal impact against a rigid barrier and two frontal impacts with 40% overlap against an ODB (Offset Deformable Barrier). These three simulations are intended to mimic the FMVSS no.208, the 96/79/EC and the EURONCAP tests. The model of the chassis used in the simulations – a Ford F150 - is based on one that has previously been ...

  10. Distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus in macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerkevich CM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Cerkevich,1 David C Lyon,2 Pooja Balaram,3 Jon H Kaas3 1Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Systems Neuroscience Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: To better reveal the pattern of corticotectal projections to the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC, we made a total of ten retrograde tracer injections into the SC of three macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. The majority of these injections were in the superficial layers of the SC, which process visual information. To isolate inputs to the purely visual layers in the superficial SC from those inputs to the motor and multisensory layers deeper in the SC, two injections were placed to include the intermediate and deep layers of the SC. In another case, an injection was placed in the medial pulvinar, a nucleus not known to be strongly connected with visual cortex, to identify possible projections from tracer spread past the lateral boundary of the SC. Four conclusions are supported by the results: 1 all early visual areas of cortex, including V1, V2, V3, and the middle temporal area, project to the superficial layers of the SC; 2 with the possible exception of the frontal eye field, few areas of cortex outside of the early visual areas project to the superficial SC, although many do, however, project to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC; 3 roughly matching retinotopy is conserved in the projections of visual areas to the SC; and 4 the projections from different visual areas are similarly dense, although projections from early visual areas appear somewhat denser than those of higher order visual areas in macaque cortex. Keywords: visual cortex, superior colliculus, frontal eye field, posterior parietal cortex, visual system

  11. Proactive and reactive control by the medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuphorn, Veit; Emeric, Erik E

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. Recent work in humans has identified a network of cortical and subcortical brain region that might have an important role in proactive and reactive control. However, due to technical limitations, such as the spatial and temporal resolution of the BOLD signal, human imaging experiments are not able to disambiguate the specific function(s) of these brain regions. These limitations can be overcome through single-unit recordings in non-human primates. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex of monkeys performing the stop signal or countermanding task.

  12. Evaluation of galectin binding by frontal affinity chromatography (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Jun; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a simple and versatile procedure enabling quantitative determination of diverse biological interactions in terms of dissociation constants (K d), even though these interactions are relatively weak. The method is best applied to glycans and their binding proteins, with the analytical system operating on the basis of highly reproducible isocratic elution by liquid chromatography. Its application to galectins has been successfully developed to characterize their binding specificities in detail. As a result, their minimal requirements for recognition of disaccharides, i.e., β-galactosides, as well as characteristic features of individual galectins, have been elucidated. In this chapter, we describe standard procedures to determine the K d's for interactions between a series of standard glycans and various galectins.

  13. Sub-100 nm wrinkling of polydimethylsiloxane by double frontal oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nania, Manuela; Foglia, Fabrizia; Matar, Omar K; Cabral, João T

    2017-02-02

    We demonstrate nanoscale wrinkling on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at sub-100 nm length scales via a (double) frontal surface oxidation coupled with a mechanical compression. The kinetics of the glassy skin propagation is resolved by neutron and X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy, combined with mechanical wrinkling experiments to evaluate the resulting pattern formation. In conventional PDMS surface oxidation, the smallest wrinkling patterns attainable have an intrinsic lower wavelength limit due to the coupling of skin formation and front propagation at fixed strain εprestrain, whose maximum is, in turn, set by material failure. However, combining two different oxidative processes, ultra-violet ozonolysis followed by air plasma exposure, we break this limit by fabricating trilayer laminates with excellent interfacial properties and a sequence of moduli and layer thicknesses able to trivially reduce the surface topography to sub-100 nm dimensions. This method provides a powerful, yet simple, non-lithographic approach to extend surface patterning from visible to the deep UV range.

  14. DHEA and frontal fibrosing alopecia: molecular and physiopathological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) promotes fibrosis, differentiating epithelial cells and quiescent fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increasing expression of extracellular matrix. Recent investigations have shown that PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor*) is a negative regulator of fibrotic events induced by TGFβ1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an immunomodulatory hormone essential for PPAR functions, and is reduced in some processes characterized by fibrosis. Although scarring alopecia characteristically develops in the female biological period in which occurs decreased production of DHEA, there are no data in the literature relating its reduction to fibrogenic process of this condition. This article aims to review the fibrogenic activity of TGFβ1, its control by PPAR and its relation with DHEA in the frontal fibrosing alopecia.

  15. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  16. Ventromedial frontal lobe damage disrupts value maximization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camille, Nathalie; Griffiths, Cathryn A; Vo, Khoi; Fellows, Lesley K; Kable, Joseph W

    2011-05-18

    Recent work in neuroeconomics has shown that regions in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex encode the subjective value of different options during choice. However, these electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies cannot demonstrate whether such signals are necessary for value-maximizing choices. Here we used a paradigm developed in experimental economics to empirically measure and quantify violations of utility theory in humans with damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF). We show that people with such damage are more likely to make choices that violate the generalized axiom of revealed preference, which is the one necessary and sufficient condition for choices to be consistent with value maximization. These results demonstrate that the VMF plays a critical role in value-maximizing choice.

  17. Lóbulo Frontal y Psicoanálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Beteta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer mediante una atractiva hipótesis de trabajo, las relaciones entre los lóbulo frontales y las bases neurobiológicas de la teoría freudiana del psicoanálisis. Se presenran y discuten las aproximaciones psicofisiológicas y clínicas, en la interpretación de estas relaciones, llegando al análisis final de las "disoluciones" orgánicas y funcionales del cerebro, pasando revista a los síntomas de la demencia y cuadros clínicos diferenciales, por los cuales se puede llegar a la interpretación freudiana de la psicopatía, la farmacodependencia y el síndrome del terrorismo.

  18. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy presenting as excessive daytime sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Y Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE. Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE.

  19. [Frontal pseudoataxia, discussion on its mechanism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, N; Mukoyama, M; Mano, Y; Toyoshima, E; Satoyoshi, E

    1981-08-01

    We presented a rare care who had right frontal lobe infarction, with left side pseudoataxia, and the mechanism, causing pseudoataxia, was considered. The patient, a 51 year-old, righ-handed male, was admitted on August 9, 1980, complaining of left-side pseudoataxia. About p.m. 7:00, July 29, 1980, he suddenly noticed numbness of the left foot, and he found himself difficulty in standing in the next morning. He had a mild paresis and tactile-tactile of the left side including the face, which was rapidly improved. However, there was pseudoataxia of the left extremities, which had not been improved. On physical examination, dysarthria, aphasia, finger agnosia, difficulty in right left orientation or muscle weakness was not recognized, and there was no sensory disturbance except for slight impairment of stereognosis, two point discrimination and vibratory sense. Demonstrable impairment of tactiletactile from was observed in the left hand. Notable dysmetria, terminal tremor and dysdiadochokinesia were seen in the left limbs, which were remarkably worsened with eyes closed. However, tapping and line-drawing tests were normal. Babinski-Weil's test disclosed typical compass gait. There was marked swaying in Romberg position. Tandem gait was impossible with a tendency to decline the left. Deep reflexies were normal except for mildly hyperactive radial reflex in the left. Carotid and vertebral angiographies revealed neither evidence of vascular occlusion nor displacement of vessels CT scan demonstrated a low density area, which included the right inferior and middle frontal gyri, the head of the right caudate nucleus and a part of anterior crus of right internal capsule. There was enlargement of anterior horn of the right lateral ventricle. Caloric test, electronystagmography, eye tracking test or optokinetic nystagmus test disclosed no abnormalities. Vibration induced falling, which is the postural reaction to muscle vibration during standing (Ekuland, G., 1972), was not

  20. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra W. Soh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX or delayed-treatment control group (DTC. Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT. All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM. Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1 At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2 Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, right frontal pole (BA11, and right anterior cingulate (BA32 in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3 At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9, which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children.

  1. Parameters influencing AIS 1 neck injury outcome in frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Norin, Hans; Svensson, Mats Y

    2004-06-01

    In order to gain more knowledge of the neck injury scenario in frontal impacts, a statistical study of parameters influencing incidences of AIS 1 neck injuries was performed. The data set consisted of 616 occupants in Volvo cars. Information regarding the crash, the safety systems, occupant characteristics (including prior neck problems), behavior and sitting posture at the time of impact, and neck symptoms (including duration) was collected and analyzed. Occupant characteristics (mainly gender, weight, and age), kinematics (head impacts) and behavior at the time of impact were identified as the most prominent parameter areas with regard to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Specifically, women had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to men, occupants under the age of 50 had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to those above 50 and occupants weighing less than 65 kg have a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than heavier occupants. Drivers stating that they impacted their head against a frontal interior structure had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate than those without head impact. Also, occupants who stated they had tensed their neck muscles at the time of impact, had a significantly higher AIS 1 neck injury rate as compared to occupants who did not. Occupant activities, such as tightly gripping the steering wheel or straightening their arms showed a significantly increased AIS 1 neck injury rate, indicating that occupant behavior at time of impact could be influential with respect to AIS 1 neck injury outcome. Also, occupants reporting prior neck problems had a higher rate of persistent symptoms (>1 year) but no difference with respect to passing symptoms (<3 months) as compared to those without prior neck problems. Additionally, there was no distinct pattern for the duration of neck symptoms.

  2. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Attentional effects in the visual pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Larsen, Axel; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2002-01-01

    nucleus. Frontal activations were found in a region that seems implicated in visual short-term memory (posterior parts of the superior sulcus and the middle gyrus). The reverse, color-shape comparison showed bilateral increases in rCBF in the anterior cingulate gyri, superior frontal gyri, and superior...... and middle temporal gyri. The attentional effects found by the shape-color comparison in the thalamus and the primary visual cortex may have been generated by feedback signals preserving visual representations of selected stimuli in short-term memory....

  4. [Depression and frontal dysfunction: risks for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Hazif Thomas, C; Billon, R; Peix, R; Faugeron, P; Clément, J-P

    2009-09-01

    Frontal lobe syndromes include reduced activity, particularly a diminution of spontaneous activity, lack of drive, inability to plan ahead, and induce a lack of concern. These last points constitute the executive dysfunction syndrome. That executive dysfunction could be the core defect in patients with geriatric or vascular depression, and might be related to frontal-subcortical circuit dysfunction. Sometimes frontal lobe syndromes are associated with restless, aimless, uncoordinated behavior or even disinhibition, increasing the risks of falls and of malnutrition. Some authors have distinguished between lesions of the lateral frontal cortex, most closely linked to the motor structures of the brain, which lead to disturbances of movement and action with perseveration and inertia, and lesions of the orbital and medial areas, interlinked with limbic and reticular systems, damage to which leads to disinhibition and changes of affect. The medial frontal syndrome is marked by akinesia, associated with gait disturbances, and loss of autonomy. For these reasons, it has been proposed that a subtype of depression, "depression-executive dysfunction syndrome" could occur in late life. This assertion was based on clinical, neuropathological, and neuroimaging findings suggesting that frontostriatal dysfunctions contribute to the development of both depression and executive dysfunction and influence the course of depression. Depressive symptomatology, and especially psychomotor retardation and loss of interest in activities, contributed to disability in depression-executive dysfunction syndrome patients. This study is not restricted to major depression. It examined the relationship of executive impairment to the course of depressive symptoms among a psychogeriatric population with dementia or depression in order to assess the consequences of these pathologies on disabilities of aged persons. The study was carried out in Limoges (France) during 2006 and 2007. Three hundred and

  5. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  6. Effect of chemical stimulation of the medial frontal lobe on the micturition reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Saori; Sugaya, Kimio; Kadekawa, Katsumi; Ashitomi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the influence of the medial frontal lobe on micturition after chemical stimulation. We also examined the relation between the medial frontal lobe and the rostral pontine reticular formation, which has a strong inhibitory effect on micturition. A total of 35 female rats underwent continuous cystometry. Bladder activity changes were examined after physiological saline, glutamate, the glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, noradrenaline or the adrenergic α-1 receptor antagonist naftopidil was injected in the medial frontal lobe. When glutamate was injected in the medial frontal lobe, MK-801 was also injected in the rostral pontine reticular formation. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe prolonged the interval between bladder contractions while injection of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 shortened the interval. Glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe just after MK-801 injection in the ipsilateral rostral pontine reticular formation also prolonged the interval between bladder contractions. However, after prior injection of MK-801 in the bilateral rostral pontine reticular formation glutamate injection in the medial frontal lobe did not influence cystometric parameters. Noradrenaline injection in the medial frontal lobe shortened the interval between bladder contractions while injection of its antagonist naftopidil prolonged the interval. Medial frontal lobe neurons excited by glutamate inhibited the micturition reflex via activation of the rostral pontine reticular formation by glutamatergic projection while medial frontal lobe neurons excited by noradrenaline facilitated the micturition reflex. Thus, the medial frontal lobe may be an important integration center for the initiation of micturition and urine storage mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Light-absorbing Components in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    representing on average 72% of the total PAVm at each of the sites {Table 2). Such particles have terrigenous origins ( Peng et al., 2009). The SAX...of acooM. aNAP· and PAVm in the 2006 survey are consistent with terrigenous sources of these constituents, though the details are doubtless subject...to substantial variations. For example, Budd (2004) resolved extensive spring-time sediment plumes in the Keweenaw region of Lake Superior through

  8. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  9. Eutrophication monitoring for Lake Superior's Chequamegon ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A priority for the Lake Superior CSMI was to identify susceptible nearshore eutrophication areas. We developed an integrated sampling design to collect baseline data for Lake Superior’s Chequamegon Bay to understand how nearshore physical processes and tributary loading relate to observed chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling included ship-based water samples combined with vertical CTD casts, continuous in situ towing and data collected from an autonomous underwater glider. Sampling was conducted during June, July and September. The glider collected regional data as part of three extended missions in Lake Superior over the same periods. During the study, two significant storm events impacted the western end of Lake Superior; the first occurred during July 11-12, with 8-10 inches of rain in 24hrs, and the second on July 21 with winds in excess of 161 km/h. Using GIS software, we organized these diverse temporal data sets along a continuous time line with temporally coincident Modis Satellite data to visualize surface sediment plumes in relation to water quality measurements. Preliminary results suggest that both events impacted regional water quality, and that nearshore physical forces (upwelling and currents) influenced the spatial variability. Results comparing in situ measures with remotely sensed images will be discussed. not applicable

  10. Siliceous phytoplankton production and export related to trans-frontal dynamics of the Almeria-Oran frontal system (western Mediterranean Sea) during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, K.; QuéGuiner, B.; Prieur, L.; Claustre, H.; Oubelkheir, K.; Bruyant, F.

    2004-07-01

    A study of the biogeochemical properties of the Almeria-Oran front was carried out in December 1997 to January 1998. A strong salinity gradient between Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Alboran Sea allowed the differentiation of several subsystems: the Mediterranean waters, the frontal zone, and the anticyclonic gyre. Si and C biomass and production were clearly enhanced by the frontal dynamics on the Atlantic side of the jet while Mediterranean waters, which encountered severe nutrient depletion in the mixed layer, exhibited a typical oligotrophic regime. The distribution of particulate matter was controlled by a cross-frontal downwelling along the isopycnal slopes, that shoaled to the surface on the dense Mediterranean side and deepened toward the Atlantic side of the jet. A strong decoupling of production and biomass maximums occurred between the frontal limit, where particulate matter was produced, and the gyre, where it was accumulated. Export fluxes at 300 m were low at the frontal limit, representing 1-2% of surface Si and C production, and it is hypothesized that advective fluxes rather than grazing were the main factor limiting the accumulation of biomass. The adjacent systems, namely the associated anticyclonic gyre and the Mediterranean waters, were exporting Si to depth more efficiently than the frontal zone. The Si and C decoupling with depth appeared higher in the Almeria-Oran frontal system than in other open-ocean zones. The integrated Si production at the Almeria-Oran Front was 0.83 mmol Si m-2 d-1, which was closest to the production rates of mid-ocean oligotrophic gyres than of other frontal systems, and may be explained by the sampling period, which occurred in the winter season.

  11. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  12. Study on the protein binding of ketoprofen using capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis compared with liquid chromatography frontal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Famei; Zhou, Dawei; Guo, Xingjie

    2003-03-01

    A method of capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis (CEFA) is developed for the first time to study the binding of ketoprofen to human serum albumin (HSA) and compared with high-performance liquid chromatography frontal analysis (LCFA). The separation is performed in an uncoated fused-silica capillary (60-cm x 75- micro m i.d., 50-cm effective length) with a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, ionic strength of 0.17M) as the running buffer. The applied voltage is 13 kV and the detection is set at 254 nm. A trapezoidal peak of the unbound ketoprofen appears after HSA elution in the electropherogram. The plateau height of the peak is employed to determine the unbound concentration of ketoprofen in the HSA equilibrated sample solution. The CEFA method provides the advantages of small sample injection volume and rapidity and the disadvantage of low sensitivity compared with LCFA. CEFA is applicable to the binding parameter estimation of ketoprofen to the secondary binding site; an association constant (K(2)) of 0.24 x 10(6)M(-1) and the number for the binding site per molecule HSA of 2.54 is estimated. In contrast, LCFA measures parameters for both primary and secondary sites, which are 1.05 x 10(6)M(-1) and 0.94 for K(1) and n(1), respectively, and 0.12 x 10(6)M(-1) and 3.16 for K(2) and n(2), respectively. It is found that ketoprofen binds mainly at the primary site at a molecular ratio of ketoprofen versus HSA lower than 0.75, and the binding at the secondary site occurs at a higher ratio.

  13. [Study of protein binding in ketoprofen using liquid chromatography frontal analysis in comparison with capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dawei; Li, Famei

    2004-11-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-frontal analysis (HPLC-FA) was developed to study the binding of ketoprofen to human serum albumin (HSA) and it was compared with high performance capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis (HPCE-FA). The separation was performed using Pinkerton GFF II-S5-80 internal-surface reversed-phase silica column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) at pH 7.4 in a 67 mmol/L isotonic sodium phosphate buffer at 37 degrees C. Other conditions included a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min, UV detection at a wave-length of 254 nm and an injection volume of 950 microL. A trapezoidal peak of the unbound ketoprofen appeared after HSA elution in the chromatogram. The plateau height of the peak was employed to determine the concentration of unbound ketoprofen in the HSA equilibrated sample solution. The HPLC-FA method provides the advantage of high sensitivity and however the disadvantages of large sample size and long analytical time when compared with HPCE-FA. HPLC-FA is applicable to the binding parameter estimation of ketoprofen to both primary and secondary sites, which are 0.37 x 10(6) L/mol and 1.4 for K1 (the association constant) and n (the number for the binding sites per molecule HSA), respectively, and 0.005 x 10(6) L/mol and 7.2 for K2 and n2, respectively. In contrast, HPCE-FA measures parameters for only the secondary binding sites; K2 of 0.018 x 10(6) L/mol and n2 of 2.54 can be estimated. It is found that ketoprofen binds mainly at the primary sites at a lower mole ratio of ketoprofen versus HSA, and the binding at the secondary sites occurs at a higher ratio.

  14. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome : Results of a Large Brain Bank Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krudop, Welmoed A; Bosman, Sjanne; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Verwey, Nicolaas A; Stek, Max L; Scheltens, Philip; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: A clinical frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) is generally attributed to functional or structural disturbances within frontal-subcortical circuits. We studied the distribution of pathological brain changes in FLS. Additionally, the prevalence of FLS among various disorders was studied. METHODS: We

  15. Mother and daughter with adolescent-onset severe frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Passos, Giordani Rodrigues; Fernández, Alonso Cuadrado; Vasques, Adriana Machado; Martins, William Alves; Palmini, André

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Familial cases of early-onset prominent frontal lobe dysfunction associated with epilepsy have not been reported to date. We report a mother and her only daughter with incapacitating behavioral manifestations of frontal lobe dysfunction and epilepsy of variable severity. The possibility of a hitherto undescribed genetic condition is discussed. PMID:29213461

  16. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  17. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  18. Does depth of the frontal sinus affect near-infrared spectroscopy measurement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Frederik; Vedel, Anne G; Langkilde, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method that reflects real-time cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) by the use of two adhesive optodes placed on the forehead of the patient. Frontal sinuses vary anatomically and a large frontal sinus might compromise the NIRS signal since the NIRS...

  19. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual variation in the experience and expression of pleasure may relate to differential patterns of lateral frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral frontal cortex in positive emotion, but the excellent time resolution of these measures has not been used to capture…

  20. Lower limb and associated injuries in frontal-impact road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objectives: To study the relationship between severity of injury of the lower limb and severity of injury of the head, thoracic, and abdominal regions in frontal-impact road traffic collisions. Methods: Consecutive hospitalised trauma patients who were involved in a frontal road traffic collision were prospectively stud-.

  1. Varying frontal thrust spacing in mono-vergent wedges: An insight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandbox experiments are used to study frontal thrust fault spacing, which is a function of physical properties within the thrust wedge. We consider three styles of thrust progression in mono-vergent wedges: Style I, II and III. In Style I, frontal thrusts progress forelandward, maintaining a constant spacing, whereas Style II and ...

  2. Osteite frontale post-sinusitique: Etude rétrospective à propos de 31 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective : Post-sinusitic frontal osteitis is defined as an extension of frontal sinus infection to the adjacent bony structures. It is an emergency that should rapidly be diagnosed and treated. The aim of this study is to analyze epidemiologic, clinical and paraclinical features, and to review different therapeutic modalities of this ...

  3. The functional role of individual-alpha based frontal asymmetry in stress responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Meyer, T.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Smeets, T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been suggested to index tendencies in affective responding and thus may be associated with hormonal stress responses. To assess the functional role of frontal asymmetry (FA) in stress, we measured FA at rest and following exposure to acute stress induced

  4. Combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes indicate compensated cognitive processing across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the frontal and parietal P300, elicited in an auditory oddball paradigm were investigated in a large sample of healthy participants (N = 1572), aged 6–87. According to the concepts of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH) it was hypothesized that the developmental trajectories of the frontal P300 would reach a maximum in amplitude at an older age than the amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. In addition, the amplitude of the frontal P300 was expected to increase with aging in adulthood in contrast to a decline in amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. Using curve-fitting methods, a comparison was made between the developmental trajectories of the amplitudes of the frontal and parietal P300. It was found that the developmental trajectories of frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes differed significantly across the lifespan. During adulthood, the amplitude of the parietal P300 declines with age, whereas both the frontal P300 amplitude and behavioral performance remain unaffected. A lifespan trajectory of combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes was found to closely resemble the lifespan trajectory of behavioral performance. Our results can be understood within the concepts of CRUNCH. That is, to compensate for declining neural resources, older participants recruit additional neural resources of prefrontal origin and consequently preserve a stable behavioral performance. Though, a direct relation between amplitude of the frontal P300 and compensatory mechanisms cannot yet be claimed. PMID:25386141

  5. Combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes indicate compensated cognitive processing across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik evan Dinteren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the frontal and parietal P300, elicited in an auditory oddball paradigm were investigated in a large sample of healthy participants (N=1,572, aged 6-87. According to the concepts of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH it was hypothesized that the developmental trajectories of the frontal P300 would reach a maximum in amplitude at an older age than the amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. In addition, the amplitude of the frontal P300 was expected to increase with aging in adulthood in contrast to a decline in amplitude of the parietal P300 amplitude. Using curve-fitting methods, a comparison was made between the developmental trajectories of the amplitudes of the frontal and parietal P300. It was found that the developmental trajectories of frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes differed significantly across the lifespan. During adulthood, the amplitude of the parietal P300 declines with age, whereas both the frontal P300 amplitude and behavioral performance remain unaffected. A lifespan trajectory of combined frontal and parietal P300 amplitudes was found to closely resemble the lifespan trajectory of behavioral performance. Our results can be understood within the concepts of CRUNCH. That is, to compensate for declining neural resources, older participants recruit additional neural resources of prefrontal origin and consequently preserve a stable behavioral performance. Though, a direct relation between amplitude of the frontal P300 and compensatory mechanisms cannot yet be claimed.

  6. Frontal white matter microstructure, aggression, and impulsivity in men with schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; Volavka, Jan; Johnson, Glyn; Weiss, Elisabeth; Bilder, Robert M; Lim, Kelvin O

    2002-07-01

    Aggression and impulsivity may involve altered frontal white matter. Axial diffusion tensor images were acquired in 14 men with schizophrenia using a pulsed gradient, double spin echo, echo planar imaging method. White matter microstructural measures (fractional anisotropy and trace) were calculated from these data. Regions of interest were placed in frontal white matter on four slices. Impulsivity was measured using the Motor Impulsiveness factor of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Aggressiveness was measured using the Assaultiveness scale of the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Aggression scale of the Life History of Aggression. Lower fractional anisotropy in right inferior frontal white matter was associated with higher motor impulsiveness. Higher trace in these regions was associated with aggressiveness. Inferior frontal white matter microstructure was associated with impulsivity and aggression in men with schizophrenia. These results implicate frontal lobe dysfunction in aggression and certain aspects of impulsivity.

  7. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children’s Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children’s depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children’s EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using parent-report of Children’s Depression Inventory. The key findings are the interaction effects between baseline and film frontal EEG asymmetry on child depressive symptoms. Specifically, relative right frontal EEG asymmetry while watching happy or sad film clip was associated with elevated depressive symptoms for children who also exhibited right frontal EEG asymmetry at baseline. Results suggest that right frontal EEG asymmetry that is consistent across situations may be an marker of depression-prone children. PMID:21894523

  9. Aging memory for pictures: using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-31

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults.

  10. Abnormal functional network connectivity among resting-state networks in children with frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, E; Zamyadi, M; Raybaud, C; Snead, O C; Smith, M L

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is considered a disorder of neural networks. The aims of this study were to assess functional connectivity within resting-state networks and functional network connectivity across resting-state networks by use of resting-state fMRI in children with frontal lobe epilepsy and to relate changes in resting-state networks with neuropsychological function. Fifteen patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and normal MR imaging and 14 healthy control subjects were recruited. Spatial independent component analysis was used to identify the resting-state networks, including frontal, attention, default mode network, sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks. The Z-maps of resting-state networks were compared between patients and control subjects. The relation between abnormal connectivity and neuropsychological function was assessed. Correlations from all pair-wise combinations of independent components were performed for each group and compared between groups. The frontal network was the only network that showed reduced connectivity in patients relative to control subjects. The remaining 5 networks demonstrated both reduced and increased functional connectivity within resting-state networks in patients. There was a weak association between connectivity in frontal network and executive function (P = .029) and a significant association between sensorimotor network and fine motor function (P = .004). Control subjects had 79 pair-wise independent components that showed significant temporal coherence across all resting-state networks except for default mode network-auditory network. Patients had 66 pairs of independent components that showed significant temporal coherence across all resting-state networks. Group comparison showed reduced functional network connectivity between default mode network-attention, frontal-sensorimotor, and frontal-visual networks and increased functional network connectivity between frontal-attention, default mode network-sensorimotor, and frontal

  11. Mesial frontal epilepsy and ictal body turning along the horizontal body axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Howan; Schindler, Kaspar; Clusmann, Hans; Bien, Christian G; Pöpel, Annkathrin; Schramm, Johannes; Kwan, Patrick; Wong, Lawrence K S; Elger, Christian E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of mesial frontal semiology. Retrospective case series. Tertiary epilepsy referral center. Part 1 of the study involved 152 patients who underwent frontal lobe surgery. Part 2 involved 253 patients who underwent non-frontal lobe surgery. Inclusion criteria for both parts of the study were seizure localization by analysis of resection margins (mesial frontal, lateral frontal, orbitofrontal, nonfrontal) or intracranial exploration and an Engel class I outcome. In part 1, 84 patients had their habitual seizures analyzed by video encephalography using a semiology checklist of 47 items during the early phase (electrographic onset to 10 seconds) and late phase (rest of episode). Localization semiology was analyzed by chi(2) test with Bonferroni correction and cluster analysis when occurrence exceeded 10% in at least 1 region. In part 2, 144 patients had their habitual seizures screened with mesial frontal semiology from the first part of study during the early phase only. In part 1 of the study, the statistically significant localizing semiology for the mesial frontal region in the early phase was ictal body turning along the horizontal axis (57% of patients), crawling (57% of patients), restlessness (64.3% of patients), facial expressions of anxiety (42.9% of patients) and fear (35.7% of patients), grimacing produced by bilateral facial contraction (42.9% of patients), barking (32.1% of patients), head shaking (25% of patients), and pelvic raising (25% of patients) (all Psemiology with physiological movement are not only prevalent semiology items of mesial frontal lobe epilepsy but they distinguish mesial frontal from lateral frontal and orbitofrontal seizures.

  12. Switch-Independent Task Representations in Frontal and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Lasse S; Wisniewski, David; Rusconi, Marco; Goschke, Thomas; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-08-16

    Alternating between two tasks is effortful and impairs performance. Previous fMRI studies have found increased activity in frontoparietal cortex when task switching is required. One possibility is that the additional control demands for switch trials are met by strengthening task representations in the human brain. Alternatively, on switch trials, the residual representation of the previous task might impede the buildup of a neural task representation. This would predict weaker task representations on switch trials, thus also explaining the performance costs. To test this, male and female participants were cued to perform one of two similar tasks, with the task being repeated or switched between successive trials. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to test which regions encode the tasks and whether this encoding differs between switch and repeat trials. As expected, we found information about task representations in frontal and parietal cortex, but there was no difference in the decoding accuracy of task-related information between switch and repeat trials. Using cross-classification, we found that the frontoparietal cortex encodes tasks using a generalizable spatial pattern in switch and repeat trials. Therefore, task representations in frontal and parietal cortex are largely switch independent. We found no evidence that neural information about task representations in these regions can explain behavioral costs usually associated with task switching.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alternating between two tasks is effortful and slows down performance. One possible explanation is that the representations in the human brain need time to build up and are thus weaker on switch trials, explaining performance costs. Alternatively, task representations might even be enhanced to overcome the previous task. Here, we used a combination of fMRI and a brain classifier to test whether the additional control demands under switching conditions lead to an increased or decreased strength

  13. Role of the trochlear nerve in eye abduction and frontal vision of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearworth, J R; Ashworth, A L; Kaye, J M; Bednarz, D T; Blaum, J F; Vacca, J M; McNeish, J E; Higgins, K A; Michael, C L; Skrobola, M G; Jones, M S; Ariel, M

    2013-10-15

    Horizontal head rotation evokes significant responses from trochlear motoneurons of turtle that suggests they have a functional role in abduction of the eyes like that in frontal-eyed mammals. The finding is unexpected given that the turtle is generally considered lateral-eyed and assumed to have eye movements instead like that of lateral-eyed mammals, in which innervation of the superior oblique muscle by the trochlear nerve (nIV) produces intorsion, elevation, and adduction (not abduction). Using an isolated turtle head preparation with the brain removed, glass suction electrodes were used to stimulate nIV with trains of current pulses. Eyes were monitored via an infrared camera with the head placed in a gimble to quantify eye rotations and their directions. Stimulations of nIV evoked intorsion, elevation, and abduction. Dissection of the superior oblique muscle identified lines of action and a location of insertion on the eye, which supported kinematics evoked by nIV stimulation. Eye positions in alert behaving turtles with their head extended were compared with that when their heads were retracted in the carapace. When the head was retracted, there was a reduction in interpupillary distance and an increase in binocular overlap. Occlusion of peripheral fields by the carapace forces the turtle to a more frontal-eyed state, perhaps the reason for the action of abduction by the superior oblique muscle. These findings support why trochlear motoneurons in turtle respond in the same way as abducens motoneurons to horizontal rotations, an unusual characteristic of vestibulo-ocular physiology in comparison with other mammalian lateral-eyed species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bioinspired Smart Coating with Superior Tribological Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangjian; An, Yulong; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin; Hou, Guoliang

    2017-05-24

    Inspired by the structure of cancellous bone and the nutrition metabolism of articular cartilage, we present a novel concept for a synthetic articular-cartilage-like material. The bioinspired material possesses a low coefficient of friction even under ultrahigh loads and has an extremely long lifetime. Furthermore, the composite shows zero-wear behavior and causes negligible wear damage to the friction pair. The superior tribological performance is attributed to the spontaneously generated articular-cartilage-like layer, which is constantly replenished by frictional heat and pressure. Our findings open a new area for industrial scale engineering applications to improve the friction and wear properties of moving components.

  15. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  16. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  17. Frontal deficits differentiate progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Eun C; Williams, David R; Anderson, Jacqueline F I

    2016-03-01

    The clinical differentiation of progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson's disease can be challenging, due to overlapping clinical features and a lack of diagnostic markers. Abnormalities in cognitive function form part of the clinical spectrums of these diseases and distinctive cognitive profiles may be helpful in differentiating these diseases in the diagnostic period. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 12 patients with clinically diagnosed progressive supranuclear palsy and 12 patients with Parkinson's disease matched for age and disease duration. Effect size (Cohen's d) was calculated for cognitive tests that were significantly different between groups. Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy performed significantly worse than those with Parkinson's disease on measures of processing speed, verbal fluency, planning, verbal abstract reasoning, verbal memory, and made more perseverative responses on a set shifting task. Measures of executive function, manual dexterity and processing speed were most diagnostically useful (Cohen's d > 2.0) in differentiating between progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease. These findings suggest that more severe and prominent 'frontal' cognitive deficits in patients with progressive parkinsonism would be helpful in predicting progressive supranuclear palsy rather than Parkinson's disease and these findings may contribute to the development of diagnostic criteria. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  19. Asymmetric frontal cortical activity predicts effort expenditure for reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David M; Yates, Mark J; Morton, Emma E; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-07-01

    An extensive literature shows that greater left, relative to right, frontal cortical activity (LFA) is involved in approach-motivated affective states and reflects stable individual differences in approach motivation. However, relatively few studies have linked LFA to behavioral indices of approach motivation. In this study, we examine the relation between LFA and effort expenditure for reward, a behavioral index of approach motivation. LFA was calculated for 51 right-handed participants (55% female) using power spectral analysis of electroencephalogram recorded at rest. Participants also completed the effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT), which presents a series of trials requiring a choice between a low-reward low-effort task and a high-reward high-effort task. We found that individuals with greater resting LFA were more willing to expend greater effort in the pursuit of larger rewards, particularly when reward delivery was less likely. Our findings offer a more nuanced understanding of the motivational significance of LFA, in terms of processes that mitigate the effort- and uncertainty-related costs of pursuing rewarding goals. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Suxamethonium-induced facilitation of spontaneous frontal EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammisto, T; Paloheimo, M; Linko, K; Wirtavuori, K

    1988-11-01

    The behaviour of spontaneous frontal electromyographic activity (FEMG) was studied during the recovery from suxamethonium and vecuronium block. In order to obtain comparable conditions in the study groups, the duration of the suxamethonium block was prolonged with a suxamethonium infusion. The FEMG was continuously recorded and the evoked electromyographic (EEMG) and twitch tension (ETT) responses were measured every 10 s from the thenar muscles. The median FEMG remained at the base level in 8 of the 12 vecuronium patients, despite a 50% recovery of EEMG. In the suxamethonium group there was an increase in FEMG in all six patients when EEMG had recovered to 10%, and significantly higher FEMG readings were obtained during further recovery from the block. Thus, early recovery of neuromuscular transmission is detected by FEMG more easily when suxamethonium is used instead of vecuronium. The different behaviour of FEMG may reflect a difference in the recovery ratio of ETT/EEMG or in the anaesthetic depth caused by the two types of neuromuscular blockers.

  1. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  2. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Thermal frontal zone along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Poh Heng; Akhir, Mohd F.; Tangang, Fredolin T.

    2015-11-01

    Monthly satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) climatology was used to investigate the thermal frontal zone along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM) during both northeast and southwest monsoons. In addition, in situ hydrographic observations were conducted to investigate the vertical structure of thermohaline fronts during the southwest monsoon and inter-monsoon period. During the northeast monsoon, the locations of the front is determined by the speed of the southward flowing western boundary current, located near South Vietnam, which causes the tongue of cooler water, flooding into the ECPM. As the speed of southward flowing western boundary current increases, the cooler water tongue moves closer to the ECPM. On the other hand, as current speed decreases, the distinctive cooler water tongue recedes from the ECPM. During the southwest monsoon, the presence of a cooler water patch is observed in the SST climatology data and limited field data exhibit upwelling features (i.e. the presence of isotherm and isohaline shoaling towards the coast and surface). Analysis of European Centre for Medium-range Forecast (ECMWF) wind data show the presence of positive wind stress curl in the region, indicating a driving mechanism for upwelling. Additionally, analyses of onshore and offshore SST differences suggest that significant atmospheric forcing during different monsoon periods are responsible for the seasonal evolution of SST patterns.

  4. Biomechanic study of the human liver during a frontal deceleration.

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    Cheynel, Nicolas; Serre, Thierry; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Benoit, Laurent; Berdah, Stephane-Victor; Brunet, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Mechanisms of hepatic injury remain poorly understood. Surgical literature reports some speculative theories that have never been proved. The aim of this study was to examine the behavior of the liver during brutal frontal deceleration. Six trunks, removed from human cadavers, underwent free falls at 4, 6, and 8 meters per second (mps). Accelerometers were positioned in the two lobes of the liver, in front of the vertebra L2, and in the retro hepatic inferior vena cava. Relative motions of the lobes of the liver and of the two other anatomic marks were observed. In parallel, numerical simulations of this experiment have been performed using a finite element model. In the direction of impact, the vertebra L2 had no considerable displacement with the inferior vena cava. There was a noteworthy displacement between the two hepatic lobes. The left hepatic lobe had a large relative displacement with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. The right hepatic lobe was more stable with the vertebra L2 and the inferior vena cava. Numerical simulation of the same protocol underlined a rotation effect of the liver to the left around the axis of the inferior vena cava. These results support the surgical data. They highlight a crucial zone and explain how dramatic lacerations between the two lobes of the liver can occur.

  5. Frontal Conversion and Uniformity in 3D Printing by Photopolymerisation

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    Alessandra Vitale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the non-uniform spatio-temporal conversion, intrinsic to photopolymerisation, in the context of light-driven 3D printing of polymers. The polymerisation kinetics of a series of model acrylate and thiol-ene systems, both neat and doped with a light-absorbing dye, is investigated experimentally and analysed according to a descriptive coarse-grained model for photopolymerisation. In particular, we focus on the relative kinetics of polymerisation with those of 3D printing, by comparing the evolution of the position of the conversion profile (zf to the sequential displacement of the object stage (∆z. After quantifying the characteristic sigmoidal monomer-to-polymer conversion of the various systems, with a combination of patterning experiments, FT-IR mapping, and modelling, we compute representative regimes for which zf is smaller, commensurate with, or larger than ∆z. While non-monotonic conversion can be detrimental to 3D printing, for instance in causing differential shrinkage of inhomogeneity in material properties, we identify opportunities for facile fabrication of modulated materials in the z-direction (i.e., along the illuminated axis. Our simple framework and model, based on directly measured parameters, can thus be employed in photopolymerisation-based 3D printing, both in process optimisation and in the precise design of complex, internally stratified materials by coupling the z-stage displacement and frontal polymerisation kinetics.

  6. Participation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in human originality.

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    Kleinmintz, Oded M; Abecasis, Donna; Tauber, Amitay; Geva, Amit; Chistyakov, Andrei V; Kreinin, Isabella; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2018-01-01

    Human creative cognition is commonly described as a twofold cyclic process that involves an idea generation phase and an idea evaluation phase. Although the evaluation phase makes a crucial contribution to originality, its underlying mechanisms have not received sufficient research attention. Here, we suggest that the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) plays a major role in the interplay between the evaluation and generation networks and that inhibiting this region's activity may have an effect on "releasing" the generation neural network, resulting in greater originality. To examine the neural networks that mediate the generation and evaluation of ideas, we conducted an fMRI experiment on a group of healthy human participants (Study 1), in which we compared an idea generation task to an idea evaluation task. We found that evaluating the originality of ideas is indeed associated with a relative increase in lIFG activation, as opposed to generating original ideas. We further showed that temporarily inhibiting the lIFG using continuous theta-burst stimulation (Study 2) results in less strict evaluation on the one hand and increased originality scores on the other. Our findings provide converging evidence from multiple methods to show that the lIFG participates in evaluating the originality of ideas.

  7. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

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    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  8. Celulitis orbitaria, celulitis frontal y empiema como complicaciones de sinusitis

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    Felipa Elena García García

    Full Text Available La celulitis orbitaria usualmente ocurre como complicación de infecciones de los senos para nasales, y la etiología es principalmente bacteriana. Para realizar un diagnóstico e implantar terapéutica temprana tiene gran importancia reconocer las manifestaciones clínicas de la sinusitis y las edades más afectadas, pues dada su ubicación anatómica, pueden complicarse también con infecciones del sistema nervioso central, que en la edad pediátrica tienen una connotación especial. Se presentan aquí dos pacientes de 10 y 14 años de edad respectivamente, que desarrollaron celulitis orbitaria en un caso, y celulitis frontal y empiema en el otro; así mismo, se muestran los medios diagnósticos utilizados para identificar signos tempranos de posibles complicaciones, con el objetivo que el pediatra pueda identificarlos, así como la terapéutica implantada para dar solución o evitar estas complicaciones.

  9. Dissociating Effects of Scrambling and Topicalization within the Left Frontal and Temporal Language Areas: An fMRI Study in Kaqchikel Maya

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    Shinri Ohta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilateral temporal regions. To examine such distinct effects in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we targeted the Kaqchikel Maya language, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. In Kaqchikel, the syntactically canonical word order is verb-object-subject (VOS, but at least three non-canonical word orders (i.e., SVO, VSO, and OVS are also grammatically allowed. We used a sentence-picture matching task, in which the participants listened to a short Kaqchikel sentence and judged whether a picture matched the meaning of the sentence. The advantage of applying this experimental paradigm to an understudied language such as Kaqchikel is that it will allow us to validate the universality of linguistic computation in the brain. We found that the conditions with scrambled sentences [+scrambling] elicited significant activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and lateral premotor cortex, both of which have been proposed as grammar centers, indicating the effects of syntactic loads. In contrast, the conditions without topicalization [-topicalization] resulted in significant activation in bilateral Heschl’s gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, demonstrating that the syntactic and phonological processes were clearly dissociated within the language areas. Moreover, the pre-supplementary motor area and left superior/middle temporal gyri were activated under relatively demanding conditions, suggesting their supportive roles in syntactic or semantic processing. To exclude any semantic/phonological effects of the object-subject word orders, we performed direct comparisons while making the factor of

  10. Tratamento da síndrome da veia cava superior Treatment of superior vena cava syndrome

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    Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A veia cava superior é formada pela união das duas veias inominadas, direita e esquerda, e localiza-se no mediastino médio, à direita da artéria aorta e anteriormente à traquéia. A síndrome da veia cava superior representa um conjunto de sinais (dilatação das veias do pescoço, pletora facial, edema de membros superiores, cianose e sintomas (cefaléia, dispnéia, tosse, edema de membro superior, ortopnéia e disfagia decorrentes da obstrução do fluxo sanguíneo através da veia cava superior em direção ao átrio direito. A obstrução pode ser causada por compressão extrínseca, invasão tumoral, trombose ou por dificuldade do retorno venoso ao coração secundária a doenças intra-atriais ou intraluminais. Aproximadamente 73% a 97% dos casos de síndrome da veia cava superior ocorrem durante a evolução de processos malignos intratorácicos. A maioria dos pacientes com a síndrome secundária a neoplasias malignas é tratada sem necessidade de cirurgia, através de radioterapia ou quimioterapia, ou através da colocação de stents endoluminais. Quando a síndrome é de etiologia benigna, o tratamento é feito através de medidas clínicas (anticoagulação, elevação da cabeça, etc. ou, em casos refratários, através de angioplastia, colocação de stents endoluminais e cirurgia.The superior vena cava is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. It is located in the middle mediastinum, to the right of the aorta and anterior to the trachea. Superior vena cava syndrome consists of a group of signs (dilation of the veins in the neck, facial swelling, edema of the upper limbs, and cyanosis and symptoms (headache, dyspnea, cough, orthopnea and dysphagia caused by the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava to the right atrium. This obstruction can be caused by extrinsic compression, tumor invasion or thrombosis. Such obstruction may also occur as a result of insufficient venous return

  11. [Superior vena cava syndrome by cardiac tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, Martin; Bandorski, Dirk; Stahl, Ulrich; Kramer, Wilfried

    2009-01-15

    A 59-year-old man with a 4-week history of dyspnea, coughing, and chest discomfort was referred to hospital for further evaluation. Moreover, he reported fever and fatigue. There were neither cardiovascular risk factors nor drug medication. 6 months earlier, a deep vein thrombosis of his left lower limb was diagnosed followed by an anticoagulation for 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a dilatation of the neck veins with a present Kussmaul sign and a diastolic murmur at the left lower sternal border. The findings on the rest of his physical examination were unremarkable. Electrocardiography showed normal sinus rhythm, low voltage, and anterolateral T wave inversion. Initial laboratory results were remarkable for elevated lactate dehydrogenase level. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a small pericardial effusion with a large intracardiac mass adjacent to the right atrium. Thoracic computed tomography confirmed the tumor mass and showed enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. The patient underwent transesophageal echocardiography-guided transvenous biopsy of the tumor. The immunohistology of the specimen revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient subsequently received a chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone. His clinical response after the first cycle was remarkable with total regression of the superior vena cava syndrome. After the third cycle of therapy, both tumor and pericardial effusion had disappeared. A cardiac tumor is a rare cause of a superior vena cava syndrome. Tissue biopsy is warranted to guide diagnosis and therapy. Transvenous biopsy is generally safe when guided by echocardiography.

  12. Premissas para o Ensino Superior do Design

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    André Luis Marques da Silveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da Educação Superior e objetivo identificar premissas para o Ensino em Design no Brasil. Para tanto, efetua um estudo dos conteúdos das comunicações da área em periódicos e livros quanto ao assunto. O método de investigação utilizado foi a análise de conteúdo e observou as seguintes etapas de investigação: registro de dados, interpretação inferencial e categorização. Num primeiro momento, identifica a frequência do aparecimento de índices lexicais quanto ao relato de problemas no processo de Ensino-aprendizagem do Design e as proposições para o seu enfrentamento. Procede uma interpretação inferencial destes dados e, por fim, propõe como resultado, um conjunto de doze premissas que devem ser observadas quanto ao Ensino Superior em Design, a saber: 1 Incentivar o empreendedorismo; 2 Nivelar a Formação; 3 Desenvolver estrategistas; 4 Pensar a ética na atuação profissional; 5 Educar para o social; 6 Valorizar os ideias humanistas; 7 Repensar as estruturas acadêmicas; 8 Focar na aprendizagem baseada em problemas; 9 Aceitar os novos paradigmas; 10 Fomentar o pensamento crítico reflexivo; 11 Estimular a transdisciplinaridade; 12 Focar nas economias emergentes.

  13. Assignment Confidence in Localization of the Hand Motor Cortex: Comparison of Structural Imaging With Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Neslin; Mohan, Suyash; Maralani, Pejman J; Duddukuri, Srikalyan; O'Rourke, Donald M; Melhem, Elias R; Wolf, Ronald L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assign confidence levels to structural MRI and functional MRI (fMRI) for localization of the primary motor cortex. Ninety-one fMRI studies with at least one motor task (178 hemispheres) were identified. Three anatomic assessments were used to localize the primary motor cortex: relation between the superior frontal sulcus and precentral sulcus; cortical thickness; and configuration of the precentral knob. In 105 hemispheres, interreader agreement was assessed for two investigators with different experience levels. Confidence ratings from 0 to 5 (0, no confidence; 5, 100% confidence) were assigned for fMRI and each anatomic localization method. Cortical thickness had the highest confidence rating (mean, 4.90 ± 0.47 [SD]) with only one failure. The relation between the superior frontal sulcus and precentral sulcus had the lowest confidence rating (4.33 ± 0.91) with three failures. The greatest statistical significance was observed for the cortical thickness and superior frontal sulcus-precentral sulcus methods (post hoc Bonferroni test, p Confidence rating scores were significantly higher for the cortical thickness sign than for fMRI results (4.72 ± 0.54) for a single motor task (post hoc Bonferroni test, p = 0.006); however, the mean confidence rating for fMRI improved to 4.87 ± 0.36 when additional motor tasks were performed. Interreader differences were least for the cortical thickness sign (paired t test, t = 4.25, p confidence regarding localization of the primary motor cortex; however, localization of motor function is more specific when combined with fMRI findings. Multiple techniques can be used to increase confidence in identifying the hand motor cortex.

  14. Lifting frontal apoyado en malla de polipropileno Brow lift supported on polypropylen mesh

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    J.P. Aracil Kessler

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La región frontorbitaria tiene una especial significación en el contexto del envejecimiento facial. La literatura cuenta con numerosa bibliografía que trata sobre este problema. Se considera como una unidad diagnóstico-terapéutica en los últimos tiempos y la evolución de la cirugía hace que se vaya hacia soluciones cada vez más fisiológicas y mínimamente invasivas. Nuestro trabajo queremos que sea un paso más en esa dirección. Sobre una muestra de 25 pacientes en los que se trató la región frontorbitaraia con diferentes procedimientos, y que además mostraban un descenso de la altura de las cejas, se presenta una técnica de suspensión frontorbitaria con mínima incisión, apoyada en una malla de polipropileno anclada en el músculo frontal y galea en el extremo inferior y en el periostio y la galea en su extremo superior en el plano supraperióstico y sin resección cutánea. Se emplea un sistema de medición de resultados basado en puntos del esqueleto facial. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios subjetiva y objetivamente, y comparables a los de otras técnicas más complejas y de mayor coste económico. Las complicaciones desarrolladas han sido leves y pasajeras. Se valora porqué se decidió utilizar la malla de polipropileno, así como porqué se eligió un gramaje concreto. También se analizan las características que aportan el material y su uso en esta técnica como comportamiento ante la infección, tolerancia tisular, retracción cicatricial y adhesividad. Asímismo se justifica el plano de disección y colocación elegido, y se valora el sistema de medición para el control objetivo de los resultados. La aportación de este trabajo consiste en desarrollar una alternativa dentro de las técnicas mínimamente invasivas para le reposición de la región frontorbitaria, sin resección de piel y con buenos resultados en la corrección de las arrugas frontales, comparables a los de otras técnicas de mayor complejidad y

  15. Neural evidence for the use of digit-image mnemonic in a superior memorist: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-Jun; Lou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Ming-Xia; Wang, Zhao-Xin; Hu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Some superior memorists demonstrated exceptional memory for reciting a large body of information. The underlying neural correlates, however, are seldom addressed. C.L., the current holder of Guinness World Record for reciting 67,890 digits in π, participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Thirteen participants without any mnemonics training were included as controls. Our previous studies suggested that C.L. used a digit-image mnemonic in studying and recalling lists of digits, namely associating 2-digit groups of "00" to "99" with images and generating vivid stories out of them (Hu et al., 2009). Thus, 2-digit condition was included, with 1-digit numbers and letters as control conditions. We hypothesized that 2-digit condition in C.L. should elicit the strongest activity in the brain regions which are associated with his mnemonic. Functional MRI results revealed that bilateral frontal poles (FPs, BA10), left superior parietal lobule (SPL), left premotor cortex (PMC), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), were more engaged in both the study and recall phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. relative to controls. Moreover, the left middle/inferior frontal gyri (M/IFG) and intraparietal sulci (IPS) were less engaged in the study phase of 2-digit condition for C.L. (vs. controls). These results suggested that C.L. relied more on brain regions that are associated with episodic memory other than verbal rehearsal while he used his mnemonic strategies. This study supported theoretical accounts of restructured cognitive mechanisms for the acquisition of superior memory performance.

  16. Relationships of Behavioral Measures of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction with Underlying Electrophysiology in Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjini, Klevest; Qazi, Aisha; Greenwald, Mark K.; Sandhu, Ravinder; Gooding, Diane C.; Boutros, Nash N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite evidence that frontal lobe functioning is impaired in cocaine-dependent individuals, relationships between behavioral measures of frontal dysfunction and electrophysiological measures of inhibition in cocaine use have not been explored. Methods Using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FrSBe), frontal dysfunction was assessed in a group of abstinent cocaine-dependent subjects (N=49) and healthy controls (N=32). Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and evoked potential (EP)-based electrophysiological measures of inhibition, we assessed associations between these measures and FrSBe estimates of frontal dysfunction. Results Patients had significantly higher FrSBe scores for executive dysfunction, disinhibition and apathy than controls. Lower TMS-based resting motor thresholds (i.e., hyperexcitability) were significantly associated with higher Executive Dysfunction scores in the patients. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Relationships between FrSBe scores and TMS-based measures highlight neurophysiological aberrations underlying frontal lobe dysfunction in cocaine abusers. TMS and EP measures may be useful probes of the intermediary steps between frontal lobe dysfunction and addictive behavior. PMID:24724884

  17. Frontal lobe function in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akiko; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Masato; Iida, Junzo; Jikumaru, Kiyoko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-07-01

    Understanding of the relationship between caregiver burden and the degree of behavioural deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is relatively limited. Therefore, it is worthwhile to examine the correlations between the various relevant factors to improve the efficacy of care for patients with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific contributions of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients to caregiver burden, while controlling for other predictor variables. Participants included 30 pairs of caregivers and patients with AD. The Zarit Burden Interview and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to measure the caregiver burden and patients' frontal lobe function, respectively. To investigate the effects of frontal lobe dysfunction on caregiver burden, hierarchical regression equations with steps incorporating additional predictor variables were fitted. We also performed a correlation analysis between the individual subdomains of the Zarit Burden Interview and the predictor variables. Our study suggests that the degree of frontal lobe dysfunction in AD patients predicts their caregiver burden, when other factors of daily functional limitations and neuropsychiatric symptoms are controlled. Daily functional limitations and neuropsychiatric symptoms affected caregivers' psychosocial burden, whereas frontal lobe dysfunction affected caregivers' burden due to the increase in the dependency of the patients. Our findings indicate that to ameliorate the disabilities of patients and reduce caregiver burden, there is a need for interventions that focus on psychosocial burdens, as shown in previous studies, as well as on excessive dependency due to frontal lobe dysfunction. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. A Novel Approach to Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Frontal Lobe Using Three-Dimensional Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steffen A; Hall, Rebecca; Hund, Lauren; Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hurley, Timothy; Holbrook, Bradley D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2017-01-01

    While prenatal 3D ultrasonography results in improved diagnostic accuracy, no data are available on biometric assessment of the fetal frontal lobe. This study was designed to assess feasibility of a standardized approach to biometric measurement of the fetal frontal lobe and to construct frontal lobe growth trajectories throughout gestation. A sonographic 3D volume set was obtained and measured in 101 patients between 16.1 and 33.7 gestational weeks. Measurements were obtained by two independent raters. To model the relationship between gestational age and each frontal lobe measurement, flexible linear regression models were fit using penalized regression splines. The sample contained an ethnically diverse population (7.9% Native Americans, 45.5% Hispanic/Latina). There was high inter-rater reliability (correlation coefficients: 0.95, 1.0, and 0.87 for frontal lobe length, width, and height; p-values frontal lobe growth were 0.096 cm/week, 0.247 cm/week, and 0.111 cm/week for length, width, and height. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine fetal frontal lobe growth trajectories through 3D prenatal ultrasound examination. Such normative data will allow for future prenatal evaluation of a particular disease state by 3D ultrasound imaging.

  19. [Planning disorders in men with schizophrenia and in men with localized frontal lobe lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okruszek, Łukasz; Rutkowska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Planning disorders have been observed in people with frontal lobe lesions for many decades. There's also growing body of evidence of frontal dysfunction in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the planning abilities in men with schizophrenia, men with localized frontal lobe lesions and healthy men. A sample of 90 men participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: men with schizophrenia (n = 30), men with localized frontal lobe lesions (n = 30) and healthy men (n = 30) as a control group. Planning abilities were assessed with a clinical trial based on Tower of London task. Significant differences in ToL measures were found between controls and men with schizophrenia (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesions (Trials solved: p frontal lobe lesion groups. Similar deficits in planning and solving problems, which require planning, may be observed in men with schizophrenia and men with frontal lobe lesions. In both groups time spent on thinking is less effective than in healthy men. Not only quantitative, but also qualitative assessment should be carried when examining patients' performance on Tower of London task.

  20. Hypothesis on two different functionalities co-existing in frontal lobe of human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue

    2013-09-01

    Human frontal lobe is a key area from where our cognition, memory and emotion display or function. In medical case study, there are patients with social dysfunctions, lack of passion or emotion as result of their frontal lobe damage caused by pathological changes, traumatic damage, and brain tumor remove operations. The syndrome of frontal lobe damage remains at large unanswered medically. From early stage of pregnancy, there exists lobe layers, nerve combine, and neurons synaptic, indicating a completion of growth of functionality inside frontal lobe. However, this completion of growth does not match the growth of human intelligence. Human infants only start and complete their cognition and memory functionality one full year after their birth which is marked by huge amount of neurons synaptic inside their frontal lobe, which is not part of a continual growth of originally developed functions. By reasoning on pathological changes of frontal lobe, a hypothesis was established that two individually functional mechanisms co-existed inside one frontal lobe. This neuron system is particularly for human beings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.