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Sample records for superior frontal cortices

  1. Cortical thickness of superior frontal cortex predicts impulsiveness and perceptual reasoning in adolescence.

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    Schilling, C; Kühn, S; Paus, T; Romanowski, A; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Brühl, R; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Dalley, J W; Flor, H; Ittermann, B; Ivanov, N; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Nees, F; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Ströhle, A; Kathmann, N; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Schumann, G; Gallinat, J

    2013-05-01

    Impulsiveness is a pivotal personality trait representing a core domain in all major personality inventories. Recently, impulsiveness has been identified as an important modulator of cognitive processing, particularly in tasks that require the processing of large amounts of information. Although brain imaging studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex to be a common underlying representation of impulsiveness and related cognitive functioning, to date a fine-grain and detailed morphometric analysis has not been carried out. On the basis of ahigh-resolution magnetic resonance scans acquired in 1620 healthy adolescents (IMAGEN), the individual cortical thickness (CT) was estimated. Correlations between Cloninger's impulsiveness and CT were studied in an entire cortex analysis. The cluster identified was tested for associations with performance in perceptual reasoning tasks of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC IV). We observed a significant inverse correlation between trait impulsiveness and CT of the left superior frontal cortex (SFC; Monte Carlo Simulation P<0.01). CT within this cluster correlated with perceptual reasoning scores (Bonferroni corrected) of the WISC IV. On the basis of a large sample of adolescents, we identified an extended area in the SFC as a correlate of impulsiveness, which appears to be in line with the trait character of this prominent personality facet. The association of SFC thickness with perceptual reasoning argues for a common neurobiological basis of personality and specific cognitive domains comprising attention, spatial reasoning and response selection. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of impulsiveness in several psychiatric disorders associated with prefrontal dysfunctions and cognitive deficits.

  2. Jealousy increased by induced relative left frontal cortical activity.

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    Kelley, Nicholas J; Eastwick, Paul W; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Asymmetric frontal cortical activity may be one key to the process linking social exclusion to jealous feelings. The current research examined the causal role of asymmetric frontal brain activity in modulating jealousy in response to social exclusion. Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the frontal cortex to manipulate asymmetric frontal cortical activity was combined with a modified version of the Cyberball paradigm designed to induce jealousy. After receiving 15 min of tDCS, participants were excluded by a desired partner and reported how jealous they felt. Among individuals who were excluded, tDCS to increase relative left frontal cortical activity caused greater levels of self-reported jealousy compared to tDCS to increase relative right frontal cortical activity or sham stimulation. Limitations concerning the specificity of this effect and implications for the role of the asymmetric prefrontal cortical activity in motivated behaviors are discussed.

  3. Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism.

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    Peterson, Carly K; Gravens, Laura C; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-06-01

    Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional states and their associated cortical activations. Study 1 found that following ostracism anger related directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right-hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as ostracism. Also, right-hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations between ostracism-induced frontal asymmetry and emotive responses to ostracism consistent with Study 1. Taken together, these results suggest that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is related to angry responses to ostracism, with greater relative left frontal cortical activity being associated with increased anger.

  4. Dynamics of Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Activity in Human Temporal and Frontal Cortical Areas During Music Listening

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    2012-04-14

    REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain

  5. Development of a superior frontal-intraparietal network for visuo-spatial working memory.

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    Klingberg, Torkel

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity increases throughout childhood and adolescence, which is important for the development of a wide range of cognitive abilities, including complex reasoning. The spatial-span task, in which subjects retain information about the order and position of a number of objects, is a sensitive task to measure development of spatial working memory. This review considers results from previous neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of this development. Older children and adolescents, with higher capacity, have been found to have higher brain activity in the intraparietal cortex and in the posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus, during the performance of working memory tasks. The structural maturation of white matter has been investigated by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). This has revealed several regions in the frontal lobes in which white matter maturation is correlated with the development of working memory. Among these is a superior fronto-parietal white matter region, located close to the grey matter regions that are implicated in the development of working memory. Furthermore, the degree of white matter maturation is positively correlated with the degree of cortical activation in the frontal and parietal regions. This suggests that during childhood and adolescence, there is development of networks related to specific cognitive functions, such as visuo-spatial working memory. These networks not only consist of cortical areas but also the white matter tracts connecting them. For visuo-spatial working memory, this network could consist of the superior frontal and intraparietal cortex.

  6. Cortical networks for visual reaching: physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions.

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    Johnson, P B; Ferraina, S; Bianchi, L; Caminiti, R

    1996-01-01

    The functional and structural properties of the dorsolateral frontal lobe and posterior parietal proximal arm representations were studied in macaque monkeys. Physiological mapping of primary motor (MI), dorsal premotor (PMd), and posterior parietal (area 5) cortices was performed in behaving monkeys trained in an instructed-delay reaching task. The parietofrontal corticocortical connectivities of these same areas were subsequently examined anatomically by means of retrograde tracing techniques. Signal-, set-, movement-, and position-related directional neuronal activities were distributed nonuniformly within the task-related areas in both frontal and parietal cortices. Within the frontal lobe, moving caudally from PMd to the MI, the activity that signals for the visuo-spatial events leading to target localization decreased, while the activity more directly linked to movement generation increased. Physiological recordings in the superior parietal lobule revealed a gradient-like distribution of functional properties similar to that observed in the frontal lobe. Signal- and set-related activities were encountered more frequently in the intermediate and ventral part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in area MIP. Movement-and position-related activities were distributed more uniformly within the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in both dorsal area 5 and in MIP. Frontal and parietal regions sharing similar functional properties were preferentially connected through their association pathways. As a result of this study, area MIP, and possibly areas MDP and 7m as well, emerge as the parietal nodes by which visual information may be relayed to the frontal lobe arm region. These parietal and frontal areas, along with their association connections, represent a potential cortical network for visual reaching. The architecture of this network is ideal for coding reaching as the result of a combination between visual and somatic information.

  7. Frontal Lobe Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature

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    Baskan, Ozdil; Geyik, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intracranial lipomas (ICLs) are rare lesions, the vast majority encountered as incidental findings on imaging studies. ICLs are generally pericallosal midline lesions and thought to be asymptomatic and can be accompanied by additional intracranial congenital malformations. We describe a 17-year old male with an unusual case of ICL on the frontal lobe associated with cortical dysplasia and abnormal vasculature mimicking arteriovenous malformation on magnetic resonance images. PMID:25489889

  8. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

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    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  9. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

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    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  10. Distinct contributions by frontal and parietal cortices support working memory.

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    Mackey, Wayne E; Curtis, Clayton E

    2017-07-21

    Although subregions of frontal and parietal cortex both contribute and coordinate to support working memory (WM) functions, their distinct contributions remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations to topographically organized human frontal and parietal cortex during WM maintenance cause distinct but systematic distortions in WM. The nature of these distortions supports theories positing that parietal cortex mainly codes for retrospective sensory information, while frontal cortex codes for prospective action.

  11. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

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    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  12. Slowly progressive anarthria with late anterior opercular syndrome: a variant form of frontal cortical atrophy syndromes.

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    Broussolle, E; Bakchine, S; Tommasi, M; Laurent, B; Bazin, B; Cinotti, L; Cohen, L; Chazot, G

    1996-12-01

    We describe eight patients with slowly progressive speech production deficit combining speech apraxia, dysarthria, dysprosody and orofacial apraxia, and initially no other deficit in other language and non-language neuropsychological domains. Long-term follow-up (6-10 years) in 4 cases showed an evolution to muteness, bilateral suprabulbar paresis with automatic-voluntary dissociation and frontal lobe cognitive slowing without generalised intellectual deterioration. Most disabled patients presented with an anterior opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome), and pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs. CT and MRI findings disclosed asymmetric (left > right) progressive cortical atrophy of the frontal lobes predominating in the posterior inferior frontal region, notably the operculum. SPECT and PET revealed a decreased cerebral blood flow and metabolism, prominent in the left posterior-inferior frontal gyrus and premotor cortex, extending bilaterally in the most advanced cases. Pathological study of two cases showed non-specific neuronal loss, gliosis, and spongiosis of superficial cortical layers, mainly confined to the frontal lobes, with no significant abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem (except severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra in one case), and spinal cord. We propose to call this peculiar syndrome Slowly Progressive Anarthria (SPA), based on its specific clinical presentation, and its metabolic and pathological correlates. SPA represents another clinical expression of focal cortical degeneration syndromes, that may overlap with other similar syndromes, specially primary progressive aphasia and the various frontal lobe dementias.

  13. Frontal and Parietal Cortices Show Different Spatiotemporal Dynamics across Problem-solving Stages.

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    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Arithmetic problem-solving can be conceptualized as a multistage process ranging from task encoding over rule and strategy selection to step-wise task execution. Previous fMRI research suggested a frontal-parietal network involved in the execution of complex numerical and nonnumerical tasks, but evidence is lacking on the particular contributions of frontal and parietal cortices across time. In an arithmetic task paradigm, we evaluated individual participants' "retrieval" and "multistep procedural" strategies on a trial-by-trial basis and contrasted those in time-resolved analyses using combined EEG and MEG. Retrieval strategies relied on direct retrieval of arithmetic facts (e.g., 2 + 3 = 5). Procedural strategies required multiple solution steps (e.g., 12 + 23 = 12 + 20 + 3 or 23 + 10 + 2). Evoked source analyses revealed independent activation dynamics within the first second of problem-solving in brain areas previously described as one network, such as the frontal-parietal cognitive control network: The right frontal cortex showed earliest effects of strategy selection for multistep procedural strategies around 300 msec, before parietal cortex activated around 700 msec. In time-frequency source power analyses, memory retrieval and multistep procedural strategies were differentially reflected in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies: Stronger beta and alpha desynchronizations emerged for procedural strategies in right frontal, parietal, and temporal regions as function of executive demands. Arithmetic fact retrieval was reflected in right prefrontal increases in theta power. Our results demonstrate differential brain dynamics within frontal-parietal networks across the time course of a problem-solving process, and analyses of different frequency bands allowed us to disentangle cortical regions supporting the underlying memory and executive functions.

  14. Frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related β-amyloid accumulation by chronic sleep restriction in mice.

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    Zhao, Hongyi; Wu, Huijuan; He, Jialin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-08-17

    Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mitochondria-related β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is increasingly being considered a novel risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. The close relationship between chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and cortical Aβ elevation was confirmed recently. By assessing frontal cortical mitochondrial function (electron microscopy manifestation, cytochrome C oxidase concentration, ATP level, and mitochondrial membrane potential) and the levels of mitochondria-related Aβ in 9-month-old adult male C57BL/6J mice subjected to CSR and as an environmental control (CO) group, we aimed to evaluate the association of CSR with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation. In this study, frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was significantly more severe in CSR mice compared with CO animals. Furthermore, CSR mice showed higher mitochondria-associated Aβ, total Aβ, and mitochondria-related β-amyloid protein precursor (AβPP) levels compared with CO mice. In the CSR model, mouse frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction was correlated with mitochondria-associated Aβ and mitochondria-related AβPP levels. However, frontal cortical mitochondria-associated Aβ levels showed no significant association with cortical total Aβ and mitochondrial AβPP concentrations. These findings indicated that CSR-induced frontal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-related Aβ accumulation, which was closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction under CSR.

  15. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

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    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week. A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and left frontal eye fields (FEFs. No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  16. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations.

  17. Positive Association of Video Game Playing with Left Frontal Cortical Thickness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations. PMID:24633348

  18. Alterations in cortical thickness and neuronal density in the frontal cortex of Albert Einstein.

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    Anderson, B; Harvey, T

    1996-06-07

    Neuronal density, neuron size, and the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortical surface area were measured in the right pre-frontal cortex of Albert Einstein and five elderly control subjects. Measurement of neuronal density used the optical dissector technique on celloidin-embedded cresyl violet-stained sections. The neurons counted provided a systematic random sample for the measurement of cell body cross-sectional area. Einstein's cortex did not differ from the control subjects in the number of neurons under 1 mm2 of cerebral cortex or in mean neuronal size. Because Einstein's cortex was thinner than the controls he had a greater neuronal density.

  19. Prearcuate cortex in the Cebus monkey has cortical and subcortical connections like the macaque frontal eye field and projects to fastigial-recipient oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei.

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    Leichnetz, G R; Gonzalo-Ruiz, A

    1996-01-01

    The cortical and subcortical connections of the prearcuate cortex were studied in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, albifrons) using the anterograde and retrograde transport capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase technique. The findings demonstrate remarkable similarities to those of the macaque frontal eye field and strongly support their homology. The report then focuses on specific prearcuate projections to oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei that were shown in a companion experiment to entertain connections with the caudal oculomotor portion of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. The principal corticocortical connections of the cebus prearcuate cortex were with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, lateral intraparietal sulcal cortex, posterior medial parietal cortex, and superior temporal sulcal cortex, which were for the most part reciprocal and columnar in organization. The connections of the dorsal prearcuate region were heavier to the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior medial parietal cortices, and those of the ventral region were heavier to the superior temporal sulcal cortex. The prearcuate cortex projects to several brainstem areas which also receive projections from the caudal fastigial nucleus, including the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray matter, superior colliculus, medial nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, dorsomedial basilar pontine nucleus, dorsolateral basilar pontine nucleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, pontine raphe, and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. The findings define a neuroanatomical framework within which convergence of prearcuate (putative frontal eye field) and caudal fastigial nucleus connections might occur, facilitating their potential interaction in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement.

  20. Posterior Cortical Atrophy Presenting with Superior Arcuate Field Defect

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    Sue Ling Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old female with reading difficulty presented with progressive arcuate field defect despite low intraocular pressure. Over a 5-year period, the field defect evolved into an incongruous homonymous hemianopia and the repeated neuroimaging revealed progressive posterior cortical atrophy. Further neuropsychiatric assessment demonstrated symptoms and signs consistent with Benson’s syndrome.

  1. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

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    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential roles for left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in multimodal integration of action and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Özyürek, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies indicate that both posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) are involved in integrating information from different modalities. Here we investigated the respective roles of these two areas in integration of action and l

  3. Differences in frontal cortical activation by a working memory task after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, Garry D; Edward T Bullmore; Soni, William; Varatheesan, Malini; Williams, Steve C.R.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenia may be complicated by side effects of widespread dopaminergic antagonism, including exacerbation of negative and cognitive symptoms due to frontal cortical hypodopaminergia. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to enhance frontal dopaminergic activity in animal models. We predicted that substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia would be associated with enhanced functional activation of frontal...

  4. The Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Individual Variation in Proactive Control of Impulsive Response.

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    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-12-14

    A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to rein in impulsive responses. Previously, we used a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial likelihood of the stop signal or p(Stop) and related regional activations to p(Stop) to response slowing in a stop signal task. Here, we characterized the regional processes of conflict anticipation in association with intersubject variation in impulse control in 114 young adults. We computed the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and a measure of motor urgency, indexed by the reaction time (RT) difference between go and stop error trials or "GoRT - SERT," where GoRT is the go trial RT and SERT is the stop error RT. Motor urgency and SSRT were positively correlated across subjects. A linear regression identified regional activations to p(Stop), each in correlation with SSRT and motor urgency. We hypothesized that shared neural activities mediate the correlation between motor urgency and SSRT in proactive control of impulsivity. Activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during conflict anticipation correlated negatively with the SSRT. Activation of the right SFG also correlated negatively with GoRT - SERT. Therefore, activation of the right SFG was associated with more efficient response inhibition and less motor urgency. A mediation analysis showed that right SFG activation to conflict anticipation mediates the correlation between SSRT and motor urgency bidirectionally. The current results highlight a specific role of the right SFG in translating conflict anticipation to the control of impulsive response, which is consistent with earlier studies suggesting its function in action restraint.

  5. Differences in Cortical Sources of the Event-Related P3 Potential Between Young and Old Participants Indicate Frontal Compensation.

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    van Dinteren, R; Huster, R J; Jongsma, M L A; Kessels, R P C; Arns, M

    2017-01-18

    The event-related P3 potential, as elicited in auditory signal detection tasks, originates from neural activity of multiple cortical structures and presumably reflects an overlap of several cognitive processes. The fact that the P3 is affected by aging makes it a potential metric for age-related cognitive change. The P3 in older participants is thought to encompass frontal compensatory activity in addition to task-related processes. The current study investigates this by decomposing the P3 using group independent component analysis (ICA). Independent components (IC) of young and old participants were compared in order to investigate the effects of aging. Exact low-resolution tomography analysis (eLORETA) was used to compare current source densities between young and old participants for the P3-ICs to localize differences in cortical source activity for every IC. One of the P3-related ICs reflected a different constellation of cortical generators in older participants compared to younger participants, suggesting that this P3-IC reflects shifts in neural activations and compensatory processes with aging. This P3-IC was localized to the orbitofrontal/temporal, and the medio-parietal regions. For this IC, older participants showed more frontal activation and less parietal activation as measured on the scalp. The differences in cortical sources were localized in the precentral gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. This finding might reflect compensatory activity recruited from these cortical sources during a signal detection task.

  6. Word wins over Face: Emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ovaysikia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behaviour. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-colour/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC. By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviours of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times (RT and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviours such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response (SR associations of an over-learned behaviour compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention.

  7. A surgical case of frontal lobe epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia accompanied by olfactory nerve enlargement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Noriaki; Uda, Takehiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nagai, Taiki; Uchida, Tatsuya; Kamei, Takamasa; Morino, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old man came to our clinic due to refractory general tonic seizure and an attack of unintended yelling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mild cortical hyperintensity on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image in the left basal frontal area. Enlargement of the left olfactory nerve was also detected below the affected gyrus. Subtotal resection of the MRI-visible epileptogenic lesion was performed without any neurological deficit. The final pathological diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIa. Seizures and yelling attacks subsided after surgery. Extracerebral abnormalities, including cranial nerve enlargement, are common in patients with hemimegalencephaly. However, such abnormalities are rare with FCD.

  8. Comparative ultrastructural features of excitatory synapses in the visual and frontal cortices of the adult mouse and monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alexander; Luebke, Jennifer I; Medalla, Maria

    2017-03-03

    The excitatory glutamatergic synapse is the principal site of communication between cortical pyramidal neurons and their targets, a key locus of action of many drugs, and highly vulnerable to dysfunction and loss in neurodegenerative disease. A detailed knowledge of the structure of these synapses in distinct cortical areas and across species is a prerequisite for understanding the anatomical underpinnings of cortical specialization and, potentially, selective vulnerability in neurological disorders. We used serial electron microscopy to assess the ultrastructural features of excitatory (asymmetric) synapses in the layers 2-3 (L2-3) neuropil of visual (V1) and frontal (FC) cortices of the adult mouse and compared findings to those in the rhesus monkey (V1 and lateral prefrontal cortex [LPFC]). Analyses of multiple ultrastructural variables revealed four organizational features. First, the density of asymmetric synapses does not differ between frontal and visual cortices in either species, but is significantly higher in mouse than in monkey. Second, the structural properties of asymmetric synapses in mouse V1 and FC are nearly identical, by stark contrast to the significant differences seen between monkey V1 and LPFC. Third, while the structural features of postsynaptic entities in mouse and monkey V1 do not differ, the size of presynaptic boutons are significantly larger in monkey V1. Fourth, both presynaptic and postsynaptic entities are significantly smaller in the mouse FC than in the monkey LPFC. The diversity of synaptic ultrastructural features demonstrated here have broad implications for the nature and efficacy of glutamatergic signaling in distinct cortical areas within and across species.

  9. Reconstrucción total del párpado superior mediante colgajo frontal Whole repair made in the upper eyelid using a frontal flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé León Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes que han sido sometidos a resecciones quirúrgicas por cáncer, que han sufrido lesiones por quemaduras de espesor total o traumas avulsivos con pérdida extensa de tejidos que engloban la totalidad del párpado superior, acuden con relativa frecuencia a consulta por presentar la cornea expuesta, y dicha exposición resulta en ulceraciones, cicatriz y ceguera. En estos pacientes se observa una gran insatisfacción por el inconveniente que representa no poder usar una prótesis ocular y algo no menos importante, el gran defecto estético. Se presenta el caso de un paciente del sexo masculino, de 30 años de edad, que sufrió múltiples lesiones por el estallido de un artefacto explosivo, con pérdida total del párpado superior derecho y enucleación ocular. Se le realizó reconstrucción palpebral total mediante el colgajo dermograso frontal y se obtuvieron buenos resultados estéticos.Patients underwent to surgical resections from cancer and whole thickness burn lesions or avulsion traumata with an extent loss of tissues which shape the upper eyelid, came with a relative frequency to consultation due to corneal exposition and this exposition resulting in ulcerations, scar, and blindness. These patients are very unsatisfied because they can not use of an ocular prosthesis, and something less important, the big aesthetic defect. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 30 with multiple lesions from explosion of an explosive artifact with loss of right upper eyelid and ocular enucleation. A total palpebral reconstruction was performed using a frontal dermal fatty flap with good aesthetic results.

  10. Modulation of NMDA and AMPA-mediated synaptic transmission by CB1 receptors in frontal cortical pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Yan, Haidun; Wilson, Wilkie A; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2010-06-25

    Although the endogenous cannabinoid system modulates a variety of physiological and pharmacological processes, the specific role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission and neural plasticity is not well understood. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques, evoked or spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs or sEPSCs) were recorded from visualized, layer II/III pyramidal cells in frontal cortical slices from rat brain. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist, WIN 55212-2 (WIN), reduced the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner. When co-applied with the specific CB1 antagonists, AM251 or AM281, WIN did not suppress NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs. WIN also reduced the amplitude of evoked AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, an effect that was also reversed by AM251. Both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs were significantly reduced by WIN. In contrast, WIN reduced the frequency, but not the amplitude of miniature EPSCs, suggesting that the suppression of glutamatergic activity by CB1 receptors in the frontal neocortex is mediated by a presynaptic mechanism. Taken together, these data indicate a critical role for endocannabinoid signaling in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in frontal neocortex, and suggest a possible neuronal mechanism whereby THC regulates cortical function.

  11. Frontal Cortical Asymmetry May Partially Mediate the Influence of Social Power on Anger Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Wang, Changming; Yin, Qin; Mao, Mengchai; Zhu, Chaozhe; Huang, Yuxia

    2016-01-01

    When irritated by other people, powerful people usually tend to express their anger explicitly and directly, whereas people in less powerful positions are more likely not to show their feelings freely. The neural mechanism behind power and its influence on expression tendency has been scarcely explored. This study recorded frontal EEG activity at rest and frontal EEG activation while participants were engaged in a writing task describing an anger-eliciting event, in which they were irritated by people with higher or lower social power. Participants' anger levels and expression inclination levels were self-reported on nine-point visual analog Likert scales, and also rated by independent raters based on the essays they had written. The results showed that high social power was indeed associated with greater anger expression tendency and greater left frontal activation than low social power. This is in line with the approach-inhibition theory of power. The mid-frontal asymmetric activation served as a partial mediator between social power and expression inclination. This effect may relate to the functions of the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of information integration and evaluation and the control of motivation direction, as reported by previous studies.

  12. Frontal cortical asymmetry may partially mediate the influence of social power on anger expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When irritated by other people, powerful people usually tend to express their anger explicitly and directly, whereas people in less powerful positions are more likely not to show their feelings freely. The neural mechanism behind power and its influence on expression tendency has been scarcely explored. This study recorded frontal EEG activity at rest and frontal EEG activation while participants were engaged in a writing task describing an anger-eliciting event, in which they were irritated by people with higher or lower social power. Participants’ anger levels and expression inclination levels were self-reported on nine-point visual analog Likert scales, and also rated by independent raters based on the essays they had written. The results showed that high social power was indeed associated with greater anger expression tendency and greater left frontal activation than low social power. This is in line with the approach-inhibition theory of power. The mid-frontal asymmetric activation served as a partial mediator between social power and expression inclination. This effect may relate to the functions of the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of information integration and evaluation and the control of motivation direction, as reported by previous studies.

  13. Neonatal isolation decreases cued fear conditioning and frontal cortical histone 3 lysine 9 methylation in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Gour-Shenq; Cheng, Ling-Yi; Chen, Li-Hsien; Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chienfang G; Su, Chien-Chou; Wang, Ching-Yi; Yu, Lung

    2012-12-15

    Early life stress is thought to enhance adult susceptibility to stress and stress-related mood disorders. In this study, fear-potentiated startle was used to model the acquisition of a traumatic event-related memory in female rats experiencing early life stress. Daily 1-hr maternal and sibling separation throughout day 2-9 postpartum (D2-9 PP) caused a decrease in the fear-potentiated startle, but not acoustic startle baseline, in adult female rats. The separation procedure did not affect corticosterone secretion but produced an increase in serum estradiol concentration. Moreover, the separation procedure did not affect histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) acetylation but decreased H3K9 mono- and tri-methylation in frontal cortices. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) (5mg/kg at alternative days from D2PP to D9PP or 10mg/kg at D5PP and D9PP), a DNA methylation inhibitor, did not affect the separation-decreased fear-potentiated startle. Treatment with valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, at 3 dosing regimens (300mg/kg at D2-9PP; 100mg/kg at D2-4PP, 200mg/kg at D5-7PP, 300mg/kg at D8-9PP; 100mg/kg at D2-5PP, 200mg/kg at D6-9PP) prior to daily separation reversed such a decrease in fear-potentiated startle. The lowest effective VPA dosing regimen used (100mg/kg at D2-5PP, 200mg/kg at D6-9PP) reversed the separation-decreased H3K9 mono- and tri-methylation in frontal cortices. Eight-day VPA (300mg/kg/day) and AZA (5mg/kg/day) administrations starting at D28PP were ineffective in altering the separation-decreased fear-potentiated startle. We, hereby, suggest that decreased frontal cortical H3K9 mono- and tri-methylation may be involved in early life separation-decreased fear memory of adult rats.

  14. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7 year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every four-months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline 1) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7 year follow-up period, 2) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and 3) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry. PMID:22775582

  15. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2012-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7-year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every 4 months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline (a) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7-year follow-up period, (b) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and (c) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to our knowledge to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry.

  16. Cortical porosity not superior to conventional densitometry in identifying hemodialysis patients with fragility fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Janina M.; Fischer, Lukas; Bojic, Marija; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Weber, Michael; Cejka, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients face increased fracture risk, which is further associated with elevated risk of hospitalization and mortality. High-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced our understanding of bone disease in chronic kidney disease by characterizing distinct changes in both the cortical and trabecular compartments. Increased cortical porosity (Ct.Po) has been shown to be associated with fracture in patients with osteopenia or in postmenopausal diabetic women. We tested whether the degree of Ct.Po identifies hemodialysis patients with prevalent fragility fractures in comparison to bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We performed a post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study in 76 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Markers of mineral metabolism, coronary calcification score, DXA-, and HR-pQCT-data were analyzed, and Ct.Po determined at radius and tibia. Ct.Po was significantly higher in patients with fracture but association was lost after adjusting for age and gender (tibia p = 0.228, radius p = 0.5). Instead, femoral (F) BMD neck area (p = 0.03), F T-score neck area (p = 0.03), radius (R) BMD (p = 0.03), R T-score (p = 0.03), and cortical HR-pQCT indices such as cortical area (Ct.Ar) (tibia: p = 0.01; radius: p = 0.02) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) (tibia: p = 0.03; radius: p = 0.02) correctly classified patients with fragility fractures. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for Ct.Po (tibia AUC: 0.711; p = 0.01; radius AUC: 0.666; p = 0.04), Ct.Ar (tibia AUC: 0.832; p<0.001; radius AUC: 0.796; p<0.001), and F neck BMD (AUC: 0.758; p = 0.002) did not differ significantly among each other. In conclusion, measuring Ct.Po is not superior to BMD determined by DXA for identification of HD patients with fragility fracture. PMID:28199411

  17. No difference in frontal cortical activity during an executive functioning task after acute doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg eBolstad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is characterized by partial dopamine D2 receptor agonism. Its pharmacodynamic profile is proposed to be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment, which is prevalent in psychotic disorders. This study compared brain activation characteristics produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist, during a task targeting executive functioning.Methods: Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo before performing an executive functioning task while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was carried out. Results: There was a tendency towards reduced performance in the aripiprazole group compared to the two other groups. The image analysis yielded a strong task-related BOLD-fMRI response within each group. An uncorrected between-group analysis showed that aripiprazole challenge resulted in stronger activation in the frontal and temporal gyri and the putamen compared with haloperidol challenge, but after correcting for multiple testing there was no significant group difference. Conclusion: No significant group differences between aripiprazole and haloperidol in frontal cortical activation were obtained when corrected for multiple comparisons.This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: 2009-016222-14; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  18. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. Architectonic criteria for the core, lateral belt, and parabelt were readily adapted from monkey to human. Additionally, we found evidence for an architectonic subdivision within the parabelt, present in both species......The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates...... that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used serial sets of adjacent sections processed for Nissl substance, acetylcholinesterase...

  19. When anger leads to aggression: induction of relative left frontal cortical activity with transcranial direct current stimulation increases the anger-aggression relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, R.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Harmon-Jones, E.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between anger and aggression is imperfect. Based on work on the neuroscience of anger, we predicted that anger associated with greater relative left frontal cortical activation would be more likely to result in aggression. To test this hypothesis, we combined transcranial direct cur

  20. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  1. Perirhinal cortex relays auditory information to the frontal motor cortices in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuhou, Shin-ichi; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Gemba, Hisae

    2003-12-26

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in the motor cortices (MC) with chronically implanted electrodes in the rat. Some of the AEPs in the MC, namely negative potentials on the surface and positive ones at a depth of 2 mm at latencies of about 50-150 ms, were abolished by limited bilateral lesions of the anterior perirhinal cortex (PERa) which was responsive to auditory stimulus, indicating that the AEPs in the MC were at least partially relayed in the PERa. The auditory response in the MC was prominently enhanced when water was supplied or the medial forebrain bundle was stimulated after auditory stimulus. These results indicate that the MC receives the reward associated auditory information from the PERa.

  2. Altered frontal cortical volume and decision making in adolescent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Churchwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticipating future outcomes is central to decision making and a failure to consider long-term consequences may lead to impulsive choices. Adolescence is a vulnerable period during which underdeveloped prefrontal cortical systems may contribute to poor judgment, impulsive choices, and substance abuse. Conversely, substance abuse during this period may alter neural systems involved in decision making and lead to greater impulsivity. Although a broad neural network which supports decision making undergoes extensive change during adolescent development, one region that may be critical is the medial prefrontal cortex. Altered functional integrity of this region may be specifically related to reward perception, substance abuse, and dependence. In the present investigation, we acquired structural magnetic resonance images (MRI, using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner, from 18 cannabis abusing adolescents (CA; 2 female and 16 male subjects; mean age, 17.7 years; range 16-19 years and 18 healthy controls (HC; 6 female and 12 male subjects; mean age, 17.2 years; range 16-19 years. In order to measure medial orbital prefrontal cortex (moPFC morphology related to substance abuse and impulsivity, semi-automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation of MRIs was performed with FreeSurfer. Impulsivity was evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Our results indicate that cannabis abusing adolescents have decreased right moPFC volume compared to controls, p =.01, d = .92, CI.95 = .21, 1.59. Cannabis abusing adolescents also show decreased future orientation, as indexed by the BIS nonplanning subscale, when compared to controls, p = .01, d = .89, CI.95 = .23, 1.55. Moreover, total moPFC volume was positively correlated with age of first use (18 = .49, p < .03, suggesting that alterations in this region may be related to initiation of cannabis use or that early initiation may lead to reduced moPFC volume.

  3. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach.

  4. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  5. Genetic feedback regulation of frontal cortical neuronal ensembles through activity-dependent Arc expression and dopaminergic input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Mastwal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3.1 as a cellular marker to identify neuronal ensembles and a molecular probe to modulate circuit functions. These studies have demonstrated that the transcription of Arc is activated in selective groups of frontal cortical neurons in response to specific behavioral tasks. Arc expression regulates the persistent firing of individual neurons and predicts the consolidation of neuronal ensembles during repeated learning. Therefore, the Arc pathway represents a prototypical example of activity-dependent genetic feedback regulation of neuronal ensembles. The activation of this pathway in the frontal cortex starts during early postnatal development and requires dopaminergic input. Conversely, genetic disruption of Arc leads to a hypoactive mesofrontal dopamine circuit and its related cognitive deficit. This mutual interaction suggests an auto-regulatory mechanism to amplify the impact of neuromodulators and activity-regulated genes during postnatal development. Such a mechanism may contribute to the association of mutations in dopamine and Arc pathways with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. As the mesofrontal dopamine circuit shows extensive activity-dependent developmental plasticity, activity-guided modulation of dopaminergic projections or Arc ensembles during development may help to repair circuit deficits related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. NEURAL CORRELATES FOR APATHY: FRONTAL - PREFRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICAL - SUBCORTICAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional invovlement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in every day life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside. As a general observation, the occurrence of apathy is connected to damage of prefrontal cortex (PFC and basal ganglia; emotional affective apathy may be related to the orbitomedial PFC and ventral striatum; cognitive apathy may be associated with dysfunction of lateral PFC and dorsal caudate nuclei; deficit of autoactivation may be due to bilateral lesions of the internal portion of globus pallidus, bilateral paramedian thalamic lesions, or the dorsomedial portion of PFC. On the other hand, apathy severity has been connected to neurofibrillary tangles density in the anterior cingulate gyrus and to grey matter atrophy in the anterior cingulate (ACC and in the left medial frontal cortex, confirmed by functional imaging studies. These neural networks are linked to projects, judjing and planning, execution and selection common actions, and through the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens projects to the frontostriatal and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Therefore, an alteration of these circuitry caused a lack of insight, a reduction of decision-making strategies and a reduced speedness in action decsion, major resposnible for apathy. Emergent role concerns also the parietal cortex, with its direct action motivation control.We will discuss the importance of these circuits in different pathologies

  7. Positive symptoms associate with cortical thinning in the superior temporal gyrus via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E; Hibar, D P; van Erp, T G M; Potkin, S G; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Crespo-Facorro, B; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Van Haren, N E M; de Zwarte, S M C; Kahn, R S; Cahn, W; Doan, N T; Jørgensen, K N; Gurholt, T P; Agartz, I; Andreassen, O A; Westlye, L T; Melle, I; Berg, A O; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Faerden, A; Flyckt, L; Fatouros-Bergman, H; Jönsson, E G; Hashimoto, R; Yamamori, H; Fukunaga, M; Preda, A; De Rossi, P; Piras, F; Banaj, N; Ciullo, V; Spalletta, G; Gur, R E; Gur, R C; Wolf, D H; Satterthwaite, T D; Beard, L M; Sommer, I E; Koops, S; Gruber, O; Richter, A; Krämer, B; Kelly, S; Donohoe, G; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Corvin, A; Gill, M; Di Giorgio, A; Bertolino, A; Lawrie, S; Nickson, T; Whalley, H C; Neilson, E; Calhoun, V D; Thompson, P M; Turner, J A; Ehrlich, S

    2017-05-01

    Based on the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) in auditory processing, language comprehension and self-monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between STG cortical thickness and positive symptom severity in schizophrenia. This prospective meta-analysis includes data from 1987 individuals with schizophrenia collected at seventeen centres around the world that contribute to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. STG thickness measures were extracted from T1-weighted brain scans using FreeSurfer. The study performed a meta-analysis of effect sizes across sites generated by a model predicting left or right STG thickness with a positive symptom severity score (harmonized SAPS or PANSS-positive scores), while controlling for age, sex and site. Secondary models investigated relationships between antipsychotic medication, duration of illness, overall illness severity, handedness and STG thickness. Positive symptom severity was negatively related to STG thickness in both hemispheres (left: βstd = -0.052; P = 0.021; right: βstd = -0.073; P = 0.001) when statistically controlling for age, sex and site. This effect remained stable in models including duration of illness, antipsychotic medication or handedness. Our findings further underline the important role of the STG in hallmark symptoms in schizophrenia. These findings can assist in advancing insight into symptom-relevant pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 大脑额上沟的三维重建与可视化%Three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization of cerebral superior frontal sulcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周牧野; 王震寰; 沈龙山; 李成; 陈刘成; 向春锋

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To establish a three-dimensional(3D) visualization model of cerebral superior frontal sulcus in a healthy adult people using MR image for exploring the anatomical characteristics of the superior frontal sulcus and application in brain stereotactic surgery. Methods:The brain slice MR scanning in one healthy adult female was harvested,the data of which was inputted to 3D-Doctor software. The 3D visualization model was reconstructed,and marked with different colors by the manual partition method. Results:The 3D visualization schema graph of cerebral superior frontal sulcus was constructed, which showed successfully the three-dimensional shape of cerebral superior frontal sulcus, lateral ventricle, brain surface and their structural relationships with surrounding brain. Conclusions:The 3D visualization model of cerebral superior frontal sulcus has an important value in the identification of the anatomical structure of superior frontal sulcus and design of stereotactic surgery.%目的::建立健康成人活体MR图像的大脑额上沟三维可视化模型,为探究额上沟的解剖结构特点及脑立体定向手术应用。方法:选取1名健康成年女性颅脑薄层MR扫描数据,将数据导入3D-Doctor软件,利用手动分割方法建立三维可视化模型并用不同颜色进行标记。结果:构建了大脑额上沟的三维可视化模式图,模式图成功显示了大脑额上沟、侧脑室及脑表面的立体形态以及与周围脑组织的结构关系。结论:大脑额上沟的三维可视化模型对额上沟解剖结构的识别、脑立体定向手术设计有重要价值。

  9. Differential roles of the frontal and parietal cortices in the control of saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Julia; Tark, Kyeong-Jin; Reuter, Benedikt; Kathmann, Norbert; Curtis, Clayton E

    2013-10-01

    Although externally as well as internally-guided eye movements allow us to flexibly explore the visual environment, their differential neural mechanisms remain elusive. A better understanding of these neural mechanisms will help us to understand the control of action and to elucidate the nature of cognitive deficits in certain psychiatric populations (e.g., schizophrenia) that show increased latencies in volitional but not visually-guided saccades. Both the superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are implicated in the control of eye movements. However, it remains unknown what differential contributions the two areas make to the programming of visually-guided and internally-guided saccades. In this study we tested the hypotheses that sPCS and IPS distinctly encode internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades. We scanned subjects with fMRI while they generated visually-guided and internally-guided delayed saccades. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis to test whether patterns of cue related, preparatory and saccade related activation could be used to predict the direction of the planned eye movement. Results indicate that patterns in the human sPCS predicted internally-guided saccades but not visually-guided saccades in all trial periods and patterns in the IPS predicted internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades equally well. The results support the hypothesis that the human sPCS and IPS make distinct contributions to the control of volitional eye movements.

  10. Occlusion of the pig superior sagittal sinus, bridging and cortical veins: multistep evolution of sinus-vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, G; Wallenfang, T; Hennen, J; Velthaus, M; Heimann, A; Schild, H; Perneczky, A; Kempski, O

    1992-07-01

    Cerebral sinus-vein thrombosis may lead to severe hemodynamic changes, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), and brain edema. It is supposed that progression of the thrombus from the sinus into bridging and cortical veins plays a key role in the development of these pathophysiological changes, but this hypothesis lacks experimental proof. The aim of this study, using a novel animal model of sinus-vein thrombosis, was to evaluate the effects of a standardized occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus and its bridging and cortical veins on hemodynamic alterations, on brain water content, and on ICP in domestic pigs. In 10 animals, the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus was occluded with a catheter-guided balloon. Five of these pigs received an additional injection of 1 ml fibrin glue into the superior sagittal sinus anterior to the inflated balloon, leading to an obstruction of bridging and cortical veins. In five control animals the balloon was inserted but not inflated. Five pigs underwent cerebral angiography. Four hours after occlusion, the brains were frozen in liquid nitrogen, and coronal slices were examined for Evans blue dye extravasation, regional water content, and histological changes. Occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus alone did not affect ICP or cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The additional injection of fibrin glue caused an obstruction of cortical and bridging veins as well as severe increases in mean (+/- standard deviation) ICP to 49.4 +/- 14.3 mm Hg, compared with 8.3 +/- 4.5 mm Hg in sham-treated controls and 7.1 +/- 3.9 mm Hg in animals with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus alone. There was also a steep fall in the mean CPP to 34.2 +/- 19.6 mm Hg compared with 96.4 +/- 13.8 mm Hg in the control group. White-matter water content anterior to the occlusion site was elevated to 81.9 +/- 3.7 gm/100 gm frozen weight in the fibrin group as compared to 70.7 +/- 2.2 gm/100 gm in controls. Posterior to the occlusion site, water

  11. Cancellous Screws Are Biomechanically Superior to Cortical Screws in Metaphyseal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tim; Boone, Christopher; Behn, Anthony W; Ledesma, Justin B; Bishop, Julius A

    2016-09-01

    Cancellous screws are designed to optimize fixation in metaphyseal bone environments; however, certain clinical situations may require the substitution of cortical screws for use in cancellous bone, such as anatomic constraints, fragment size, or available instrumentation. This study compares the biomechanical properties of commercially available cortical and cancellous screw designs in a synthetic model representing various bone densities. Commercially available, fully threaded, 4.0-mm outer-diameter cortical and cancellous screws were tested in terms of pullout strength and maximum insertion torque in standard-density and osteoporotic cancellous bone models. Pullout strength and maximum insertion torque were both found to be greater for cancellous screws than cortical screws in all synthetic densities tested. The magnitude of difference in pullout strength between cortical and cancellous screws increased with decreasing synthetic bone density. Screw displacement prior to failure and total energy absorbed during pullout strength testing were also significantly greater for cancellous screws in osteoporotic models. Stiffness was greater for cancellous screws in standard and osteoporotic models. Cancellous screws have biomechanical advantages over cortical screws when used in metaphyseal bone, implying the ability to both achieve greater compression and resist displacement at the screw-plate interface. Surgeons should preferentially use cancellous over cortical screws in metaphyseal environments where cortical bone is insufficient for fixation. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e828-e832.].

  12. Stimulating forebrain communications: Slow sinusoidal electric fields over frontal cortices dynamically modulate hippocampal activity and cortico-hippocampal interplay during slow-wave states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Whitten, Tara A; Dickson, Clayton T

    2016-06-01

    Slow-wave states are characterized by the most global physiological phenomenon in the mammalian brain, the large-amplitude slow oscillation (SO; ~1Hz) composed of alternating states of activity (ON/UP states) and silence (OFF/DOWN states) at the network and single cell levels. The SO is cortically generated and appears as a traveling wave that can propagate across the cortical surface and can invade the hippocampus. This cortical rhythm is thought to be imperative for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, potentially through increased interactions with the hippocampus. The SO is correlated with learning and its presumed enhancement via slow rhythmic electrical field stimulation improves subsequent mnemonic performance. However, the mechanism by which such field stimulation influences the dynamics of ongoing cortico-hippocampal communication is unknown. Here we show - using multi-site recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats - that sinusoidal electrical field stimulation applied to the frontal region of the cerebral cortex creates a platform for improved cortico-hippocampal communication. Moderate-intensity field stimulation entrained hippocampal slow activity (likely by way of the temporoammonic pathway) and also increased sharp-wave ripples, the signature memory replay events of the hippocampus, and further increased cortical spindles. Following cessation of high-intensity stimulation, SO interactions in the cortical-to-hippocampal direction were reduced, while the reversed hippocampal-to-cortical communication at both SO and gamma bandwidths was enhanced. Taken together, these findings suggest that cortical field stimulation may function to boost memory consolidation by strengthening cortico-hippocampal and hippocampo-cortical interplay at multiple nested frequencies in an intensity-dependent fashion.

  13. Spontaneous Activity Associated with Delusions of Schizophrenia in the Left Medial Superior Frontal Gyrus: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    Full Text Available Delusions of schizophrenia have been found to be associated with alterations of some brain regions in structure and task-induced activation. However, the relationship between spontaneously occurring symptoms and spontaneous brain activity remains unclear. In the current study, 14 schizophrenic patients with delusions and 14 healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI scan. Patients with delusions of schizophrenia patients were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Characteristics of Delusional Rating Scale (CDRS. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was calculated to measure the local synchronization of the spontaneous activity in a voxel-wise way. A two-sample t-test showed that ReHo of the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left medial superior frontal gyrus were higher in patients, and ReHo of the left superior occipital gyrus was lower, compared to healthy controls. Further, among patients, correlation analysis showed a significant difference between delusion scores of CRDS and ReHo of brain regions. ReHo of the left medial superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with patients' CDRS scores but not with delusional PANSS scores. These results suggested that altered local synchronization of spontaneous brain activity may be related to the pathophysiology of delusion in schizophrenia.

  14. Abnormal MEG oscillatory activity during visual processing in the prefrontal cortices and frontal eye-fields of the aging HIV brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony W Wilson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Shortly after infection, HIV enters the brain and causes widespread inflammation and neuronal damage, which ultimately leads to neuropsychological impairments. Despite a large body of neuroscience and imaging studies, the pathophysiology of these HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remains unresolved. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown greater activation in HIV-infected patients during strenuous tasks in frontal and parietal cortices, and less activation in the primary sensory cortices during rest and sensory stimulation. METHODS: High-density magnetoencephalography (MEG was utilized to evaluate the basic neurophysiology underlying attentive, visual processing in older HIV-infected adults and a matched non-infected control group. Unlike other neuroimaging methods, MEG is a direct measure of neural activity that is not tied to brain metabolism or hemodynamic responses. During MEG, participants fixated on a centrally-presented crosshair while intermittent visual stimulation appeared in their top-right visual-field quadrant. All MEG data was imaged in the time-frequency domain using beamforming. RESULTS: Uninfected controls had increased neuronal synchronization in the 6-12 Hz range within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right frontal eye-fields, and the posterior cingulate. Conversely, HIV-infected patients exhibited decreased synchrony in these same neural regions, and the magnitude of these decreases was correlated with neuropsychological performance in several cortical association regions. CONCLUSIONS: MEG-based imaging holds potential as a noninvasive biomarker for HIV-related neuronal dysfunction, and may help identify patients who have or may develop HAND. Reduced synchronization of neural populations in the association cortices was strongly linked to cognitive dysfunction, and likely reflects the impact of HIV on neuronal and neuropsychological health.

  15. The differential relationship between trait anxiety, depression, and resting frontal α-asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Relatively larger resting right frontal cortical brain activation has been labeled as a risk factor for emotion-related disorders. In light of this framework, the present studies' aim was twofold. First, we wanted to determine whether a relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and frontal asymmetry does already manifest in a sample of so far healthy individuals showing a large symptom range. This could be expected if frontal asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for depression and anxiety. Second, we aimed to investigate whether symptoms of depression and anxiety are independently related to frontal asymmetry, or whether either anxiety or depression is superior in predicting the relationship with frontal asymmetry. To address these questions, trait-like resting frontal α-asymmetry by means of EEG, as well as trait anxiety and depressive symptoms by questionnaire were measured from 43 healthy students (28 female). Results indicate that higher symptom severity of depression and anxiety were both significantly correlated with relatively larger right frontal cortical activation. However, in a regression analysis, frontal asymmetry was predicted by anxiety only. Controlling for depression and mood, anxiety explained 13% of variance, while controlling for mood and anxiety, depression did explain asymmetry. In conclusion, although both anxiety and depression add to the relationship, relatively larger right frontal cortical activity might be influenced more strongly by symptoms of anxiety. Moreover, as this effect is present already in healthy individuals, the findings might further support the notion that right frontal cortical asymmetry constitutes a risk factor for anxiety or depression.

  16. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  17. Interrelations between motivational stance, cortical excitability, and the frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry of emotion: A Transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Weijer, A.D. de; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Morgan, B.E.; Honk, E.J. van

    2008-01-01

    everal electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for the frontal asymmetry of emotion. In this model the motivation to approach is lateralized to the left, whereas the motivation to avoidance is lateralized to the right hemisphere. The aim of the present experiment was to seek evidence for

  18. Differences in frontal cortical activation by a working memory task after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Garry D.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Soni, William; Varatheesan, Malini; Williams, Steve C. R.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug treatment of schizophrenia may be complicated by side effects of widespread dopaminergic antagonism, including exacerbation of negative and cognitive symptoms due to frontal cortical hypodopaminergia. Atypical antipsychotics have been shown to enhance frontal dopaminergic activity in animal models. We predicted that substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia would be associated with enhanced functional activation of frontal cortex. We measured cerebral blood oxygenation changes during periodic performance of a verbal working memory task, using functional MRI, on two occasions (baseline and 6 weeks later) in two cohorts of schizophrenic patients. One cohort (n = 10) was treated with typical antipsychotic drugs throughout the study. Risperidone was substituted for typical antipsychotics after baseline assessment in the second cohort (n = 10). A matched group of healthy volunteers (n = 10) was also studied on a single occasion. A network comprising bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex was activated by working memory task performance in both the patients and comparison subjects. A two-way analysis of covariance was used to estimate the effect of substituting risperidone for typical antipsychotics on power of functional response in the patient group. Substitution of risperidone increased functional activation in right prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex at both voxel and regional levels of analysis. This study provides direct evidence for significantly enhanced frontal function in schizophrenic patients after substitution of risperidone for typical antipsychotic drugs, and it indicates the potential value of functional MRI as a tool for longitudinal assessment of psychopharmacological effects on cerebral physiology. PMID:10557338

  19. Cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in school-age children: A population-based MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Sandra; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; El Marroun, Hanan; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; White, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior plays an important role in establishing and maintaining relationships with others and thus may have important developmental implications. This study examines the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children. The present study was embedded within the Generation R Study. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired from 464 children whose parents had completed the prosocial scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. To study the association between cortical thickness and prosocial behavior, we performed whole-brain surface-based analyses. Prosocial behavior was related to a thicker cortex in a cluster that covers part of the left superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex (p prosocial behavior and cortical thickness in a cluster including the right rostral middle frontal and superior frontal cortex (p prosocial behavior is associated with cortical thickness in regions related to theory of mind (superior frontal cortex, rostral middle frontal cortex cuneus, and precuneus) and inhibitory control (superior frontal and rostral middle frontal cortex).

  20. Correlations between measures of executive attention and cortical thickness of left posterior middle frontal gyrus - a dichotic listening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundervold Arvid

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frontal lobe has been associated to a wide range of cognitive control functions and is also vulnerable to degeneration in old age. A recent study by Thomsen and colleagues showed a difference between a young and old sample in grey matter density and activation in the left middle frontal cortex (MFC and performance on a dichotic listening task. The present study investigated this brain behaviour association within a sample of healthy older individuals, and predicted a positive correlation between performance in a condition requiring executive attention and measures of grey matter structure of the posterior left MFC. Methods A dichotic listening forced attention paradigm was used to measure attention control functions. Subjects were instructed to report only the left or the right ear syllable of a dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllable pair. A conflict situation appears when subjects are instructed to report the left ear stimulus, caused by the conflict with the bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Overcoming this processing conflict was used as a measure of executive attention. Thickness and volumes of frontal lobe regions were derived from automated segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance image acquisitions. Results The results revealed a statistically significant positive correlation between the thickness measure of the left posterior MFC and performance on the dichotic listening measures of executive attention. Follow-up analyses showed that this correlation was only statistically significant in the subgroup that showed the typical bottom-up, stimulus-driven right ear advantage. Conclusion The results suggest that the left MFC is a part of an executive attention network, and that the dichotic listening forced attention paradigm may be a feasible tool for assessing subtle attentional dysfunctions in older adults.

  1. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene expression in primary frontal cortical neurons. Comparison with NMDA and AMPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mona; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA levels in primary neuronal cultures of rat frontal cortex was characterized pharmacologically and compared to the effect on expression of c-fos, bdnf, neuritin, cox-2 as examples...... of other immediate early genes. BDNF induced a very strong increase (around 100 fold) in Arc mRNA and the maximal effect seen at 25 ng/ml. The effect was dose-dependent with EC50 around 1.6 ng/ml. The time profile revealed a significant effect after 25 min. BDNF also increased levels of c-Fos, neuritin...... and BDNF mRNA, but not COX-2 mRNA. The pharmacological profile of NMDA and AMPA-induced arc gene expression in frontal cortical neurons was compared to BDNF. NMDA and AMPA increased Arc mRNA but their maximal effect did not exceed 20-fold. The effect of AMPA was completely blocked by the NMDA receptor...

  2. Coordinated roles of motivation and perception in the regulation of intergroup responses: frontal cortical asymmetry effects on the P2 event-related potential and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, David M

    2010-11-01

    Self-regulation is believed to involve changes in motivation and perception that function to promote goal-driven behavior. However, little is known about the way these processes interact during the on-line engagement of self-regulation. The present study examined the coordination of motivation, perception, and action control in White American participants as they regulated responses on a racial stereotyping task. Electroencephalographic indices of approach motivation (left frontal cortical asymmetry) and perceptual attention to Black versus White faces (the P2 event-related potential) were assessed during task performance. Action control was modeled from task behavior using the process-dissociation procedure. A pattern of moderated mediation emerged, such that stronger left frontal activity predicted larger P2 responses to race, which in turn predicted better action control, especially for participants holding positive racial attitudes. Results supported the hypothesis that motivation tunes perception to facilitate goal-directed action. Implications for theoretical models of intergroup response regulation, the P2 component, and the relation between motivation and perception are discussed.

  3. Sex Differences in Gamma Band Functional Connectivity Between the Frontal Lobe and Cortical Areas During an Auditory Oddball Task, as Revealed by Imaginary Coherence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kouzou; Otsubo, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Katsumi; Yatsushiro, Kazutaka; Sekine, Masaki; Kamiya, Shinichiro; Shimooki, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2016-01-01

    We studied sex-related differences in gamma oscillation during an auditory oddball task, using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography assessment of imaginary coherence (IC). We obtained a statistical source map of event-related desynchronization (ERD) / event-related synchronization (ERS), and compared females and males regarding ERD / ERS. Based on the results, we chose respectively seed regions for IC determinations in low (30-50 Hz), mid (50-100 Hz) and high gamma (100-150 Hz) bands. In males, ERD was increased in the left posterior cingulate cortex (CGp) at 500 ms in the low gamma band, and in the right caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) at 125 ms in the mid-gamma band. ERS was increased in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) at 375 ms in the high gamma band. We chose the CGp, cACC and rACC as seeds, and examined IC between the seed and certain target regions using the IC map. IC changes depended on the height of the gamma frequency and the time window in the gamma band. Although IC in the mid and high gamma bands did not show sex-specific differences, IC at 30-50 Hz in males was increased between the left rACC and the frontal, orbitofrontal, inferior temporal and fusiform target regions. Increased IC in males suggested that males may acomplish the task constructively, analysingly, emotionally, and by perfoming analysis, and that information processing was more complicated in the cortico-cortical circuit. On the other hand, females showed few differences in IC. Females planned the task with general attention and economical well-balanced processing, which was explained by the higher overall functional cortical connectivity. CGp, cACC and rACC were involved in sex differences in information processing and were likely related to differences in neuroanatomy, hormones and neurotransmitter systems. PMID:27708745

  4. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally.

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the frontal, cingulate and perirolandic cortices and its relationship to skin conductance in patients with schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, R.F.; Crippa, J.A.S.; Hallak, J.E.C.; Sousa, J.P.M. de; Zuardi, A.W. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento]. E-mail: awzuardi@fmrp.usp.br; Araujo, D.; Santos, A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Radiologia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific subgroups of schizophrenic patients, grouped according to electrodermal characteristics, show differences in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine plus choline (NAA / (Cr + Cho)) ratios in the frontal, cingulate and perirolandic cortices. Skin conductance levels (SCL) and skin conductance responses to auditory stimulation were measured in 38 patients with schizophrenia and in the same number of matched healthy volunteers (control). All subjects were submitted to multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. When compared to the control group, patients presented significantly lower NAA / (Cr + Cho) ratios in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (schizophrenia 0.95 {+-} 0.03; control = 1.12 {+-} 0.04) and in the right (schizophrenia 0.88 {+-} 0.02; control = 0.94 {+-} 0.03) and left (schizophrenia 0.84 {+-} 0.03; control = 0.94 {+-} 0.03) cingulates. These ratios did not differ between electrodermally responsive and non-responsive patients. When patients were divided into two groups: lower SCL (less than the mean SCL of the control group minus two standard deviations) and normal SCL (similar to the control group), the subgroup with a lower level of SCL showed a lower NAA / (Cr + Cho) ratio in the left cingulate (0.78 {+-} 0.05) than the controls (0.95 {+-} 0.02, P < 0.05) and the subgroup with normal SCL (0.88 {+-} 0.03, P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the NAA / (Cr + Cho) ratio in the left cingulate of patients with schizophrenia and the duration of the disease and years under medication. These data suggest the existence of a schizophrenic subgroup characterized by low SCL that could be a consequence of the lower neuronal viability observed in the left cingulate of these patients. (author)

  6. Contributions to singing ability by the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the non-language-dominant hemisphere: first evidence from subdural cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Ralph O; Golby, Alexandra; Whalen, Stephen; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H; Kufta, Conrad V; Devinsky, Orrin; Balish, Marshall; Bromfield, Edward B

    2010-03-01

    Although the substrates that mediate singing abilities in the human brain are not well understood, invasive brain mapping techniques used for clinical decision making such as intracranial electro-cortical testing and Wada testing offer a rare opportunity to examine music-related function in a select group of subjects, affording exceptional spatial and temporal specificity. We studied eight patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing indwelling subdural electrode seizure focus localization. All patients underwent Wada testing for language lateralization. Functional assessment of language and music tasks was done by electrode grid cortical stimulation. One patient was also tested non-invasively with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional organization of singing ability compared to language ability was determined based on four regions-of-interest (ROIs): left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and left and right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). In some subjects, electrical stimulation of dominant pSTG can interfere with speech and not singing, whereas stimulation of non-dominant pSTG area can interfere with singing and not speech. Stimulation of the dominant IFG tends to interfere with both musical and language expression, while non-dominant IFG stimulation was often observed to cause no interference with either task; and finally, that stimulation of areas adjacent to but not within non-dominant pSTG typically does not affect either ability. Functional fMRI mappings of one subject revealed similar music/language dissociation with respect to activation asymmetry within the ROIs. Despite inherent limitations with respect to strictly research objectives, invasive clinical techniques offer a rare opportunity to probe musical and language cognitive processes of the brain in a select group of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  7. Frontal Structural Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nicole R.; O’Shea, Andrew M.; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C.; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance (N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p brain structural integrity) in right frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function. PMID:28101053

  8. Superior digit memory of abacus experts: an event-related functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Michimata, Chikashi; Kaminaga, Tatsuro; Honda, Manabu; Sadato, Norihiro

    2002-12-01

    Abacus experts exhibit superior short-term memory for digits, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the brain activity of abacus experts and non-experts during the memory retention period of a delayed match-to-sample task using digits as stimuli. In controls, activity was greater in cortical areas related to verbal working memory, including Broca's area. In contrast, in experts, activity was greater in cortical areas related to visuo-spatial working memory, including the bilateral superior frontal sulcus and superior parietal lobule. This provides neurophysiological evidence that abacus experts utilize a visuo-spatial representation for digit memory.

  9. Cortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-12-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly because of the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: 6 with high-functioning autism, 9 with Asperger disorder, and 8 controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared with Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology.

  10. Pre-SMA actively engages in conflict processing in human: a combined study of epicortical ERPs and direct cortical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Kiyohide; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Shimotake, Akihiro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2013-04-01

    Previous non-invasive studies have proposed that the deeply seated region of the medial frontal cortex engages in conflict processing in humans, but its core region has remained to be elucidated. By means of direct cortical stimulation, which excels other techniques in temporal and spatial resolutions and in the capacity of producing transient, functional impairment even in the deeply located cortices, we attempted to obtain direct evidence that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) actively engages in conflict processing. Subject was a patient with right frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent invasive presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes placed on the medial and lateral frontal cortices. During a conflict task--modified Eriksen flanker task, direct cortical stimulation was delivered time-locked to the task at the inferior part of the medial superior frontal gyrus (inferior medial SFG), the superior part of the medial SFG, and the middle frontal gyrus. By adopting the session of sham stimulation that was employed as a within-block control, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the medial and lateral frontal cortices. The inferior medial SFG showed a significant ERP difference between trials with more and less conflict, while the other frontal cortices did not. Among the three stimulus sites, only stimulation of the inferior medial SFG significantly prolonged reaction time in trials with more conflict. Anatomically, the inferior medial SFG corresponded with the pre-SMA (Brodmann area 8). It was located 1-2 cm rostral to the vertical anterior commissure line where cortical stimulation elicited arrest of motion (the supplementary negative motor area). Functionally, this area corresponded to the dorso-rostral portion of the activation loci in previous neuroimaging studies focusing on conflict processing. By combining epicortical ERP recording and direct cortical stimulation in a human brain, this study, for the first time, presented one direct

  11. Impaired response inhibition and excess cortical thickness as candidate endophenotypes for trichotillomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    occupying an intermediate position. Permutation cluster analysis revealed significant excesses of cortical thickness in patients and their relatives compared to controls, in right inferior/middle frontal gyri (Brodmann Area, BA 47 & 11), right lingual gyrus (BA 18), left superior temporal cortex (BA 21...

  12. Individual Differences in Asymmetric Resting-State Frontal Cortical Activity Modulate ERPs and Performance in a Global-Local Attention Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Kostermans, Evelien; Tops, Mattie; De Cremer, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that individual differences in approach motivation modulate attentional scope. In turn, approach and inhibition have been related to different neural systems that are associated with asymmetries in relative frontal activity (RFA). Here, we investigated whether such i

  13. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  14. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  15. Functional interaction between right parietal and bilateral frontal cortices during visual search tasks revealed using functional magnetic imaging and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ellison

    Full Text Available The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function.

  16. Associations between children's socioeconomic status and prefrontal cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gwendolyn M; Duda, Jeffrey T; Avants, Brian B; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J

    2013-09-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship between SES and prefrontal cortical thickness. Specifically, we assessed the association between two principal measures of childhood SES, family income and parental education, and gray matter thickness in specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and on the asymmetry of these areas. After correcting for multiple comparisons and controlling for potentially confounding variables, parental education significantly predicted cortical thickness in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that brain structure in frontal regions may provide a meaningful link between SES and cognitive function among healthy, typically developing children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Forced arm use is superior to voluntary training for motor recovery and brain plasticity after cortical ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Armin; Rogalewski, Andreas; Wafzig, Oliver; Kirsch, Friederike; Gretz, Norbert; Krüger, Carola; Diederich, Kai; Pitzer, Claudia; Laage, Rico; Plaas, Christian; Vogt, Gerhard; Minnerup, Jens; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2014-02-14

    Both the immobilization of the unaffected arm combined with physical therapy (forced arm use, FAU) and voluntary exercise (VE) as model for enriched environment are promising approaches to enhance recovery after stroke. The genomic mechanisms involved in long-term plasticity changes after different means of rehabilitative training post-stroke are largely unexplored. The present investigation explored the effects of these physical therapies on behavioral recovery and molecular markers of regeneration after experimental ischemia. 42 Wistar rats were randomly treated with either forced arm use (FAU, 1-sleeve plaster cast onto unaffected limb at 8/10 days), voluntary exercise (VE, connection of a freely accessible running wheel to cage), or controls with no access to a running wheel for 10 days starting at 48 hours after photothrombotic stroke of the sensorimotor cortex. Functional outcome was measured using sensorimotor test before ischemia, after ischemia, after the training period of 10 days, at 3 and 4 weeks after ischemia. Global gene expression changes were assessed from the ipsi- and contralateral cortex and the hippocampus. FAU-treated animals demonstrated significantly improved functional recovery compared to the VE-treated group. Both were superior to cage control. A large number of genes are altered by both training paradigms in the ipsi- and contralateral cortex and the hippocampus. Overall, the extent of changes observed correlated well with the functional recovery obtained. One category of genes overrepresented in the gene set is linked to neuronal plasticity processes, containing marker genes such as the NMDA 2a receptor, PKC ζ, NTRK2, or MAP 1b. We show that physical training after photothrombotic stroke significantly and permanently improves functional recovery after stroke, and that forced arm training is clearly superior to voluntary running training. The behavioral outcomes seen correlate with patterns and extent of gene expression changes in all

  18. [Parietal Cortices and Body Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Amemiya, Kaoru; Morita, Tomoyo

    2016-11-01

    Proprioceptive signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of both the human body schema and the body image. In this chapter, we introduce various types of bodily illusions that are elicited by proprioceptive inputs, and we discuss distinct functions implemented by different parietal cortices. First, we illustrate the primary importance of the motor network in the processing of proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals originating from muscle spindles. Next, we argue that the right inferior parietal cortex, in concert with the inferior frontal cortex (both regions connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus-SLF III), may be involved in the conscious experience of body image. Further, we hypothesize other functions of distinct parietal regions: the association between internal hand motor representation with external object representation in the left inferior parietal cortex, visuo-kinesthetic processing in the bilateral posterior parietal cortices, and the integration of somatic signals from different body parts in the higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices. Our results indicate that a distinct parietal region, in concert with its anatomically and functionally connected frontal regions, probably plays specialized roles in the processing of body-related information.

  19. Peperitas del Paleozoico superior en la margen norte del río Mendoza, borde oriental de la Cordillera Frontal Upper Paleozoic peperites at the northern margin of the Mendoza River, eastern border of the Cordillera Frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koukharsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un afloramiento perteneciente a la Formación Tambillos del Grupo Choiyoi compuesto dominantemente por peperitas, reconociéndose los tipos ameboidales, globulíticos, blocosos (blocky y de morfologías mixtas. Las lavas que dieron origen a estas rocas tenían composición intermedia o ácida con escasos fenocristales de oligoclasa y de biotita y los sedimentos con los que interaccionaron eran de origen volcánico. También se describen sectores con lavas y retazos de areniscas laminadas, conformando un complejo que se habría originado por la irrupción de lava en el fondo de un lago de unos 130 km². Las rocas están afectadas por alteración arcillosa y silicificación. El conjunto está atravesado por diques basálticos pertenecientes a otro ciclo magmático. Se propone la zona como sitio de interés geológico por su accesibilidad, magnitud y calidad de los afloramientos que ilustran un fenómeno paleovolcánico poco común ocurrido durante el Paleozoico superior.An outcrop of Tambillos Formation of the Choiyoi Group is described. It is composed mostly by peperites, being recognized the types amoeboid, globular, blocky and of mixed morphologies. The lavas that gave origin to these rocks had intermediate or acid compositions with scarce oligoclase and biotite phenocrysts, and the sediments which they had interacted were of volcanic origin. In the outcrop, sectors of lavas and laminated sandstones are also described, and constitute a complex that would have originated by the irruption of lava in the bottom of a lake of about 130 km². The rocks were affected by argillic alteration and silicification. The complex was intruded by basaltic dikes that belong to another magmatic cycle. The area is proposed as a site of geologic interest based on its accessibility, magnitude and quality of the outcrops, which illustrate an uncommon paleovolcanic process, occurred during the Late Paleozoic.

  20. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  1. Increased cortical thickness in professional on-line gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam; Han, Doug Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. CAREER LENGTH WAS POSITIVELY CORRELATED WITH CORTICAL THICKNESS IN THREE BRAIN REGIONS: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility.

  2. Cortical grey matter volume reduction in people with schizophrenia is associated with neuro-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Catts, V S; Sheedy, D; McCrossin, T; Kril, J J; Shannon Weickert, C

    2016-12-13

    Cortical grey matter volume deficits and neuro-inflammation exist in patients with schizophrenia, although it is not clear whether elevated cytokines contribute to the cortical volume reduction. We quantified cortical and regional brain volumes in fixed postmortem brains from people with schizophrenia and matched controls using stereology. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and SERPINA3 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were quantified in the contralateral fresh frozen orbitofrontal cortex. We found a small, but significant reduction in cortical grey matter (1.3%; F(1,85)=4.478, P=0.037) and superior frontal gyrus (6.5%; F(1,80)=5.700, P=0.019) volumes in individuals with schizophrenia compared with controls. Significantly reduced cortical grey matter (9.2%; F(1,24)=8.272, P=0.008) and superior frontal gyrus (13.9%; F(1,20)=5.374, P=0.031) volumes were found in cases with schizophrenia and 'high inflammation' status relative to schizophrenia cases with 'low inflammation' status in the prefrontal cortex. The expression of inflammatory mRNAs in the orbitofrontal cortex was significantly correlated with those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (all r>0.417, all Pgrey matter and superior frontal gyrus volumes (all rgrey matter volume in people with schizophrenia is exaggerated in those who have high expression of inflammatory cytokines. Further, antipsychotic medication intake does not appear to ameliorate the reduction in brain volume.

  3. Patterns of cortical thinning in nondemented Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Baggio, Hugo Cesar; Abos, Alexandra; Marti, Maria Jose; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Bargallo, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Clinical variability in the Parkinson's disease phenotype suggests the existence of disease subtypes. We investigated whether distinct anatomical patterns of atrophy can be identified in Parkinson's disease using a hypothesis‐free, data‐driven approach based on cortical thickness data. Methods T1‐weighted 3‐tesla MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment were performed in a sample of 88 nondemented Parkinson's disease patients and 31 healthy controls. We performed a hierarchical cluster analysis of imaging data using Ward's linkage method. A general linear model with cortical thickness data was used to compare clustering groups. Results We observed 3 patterns of cortical thinning in patients when compared with healthy controls. Pattern 1 (n = 30, 34.09%) consisted of cortical atrophy in bilateral precentral gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, cuneus, posterior cingulate, and parahippocampal gyrus. These patients showed worse cognitive performance when compared with controls and the other 2 patterns. Pattern 2 (n = 29, 32.95%) consisted of cortical atrophy involving occipital and frontal as well as superior parietal areas and included patients with younger age at onset. Finally, in pattern 3 (n = 29, 32.95%), there was no detectable cortical thinning. Patients in the 3 patterns did not differ in disease duration, motor severity, dopaminergic medication doses, or presence of mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions Three cortical atrophy subtypes were identified in nondemented Parkinson's disease patients: (1) parieto‐temporal pattern of atrophy with worse cognitive performance, (2) occipital and frontal cortical atrophy and younger disease onset, and (3) patients without detectable cortical atrophy. These findings may help identify prognosis markers in Parkinson's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement

  4. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  5. Cephalic Aura after Frontal Lobe Resection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate cephalic aura more extensive cortical areas need to be excited. Here we report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. MEG showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed on right frontal region, and the latter involved much m...

  6. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls while an electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. Results When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency. When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Conclusion Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children.

  7. Cortical thinning in subcortical vascular dementia with negative 11C-PiB PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Hun; Seo, Sang Won; Kim, Geon Ha; Shin, Ji Soo; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Kim, Suk-Hui; Kim, Min Ji; Jeon, Seun; Yoon, Uicheul; Lee, Jong-Min; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jae-Hong; Na, Duk L

    2012-01-01

    To determine the existence of cortical thinning in subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) with a negative 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography scan and to compare the topography of cortical thinning between PiB-negative SVaD and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we enrolled 24 patients with PiB(-) SVaD, 81 clinically probable AD individuals, and 72 normal cognitive controls. Compared with controls, cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD was most profound in the perisylvian area, medial prefrontal area, and posterior cingulate gyri, while the precuneus and medial temporal lobes were relatively spared. When the cortical thickness of AD and PiB(-) SVaD were directly compared, PiB(-) SVaD demonstrated significant cortical thinning in the bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal gyri, and right medial frontal and orbitofrontal lobes, while AD showed significant cortical thinning in the right medial temporal region. SVaD without amyloid burden may lead to substantial cortical atrophy. Moreover, characteristic topography of cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD suggests different mechanisms of cortical thinning in PiB(-) SVaD and AD.

  8. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Gyral Shape and Cortical Surface Asymmetries in Schizophrenia: Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sharma, Tonmoy; Moussai, Jacob; Zoumalan, Chris; Rayman, Janice; Toga, Arthur W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective People with schizophrenia exhibit abnormalities in brain structure, often in the left hemisphere. Disturbed structural lateralization is controversial, however, and effects appear mediated by gender. The authors mapped differences between schizophrenic and normal subjects in gyral asymmetries, complexity, and variability across the entire cortex. Method Asymmetry and shape profiles for 25 schizophrenic patients (15 men) and 28 demographically similar normal subjects (15 men) were obtained for 38 gyral regions, including the sylvian fissure and temporal and postcentral gyri, by using magnetic resonance data and a novel surface-based mesh-modeling approach. Cortical complexity was examined for sex and diagnosis effects in lobar regions. Intragroup variability was quantified and visualized to assess regional group abnormalities at the cortical surface. Results The patients showed greater variability in frontal areas than the comparison subjects. They also had significant deviations in gyral complexity asymmetry in the superior frontal cortex. In temporoparietal regions, significant gyral asymmetries were present in both groups. Sex differences were apparent in superior temporal gyral measures, and cortical complexity in inferior frontal regions was significantly greater in men. Conclusions Cortical variability and complexity show regional abnormalities in the frontal cortex potentially specific to schizophrenia. The results indicate highly significant temporoparietal gyral asymmetries in both diagnostic groups, contrary to reports of less lateralization in schizophrenia. Substantially larger study groups are necessary to isolate smaller deviations in surface asymmetries, if present in schizophrenia, suggesting their diagnostic value is minimal. PMID:11156807

  9. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Pieranna; Bonfiglio, Luca; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Cantore, Nicoletta; Carboncini, Maria Chiara; Piccotti, Emily; Rossi, Bruno; Andre, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ) is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error), at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance) became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP) time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects) suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi-naturalistic motor

  10. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  11. Sex, age, and cognitive correlates of asymmetries in thickness of the cortical mantle across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Bansal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    lateral, dorsal, and mesial surfaces of the frontal lobe, extending into primary sensory, superior parietal, and anterior superior temporal cortices. A right > left asymmetry was present in the lateral, mesial, and dorsal surfaces of the posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices, as well...... as in the entire inferior surface of the brain. An exaggerated left > right asymmetry was detected in females in anterior brain regions, and an exaggerated right > left asymmetry was detected in males in the orbitofrontal, inferior parietal, and inferior occipital cortices. Weaker moderating effects of sex were...... scattered along the mesial surface of the brain. Age significantly moderated asymmetry measures in the inferior sensorimotor, inferior parietal, posterior temporal, and inferior occipital cortices. The age × asymmetry interaction derived from a steeper decline in cortical thickness with age in the right...

  12. EEG Theta Dynamics within Frontal and Parietal Cortices for Error Processing during Reaching Movements in a Prism Adaptation Study Altering Visuo-Motor Predictive Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Arrighi

    Full Text Available Modulation of frontal midline theta (fmθ is observed during error commission, but little is known about the role of theta oscillations in correcting motor behaviours. We investigate EEG activity of healthy partipants executing a reaching task under variable degrees of prism-induced visuo-motor distortion and visual occlusion of the initial arm trajectory. This task introduces directional errors of different magnitudes. The discrepancy between predicted and actual movement directions (i.e. the error, at the time when visual feedback (hand appearance became available, elicits a signal that triggers on-line movement correction. Analysis were performed on 25 EEG channels. For each participant, the median value of the angular error of all reaching trials was used to partition the EEG epochs into high- and low-error conditions. We computed event-related spectral perturbations (ERSP time-locked either to visual feedback or to the onset of movement correction. ERSP time-locked to the onset of visual feedback showed that fmθ increased in the high- but not in the low-error condition with an approximate time lag of 200 ms. Moreover, when single epochs were sorted by the degree of motor error, fmθ started to increase when a certain level of error was exceeded and, then, scaled with error magnitude. When ERSP were time-locked to the onset of movement correction, the fmθ increase anticipated this event with an approximate time lead of 50 ms. During successive trials, an error reduction was observed which was associated with indices of adaptations (i.e., aftereffects suggesting the need to explore if theta oscillations may facilitate learning. To our knowledge this is the first study where the EEG signal recorded during reaching movements was time-locked to the onset of the error visual feedback. This allowed us to conclude that theta oscillations putatively generated by anterior cingulate cortex activation are implicated in error processing in semi

  13. Cortical and Subcortical Contributions to Short-Term Memory for Orienting Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Charles D; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Brunton, Bingni W; Deisseroth, Karl; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-10-21

    Neural activity in frontal cortical areas has been causally linked to short-term memory (STM), but whether this activity is necessary for forming, maintaining, or reading out STM remains unclear. In rats performing a memory-guided orienting task, the frontal orienting fields in cortex (FOF) are considered critical for STM maintenance, and during each trial display a monotonically increasing neural encoding for STM. Here, we transiently inactivated either the FOF or the superior colliculus and found that the resulting impairments in memory-guided orienting performance followed a monotonically decreasing time course, surprisingly opposite to the neural encoding. A dynamical attractor model in which STM relies equally on cortical and subcortical regions reconciled the encoding and inactivation data. We confirmed key predictions of the model, including a time-dependent relationship between trial difficulty and perturbability, and substantial, supralinear, impairment following simultaneous inactivation of the FOF and superior colliculus during memory maintenance.

  14. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  15. A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age of Onset and Childhood Trauma on Cortical Thickness in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Jaworska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD neural underpinnings may differ based on onset age and childhood trauma. We assessed cortical thickness in patients who differed in age of MDD onset and examined trauma history influence. Methods. Adults with MDD (N=36 and controls (HC; N=18 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients had MDD onset 25 years of age (adult onset. The MDD group was also subdivided into those with (N=12 and without (N=19 physical and/or sexual abuse as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Cortical thickness was analyzed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Thicker frontal pole and a tendency for thinner transverse temporal cortices existed in MDD. The former was driven by the pediatric onset group and abuse history (independently, particularly in the right frontal pole. Inverse correlations existed between CTQ scores and frontal pole cortex thickness. A similar inverse relation existed with left inferior and right superior parietal cortex thickness. The superior temporal cortex tended to be thinner in pediatric versus adult onset groups with childhood abuse. Conclusions. This preliminary work suggests neural differences between pediatric and adult MDD onset. Trauma history also contributes to cytoarchitectural modulation. Thickened frontal pole cortices as a compensatory mechanism in MDD warrant evaluation.

  16. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness associated with normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Wan, Jing; Carass, Aaron; An, Yang; Prince, Jerry L; Resnick, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Imaging studies of anatomic changes in regional gray matter volumes and cortical thickness have documented age effects in many brain regions, but the majority of such studies have been cross-sectional investigations of individuals studied at a single point in time. In this study, using serial imaging assessments of participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we investigate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness during aging in a cohort of 66 older adults (mean age 68.78; sd. 6.6; range 60-84 at baseline) without dementia. We used the Cortical Reconstruction Using Implicit Surface Evolution CRUISE suite of algorithms to automatically generate a reconstruction of the cortical surface and identified twenty gyral based regions of interest per hemisphere. Using mixed effects regression, we investigated longitudinal changes in these regions over a mean follow-up interval of 8 years. The main finding in this study is that age-related decline in cortical thickness is widespread, but shows an anterior-posterior gradient with frontal and parietal regions, in general, exhibiting greater rates of decline than temporal and occipital. There were fewer regions in the right hemisphere showing statistically significant age-associated longitudinal decreases in mean cortical thickness. Males showed greater rates of decline in the middle frontal, inferior parietal, parahippocampal, postcentral, and superior temporal gyri in the left hemisphere, right precuneus and bilaterally in the superior parietal and cingulate regions. Significant nonlinear changes over time were observed in the postcentral, precentral, and orbitofrontal gyri on the left and inferior parietal, cingulate, and orbitofrontal gyri on the right.

  17. Frontal terminations for the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle: anatomical dissection, DTI study and functional considerations on a multi-component bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubbo, Silvio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Maldonado, Igor L; Basso, Gianpaolo; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The anatomy and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF) remain poorly known. We accurately analyze its course and the anatomical distribution of its frontal terminations. We propose a classification of the IFOF in different subcomponents. Ten hemispheres (5 left, 5 right) were dissected with Klingler's technique. In addition to the IFOF dissection, we performed a 4-T diffusion tensor imaging study on a single healthy subject. We identified two layers of IFOF. The first one is superficial and antero-superiorly directed, terminating in the inferior frontal gyrus. The second is deeper and consists of three portions: posterior, middle and anterior. The posterior component terminates in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The middle component terminates in the MFG and lateral orbito-frontal cortex. The anterior one is directed to the orbito-frontal cortex and frontal pole. In vivo tractography study confirmed these anatomical findings. We suggest that the distribution of IFOF fibers within the frontal lobe corresponds to a fine functional segmentation. IFOF can be considered as a "multi-function" bundle, with each anatomical subcomponent subserving different brain processing. The superficial layer and the posterior component of the deep layer, which connects the occipital extrastriate, temporo-basal and inferior frontal cortices, might subserve semantic processing. The middle component of the deep layer could play a role in a multimodal sensory-motor integration. Finally, the anterior component of the deep layer might be involved in emotional and behavioral aspects.

  18. Cortical silent period following TMS in a patient with supplementary sensorimotor area seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Venturi, Alessandro; Ausserer, Harald; Ladurner, Günther; Tezzon, Frediano

    2008-01-01

    The cortical silent period (CSP) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was evaluated in a patient with a dysembrioplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) in the lateral portion of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) who suffered from supplementary sensorimotor area (SSMA) seizures. CSP duration was shortened on the affected side. Ipsilateral alterations of motor cortex excitability with TMS in epileptogenic DNET located outside the PMA argue in favour of cortico-cortical connections to primary motor cortex from SSMA. This functional connectivity should be taken into consideration to better understand the pathophysiology of ictal motor manifestations.

  19. The role of aerobic fitness in cortical thickness and mathematics achievement in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Kienzler, Caitlin; King, Matthew; Pontifex, Matthew B; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that aerobic fitness benefits the brain and cognition during childhood. The present study is the first to explore cortical brain structure of higher fit and lower fit 9- and 10-year-old children, and how aerobic fitness and cortical thickness relate to academic achievement. We demonstrate that higher fit children (>70th percentile VO2max) showed decreased gray matter thickness in superior frontal cortex, superior temporal areas, and lateral occipital cortex, coupled with better mathematics achievement, compared to lower fit children (achievement, particularly mathematics achievement, and raise the possibility that individual differences in aerobic fitness play an important role in cortical gray matter thinning during brain maturation. The establishment of predictors of academic performance is key to helping educators focus on interventions to maximize learning and success across the lifespan.

  20. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrfuss, J.; Vogt, V.L.; Fiebach, C.J.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Tittgemeyer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focuse

  1. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Rice, James P; Maes, Levi I; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2010-12-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors.

  2. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  3. Frontal-opercular aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, R W; Raymer, A M; Heilman, K M

    1999-11-01

    The standard nomenclature divides nonfluent aphasic syndromes with relatively spared comprehension into Broca's aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia. We report on a patient with a persistent nonfluent aphasia from a discrete, primarily cortical, frontal-opercular lesion who had impaired syntax but intact repetition and, therefore, did not conform to the traditional classification. Based on this patient's behavior and a review of other cases, we have divided the nonfluent aphasias with intact comprehension into five disorders. (1) Verbal akinesia-exhibiting diminished intention or drive to speak and associated with medial frontal lesions (supplementary motor area and cingulate gyrus) or with lesions damaging the efferent projections from these areas. (2) Disorders of syntax-telegraphic and agrammatic utterances that may be associated with dominant pars opercularis lesions. (3) Phonemic disintegration-a failure to correctly produce phonemes, which may be associated with injury to the opercular primary motor cortex or efferent projections from this area. (4) Defects of lexical access-patients who struggle to find words and are impaired at timed word-generation tasks. Defects of lexical access may be associated with lesions of the pars triangularis and adjacent prefrontal cortex. (5) Mixed defects. According to this model, the traditional patient with Broca's aphasia would exhibit disorders of syntax, phonemic disintegration, and defects of lexical access, whereas the traditional patient with transcortical motor aphasia would have verbal akinesia or defects of lexical access or both. Our patient had defects of lexical access and syntax, but only mild symptoms of phonemic disintegration, suggesting that his opercular primary motor cortex was relatively intact. Our patient's ability to repeat normally while his propositional speech remained telegraphic suggests that different neural mechanisms subserve these functions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Dementia of Frontal Lobe Type and Amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ferrer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia of frontal lobe type may precede motor signs in a number of adult patients with amyotrophy. Neuropathological studies have shown neuron loss, spongiosis and gliosis mainly in layers II and III of the frontal and temporal lobes, together with myelin pallor of the subcortical white matter. Golgi studies revealed loss of dendritic spines on the apical dendrite of layer III pyramidal neurons, decreased numbers of dendrites, amputation and tortuosities of dendrites, and distal and proximal dendritic swellings and enlargements. Calbindin D-28K immunocytochemistry revealed a marked decrease in the number of cortical immunoreactive neurons and loss of immunoreactivity in dendrites of the remaining cells. These features indicate that pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons in layers II and III are severely damaged, and suggest that cortical processing is seriously impaired in patients with frontal lobe type dementia.

  5. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  6. Functional differences in epigenetic modulators-superiority of mercaptoacetamide-based histone deacetylase inhibitors relative to hydroxamates in cortical neuron neuroprotection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Alan P; Chen, Yufeng; Gaysin, Arsen; Chen, Bin; D'Annibale, Melissa A; Suto, Carla M; Langley, Brett C

    2007-06-28

    We compare the ability of two structurally different classes of epigenetic modulators, namely, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors containing either a hydroxamate or a mercaptoacetamide as the zinc binding group, to protect cortical neurons in culture from oxidative stress-induced death. This study reveals that some of the mercaptoacetamide-based HDAC inhibitors are fully protective, whereas the hydroxamates show toxicity at higher concentrations. Our present results appear to be consistent with the possibility that the mercaptoacetamide-based HDAC inhibitors interact with a different subset of the HDAC isozymes [less activity at HDAC1 and 2 correlates with less inhibitor toxicity], or alternatively, are interacting selectively with only the cytoplasmic HDACs that are crucial for protection from oxidative stress.

  7. Cortical representation of experimental tooth pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantsch, H H F; Kemppainen, P; Ringler, R; Handwerker, H O; Forster, C

    2005-12-05

    Cortical processing of electrically induced pain from the tooth pulp was studied in healthy volunteers with fMRI. In a first experiment, cortical representation of tooth pain was compared with that of painful mechanical stimulation to the hand. The contralateral S1 cortex was activated during painful mechanical stimulation of the hand, whereas tooth pain lead to bilateral activation of S1. The S2 and insular region were bilaterally activated by both stimuli. In S2, the center of gravity of the activation during painful mechanical stimulation was more medial/posterior compared to tooth pain. In the insular region, tooth pain induced a stronger activation of the anterior and medial parts. The posterior part of the anterior cingulate gyrus was more strongly activated by painful stimulation of the hand. Differential activations were also found in motor and frontal areas including the orbital frontal cortex where tooth pain lead to greater activations. In a second experiment, we compared the effect of weak with strong tooth pain. A significantly greater activation by more painful tooth stimuli was found in most of those areas in which tooth pain had induced more activation than hand pain. In the medial frontal and right superior frontal gyri, we found an inverse relationship between pain intensity and BOLD contrast. We concluded that tooth pain activates a cortical network which is in several respects different from that activated by painful mechanical stimulation of the hand, not only in the somatotopically organized somatosensory areas but also in parts of the 'medial' pain projection system.

  8. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. Objectives To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. Methods We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Results Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right>left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Conclusion Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches. PMID:26337200

  9. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y; Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right > left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches.

  10. Fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms is associated with cortical thickness in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2015-02-15

    Maternal depression is one of the most common prenatal complications. The consequences of fetal exposure to maternal depression are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to examine the association between fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and cortical thickness in children 6-9 years old. A prospective, longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms at 19, 25, and 31 weeks' gestation was followed by acquisition of a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan in 81 children (age, 86.1 ± 9.9 months). Significant (p < .01) cortical thinning in children primarily in the right frontal lobes was associated with exposure to prenatal maternal depression. The strongest association was at 25 weeks' gestation; exposure to maternal depression at 25 gestational weeks was associated with cortical thinning in 19% of the whole cortex and 24% of the frontal lobes, primarily in the right superior, medial orbital, and frontal pole regions of the prefrontal cortex (p < .01). The significant association between prenatal maternal depression and child externalizing behavior (p < .05) was mediated by cortical thinning in prefrontal areas of the right hemisphere. The pattern of cortical thinning in children exposed to prenatal maternal depression is similar to patterns in depressed patients and in individuals with risk for depression. Exposure to prenatal depression coupled with subsequent cortical thinning was associated with presence of externalizing behavior in preadolescent children and may be prodromal markers of risk for dysphoria. Vulnerability to prenatal influences at 25 gestational weeks may result from the enormous growth and dramatic structural changes in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Image-guided frontal trephination: a minimally invasive approach for hard-to-reach frontal sinus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharek, Mark A; Fong, Karen J; Hwang, Peter H

    2006-10-01

    Peripherally located frontal sinus pathology may be unreachable with standard endoscopic techniques. Patients with superiorly or laterally based lesions often undergo osteoplastic flap with or without obliteration. Image-guided frontal trephination (IGFT) can localize pathology and provide excellent exposure. We present 13 patients in whom this technique was applied. Medical records of 13 patients undergoing IGFT were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 49.2 years, (range 14-79); follow-up time was 29.9 months (range 12-39). Indications for IGFT were superiorly or laterally based mucoceles (3), fibrous dysplasia or osteoma (3), type 4 frontal cells (3), and frontal recess stenosis or ossification (4). In five patients, IGFT was combined with endoscopic transethmoid frontal sinusotomy; eight patients were treated through a trephination approach, and three patients underwent trephination with unilateral frontal sinus obliteration. One patient required revision; all others remain symptom free. IGFT offers an attractive alternative to osteoplastic flap.

  12. Frontal white matter anisotropy and antidepressant remission in late-life depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren D Taylor

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroanatomic features associated with antidepressant treatment outcomes in older depressed individuals are not well established. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine frontal white matter structure in depressed subjects undergoing a 12-week trial of sertraline. We hypothesized that remission would be associated with higher frontal anisotropy measures, and failure to remit with lower anisotropy. METHODS: 74 subjects with Major Depressive Disorder and age 60 years or older were enrolled in a twelve-week open-label trial of sertraline and completed clinical assessments and 1.5T magnetic resonance brain imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA were measured in regions of interest placed in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and corpus callosum. Differences in ADC and FA values between subjects who did and did not remit to treatment over the study period were assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for age, sex, medical comorbidity and baseline depression severity. RESULTS: Subjects who did not remit to sertraline exhibited higher FA values in the superior frontal gyri and anterior cingulate cortices bilaterally. There were no statistically significant associations between ADC measures and remission. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to remit to sertraline is associated with higher frontal FA values. Functional imaging studies demonstrate that depression is characterized by functional disconnection between frontal and limbic regions. Those individuals where this disconnection is related to structural changes as detected by DTI may be more likely to respond to antidepressants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339066.

  13. Correlação entre espessura cortical frontal e desempenho de funções executivas em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria Netto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a relação entre a espessura cortical medida pela ressonância magnética em regiões frontais e o desempenho em instrumentos que avaliam funções executivas em pacientes com HIV positivo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 22 pacientes HIV-positivos, com déficits em funções executivas, sob terapia antirretroviral, idades entre 45 e 65 anos e escolaridade entre 3 e 20 anos. Foi realizada ressonância magnética com sequências convencionais, T1 3D, processado pelo Freesurfer para verificar espessura cortical. Instrumentos de avaliação das funções executivas: Teste de Trilhas, Wisconsin, Hayling, Dígitos (WAIS-III, fluência verbal ortográfica e Stroop. Para análise da relação espessura versus cognição, utilizou-se coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Correlações significativas foram encontradas entre escores de: Wisconsin e espessura das regiões pré-central e orbitofrontal lateral à direita e pré-central esquerda; Teste de Trilhas e espessura da área pré-central direita e cíngulo anterior caudal esquerdo; e Teste Hayling e espessura da área lateral orbitofrontal esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: As correlações existentes entre medidas de espessura cortical pela ressonância magnética e desempenho cognitivo sugerem que os déficits executivos em pacientes HIV-positivos relacionam-se a uma redução da espessura cortical das regiões frontais.

  14. Single photon emission computed tomography with [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO and [[sup 123]I]-IBZM in Alzheimer's disease and dementia of frontal type; Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Bianchetti, A.; Trabucchi, M. (Alzheimer' s Disease Care Unit, Ist. S. Cuore-FBF, Brescia (Italy)); Pizzolato, G.; Battistin, L. (Neurology Clinic, University Padua, Padua (Italy)); Chierichetti, F.; Ferlin, G. (Nuclear Medicine, Castelfranco Veneto Hospital, Treviso (Italy))

    1994-03-01

    Dementia of frontal type (DFT) is a fairly common degenerative disease distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose reportedly distinctive instrumental feature is frontal lobe hypoperfusion on SPECT. We evaluated the cortical dopaminergic system in 6AD, 5 DFT, and 6 control subjects with SPECT and both [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO, a perfusion tracer, and [[sup 123]I]-IBZM, a D2 postsynaptic ligand. Both in AD and DFT patients, [[sup 99]Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT showed a relative frontal hypoperfusion. On the contrary, [[sup 123]I]-IBZM SPECT showed significantly reduced ligand uptake in superior frontal regions of DFT (0.89 [+-] 0.08 relative to control subjects) as compared to AD patients (0.97 [+-] 0.02; difference of means: 0.08, 95% confidence Interval 0.004 to 0.156; p = 0.041). Results suggest more marked involvement of the frontal cortical dopaminergic system in DFT than in AD patients. (au) (24 refs.).

  15. Longitudinal trajectories of cortical thickness as a biomarker for psychosis in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Seetha; Mattiaccio, Leah M; Coman, Ioana L; Botti, Jo-Anna C; Fremont, Wanda; Faraone, Stephen V; Antshel, Kevin M; Kates, Wendy R

    2016-12-14

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) or velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic condition that has been identified as the highest genetic risk factor for developing psychotic illnesses. This unique biological nature of 22q11DS provides a valuable opportunity to explore predictive biomarkers of psychosis. In this study, we examined the relationship of cortical thickness and surface area between various brain regions and prodromal symptoms of psychosis. 75 probands with 22q11DS, 32 age-matched controls and 28 siblings underwent MRIs over 2 or 3 timepoints. Longitudinal mixed model regression analyses, with age as an interaction variable, were carried out to study the differences in longitudinal trajectories of change in average cortical thickness and surface area over 6-9years. Similar analyses were carried out to examine the relationship with positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Significant differences were noted in the inferior and superior parietal regions in both the average thickness and longitudinal change in cortical thickness with age between the probands and controls. Significant associations were also noted between regions in the frontal cortex and positive prodromal symptoms among probands. No associations were noted with cortical surface area. Our results indicate that individuals with 22q11DS who develop positive prodromal symptoms demonstrate differential longitudinal trajectories of cortical thickness in some regions of the frontal lobe. Our results suggest that the pruning stage associated with adolescent brain development may be disrupted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C

    2013-12-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RTCV ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent anatomical regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the left hemisphere and mean global WM FA. When analyzed collectively, right hemisphere ROIs FA was significantly associated with d' independently of age. Follow-up analyses revealed that only FA of right SLF and the superior part of the right PC contributed significantly to this association. RTCV was significantly associated with right superior PC FA, but not with right SLF FA. Observed associations remained significant after controlling for FA of equivalent left hemisphere ROIs or global mean FA. In conclusion, better sustained attention performance was associated with higher FA of WM in regions connecting right frontal and parietal cortices. Further studies are needed to clarify to which extent these associations are driven by maturational processes, stable characteristics and/or experience.

  17. Vestibular-related frontal cortical areas and their roles in smooth-pursuit eye movements: representation of neck velocity, neck-vestibular interactions and memory-based smooth-pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuro eFukushima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Smooth-pursuit eye movements are voluntary responses to small slow-moving objects in the fronto-parallel plane. They evolved in primates, who possess high-acuity foveae, to ensure clear vision about the moving target. The primate frontal cortex contains two smooth-pursuit related areas; the caudal part of the frontal eye fields (FEF and the supplementary eye fields (SEF. Both areas receive vestibular inputs. We review functional differences between the two areas in smooth-pursuit. Most FEF pursuit neurons signal pursuit parameters such as eye velocity and gaze-velocity, and are involved in cancelling the vestibulo-ocular reflex by linear addition of vestibular and smooth-pursuit responses. In contrast, gaze-velocity signals are rarely represented in the SEF. Most FEF pursuit neurons receive neck velocity inputs, while discharge modulation during pursuit and trunk-on-head rotation adds linearly. Linear addition also occurs between neck velocity responses and vestibular responses during head-on-trunk rotation in a task-dependent manner. During cross-axis pursuit-vestibular interactions, vestibular signals effectively initiate predictive pursuit eye movements. Most FEF pursuit neurons discharge during the interaction training after the onset of pursuit eye velocity, making their involvement unlikely in the initial stages of generating predictive pursuit. Comparison of representative signals in the two areas and the results of chemical inactivation during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task indicate they have different roles; the SEF plans smooth-pursuit including working memory of motion-direction, whereas the caudal FEF generates motor commands for pursuit eye movements. Patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease were asked to perform this task, since impaired smooth-pursuit and visual working memory deficit during cognitive tasks have been reported in most patients. Preliminary results suggested specific roles of the basal ganglia in memory

  18. Cortical changes in cerebral small vessel diseases: a 3D MRI study of cortical morphology in CADASIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP HP, INSERM, UMR 740, Dept Neurol, Lariboisiere (France); Jouvent, E.; Bousser, M.G.; Chabriat, H. [Univ Paris 07, F-75221 Paris 05 (France); Porcher, R. [Hop St Louis, AP-HP, Dept Biostat, St Louis (France); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Clin Trials Unit, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Viswanathan, A. [Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA (United States); O' Sullivan, M.; Dichgans, M. [Univ Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Dept Neurol, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Guichard, J.P. [CHU Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Dept Neuroradiol, Lariboisiere (France)

    2008-07-01

    Brain atrophy represents a key marker of disease progression in cerebrovascular disorders. The 3D changes of cortex morphology occurring during the course of small vessel diseases of the brain (SVDB) remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the changes affecting depth and surface area of cortical sulci and their clinical and radiological correlates in a cohort of patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriolopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a genetic SVDB. Data were obtained from a series of 69 CADASIL patients. Validated methods were used to determine depth and surface area of four cortical sulci. The ratio of brain to intracranial cavity volumes (brain parenchymal fraction-BPF), volume of lacunar lesions (LL) and of white matter hyper-intensities, number of cerebral micro-haemorrhages, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient were also measured. Association between depth and surface area of the cortical sulci and BPF, clinical status and subcortical MRI lesions were tested. Depth and surface area of cortical sulci obtained in 54 patients were strongly correlated with both cognitive score and disability scales. Depth was related to the extent of subcortical lesions, surface area was related only to age. In additional analyses, the depth of the cingular sulcus was independently associated with the volume of LL (P 0.001), and that of the superior frontal sulcus with the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (P 0.003). In CADASIL, important morphological changes of cortical sulci occur in association with clinical worsening,extension of subcortical tissue damage and progression of global cerebral atrophy. These results suggest that the examination of cortical morphology may be of high clinical relevance in SVDB. (authors)

  19. Comminuted Frontal Sinus Fracture Reconstructed With Titanium Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Altas, Enver; Gozeler, Mustafa Sitki; Ucuncu, Harun

    2016-03-01

    Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are relatively uncommon maxillofacial injuries. The most common cause of FSF is motor vehicle accidents with 62% percentage. Management of FSF depends on type of fracture, associated injuries, and involvement of naso-frontal duct. In this report, the authors presented a patient with comminuted fracture of anterior wall of frontal sinus reconstructed with titanium mesh. A 40-year-old man presented with depression of the frontal bone, facial pain, and epistaxis consisting of a motor vehicle accident. Computerized tomography scan revealed multiple comminuted fractures of anterior wall of frontal sinus and fractures of left orbital medial and superior walls. Titanium mesh was used for reconstruction. Postoperative course was uneventful. The titanium mesh, which is easy to handle with no complications, may provide excellent frontal contour after comminuted anterior wall fractures.

  20. Focal cortical dysplasia - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults.Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed - from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized.Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe.Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes.New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life.Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias.THE MOST COMMON FINDINGS ON MRI IMAGING INCLUDE: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both types

  1. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  2. Brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglset, Tone Seim; Endestad, Tor; Hilland, Eva; Bang, Lasse; Tamnes, Christian Krog; Landrø, Nils Inge; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-11-16

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, with an unknown etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging studies show reduced brain volumes and cortical thickness in patients compared to healthy controls. However, findings are inconsistent, especially concerning the anatomical location and extent of the differences. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare brain volumes and regional cortical thickness in young females with AN and healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging data was acquired from young females with anorexia nervosa (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 28). Two different scanner sites were used. BMI varied from 13.5 to 20.7 within the patient group, and 11 patients had a BMI > 17.5. FreeSurfer was used to estimate brain volumes and regional cortical thickness. There were no differences between groups in total cerebral cortex volume, white matter volume, or lateral ventricle volume. There were also no volume differences in subcortical grey matter structures. However the results showed reduced cortical thickness bilaterally in the superior parietal gyrus, and in the right inferior parietal and superior frontal gyri. The functional significance of the findings is undetermined as the majority of the included patients was already partially weight-restored. We discuss whether these regions could be related to predisposing factors of the illness, or whether they are regions that are more vulnerable to starvation, malnutrition or associated processes in AN.

  3. Blockade of dopamine D(3) receptors in frontal cortex, but not in sub-cortical structures, enhances social recognition in rats: similar actions of D(1) receptor agonists, but not of D(2) antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Florence; Millan, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    Though D(3) receptor antagonists can enhance cognitive function, their sites of action remain unexplored. This issue was addressed employing a model of social recognition in rats, and the actions of D(3) antagonists were compared to D(1) agonists that likewise possess pro-cognitive properties. Infusion of the highly selective D(3) antagonists, S33084 and SB277,011 (0.04-2.5 microg/side), into the frontal cortex (FCX) dose-dependently reversed the deficit in recognition induced by a delay. By contrast, the preferential D(2) antagonist, L741,626 (0.63-5.0) had no effect. The action of S33084 was regionally specific inasmuch as its injection into the nucleus accumbens or striatum was ineffective. A similar increase of recognition was obtained upon injection of the D(1) agonist, SKF81297 (0.04-0.63), into the FCX though it was also active (0.63) in the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest that D(3) receptors modulating social recognition are localized in FCX, and underpin their pertinence as targets for antipsychotic agents.

  4. 经额上沟入路神经内镜手术治疗高血压脑出血疗效分析%Curative effect analysis of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of ;hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮; 陈治标; 张华平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical technique and the curative effects of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods The clinical data of 63 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-one of them were treated by neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus(neuroendoscopic surgery group), and 32 of them were treated by mini- invasive drainage (conventional therapy group). All of them were followed up for 6 months, and were assessed by the activity of daily living (ADL) scale. Results After treatment, all patients reviewed CT. The clear rate of hematoma in neuroendoscopic surgery group was 86.0%, in conventional therapy group was 23.3%, and there was significant difference (P<0.05). There were one death case in neuroendoscopic surgery group and 2 death cases in conventional therapy group. The survival patients were followed up for 6 months .The rate of better prognosis in neuroendoscopic surgery group was 83.3%(25/30), in conventional therapy group was 53.3%(16/30), and there was significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions The surgical technique of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is safe and effective.%目的:探讨经额上沟入路神经内镜辅助脑内血肿清除术治疗高血压脑出血的手术策略及治疗效果。方法63例高血压脑出血患者,31例行经额上沟入路神经内镜辅助脑内血肿清除术(内镜辅助组),32例行常规微创穿刺引流术(常规治疗组)。术后随访6个月,应用日常生活量表(ADL)进行评定并比较。结果术后复查头颅CT,内镜辅助组血肿清除率为86.0%。常规治疗组血肿清除率为23.3%,两组血肿清除率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。内镜辅助组死亡1例,常规治疗组死亡2例。存活患者术后随访6个月,内镜

  5. Reduced cortical and subcortical volumes in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Julia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Stieltjes, Bram; Henze, Romy

    2014-03-30

    Volumetric alterations in limbic structures have been detected in adults, but not in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We examined adolescents in the early stages of BPD to provide a unique opportunity to investigate which parts of the brain are initially affected by the disorder before confounding factors such as long-term medication or chronicity can mask them. A group of 60 right-handed female adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age (20 patients with BPD, 20 clinical controls, and 20 healthy controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Focus was on the examination of hippocampal and amygdalar volume differences. Furthermore, a cortical thickness analysis was conducted. FreeSurfer software detected significant group differences in the right and left hippocampus and in the right amygdala. Additionally, significant volume reductions in frontal (right middle frontal gyrus, orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally), and parietal regions (superior parietal gyrus bilaterally) were found in adolescents with BPD compared with controls. No group differences in cortical thickness were revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischinsky, Julieta E.; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10–12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both

  7. The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Meyer, T.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Merckelbach, H.L.G.J.; Smeets, T.

    2016-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry in alpha oscillations is assumed to be associated with psychopathology and individual differences in emotional responding. Brain-activity-based feedback is a promising tool for the modulation of cortical activity. Here, we validated a neurofeedback protocol designed to change relat

  8. The characteristics of cortical glucose metabolism in amblyopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ji Young [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Shin, Seung Ai; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Cortical metabolism of amblyopia patients was investigated with F-18-FDG PET and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and quantificiation based on volume of interest (VOI) by statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM). In 9 amblyopic patients (12{+-}7 years ) and 20 normal subjects (23{+-}2 years), F-18-FDG PET scans were peformed in amblyopic patients after amblyopic eye or sound eye was patch-closed during PET studies. SPM was done with SPM96. By multiplying SPAM to FDG images, counts of 98 VOI's were calculated and compared with 3 S. D. range of those of normal subjects. On SPM, cortical metabolism decreased (p<0.05) in occipital lobe (Ba 17, 18, 19), superior partietal lobe (Ba 7), and inferior temporal lobe (BA 37, 20). FDG uptake of gyri of occuipital lobe was decreased in 2 and increased in 2, and was normal in the other 5. FDG uptake of gyri of parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes were decreased in FDG uptake on these VOIs. We conclude that cortical metabolism in occipital lobe and extraoccipital lobes was variable but was consistent regardless of visual input during PET studies in amblyopic patients. SPM and quantification of functional images using SPAM could reveal subtle differences or changes according to visual input. The significance of metabolic changes of extraoccipital lobes should be studies further.

  9. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  10. Developmental Alterations of Frontal-Striatal-Thalamic Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Welsh, Robert C.; Stern, Emily R.; Angstadt, Mike; Hanna, Gregory L.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by abnormalities of frontal-striatal-thalamic circuitry that appear near illness onset and persist over its course. Distinct frontal-striatal-thalamic loops through cortical centers for cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex) and emotion processing (ventral medial frontal…

  11. A proposed number system for the 107 cortical areas of Economo and Koskinas, and Brodmann area correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    In their Atlas of Cytoarchitectonics of the Adult Human Cerebral Cortex, Economo and Koskinas defined 54 'ground,' 76 'variant,' and 107 'modification' areas. The 107 modifications are topographically distributed as 35 frontal, 13 superior limbic, 6 insular, 18 parietal, 7 occipital, 14 temporal and 14 inferior limbic (or hippocampal). One way to make the Economo-Koskinas system more practical is to encode the complex symbol notations of the 107 cortical areas with numbers EK 1 through EK 107. The present study does that, and it further correlates Economo-Koskinas areas with Brodmann areas, based on an overview of the classical and modern neurohistological literature. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature.

  13. SKA2 methylation is associated with decreased prefrontal cortical thickness and greater PTSD severity among trauma-exposed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, N; Spielberg, J M; Logue, M W; Wolf, E J; Smith, A K; Lusk, J; Hayes, J P; Sperbeck, E; Milberg, W P; McGlinchey, R E; Salat, D H; Carter, W C; Stone, A; Schichman, S A; Humphries, D E; Miller, M W

    2016-03-01

    Methylation of the SKA2 (spindle and kinetochore-associated complex subunit 2) gene has recently been identified as a promising biomarker of suicide risk. Based on this finding, we examined associations between SKA2 methylation, cortical thickness and psychiatric phenotypes linked to suicide in trauma-exposed veterans. About 200 trauma-exposed white non-Hispanic veterans of the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (91% male) underwent clinical assessment and had blood drawn for genotyping and methylation analysis. Of all, 145 participants also had neuroimaging data available. Based on previous research, we examined DNA methylation at the cytosine-guanine locus cg13989295 as well as DNA methylation adjusted for genotype at the methylation-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7208505) in relationship to whole-brain cortical thickness, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses identified three clusters in prefrontal cortex that were associated with genotype-adjusted SKA2 DNA methylation (methylation(adj)). Specifically, DNA methylation(adj) was associated with bilateral reductions of cortical thickness in frontal pole and superior frontal gyrus, and similar effects were found in the right orbitofrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus. PTSD symptom severity was positively correlated with SKA2 DNA methylation(adj) and negatively correlated with cortical thickness in these regions. Mediation analyses showed a significant indirect effect of PTSD on cortical thickness via SKA2 methylation status. Results suggest that DNA methylation(adj) of SKA2 in blood indexes stress-related psychiatric phenotypes and neurobiology, pointing to its potential value as a biomarker of stress exposure and susceptibility.

  14. Frontal Eye Field, Where Art Thou? Anatomy, function and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

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    Marine eVernet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.

  15. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Rui F; Balardin, Joana B; Lazar, Sara; Sato, João R; Igarashi, Nadja; Santaella, Danilo F; Lacerda, Shirley S; Amaro, Edson; Kozasa, Elisa H

    2017-01-01

    Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT) in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  16. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners—A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Rui F. Afonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  17. Laminar thickness alterations in the fronto-parietal cortical mantle of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Elseline Hoekzema

    Full Text Available Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43 and without ADHD (n = 41, as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31, adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31 and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24. We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally. Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing.

  18. Laminar Thickness Alterations in the Fronto-Parietal Cortical Mantle of Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Fernández, Vanesa Richarte; Picado, Marisol; Bosch, Rosa; Soliva, Juan Carlos; Rovira, Mariana; Vives, Yolanda; Bulbena, Antonio; Tobeña, Adolf; Casas, Miguel; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43) and without ADHD (n = 41), as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31), adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31) and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24). We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally). Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing. PMID:23239964

  19. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  20. Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and Cortical Structure in Adolescents.

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    Smaragdi, Areti; Cornwell, Harriet; Toschi, Nicola; Riccelli, Roberta; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Wells, Amy; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind; Rogers, Jack; Martin-Key, Nayra; Puzzo, Ignazio; Batchelor, Molly; Sidlauskaite, Justina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Kohls, Gregor; Konrad, Kerstin; Baumann, Sarah; Raschle, Nora; Stadler, Christina; Freitag, Christine; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; De Brito, Stephane; Fairchild, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced cortical thickness and surface area and altered gyrification in frontal and temporal regions in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Although there is evidence that the clinical phenotype of CD differs between males and females, no studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to cortical and subcortical structure. As part of a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected from 48 female and 48 male participants with CD and from 104 sex-, age-, and pubertal-status-matched controls (14-18 years of age). Data were analyzed using surface-based morphometry, testing for effects of sex, diagnosis, and sex-by-diagnosis interactions, while controlling for age, IQ, scan site, and total gray matter volume. CD was associated with cortical thinning and higher gyrification in ventromedial prefrontal cortex in both sexes. Males with CD showed lower, and females with CD showed higher, supramarginal gyrus cortical thickness compared with controls. Relative to controls, males with CD showed higher gyrification and surface area in superior frontal gyrus, whereas the opposite pattern was seen in females. There were no effects of diagnosis or sex-by-diagnosis interactions on subcortical volumes. Results are discussed with regard to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and substance abuse comorbidity, medication use, handedness, and CD age of onset. We found both similarities and differences between males and females in CD-cortical structure associations. This initial evidence that the pathophysiological basis of CD may be partly sex-specific highlights the need to consider sex in future neuroimaging studies and suggests that males and females may require different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frontal headache induced by osteoma of frontal recess.

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    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of osteoma involving the frontal recess, which presented as frontal headache and reviewed literatures. Also, this case highlights that sinunasal osteomas can cause pain by local mass effects, referred pain, or prostaglandin E2-mediated mechanisms.

  2. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

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    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one’s own brain activity.

  3. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  4. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  5. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

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    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  6. Alcoholism, Korsakoff’s Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes

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    R. R. Jacobson

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A subset of the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe syndrome. Certain features of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS also point to cortical involvement, and this may have a basis in alcohol neurotoxicity. Twenty-five patients with AKS and 24 non-Korsakoff alcoholic controls were compared using an automated CT brain scan program. In addition to evidence of their diencephalic lesions (wide third ventricles, AKS patients revealed widespread cerebral damage with greater Sylvian and interhemispheric fissure (IHF size than alcoholics. Korsakoffs were also inferior to alcoholics in performance on a category sorting test, in which non-perseverative error scores correlated significantly with IHF size. The principle of distinguishing between selective memory decline and global intellectual decline (GID was applied to 38 patients with AKS. Indices were developed for each type of deficit and much variation found in their distributions. The degree of GID correlated significantly with IHF size, showing similar trends with other cortical measures. These results suggest a cortical substrate for the degree of GID and a frontal substrate for category sorting deficits; with a probable basis in alcohol neurotoxicity rather than thiamine deficiency, which is not known to impair cortical structure. A new model is proposed of the pathophysiology of alcoholic brain damage and AKS which includes recent work on neurotransmitter sources and thalamo-frontal connections.

  7. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

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    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  8. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

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    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  9. The cortical dynamics of intelligible speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Alexander P; Schofield, Thomas M; Stephan, Klass E; Crinion, Jennifer T; Friston, Karl J; Price, Cathy J

    2008-12-03

    An important and unresolved question is how the human brain processes speech for meaning after initial analyses in early auditory cortical regions. A variety of left-hemispheric areas have been identified that clearly support semantic processing, although a systematic analysis of directed interactions among these areas is lacking. We applied dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging responses and Bayesian model selection to investigate, for the first time, experimentally induced changes in coupling among three key multimodal regions that were activated by intelligible speech: the posterior and anterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS and aSTS, respectively) and pars orbitalis (POrb) of the inferior frontal gyrus. We tested 216 different dynamic causal models and found that the best model was a "forward" system that was driven by auditory inputs into the pSTS, with forward connections from the pSTS to both the aSTS and the POrb that increased considerably in strength (by 76 and 150%, respectively) when subjects listened to intelligible speech. Task-related, directional effects can now be incorporated into models of speech comprehension.

  10. Cortical thickness and surface area in neonates at high risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Ahn, Mihye; Peng, Ziwen; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with subtle abnormal cortical thickness and cortical surface area. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities exist in neonates associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. To this end, this preliminary study was conducted to identify possible abnormalities of cortical thickness and surface area in the high-genetic-risk neonates. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from offspring of mothers (N = 21) who had schizophrenia (N = 12) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 9), and also matched healthy neonates of mothers who were free of psychiatric illness (N = 26). Neonatal cortical surfaces were reconstructed and parcellated as regions of interest (ROIs), and cortical thickness for each vertex was computed as the shortest distance between the inner and outer surfaces. Comparisons were made for the average cortical thickness and total surface area in each of 68 cortical ROIs. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, it was found that the female high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right lateral occipital cortex than the female control neonates. Before FDR correction, the high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the left transverse temporal gyrus, left banks of superior temporal sulcus, left lingual gyrus, right paracentral cortex, right posterior cingulate cortex, right temporal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, compared with the control neonates. Before FDR correction, in comparison with control neonates, male high-risk neonates had significantly thicker cortex in the left frontal pole, left cuneus cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex; while female high-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the bilateral paracentral, bilateral lateral occipital, left transverse temporal, left pars opercularis, right cuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortices. The high-risk neonates also had significantly

  11. Mapping the cortical representation of speech sounds in a syllable repetition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Christopher J; Bohland, Jason W

    2016-11-01

    Speech repetition relies on a series of distributed cortical representations and functional pathways. A speaker must map auditory representations of incoming sounds onto learned speech items, maintain an accurate representation of those items in short-term memory, interface that representation with the motor output system, and fluently articulate the target sequence. A "dorsal stream" consisting of posterior temporal, inferior parietal and premotor regions is thought to mediate auditory-motor representations and transformations, but the nature and activation of these representations for different portions of speech repetition tasks remains unclear. Here we mapped the correlates of phonetic and/or phonological information related to the specific phonemes and syllables that were heard, remembered, and produced using a series of cortical searchlight multi-voxel pattern analyses trained on estimates of BOLD responses from individual trials. Based on responses linked to input events (auditory syllable presentation), predictive vowel-level information was found in the left inferior frontal sulcus, while syllable prediction revealed significant clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and central sulcus and the left mid superior temporal sulcus. Responses linked to output events (the GO signal cueing overt production) revealed strong clusters of vowel-related information bilaterally in the mid to posterior superior temporal sulcus. For the prediction of onset and coda consonants, input-linked responses yielded distributed clusters in the superior temporal cortices, which were further informative for classifiers trained on output-linked responses. Output-linked responses in the Rolandic cortex made strong predictions for the syllables and consonants produced, but their predictive power was reduced for vowels. The results of this study provide a systematic survey of how cortical response patterns covary with the identity of speech sounds, which will help to constrain

  12. Frontal White Matter Damage Impairs Response Inhibition in Children Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Lipszyc, Jonathan; Levin, Harvey; Hanten, Gerri; Hunter, Jill; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition, the ability to suppress inappropriate cognitions or behaviors, can be measured using computer tasks and questionnaires. Inhibition depends on the frontal cortex, but the role of the underlying white matter (WM) is unclear. We assessed the specific impact of frontal WM damage on inhibition in 29 children with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (15 with and 14 without frontal WM damage), 21 children with orthopedic injury, and 29 population controls. We used the Stop Signal Task to measure response inhibition, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function to assess everyday inhibition, and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging to identify lesions. Children with frontal WM damage had impaired response inhibition compared with all other groups and poorer everyday inhibition than the orthopedic injury group. Frontal WM lesions most often affected the superior frontal gyrus. These results provide evidence for the critical role of frontal WM in inhibition. PMID:24618405

  13. Evidence of cortical reorganization of language networks after stroke with subacute Broca's aphasia: a blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Hui-Xiang; Yang, Qing-Lu; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Zhao-Cong; Li, Kui; Qiu, Guo-Rong; Xie, Chun-Qing; Wan, Gui-Fang; Chen, Shao-Qiong

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that is a common consequence of stroke. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, and as a result, current treatment options are not satisfactory. Here, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the activation of bilateral cortices in patients with Broca's aphasia 1 to 3 months after stroke. Our results showed that language expression was associated with multiple brain regions in which the right hemisphere participated in the generation of language. The activation areas in the left hemisphere of aphasia patients were significantly smaller compared with those in healthy adults. The activation frequency, volumes, and intensity in the regions related to language, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), the left superior temporal gyrus, and the right inferior frontal gyrus (the mirror region of Broca's area), were lower in patients compared with healthy adults. In contrast, activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral superior parietal lobule, and the left inferior temporal gyrus was stronger in patients compared with healthy controls. These results suggest that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in the recovery of language function in the subacute stage of stroke-related aphasia by increasing the engagement of related brain areas.

  14. Evidence of cortical reorganization of language networks after stroke with subacute Broca's aphasia: a blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei-hong; Wu, Hui-xiang; Yang, Qing-lu; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Zhao-cong; Li, Kui; Qiu, Guo-rong; Xie, Chun-qing; Wan, Gui-fang; Chen, Shao-qiong

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that is a common consequence of stroke. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, and as a result, current treatment options are not satisfactory. Here, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the activation of bilateral cortices in patients with Broca's aphasia 1 to 3 months after stroke. Our results showed that language expression was associated with multiple brain regions in which the right hemisphere participated in the generation of language. The activation areas in the left hemisphere of aphasia patients were significantly smaller compared with those in healthy adults. The activation frequency, volumes, and intensity in the regions related to language, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), the left superior temporal gyrus, and the right inferior frontal gyrus (the mirror region of Broca's area), were lower in patients compared with healthy adults. In contrast, activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral superior parietal lobule, and the left inferior temporal gyrus was stronger in patients compared with healthy controls. These results suggest that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in the recovery of language function in the subacute stage of stroke-related aphasia by increasing the engagement of related brain areas. PMID:28250756

  15. Volume reductions in frontopolar and left perisylvian cortices in methamphetamine induced psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Orikabe, Lina; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Yahata, Noriaki; Mozue, Yuriko; Sudo, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Tatsuji; Itokawa, Masanari; Suzuki, Michio; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Yuji; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of methamphetamine disturbs dopaminergic transmission and sometimes provokes schizophrenia-like-psychosis, named methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP). While previous studies have repeatedly reported regional volume reductions in the frontal and temporal areas as neuroanatomical substrates for psychotic symptoms, no study has examined whether such neuroanatomical substrates exist or not in patients with MAP. Magnetic resonance images obtained from twenty patients with MAP and 20 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC) were processed for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie Algebra. An analysis of covariance model was adopted to identify volume differences between subjects with MAP and HC, treating intracranial volume as a confounding covariate. The VBM analyses showed significant gray matter volume reductions in the left perisylvian structures, such as the posterior inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior superior temporal gyrus, and the frontopolar cortices, including its dorsomedial, ventromedial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral portions, and white matter volume reduction in the orbitofrontal area in the patients with MAP compared with the HC subjects. The smaller regional gray matter volume in the medial portion of the frontopolar cortex was significantly correlated with the severe positive symptoms in the individuals with MAP. The volume reductions in the left perisylvian structure suggest that patients with MAP have a similar pathophysiology to schizophrenia, whereas those in the frontopolar cortices and orbitofrontal area suggest an association with antisocial traits or vulnerability to substance dependence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also

  17. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  18. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function.

  19. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  20. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  1. Frontal Sinus Patency after Extended Frontal Sinusotomy Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbeygi, Mansour; Nadjafi, Ali; Amali, Amin; Saedi, Babak; Sadrehosseini, Seyed Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical management of chronic frontal sinus disorders remains a challenge for rhinologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of Draf III in a series of patients who underwent this procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Demographic data, history of prior surgery, asthma, aspirin sensitivity and Lund–Mackay score were recorded. A visual analog scale was used for frontal-related symptoms. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 17.5 months and the patency of the frontal sinus ostium was closely monitored. Results: Fifteen patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, two patients with mucoceles, two with malignancy, and one with osteoma underwent Draf III. The mean symptoms score significantly decreased from 5.9 to 3. No ostial closure was seen in the follow-up period. Among 15 patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, 12 had patent ostia of whom three had significant stenosis. All patients with mucocele and osteoma had patent ostia in the follow-up period but patients with sinonasal malignancy showed significant stenosis. Conclusion: Draf III frontal sinusotomy is successful in alleviating patient symptoms and the frontal sinus neo-ostium will remain patent in long-term follow-up of most patients. Revision surgery will be required in some cases, which seems to be related to the nature of the underlying chronic sinus diseases. PMID:27738610

  2. Age-related temporal and parietal cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Dankner, Nathan; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Martin, Alex

    2010-12-01

    Studies of head size and brain volume in autism spectrum disorders have suggested that early cortical overgrowth may be followed by prematurely arrested growth. However, the few investigations quantifying cortical thickness have yielded inconsistent results, probably due to variable ages and/or small sample sizes. We assessed differences in cortical thickness between high-functioning adolescent and young adult males with autism spectrum disorders (n = 41) and matched typically developing males (n = 40). We hypothesized thinner cortex, particularly in frontal, parietal and temporal regions, for individuals with autism spectrum disorders in comparison with typically developing controls. Furthermore, we expected to find an age × diagnosis interaction: with increasing age, more pronounced cortical thinning would be observed in autism spectrum disorders than typically developing participants. T(1)-weighted magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from high-functioning males with autism spectrum disorders and from typically developing males matched group-wise on age (range 12-24 years), intelligence quotient (≥ 85) and handedness. Both gyral-level and vertex-based analyses revealed significantly thinner cortex in the autism spectrum disorders group that was located predominantly in left temporal and parietal regions (i.e. the superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal, postcentral/superior parietal and supramarginal gyri). These findings remained largely unchanged after controlling for intelligence quotient and after accounting for psychotropic medication usage and comorbid psychopathology. Furthermore, a significant age × diagnosis interaction was found in the left fusiform/inferior temporal cortex: participants with autism spectrum disorders had thinner cortex in this region with increasing age to a greater degree than did typically developing participants. Follow-up within group comparisons revealed significant

  3. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  4. Progressive loss of speech output and orofacial dyspraxia associated with frontal lobe hypometabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, P J; Kartsounis, L D; Frackowiak, R S; Findley, L J; Rossor, M N

    1991-01-01

    Three patients are described with slowly progressive loss of speech and dysarthria associated with orofacial dyspraxia, initially with intact written language, who subsequently developed more widespread cognitive abnormalities. Positron emission tomography (PET) revealed bifrontal hypometabolism in all of the patients, most marked in the inferior and lateral portions of both frontal lobes, with some extension into the parietal and temporal cortices in one case. These patients may represent a further example of focal progressive cortical degeneration. Images PMID:2056322

  5. The cortical and sub-cortical network of sensory evoked response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Hellriegel, H; Groppa, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects during electrical stimulation of right median nerve at wrist. The multitaper method was used to estimate the power and coherence spectrum followed by the source analysis method dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) to find the highest coherent source for the basic frequency 3 Hz and the complete cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects. The highest coherent source for the basic frequency was in the posterior parietal cortex for all the subjects. The cortical and sub-cortical network comprised of the primary sensory motor cortex (SI), secondary sensory motor cortex (SII), frontal cortex and medial pulvinar nucleus in the thalamus. The cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence was found successfully with a 64-channel EEG system. The sensory evoked coherence is involved with a thalamo-cortical network in healthy subjects.

  6. Centrality of prefrontal and motor preparation cortices to Tourette Syndrome revealed by meta-analysis of task-based neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanska, Liliana; Critchley, Hugo D; Rae, Charlotte L

    2017-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by chronic multiple tics, which are experienced as compulsive and 'unwilled'. Patients with TS can differ markedly in the frequency, severity, and bodily distribution of tics. Moreover, there are high comorbidity rates with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, and depression. This complex clinical profile may account for apparent variability of findings across neuroimaging studies that connect neural function to cognitive and motor behavior in TS. Here we crystalized information from neuroimaging regarding the functional circuitry of TS, and furthermore, tested specifically for neural determinants of tic severity, by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to neuroimaging (activation) studies of TS. Fourteen task-based studies (13 fMRI and one H2O-PET) met rigorous inclusion criteria. These studies, encompassing 25 experiments and 651 participants, tested for differences between TS participants and healthy controls across cognitive, motor, perceptual and somatosensory domains. Relative to controls, TS participants showed distributed differences in the activation of prefrontal (inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri), anterior cingulate, and motor preparation cortices (lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area; SMA). Differences also extended into sensory (somatosensory cortex and the lingual gyrus; V4); and temporo-parietal association cortices (posterior superior temporal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex). Within TS participants, tic severity (reported using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; YGTSS) selectively correlated with engagement of SMA, precentral gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus across tasks. The dispersed involvement of multiple cortical regions with differences in functional reactivity may account for heterogeneity in the symptomatic expression of TS and its

  7. Cortical substrates and functional correlates of auditory deviance processing deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Rissling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42 and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47 participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant−Standard tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR, comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.

  8. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Claudia; Steinsträter, Olaf; Pantev, Christo

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a MMN in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge. We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory (SA) training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and the superior frontal (SFG) and orbitofrontal (OFG) gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilateral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  9. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLappe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mismatch negativity (MMN, an event-related potential (ERP representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a mismatch negativity in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge.We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, inferior frontal cortex (IFC, and the superior frontal (SFG and orbitofrontal (OFG gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilatral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule, an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  10. Cortical fMRI activation produced by attentive tracking of moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, J C; Brandt, S A; Cavanagh, P; Kanwisher, N G; Dale, A M; Tootell, R B

    1998-11-01

    Attention can be used to keep track of moving items, particularly when there are multiple targets of interest that cannot all be followed with eye movements. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate cortical regions involved in attentive tracking. Cortical flattening techniques facilitated within-subject comparisons of activation produced by attentive tracking, visual motion, discrete attention shifts, and eye movements. In the main task, subjects viewed a display of nine green "bouncing balls" and used attention to mentally track a subset of them while fixating. At the start of each attentive-tracking condition, several target balls (e.g., 3/9) turned red for 2 s and then reverted to green. Subjects then used attention to keep track of the previously indicated targets, which were otherwise indistinguishable from the nontargets. Attentive-tracking conditions alternated with passive viewing of the same display when no targets had been indicated. Subjects were pretested with an eye-movement monitor to ensure they could perform the task accurately while fixating. For seven subjects, functional activation was superimposed on each individual's cortically unfolded surface. Comparisons between attentive tracking and passive viewing revealed bilateral activation in parietal cortex (intraparietal sulcus, postcentral sulcus, superior parietal lobule, and precuneus), frontal cortex (frontal eye fields and precentral sulcus), and the MT complex (including motion-selective areas MT and MST). Attentional enhancement was absent in early visual areas and weak in the MT complex. However, in parietal and frontal areas, the signal change produced by the moving stimuli was more than doubled when items were tracked attentively. Comparisons between attentive tracking and attention shifting revealed essentially identical activation patterns that differed only in the magnitude of activation. This suggests that parietal cortex is involved not only in discrete

  11. The ontogeny of the cortical language network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeide, Michael A; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-05-01

    Language-processing functions follow heterogeneous developmental trajectories. The human embryo can already distinguish vowels in utero, but grammatical complexity is usually not fully mastered until at least 7 years of age. Examining the current literature, we propose that the ontogeny of the cortical language network can be roughly subdivided into two main developmental stages. In the first stage extending over the first 3 years of life, the infant rapidly acquires bottom-up processing capacities, which are primarily implemented bilaterally in the temporal cortices. In the second stage continuing into adolescence, top-down processes emerge gradually with the increasing functional selectivity and structural connectivity of the left inferior frontal cortex.

  12. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from considera

  13. Cortical and subcortical mapping of language areas: correlation of functional MRI and tractography in a 3T scanner with intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation in patients with brain tumors located in eloquent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de la Peña, M; Gil Robles, S; Recio Rodríguez, M; Ruiz Ocaña, C; Martínez de Vega, V

    2013-01-01

    To describe the detection of cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in language observed in MRI activation studies and tractography in a 3T MRI scanner and to correlate the findings of these functional studies with direct intraoperative cortical and subcortical stimulation. We present a series of 14 patients with focal brain tumors adjacent to eloquent brain areas. All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before and after surgery. All patients underwent MRI examination including structural sequences, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, functional imaging to determine activation of motor and language areas, and 3D tractography. All patients underwent cortical mapping through cortical and subcortical stimulation during the operation to resect the tumor. Postoperative follow-up studies were done 24 hours after surgery. The correlation of motor function and of the corticospinal tract determined by functional MRI and tractography with intraoperative mapping of cortical and subcortical motor areas was complete. The eloquent brain areas of language expression and reception were strongly correlated with intraoperative cortical mapping in all but two cases (a high grade infiltrating glioma and a low grade glioma located in the frontal lobe). 3D tractography identified the arcuate fasciculus, the lateral part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the subcallosal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the optic radiations, which made it possible to mark the limits of the resection. The correlation with the subcortical mapping of the anatomic arrangement of the fasciculi with respect to the lesions was complete. The best treatment for brain tumors is maximum resection without associated deficits, so high quality functional studies are necessary for preoperative planning. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients.

  15. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2017-01-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: −0.10 to −0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: −0.26 to −0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life. PMID:27137745

  16. Cortical abnormalities in adults and adolescents with major depression based on brain scans from 20 cohorts worldwide in the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, L; Hibar, D P; Sämann, P G; Hall, G B; Baune, B T; Jahanshad, N; Cheung, J W; van Erp, T G M; Bos, D; Ikram, M A; Vernooij, M W; Niessen, W J; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Janowitz, D; Bülow, R; Selonke, M; Völzke, H; Grotegerd, D; Dannlowski, U; Arolt, V; Opel, N; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Wright, M J; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Goya-Maldonado, R; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Hatton, S N; Lagopoulos, J; Hickie, I B; Frodl, T; Carballedo, A; Frey, E M; van Velzen, L S; Penninx, B W J H; van Tol, M-J; van der Wee, N J; Davey, C G; Harrison, B J; Mwangi, B; Cao, B; Soares, J C; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schoepf, D; Zurowski, B; Konrad, C; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schnell, K; Sacchet, M D; Gotlib, I H; MacQueen, G M; Godlewska, B R; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Hall, J; Sussmann, J E; Li, M; Walter, M; Aftanas, L; Brack, I; Bokhan, N A; Thompson, P M; Veltman, D J

    2016-05-03

    The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world. To detect consistent effects of MDD and its modulators on cortical thickness and surface area estimates derived from MRI, statistical effects from sites were meta-analysed separately for adults and adolescents. Adults with MDD had thinner cortical gray matter than controls in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior and posterior cingulate, insula and temporal lobes (Cohen's d effect sizes: -0.10 to -0.14). These effects were most pronounced in first episode and adult-onset patients (>21 years). Compared to matched controls, adolescents with MDD had lower total surface area (but no differences in cortical thickness) and regional reductions in frontal regions (medial OFC and superior frontal gyrus) and primary and higher-order visual, somatosensory and motor areas (d: -0.26 to -0.57). The strongest effects were found in recurrent adolescent patients. This highly powered global effort to identify consistent brain abnormalities showed widespread cortical alterations in MDD patients as compared to controls and suggests that MDD may impact brain structure in a highly dynamic way, with different patterns of alterations at different stages of life.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 May 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.60.

  17. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrfuss, J; Vogt, V L; Fiebach, C J; von Cramon, D Y; Tittgemeyer, M

    2012-02-15

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focused on the iFEF. Recently, it was suggested that the iFEF is located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. A similar location was proposed for the inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), an area thought to be involved in cognitive control processes. The present study used fMRI to clarify the topographical and functional relationship of the iFEF and the IFJ in the left hemispheres of individual participants. The results show that both the iFEF and the IFJ are indeed located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. Nevertheless, the activations were spatially dissociable in every individual examined. The IFJ was located more towards the depth of the inferior precentral sulcus, close to the junction with the inferior frontal sulcus, whereas the iFEF assumed a more lateral, posterior and superior position. Furthermore, the results provided evidence for a functional double dissociation: the iFEF was activated only in a comparison of saccades vs. button presses, but not in a comparison of incongruent vs. congruent Stroop conditions, while the opposite pattern was found at the IFJ. These results provide evidence for a spatial and functional dissociation of two directly adjacent areas in the left posterior frontal lobe.

  18. Neural correlate of subjective sensory experience gradually builds up across cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lafuente, Victor; Romo, Ranulfo

    2006-01-01

    When a sensory stimulus is presented, many cortical areas are activated, but how does the representation of a sensory stimulus evolve in time and across cortical areas during a perceptual judgment? We investigated this question by analyzing the responses from single neurons, recorded in several cortical areas of parietal and frontal lobes, while trained monkeys reported the presence or absence of a mechanical vibration of varying amplitude applied to the skin of one fingertip. Here we show that the strength of the covariations between neuronal activity and perceptual judgments progressively increases across cortical areas as the activity is transmitted from the primary somatosensory cortex to the premotor areas of the frontal lobe. This finding suggests that the neuronal correlates of subjective sensory experience gradually build up across somatosensory areas of the parietal lobe and premotor cortices of the frontal lobe. PMID:16924098

  19. Division of labor in frontal eye field neurons during presaccadic remapping of visual receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sooyoon; Sommer, Marc A

    2012-10-01

    Our percept of visual stability across saccadic eye movements may be mediated by presaccadic remapping. Just before a saccade, neurons that remap become visually responsive at a future field (FF), which anticipates the saccade vector. Hence, the neurons use corollary discharge of saccades. Many of the neurons also decrease their response at the receptive field (RF). Presaccadic remapping occurs in several brain areas including the frontal eye field (FEF), which receives corollary discharge of saccades in its layer IV from a collicular-thalamic pathway. We studied, at two levels, the microcircuitry of remapping in the FEF. At the laminar level, we compared remapping between layers IV and V. At the cellular level, we compared remapping between different neuron types of layer IV. In the FEF in four monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we identified 27 layer IV neurons with orthodromic stimulation and 57 layer V neurons with antidromic stimulation from the superior colliculus. With the use of established criteria, we classified the layer IV neurons as putative excitatory (n = 11), putative inhibitory (n = 12), or ambiguous (n = 4). We found that just before a saccade, putative excitatory neurons increased their visual response at the RF, putative inhibitory neurons showed no change, and ambiguous neurons increased their visual response at the FF. None of the neurons showed presaccadic visual changes at both RF and FF. In contrast, neurons in layer V showed full remapping (at both the RF and FF). Our data suggest that elemental signals for remapping are distributed across neuron types in early cortical processing and combined in later stages of cortical microcircuitry.

  20. Corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons in the mouse frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei eTomioka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cortical projection neurons are classified by hodology in corticocortical, commissural and corticofugal subtypes. Although cortical projection neurons had been regarded as only glutamatergic neurons, recently corticocortical GABAergic projection neurons has been also reported in several species. Here we demonstrate corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons in the mouse frontal cortex. We employed viral-vector-mediated anterograde tracing, classical retrograde tracing, and immunohistochemistry to characterize neocortical GABAergic projection neurons. Injections of the Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus into glutamate decarboxylase 67-Cre knock-in mice revealed neocortical GABAergic projections widely to the forebrain, including the cerebral cortices, caudate putamen, ventral pallidum, lateral globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Minor GABAergic projections were also found in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, diagonal band of Broca, medial globus pallidus, substantial nigra, and dorsal raphe nucleus. Retrograde tracing studies also demonstrated corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons in the mouse frontal cortex. Further immunohistochemical screening with neurochemical markers revealed the majority of corticostriatal GABAergic projection neurons were positive for somatostatin-immunoreactivity. In contrast, corticothalamic GABAergic projection neurons were not identified by representative neurochemical markers for GABAergic neurons. These findings suggest that corticofugal GABAergic projection neurons are heterogeneous in terms of their neurochemical properties and target nuclei, and provide axonal innervations mainly to the nuclei in the basal ganglia.

  1. Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

    2014-05-01

    Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge.

  2. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Cacace, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs) whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA) method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3), middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24). Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32), while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22), middle (BA37), inferior temporal (BA19) gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7). Hypnotic hypoalgesia in HHs, for N

  3. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3, middle frontal gyrus (BA6 and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24. Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32, while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22, middle (BA37, inferior temporal (BA19 gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7. Hypnotic hypoalgesia in

  4. Neuropsychological outcome following frontal lobectomy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Floden, Darlene P; Ferguson, Lisa; Mahmoud, Shamseldeen; Mullane, Audrina; Jones, Stephen; Jehi, Lara; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad M

    2017-02-14

    This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning. Objective methods were used to assess meaningful change across a wide range of abilities and to identify factors associated with neuropsychological decline following frontal lobectomy. Detailed postoperative neuroimaging analysis was conducted to characterize region, extent, and volume of resection. Forty-eight percent of patients did not demonstrate meaningful postoperative declines in cognition and an additional 42% demonstrated decline in 1 or 2 cognitive domains. When cognitive decline was observed, it usually occurred on measures of intelligence, visuomotor processing speed, or executive functioning. Side and site of resection were unrelated to cognitive outcome, but played a role in decline of contralateral manual dexterity following supplementary motor area resection. Higher preoperative ability, older age at surgery, absence of a malformation of cortical development on MRI, and poor seizure outcome were related to cognitive decline on some measures, but had poor sensitivity in identifying at-risk patients. The vast majority of patients who undergo frontal lobectomy for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy demonstrate good cognitive and motor outcomes. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Intra- and Interindividual Differences in Lateralized Cognitive Performance and Asymmetrical EEG Activity in the Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Murhammer, Daniela; Schulter, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The study shows that changes in relative verbal vs. figural working memory and fluency performance from one session to a second session two to 3 weeks apart covary with spontaneously occurring changes of cortical asymmetry in the lateral frontal and central cortex, measured by electroencephalography (EEG) in resting conditions before the execution…

  6. Cortical neuron loss in post-traumatic higher brain dysfunction using (123)I-iomazenil SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    In patients with higher brain dysfunction (HBD) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), diagnostic imaging of cortical neuron loss in the frontal lobes was studied using SPECT with (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ), as a radioligand for central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR). Statistical imaging analysis using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) for (123)I-IMZ SPECT was performed in 17 patients. In all patients with HBD defined by neuropsychological tests, cortical neuron loss was indicated in the bilateral medial frontal lobes in 14 patients (83 %). A comparison between the group of 17 patients and the normal database demonstrated common areas of cortical neuron loss in the bilateral medial frontal lobes involving the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). In an assessment of cortical neuron loss in the frontal medial cortex using the stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) method (level 3), significant cortical neuron loss was observed within bilateral MFG in 9 patients and unilateral MFG in 4, and bilateral ACG in 12 and unilateral ACG in 3. Fourteen patients showed significant cortical neuron loss in bilateral MFG or ACG. In patients with MTBI, HBD seemed to correlate with selective cortical neuron loss within the bilateral MFG or ACG where the responsible lesion could be. 3D-SSP and SEE level 3 analysis for (123)I-IMZ SPECT could be valuable for diagnostic imaging of HBD after MTBI.

  7. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased visual ...

  8. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  9. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  10. Frontal mucocele with an accompanying orbital abscess mimicking a fronto-orbital mucocele: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuzu Guzin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucoceles are slowly expanding cystic lesions with respiratory epithelium containing mucus most commonly affecting the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses. They are caused by obstruction of sinus ostium. Mucoceles exert pressure on the bony boundaries and due to the proximity to the brain and orbit extension to these areas are common. Case presentation A case of a frontal mucocele with an accompanying orbital abscess mimicking a fronto-orbital mucocele is reported. A 77 year old female patient suffering from left sided proptosis and pain around the left eye was admitted to our department. She had a history of left frontal sinus mucocele one year ago that was offered an osteoplastic frontal sinus surgery that the patient refused. Patient had limitation of eye movements. Fundoscopic examination revealed a minimal papilledema. Coronal computerized tomography and orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a frontal mucocele with suspicious erosion of the orbital roof and a superiorly localized extraconal mass displacing the orbit lateroinferiorly. Frontal and orbital masses had similar intensities. Thus surgery was planned for a fronto-orbital mucocele. During surgery no defect was found on the orbital roof. Frontal mucocele and orbital cystic mass was removed separately. Pathological examination showed a frontal mucocele and an orbital abscess wall. Postoperatively eye movements returned to normal and papilledema resolved. Conclusion Fronto-orbital mucoceles are commonly encountered pathologies, but frontal mucocele with an orbital abscess is a rarely seen and should be kept in mind because their treatments differ.

  11. Cortical Thickness Changes Associated with Photoparoxysmal Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Groppa, Stanislav A; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal co......) and compared these groups with a group of PPR-negative-healthy-controls (HC, n = 17; 15.3 ± 3.6 years; 6 males). Our results revealed an increase of cortical thickness in the occipital, frontal and parietal cortices bilaterally in PPR-positive-subjects in comparison to HC. Moreover PPR......-positive-subjects presented a significant decrease of cortical thickness in the temporal cortex in the same group contrast. IGE patients exhibited lower cortical thickness in the temporal lobe bilaterally and in the right paracentral region in comparison to PPR-positive-subjects. Our study demonstrates structural changes...... in the occipital lobe, frontoparietal regions and temporal lobe, which also show functional changes associated with PPR. Patients with epilepsy present changes in the temporal lobe and supplementary motor area....

  12. Frontal presentation of Alzheimer's disease: A series of patients with biological evidence by CSF biomarkers

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    Leonardo Cruz de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Besides its typical amnesic presentation, focal atypical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD have been described in neuropathological studies. These phenotypical variants of AD (so-called "atypical AD" do not follow the typical amnestic pattern and include non-amnestic focal cortical syndromes, such as posterior cortical atrophy and frontal variant AD. These variants exhibit characteristic histological lesions of Alzheimer pathology at post-mortem exam. By using physiopathological markers, such as cerebrospinal fluid markers, it is now possible to establish in vivo a biological diagnosis of AD in these focal cortical syndromes. We report a series of eight patients who were diagnosed with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia based on their clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings, while CSF biomarkers showed an AD biological profile, thus supporting a diagnosis of frontal variant of AD.

  13. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (pinsight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia.

  14. Cesare Lombroso, cortical dysplasia, and epilepsy: keen findings and odd theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, A; Spreafico, R; Avanzini, G; Ghiglione, P; Vercellino, M; Mutani, R

    2003-11-25

    Cesare Lombroso supported a common origin of criminality, genius, and epilepsy as caused by factors impairing the embryonic development of the CNS, mainly affecting the hierarchically superior neural centers. To describe the first observations of cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy by Cesare Lombroso and his coworkers in 1896. To confirm his theories, Lombroso emphasized the need for the direct observation of the patient, using anthropologic, social, neurophysiologic, economic, and pathologic data. With the collaboration of his pupil Luigi Roncoroni, Lombroso described a prevalence of large, giant pyramidal neurons and polymorphous cells through the gray matter of the frontal cortex in 13 patients with epilepsy. Most of the large pyramidal neurons were haphazardly arranged, presenting also an abnormal orientation of their apical dendrites. The number of nervous cells was noticeably reduced, with the presence of abundant gliosis. Moreover, the granular layers were dramatically reduced or absent in most patients, and numerous nervous cells were present in the subcortical white matter. This particular finding was never observed in specimens from criminal and healthy control subjects. Lombroso and Roncoroni explained their finding as evidence of an arrest of CNS development. More than one century ago, Cesare Lombroso and collaborators described developmental lesions in the frontal cortex of patients with epilepsy, which correspond to what currently is called Taylor's dysplasia. However, they used their observations to support their scientific misconception on the relationship between criminality, epilepsy, and genius.

  15. Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance.

  16. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  17. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Lina; Jackson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC) twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  18. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  19. [Diagnostic dyspraxia and frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, A; Schmitt, A; Poncet, M

    1998-05-01

    A 27-year-old ambidexter woman experienced a clinical and psychometric frontal syndrome associated with a partial callosal syndrome following transcallosal surgery for an intraventricular neurocytoma. She also complained of difficulties with her left hand which realized a particular form of diagnostic dyspraxia: there were specific features of an isolated dysfunction of the control of the realization of a program.

  20. Definition of the orbital cortex in relation to specific connections with limbic and visceral structures and other cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph L

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is often defined topographically as the cortex on the ventral surface of the frontal lobe. Unfortunately, this definition is not consistently used, and it obscures distinct connectional and functional systems within the orbital cortex. It is difficult to interpret data on the orbital cortex that do not take these different systems into account. Analysis of cortico-cortical connections between areas in the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex indicate two distinct networks in this region. One system, called the orbital network, involves most of the areas in the central orbital cortex. The other system, has been called the medial prefrontal network, though it is actually more complex, since it includes areas on the medial wall, in the medial orbital cortex, and in the posterolateral orbital cortex. Some areas in the medial orbital cortex are involved in both networks. Connections to other brain areas support the distinction between the networks. The orbital network receives several sensory inputs, from olfactory cortex, taste cortex, somatic sensory association cortex, and visual association cortex, and is connected with multisensory areas in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex. The medial network has outputs to the hypothalamus and brain stem and connects to a cortical circuit that includes the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus, the cingulate and retrosplenial cortex, the entorhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortex, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

  1. A crucial role for the cortico-striato-cortical loop in the pathogenesis of stroke-related neurogenic stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Catherine; De Nil, Luc; Thijs, Vincent; van Wieringen, Astrid; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Neurogenic stuttering is an acquired speech disorder characterized by the occurrence of stuttering-like dysfluencies following brain damage. Because the onset of stuttering in these patients is associated with brain lesions, this condition provides a unique opportunity to study the neural processes underlying speech dysfluencies. Lesion localizations of 20 stroke subjects with neurogenic stuttering and 17 control subjects were compared using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. The results showed nine left-hemisphere areas associated with the presence of neurogenic stuttering. These areas were largely overlapping with the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical network comprising the inferior frontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, basal ganglia, and their white matter interconnections through the superior longitudinal fasciculus and internal capsule. These results indicated that stroke-induced neurogenic stuttering is not associated with neural dysfunction in one specific brain area but can occur following one or more lesion throughout the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical network. It is suggested that the onset of neurogenic stuttering in stroke subjects results from a disintegration of neural functions necessary for fluent speech.

  2. Cortical involvement of marchiafava-bignami disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare complication of chronic alcoholism and this malady typically manifests as callosal lesion. I report here on one patient with Marchiafava-bignami disease (MBD) who has symmetric restricted diffusion in both lateral-frontal cortices, in addition to the callosal lesion.

  3. Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Parr, Alice; Cusack, Rhodri; Thompson, Russell; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, Maria; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, deficits reflect the extent of damage to a restricted but complex brain circuit comprising specific regions within both frontal and posterior cortex. PMID:20679241

  4. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  5. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  6. Striatal phosphodiesterase 10A and medial prefrontal cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia: a PET and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodén, R; Persson, J; Wall, A; Lubberink, M; Ekselius, L; Larsson, E-M; Antoni, G

    2017-03-07

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is abundant in striatal medium spiny neurons and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in animal models and is investigated as a possible new pharmacological treatment target. A reduction of prefrontal cortical thickness is common in schizophrenia, but how this relates to PDE10A expression is unknown. Our study aim was to compare, we believe for the first time, the striatal non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) of the new validated PDE10A ligand [(11)C]Lu AE92686 between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the correlation of PDE10A BPND to cortical thickness. Sixteen healthy male controls and 10 male patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, olanzapine or quetiapine were investigated with positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Striatal binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]Lu AE92686 was acquired through dynamic PET scans and cortical thickness by structural MRI. Clinical assessments of symptoms and cognitive function were performed and the antipsychotic dosage was recorded. Patients with schizophrenia had a significantly lower BPND of [(11)C]Lu AE92686 in striatum (P=0.003) than healthy controls. The striatal BPND significantly correlated to cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus across patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. No significant correlation was observed between the BPND for [(11)C]Lu AE92686 in striatum and age, schizophrenia symptoms, antipsychotic dosage, coffee consumption, smoking, duration of illness or cognitive function in the patients. In conclusion, PDE10A may be important for functioning in the striato-cortical interaction and in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  7. Influence of bone microstructure on the mechanical properties of skull cortical bone - A combined experimental and computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, Sourabh; Subit, Damien L; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S; Crandall, Jeff R; Salzar, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    The strength and compliance of the dense cortical layers of the human skull have been examined since the beginning of the 20th century with the wide range in the observed mechanical properties attributed to natural biological variance. Since this variance may be explained by the difference in structural arrangement of bone tissue, micro-computed tomography (µCT) was used in conjunction with mechanical testing to study the relationship between the microstructure of human skull cortical coupons and their mechanical response. Ninety-seven bone samples were machined from the cortical tables of the calvaria of ten fresh post mortem human surrogates and tested in dynamic tension until failure. A linear response between stress and strain was observed until close to failure, which occurred at 0.6% strain on average. The effective modulus of elasticity for the coupons was 12.01 ± 3.28GPa. Porosity of the test specimens, determined from µCT, could explain only 51% of the variation of their effective elastic modulus. Finite element (FE) models of the tested specimens built from µCT images indicated that modeling the microstructural arrangement of the bone, in addition to the porosity, led to a marginal improvement of the coefficient of determination to 54%. Modulus for skull cortical bone for an element size of 50µm was estimated to be 19GPa at an average. Unlike the load bearing bones of the body, almost half of the variance in the mechanical properties of cortical bone from the skull may be attributed to differences at the sub-osteon (< 50µm) level. ANOVA tests indicated that effective failure stress and strain varied significantly between the frontal and parietal bones, while the bone phase modulus was different for the superior and inferior aspects of the calvarium. The micro FE models did not indicate any anisotropy attributable to the pores observable under µCT.

  8. Age-related differences in cortical activity during a visuo-spatial working memory task with facial stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Schechtman Belham

    Full Text Available Emotion, importantly displayed by facial expressions, is one of the most significant memory modulators. The interaction between memory and the different emotional valences change across lifespan, while young adults (YA are expected to better recall negative events (Negativity Bias Hypothesis, older adults (OA tend to focus on positive stimuli (Positivity Effect Hypothesis. This research work aims at verifying whether cortical electrical activity of these two age groups would also be differently influenced by emotional valences in a visuo-spatial working memory task. 27 YA (13 males and 25 OA (14 males, all healthy volunteers, underwent electroencephalographic recordings (21 scalp electrodes montage, while performing the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task using a touch screen with different stimuli categories: neutral, positive and negative faces and geometric pictures. YA obtained higher scores than OA, and showed higher activation of theta and alpha bands in the frontal and midline regions, besides a more evident right-hemispheric asymmetry on alpha band when compared to OA. For both age groups, performance in the task was worse for positive faces than to negative and to neutral faces. Facial stimuli induced a better performance and higher alpha activation on the pre-frontal region for YA, and on the midline, occipital and left temporal regions for OA when compared to geometric figures. The superior performance of YA was expected due to the natural cognitive deficits connected to ageing, as was a better performance with facial stimuli due to the evolutionary importance of faces. These results were related to cortical activity on areas of importance for action-planning, decision making and sustained attention. Taken together, they are in accordance with the Negativity Bias but do not support the Positivity Effect. The methodology used was able to identify age-related differences in cortical activity during emotional mnemonic processing and

  9. Sequential memory: a developmental perspective on its relation to frontal lobe functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Cassandra Burns; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2004-03-01

    The multidimensional nature of the frontal lobes serves to organize and coordinate brain functionings playing a central and pervasive role in human cognition. The executive processes implicated in complex cognition such as novel problem solving, modifying behavior as appropriate in response to changes in the environment, inhibiting prepotent or previous responses, and the implementation of schemas that organize behavior over time are believed to be mediated by the frontal regions of the brain. Overall, the functioning of the frontal lobes assists individuals in goal directed and self-regulatory behavior. Additional theories of frontal lobe functioning have focused on its involvement in temporal, or time-related domains. The organizational and strategic nature of frontal lobe functioning affects memory processes by enhancing the organization of to-be-remembered information. Among the specific memory systems presumed to be based on anterior cerebral structures is the temporal organization of memory. An essential component of memory that involves temporal organization is sequential ordering entailing the ability to judge which stimuli were seen most recently and the temporal ordering of events in memory. Focal lesion studies have demonstrated the importance of the frontal lobes on retrieval tasks in which monitoring, verification, and placement of information in temporal and spatial contexts of critical importance. Similarly, frontal lobe damage has been associated with deficits in memory for the temporal ordering, or sequencing, of events. The acquisition of abilities thought to be mediated by the frontal lobes, including sequential memory, unfolds throughout childhood, serving to condition patterns of behavior for the rest of the brain. Development of the frontal regions of the brain is known to continue through late adolescence and into early adulthood, in contrast to the earlier maturation of other cortical regions. The developmental patterns of the frontal lobes

  10. Enhanced metabolic capacity of the frontal cerebral cortex after Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchey, A K; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2008-03-18

    While Pavlovian conditioning alters stimulus-evoked metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex, less is known about the effects of Pavlovian conditioning on neuronal metabolic capacity. Pavlovian conditioning may increase prefrontal cortical metabolic capacity, as suggested by evidence of changes in cortical synaptic strengths, and evidence for a shift in memory initially processed in subcortical regions to more distributed prefrontal cortical circuits. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure cumulative changes in brain metabolic capacity associated with both cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning in rats. The cued conditioned group received tone-foot-shock pairings to elicit a conditioned freezing response to the tone conditioned stimulus, while the contextually conditioned group received pseudorandom tone-foot-shock pairings in an excitatory context. Untrained control group was handled daily, but did not receive any tone presentations or foot shocks. The cued conditioned group had higher cytochrome oxidase activity in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortex, and lower cytochrome oxidase activity in dorsal hippocampus than the other two groups. A significant increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was found in anterior cortical areas (medial, dorsal and lateral frontal cortex; agranular insular cortex; lateral and medial orbital cortex and prelimbic cortex) in both conditioned groups, as compared with the untrained control group. In addition, no differences in cytochrome oxidase activity in the somatosensory regions and the amygdala were detected among all groups. The findings indicate that cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning induces sustained increases in frontal cortical neuronal metabolic demand resulting in regional enhancement in the metabolic capacity of anterior cortical regions. Enhanced metabolic capacity of these anterior cortical areas after Pavlovian conditioning suggests that the frontal cortex may play a

  11. The pace of vocabulary growth during preschool predicts cortical structure at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    Children vary greatly in their vocabulary development during preschool years. Importantly, the pace of this early vocabulary growth predicts vocabulary size at school entrance. Despite its importance for later academic success, not much is known about the relation between individual differences in early vocabulary development and later brain structure and function. Here we examined the association between vocabulary growth in children, as estimated from longitudinal measurements from 14 to 58 months, and individual differences in brain structure measured in 3rd and 4th grade (8-10 years old). Our results show that the pace of vocabulary growth uniquely predicts cortical thickness in the left supramarginal gyrus. Probabilistic tractography revealed that this region is directly connected to the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) and the ventral premotor cortex, via what is most probably the superior longitudinal fasciculus III. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the relation between the pace of vocabulary learning in children and a specific change in the structure of the cerebral cortex, specifically, cortical thickness in the left supramarginal gyrus. They also highlight the fact that differences in the pace of vocabulary growth are associated with the dorsal language stream, which is thought to support speech perception and articulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural correlates of cognitive impairment in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Aurélie; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Samri, Dalila; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Lacomblez, Lucette; Kalafat, Michel; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Cohen, Laurent; Dubois, Bruno; Habert, Marie-Odile; Sarazin, Marie

    2011-05-01

    With the prospect of disease-modifying drugs that will target the physiopathological process of Alzheimer's disease, it is now crucial to increase the understanding of the atypical focal presentations of Alzheimer's disease, such as posterior cortical atrophy. This study aimed to (i) characterize the brain perfusion profile in posterior cortical atrophy using regions of interest and a voxel-based approach; (ii) study the influence of the disease duration on the clinical and imaging profiles; and (iii) explore the correlations between brain perfusion and cognitive deficits. Thirty-nine patients with posterior cortical atrophy underwent a specific battery of neuropsychological tests, mainly targeting visuospatial functions, and a brain perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer. The imaging analysis included a comparison with a group of 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease, matched for age, disease duration and Mini-Mental State Examination, and 24 healthy controls. The single-photon emission computed tomography profile in patients with posterior cortical atrophy was characterized by extensive and severe hypoperfusion in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal cortices and in a smaller cortical area corresponding to the frontal eye fields (Brodmann areas 6/8). Compared with patients with Alzheimer's disease, the group with posterior cortical atrophy showed more severe occipitoparietal hypoperfusion and higher perfusion in the frontal, anterior cingulate and mesiotemporal regions. When considering the disease duration, the functional changes began and remained centred on the posterior lobes, even in the late stage. Correlation analyses of brain perfusion and neuropsychological scores in posterior cortical atrophy highlighted the prominent role of left inferior parietal damage in acalculia, Gerstmann's syndrome, left-right indistinction and limb apraxia, whereas damage to the bilateral dorsal occipitoparietal regions appeared to be involved in B

  13. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given in...... in this note. The data set is available in two versions: i) low resolution, given in the zip-file electronic version, ii) high, given in the publication link....

  14. Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H

    2007-02-02

    Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.

  15. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  16. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Cody, Patrick A; Bubser, Michael; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Mathur, Brian N

    2017-04-15

    The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prefrontal cortical volume loss is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Meyer, Vanessa J; J Conant, Rhoda; Sundermann, Erin E; Wu, Minjie; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in verbal learning and memory are a prominent feature of neurocognitive function in HIV-infected women, and are associated with high levels of perceived stress. To understand the neurobiological factors contributing to this stress-related memory impairment, we examined the association between stress, verbal memory, and brain volumes in HIV-infected women. Participants included 38 HIV-infected women (Mean age=43.9years) from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10; PSS-10). Brain volumes were evaluated in a priori regions of interest, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Compared to HIV-infected women with lower stress (PSS-10 scores in lower two tertiles), HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in the top tertile), performed worse on measures of verbal learning and memory and showed smaller volumes bilaterally in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus (p'slearning and memory performance. Prefrontal cortical atrophy is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women. The time course of these volume losses in relation to memory deficits has yet to be elucidated, but the magnitude of the volumetric differences between women with higher versus lower stress suggests a prolonged vulnerability due to chronic stress and/or early life trauma.

  19. Vulnerability of the medial frontal corticospinal projection accompanies combined lateral frontal and parietal cortex injury in rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Ge, J; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; McNeal, D W; Hynes, S M; Pizzimenti, M A; Rotella, D L; Darling, W G

    2015-03-01

    Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction, leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia, and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor, and the mechanisms that support or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the spontaneous long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared with controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral CSP. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion), which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al. [2010] J. Comp. Neurol. 518:586-621), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aging affects medial but not anterior frontal learning-related theta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-03-01

    Aging induces a decline in the ties that bind anatomical networks centered on the prefrontal cortex, which are critical for reinforcement learning and decision making. At the neurophysiological level, the prefrontal cortex may engage electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization to coordinate other brain systems during learning. We recorded scalp EEG from 21 older (mean age 69 years) and 20 young (mean age 22 years) healthy human adults while they learned stimulus-response mappings by trial-and-error using feedback. In young adults, theta-band (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power over medial frontal and anterior frontal cortex predicted learning after errors. Older adults demonstrated a decrease in the theta-band learning-predictive signals over medial frontal but not anterior frontal cortex. This age-related decrease in task-relevant medial frontal theta power may be related to the more general decrease in medial frontal theta power that we observed during rest. These results demonstrate a shift in cortical networks that support reinforcement learning in older adults, and shed new light on the changes in neurophysiological (oscillatory) mechanisms with neurocognitive aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Frontal lobe epilepsy with atypical seizure semiology resembling shuddering attacks or wet dog shake seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahodova, Alena; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Kudr, Martin; Kyncl, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Tichy, Michal

    2012-03-01

    We report a girl with a drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia, who exhibited uncommon seizures. The seizures consisted of shoulder or whole body shuddering after a short psychic aura and face grimacing. Consciousness was fully preserved. The seizures resembled "wet dog shake" seizures described in rat models of epilepsy or shuddering attacks in infants. EEG findings were inconclusive, however, MRI showed a clear dysplastic lesion in the right frontal mesial and polar structures. The patient underwent an extended lesionectomy guided by neuronavigation and intraoperative electrocorticography. Focal cortical dysplasia type Ib was histologically confirmed and the patient has been seizure-free for the three years following resection. [Published with video sequences].

  2. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy caused by a mutation in the GATOR1 complex gene NPRL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenke, Georg-Christoph; Eggert, Marlene; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in NPRL3, one of three genes that encode proteins of the mTORC1-regulating GATOR1 complex, have recently been reported to cause cortical dysplasia with focal epilepsy. We have now analyzed a multiplex epilepsy family by whole exome sequencing and identified a frameshift mutation (NM_001077350.2; c.1522delG; p.E508Rfs*46) within exon 13 of NPRL3. This truncating mutation causes an epilepsy phenotype characterized by early childhood onset of mainly nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The penetrance in our family was low (three affected out of six mutation carriers), compared to families with either ion channel- or DEPDC5-associated familial nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The absence of apparent structural brain abnormalities suggests that mutations in NPRL3 are not necessarily associated with focal cortical dysplasia but might be able to cause epilepsy by different, yet unknown pathomechanisms.

  3. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Baker, Laura A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-03-30

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy.

  4. Subcortical frontal lesions on MRI in patients with motor neurone disease

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    Andreadou, E.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Varelas, P.; Papageorgiou, C. [Eginition Hospital, Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [Department of Radiology, CT/MRI Unit, Areteion Hospital, University of Athens (Greece)

    1998-05-01

    MRI was performed in 32 patients with motor neurone disease (26 men and 6 women, aged 40-77 years) and in a control group of 21 subjects. Of the patients studied, 19 had definite and 11 probable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and two had progressive bulbar palsy. In 10 patients there were asymmetrical bilateral foci of increased signal intensity on proton-density and T{sub 2}-weighted images, confined to the white matter. Two patients had only cortical frontal atrophy and slightly increased ventricular size, whereas 20 had normal MRI. The focal lesions were not confined to corticospinal tracts, but were also observed in subcortical frontal areas. While the lesions along the corticospinal tracts correspond to pyramidal tract degeneration, the subcortical foci correlate with degeneration of the frontal bundles and indicate generalised involvement of the central nervous system. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  5. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases

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    Teagan Ann Bisbing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test (BCET to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation.

  6. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, Teagan A.; Olm, Christopher A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Irwin, David J.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber cognitive estimation test (BCET) to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula, and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation. PMID:26089786

  7. Dysfunction and dysconnection in cortical-striatal networks during sustained attention: Genetic risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and its impact on brain network function

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    Vaibhav A. Diwadkar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the brain’s attention network may represent early identifiable neurobiological impairments in individuals at increased risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Here we provide evidence of dysfunctional regional and network function in adolescents at higher genetic risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (henceforth HGR. During fMRI, participants engaged in a sustained attention task with variable demands. The task alternated between attention (120 s, visual control (passive viewing; 120 s and rest (20 s epochs. Low and high demand attention conditions were created using the rapid presentation of 2- or 3-digit numbers. Subjects were required to detect repeated presentation of numbers. We demonstrate that the recruitment of cortical and striatal regions are disordered in HGR: Relative to typical controls (TC, HGR showed lower recruitment of the dorsal prefrontal cortex, but higher recruitment of the superior parietal cortex. This imbalance was more dramatic in the basal ganglia. There, a group by task demand interaction was observed, such that increased attention demand led to increased engagement in TC, but disengagement in HGR. These activation studies were complemented by network analyses using Dynamic Causal Modeling. Competing model architectures were assessed across a network of cortical-striatal regions, distinguished at a second level using random effects Bayesian model selection. In the winning architecture, HGR were characterized by significant reductions in coupling across both frontal-striatal and frontal-parietal pathways. The effective connectivity analyses indicate emergent network dysconnection, consistent with findings in patients with schizophrenia. Emergent patterns of regional dysfunction and disconnection in cortical-striatal pathways may provide functional biological signatures in the adolescent risk state for psychiatric illness.

  8. Analysis of Amygdalar-Cortical Network Covariance During Pre- versus Post-menopausal Estrogen Levels: Potential Relevance to Resting State Networks, Mood, and Cognition

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    Ottowitz, William E.; Derro, David; Dougherty, Darin D.; Lindquist, Martin A.; Fischman, Alan J.; Hall, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1.) Expand the scope of neuroendocrine applications of functional neuroimaging techniques. 2.) Compare the covariance of amygdalar activity with that of the rest of the brain during pre- and post-menopausal levels of estrogen (E2). Based on the distribution of cortical E2 receptors and the neocortical regions where E2 has been shown to preferentially accumulate, we predict that E2 infusion will increase covariance of amygdalar activity with that of the temporal and frontal cortices. Design This basic physiology study employed a within-subject design. All participants were post-menopausal women (n =7). Analysis of covariance between whole brain and amygdalar regional cerebral glucose consumption (CMRglc) was conducted in a voxel-wise manner by means of the basic regression option in SPM2 and was applied to FDG-PET scans acquired at baseline and after a 24 hour graded E2 infusion. Setting an academic medical center; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Results E2 levels (mean ± sem) were significantly greater at 24 hours (257.9 pg/mL ± 29.7) than at 0 hours (28.1 pg/mL ± 3.4). Right amygdalar CMRglc showed a significant covariance with activity of three different regions of the temporal cortex during E2 infusion, but none at baseline. In addition, right amygdalar CMRglc covaried with that of the right medial and superior frontal gyri only during E2 infusion. Conclusions In addition to suggesting changes in amygdalar-cortical network connectivity as a result of short-term E2 exposure, these analyses provide evidence that basic neuroendocrine research may benefit from further use of FDG-PET and other functional neuroimaging modalities for network level analyses. PMID:18766152

  9. Distinct Genetic Influences on Cortical and Subcortical Brain Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wei; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Mather, Karen A.; Zhu, Wanlin; Jiang, Jiyang; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Wright, Margaret J.; Ames, David; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the heritability of brain grey matter structures in a subsample of older adult twins (93 MZ and 68 DZ twin pairs; mean age 70 years) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The heritability estimates of subcortical regions ranged from 0.41 (amygdala) to 0.73 (hippocampus), and of cortical regions, from 0.55 (parietal lobe) to 0.78 (frontal lobe). Corresponding structures in the two hemispheres were influenced by the same genetic factors and high genetic correlations were observed between the two hemispheric regions. There were three genetically correlated clusters, comprising (i) the cortical lobes (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes); (ii) the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen and pallidum) with weak genetic correlations with cortical lobes, and (iii) the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens grouped together, which genetically correlated with both basal ganglia and cortical lobes, albeit relatively weakly. Our study demonstrates a complex but patterned and clustered genetic architecture of the human brain, with divergent genetic determinants of cortical and subcortical structures, in particular the basal ganglia.

  10. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

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    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Serotonin modulation of cortical neurons and networks

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    Pau eCelada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The serotonergic pathways originating in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively are critically involved in cortical function. Serotonin (5-HT, acting on postsynaptic and presynaptic receptors, is involved in cognition, mood, impulse control and motor functions by 1 modulating the activity of different neuronal types, and 2 varying the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine. Also, 5-HT seems to play an important role in cortical development. Of all cortical regions, the frontal lobe is the area most enriched in serotonergic axons and 5-HT receptors. 5-HT and selective receptor agonists modulate the excitability of cortical neurons and their discharge rate through the activation of several receptor subtypes, of which the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 subtypes play a major role. Little is known, however, on the role of other excitatory receptors moderately expressed in cortical areas, such as 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are key players and exert opposite effects on the activity of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The activation of 5-HT1A receptors in mPFC hyperpolarizes pyramidal neurons whereas that of 5-HT2A receptors results in neuronal depolarization, reduction of the afterhyperpolarization and increase of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and of discharge rate. 5-HT can also stimulate excitatory (5-HT2A and 5-HT3 and inhibitory (5-HT1A receptors in GABA interneurons to modulate synaptic GABA inputs onto pyramidal neurons. Likewise, the pharmacological manipulation of various 5-HT receptors alters oscillatory activity in PFC, suggesting that 5-HT is also involved in the control of cortical network activity. A better understanding of the actions of 5-HT in PFC may help to develop treatments for mood and cognitive disorders associated with an abnormal function of the

  12. Evaluating the safety of frontal sinus trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie S; Schaitkin, Barry M; Gillman, Grant S

    2010-03-01

    The depth of the frontal sinus was measured using axial computed tomography (CT) images to examine the safety of frontal sinus trephination at selected distances from the midline. Review of 200 sinus CT scans. Two hundred sinus CT scans (400 frontal sinuses) were reviewed to measure the frontal sinus depth at 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm from midline. Males had a significantly deeper frontal sinus than females at all measurements points (P trephine instruments (7 mm) and would risk penetration of the posterior table of the sinus. Of all frontal sinuses studied, 9.54% were trephine instruments, surgeons should recognize that up to 15% of nonhypoplastic frontal sinuses may not be sufficiently deep at a given point to allow safe trephination without risking unintentional transgression of the posterior table. This study suggests that trephination routinely carried out at a given predetermined distance from the midline may be an unsafe practice. Careful evaluation of the imaging is essential in every case to avoid inadvertent injury and to help select the safest distance from the midline for frontal sinus trephination.

  13. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris

    2013-05-28

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks.

  14. Severity of Cortical Thinning Correlates With Schizophrenia Spectrum Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Deanna; Shora, Lorie; Dillard-Broadnax, Diane; Gochman, Peter; Clasen, Liv S.; Berman, Rebecca A.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Gogtay, Nitin; Ordóñez, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the relationship between regional cortical gray matter thinning and symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders (PDs) in siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Method 66 siblings of patients with COS were assessed for symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum PDs (avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal). Structural magnetic resonance images were obtained at approximately 2-year intervals from the siblings and from 62 healthy volunteers, matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and handedness. Cortical thickness measures were extracted. Mixed effect regression models were used to test the relationship between symptoms and cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical thinning was also tested longitudinally in healthy volunteers and siblings. Results Cortical thinning was found to correlate with symptoms of schizotypal and, to a lesser extent, schizoid PDs. Thinning was most pronounced in the left temporal and parietal lobes and right frontal and parietal regions. Gray matter loss was found to be continuous with that measured in COS. Longitudinal thinning trajectories were found not to differ between siblings and healthy volunteers. Conclusion The present investigation of cortical thinning in siblings of patients with COS indicates that symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum PDs correlate with regional gray matter loss. This finding supports the idea of cortical thinning as a schizophrenia endophenotype. PMID:26802780

  15. Regional cortical thinning in subjects with violent antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M; Narr, Katherine L; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2007-09-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann's areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia.

  16. Regional Cortical Thinning in Subjects With Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder or Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Veena M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Kumari, Veena; Woods, Roger P.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2011-01-01

    Violent behavior is associated with antisocial personality disorder and to a lesser extent with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that several biological systems are disturbed in schizophrenia, and structural changes in frontal and temporal lobe regions are reported in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. The neural substrates that underlie violent behavior specifically and their structural analogs, however, remain poorly understood. Nor is it known whether a common biological basis exists for aggressive, impulsive, and violent behavior across these clinical populations. To explore the correlates of violence with brain structure in antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the authors used magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate for the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, regional differences in cortical thickness in violent and nonviolent individuals with schizophrenia and/or antisocial personality disorder and in healthy comparison subjects. Subject groups included right-handed men closely matched for demographic variables (total number of subjects=56). Violence was associated with cortical thinning in the medial inferior frontal and lateral sensory motor cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, and surrounding association areas (Brodmann’s areas 10, 11, 12, and 32). Only violent subjects with antisocial personality disorder exhibited cortical thinning in inferior mesial frontal cortices. The biological underpinnings of violent behavior may therefore vary between these two violent subject groups in which the medial frontal cortex is compromised in antisocial personality disorder exclusively, but laminar abnormalities in sensorimotor cortices may relate to violent behavior in both antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:17728428

  17. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  18. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

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    S. Guimond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal memory (VM represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments.

  19. Frontal sinus mucocele with orbital complications: Management by varied surgical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Bhavana, Kranti; Keshri, Amit; Kumar, Raj; Srivastava, Arun

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele of a para-nasal sinus is an accumulation of mucoid secretion and desqua-mated epithelium within the sinus with distension of its walls and is regarded as a cyst like expansile and destructive lesion. If the cyst invades the adjacent orbit and continues to expand within the orbital cavity, the mass may mimic the behavior of many benign growths primary in the orbit. The frontal sinus is most commonly involved, whereas sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary mucoceles are rare. Floor of frontal sinus is shared with the superior orbital wall which explains the early displacement of orbit in enlarging frontal mucoceles. Frontal sinus mucoceles are prone to recurrences if not managed adequately. Here, we are evaluating different approaches used to manage various stages of frontal mucoceles which presented to us with orbital complications. Three cases of frontal sinus mucocele are discussed which presented to our OPD with different clinical symptoms and all cases were managed by different surgical approaches according to their severity. We also concluded that it is prudent to collaborate with the neurosurgeons for adequate management of such complex mucoceles by a craniotomy approach. PMID:23293669

  20. Frontal sinus osteoma with osteoblastoma-like histology and associated intracranial pneumatocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Larisa M; Kissel, Phillip; Ragsdale, Bruce D

    2012-09-01

    Osteomas of the cranial sinuses are rare, benign bony tumors that can be complicated by the formation of an intracranial pneumatocele. If not treated promptly, a pneumatocele can lead to abscess formation, meningitis, or ventriculitis. In the present case, an intracerebral pneumatocele was formed when an 18 cm(3) osteoma breached the posterior wall of the frontal sinus creating a one-way valve through which air could enter the intracranial cavity. The patient presented after forceful sneezing with nonspecific symptoms of headache, nausea, and vomiting. CT demonstrated a frontal collection of loculated air with mass effect within the left cerebral hemisphere. A partly mineralized mass occupied the left superior nasal ethmoid sinus and left frontal sinus. Of interest pathologically in this case, the tumor had a substantial osteoblastoma-like component. Surgical repair involved frontal craniotomy to remove the osteoma and debride frontal sinus mucosa, plugging the frontal nasal ducts and sinus with fat and bone wax, and dural restoration using an underwater closed drainage system to vent intracranial air and stabilize the patient.

  1. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Chou

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  2. Cognitive vulnerability and frontal brain asymmetry: common predictors of first prospective depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Shackman, Alexander J; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B; Coan, James A; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2011-05-01

    The hopelessness theory of depression proposes that individuals with a depressogenic cognitive style are more likely to become hopeless and experience depression following negative life events. Although the neurophysiological underpinnings of cognitive style remain speculative, research indicates that decreased relative left frontal brain electrical activity holds promise as a traitlike marker of depression. This begs the question: Do measures of depressogenic cognitive style and resting frontal brain asymmetry index a common vulnerability? The present study provides preliminary support for this hypothesis. At baseline assessment, increased cognitive vulnerability to depression was associated with decreased relative left frontal brain activity at rest in individuals with no prior history of, or current, depression. Following baseline assessment, participants were followed prospectively an average of 3 years with structured diagnostic interviews at 4-month intervals. Both cognitive vulnerability and asymmetric frontal cortical activity prospectively predicted onset of first depressive episode in separate univariate analyses. Furthermore, multivariate analyses indicated that cognitive vulnerability and frontal asymmetry represented shared, rather than independent, predictors of first depression onset.

  3. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  4. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  5. Preliminary findings of cortical thickness abnormalities in blast injured service members and their relationship to clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, D F; York, G E; Reid, M W; Cooper, D B; Jones, L; Robin, D A; Kennedy, J E; Lewis, J

    2014-03-01

    Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the

  6. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  7. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  8. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  9. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  10. Relation Between Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety in Young Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdzieva, Aneta; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry (the relative difference in power between two signals in different hemispheres) has been suggested as biomarker for anxiety. The goal of this study was to evaluate alpha asymmetry in the frontal region for young people (7-18 years) with generalized anxiety disorder, diagnosed according to two statistic manuals (DMS-IV-R and ICD-10), the medical history and the neuropsychological assessment. The QEEG recording and analysis of the obtained results from alpha spectra power and log of alpha spectra power are made in four conditions (eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT). The obtained results for alpha power in general showed higher cortical activity in the right hemisphere, associated with negative emotions. The calculated alpha asymmetry separate for eyes open, eyes closed, VCPT and ACPT conditions showed the right activation in all four conditions. In addition, the right frontal asymmetry was specific for the Fp(1)-Fp(2) region, while a greater left frontal activation was recorded for the F(7)-F(8) region. The log of alpha power in general was additionally analyzed. The calculated asymmetry score in general (in a way that the left log transformed score was subtracted from the right) confirmed a greater right activation. Testing the power of the whole alpha band (μV(2)) in general, for all four conditions and for frontal region confirmed the right alpha asymmetries in all participants. The right alpha asymmetry in the frontal region was specific only for the Fp(1)-Fp(2) region (frontopolar region). The only greater left frontal activation was registered between the F(7)-F(8) region. Our findings are supported by many other studies using specific localization methods like fMRI or LORETA source localization.

  11. Influence of motivation on control hierarchy in the human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Aarts, Esther; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The frontal cortex mediates cognitive control and motivation to shape human behavior. It is generally observed that medial frontal areas are involved in motivational aspects of behavior, whereas lateral frontal regions are involved in cognitive control. Recent models of cognitive control suggest a rostro-caudal gradient in lateral frontal regions, such that progressively more rostral (anterior) regions process more complex aspects of cognitive control. How motivation influences such a control hierarchy is still under debate. Although some researchers argue that both systems work in parallel, others argue in favor of an interaction between motivation and cognitive control. In the latter case it is yet unclear how motivation would affect the different levels of the control hierarchy. This was investigated in the present functional MRI study applying different levels of cognitive control under different motivational states (low vs high reward anticipation). Three levels of cognitive control were tested by varying rule complexity: stimulus-response mapping (low-level), flexible task updating (mid-level), and sustained cue-task associations (high-level). We found an interaction between levels of cognitive control and motivation in medial and lateral frontal subregions. Specifically, flexible updating (mid-level of control) showed the strongest beneficial effect of reward and only this level exhibited functional coupling between dopamine-rich midbrain regions and the lateral frontal cortex. These findings suggest that motivation differentially affects the levels of a control hierarchy, influencing recruitment of frontal cortical control regions depending on specific task demands. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353207-11$15.00/0.

  12. Cortical sensory loss in a patient with posterior cortical atrophy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chiu, Hou-Chang

    2004-02-01

    Patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) who present with initial symptoms of higher visual function deficits eventually develop alexia, aphasia, and components of Balint's syndrome or Gerstmann's syndrome. Recently, pathological findings were reported for these patients that are generally suggestive of Alzheimer's disease even though Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was presumed as an alternative cause of some autopsy-diagnosed PCA cases. Here, we report a case with a four-year progression of cognitive and higher visual function deterioration, and with features not described in previously reported PCA cases (i.e., a distinct sensory complaint and early frontal lobe involvement). To summarize, this case belongs to perceptual-motor syndrome of asymmetric cortical degeneration and the underlying neuropathology is more suggestive of Alzheimer's disease than of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  14. Cortical substrates for the perception of face actions: an fMRI study of the specificity of activation for seen speech and for meaningless lower-face acts (gurning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R; MacSweeney, M; Surguladze, S; Calvert, G; McGuire, P; Suckling, J; Brammer, M J; David, A S

    2001-10-01

    Can the cortical substrates for the perception of face actions be distinguished when the superficial visual qualities of these actions are very similar? Two fMRI experiments are reported. Compared with watching the face at rest, observing silent speech was associated with bilateral activation in a number of temporal cortical regions, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Watching face movements of similar extent and duration, but which could not be construed as speech (gurning; Experiment 1b) was not associated with activation of superior temporal cortex to the same extent, especially in the left hemisphere. Instead, the peak focus of the largest cluster of activation was in the posterior part of the inferior temporal gyrus (right, BA 37). Observing silent speech, but not gurning faces, was also associated with bilateral activation of inferior frontal cortex (BA 44 and 45). In a second study, speechreading and observing gurning faces were compared within a single experiment, using stimuli which comprised the speaker's face and torso (and hence a much smaller image of the speaker's face and facial actions). There was again differential engagement of superior temporal cortex which followed the pattern of Experiment 1. These findings suggest that superior temporal gyrus and neighbouring regions are activated bilaterally when subjects view face actions--at different scales--that can be interpreted as speech. This circuitry is not accessed to the same extent by visually similar, but linguistically meaningless actions. However, some temporal regions, such as the posterior part of the right superior temporal sulcus, appear to be common processing sites for processing both seen speech and gurns.

  15. Preconditioning of Spatial and Auditory Cues: Roles of the Hippocampus, Frontal Cortex, and Cue-Directed Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Talk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks, in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner. The opposite corner acted as an unpaired control location. The rats demonstrated recollection of location by avoiding the paired corner after the auditory cue was in turn paired with shock. Damage to either the dorsal hippocampus or the frontal cortex impaired this memory ability. However, we also found that hippocampal lesions enhanced attention directed towards the cue during the encoding phase, while frontal cortical lesions reduced cue-directed attention. These results suggest that the deficit in spatial sensory preconditioning caused by frontal cortical damage may be mediated by inattention to the location of cues during the latent encoding phase, while deficits following hippocampal damage must be related to other mechanisms such as generation of neural plasticity.

  16. Management of the entered frontal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Emanuela; Rocchi, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Delfini, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    The opening of the frontal sinus is a common occurrence in surgical practice. It may involve many surgical disciplines. The complications that may derive from incorrect treatment of an opened frontal sinus are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, the treatment of patients with injured frontal sinus is not uniform and standardized. Here, we describe our technique of treatment. We propose our treatment modality on the basis of our personal experience, which has been excellent in the past 20 years, that is from the time of the technique's introduction and routine application.

  17. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  18. Action word Related to Walk Heard by the Ears Activates Visual Cortex and Superior Temporal Gyrus: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Osaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience of language of action processing is one of the interesting issues on the cortical “seat” of word meaning and related action (Pulvermueller, 1999 Behavioral Brain Sciences 22 253–336. For example, generation of action verbs referring to various arm or leg actions (e.g., pick or kick differentially activate areas along the motor strip that overlap with those areas activated by actual movement of the fingers or feet (Hauk et al., 2004 Neuron 41 301–307. Meanwhile, mimic words like onomatopoeia have the other potential to selectively and strongly stimulate specific brain regions having a specified “seat” of action meaning. In fact, mimic words highly suggestive of laughter and gaze significantly activated the extrastriate visual /premotor cortices and the frontal eye field, respectively (Osaka et al., 2003 Neuroscience Letters 340 127–130; 2009 Neuroscience Letters 461 65–68. However, the role of a mimic word related to walk on specific brain regions has not yet been investigated. The present study showed that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ears with eyes closed, significantly activated the visual cortex located in extrastriate cortex and superior temporal gyrus while hearing non-sense words that did not imply walk under the same task did not activate these areas. These areas would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related action.

  19. Homeostatic responses by surviving cortical pyramidal cells in neurodegenerative tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimins, Johanna L; Rocher, Anne B; Peters, Alan; Shultz, Penny; Lewis, Jada; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2011-11-01

    Cortical neuron death is prevalent by 9 months in rTg(tau(P301L))4510 tau mutant mice (TG) and surviving pyramidal cells exhibit dendritic regression and spine loss. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to investigate the impact of these marked structural changes on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) of layer 3 pyramidal cells in frontal cortical slices from behaviorally characterized TG and non-transgenic (NT) mice at this age. Frontal lobe function of TG mice was intact following a short delay interval but impaired following a long delay interval in an object recognition test, and cortical atrophy and cell loss were pronounced. Surviving TG cells had significantly reduced dendritic diameters, total spine density, and mushroom spines, yet sEPSCs were increased and sIPSCs were unchanged in frequency. Thus, despite significant regressive structural changes, synaptic responses were not reduced in TG cells, indicating that homeostatic compensatory mechanisms occur during progressive tauopathy. Consistent with this idea, surviving TG cells were more intrinsically excitable than NT cells, and exhibited sprouting of filopodia and axonal boutons. Moreover, the neuropil in TG mice showed an increased density of asymmetric synapses, although their mean size was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that during progressive tauopathy, cortical pyramidal cells compensate for loss of afferent input by increased excitability and establishment of new synapses. These compensatory homeostatic mechanisms may play an important role in slowing the progression of neuronal network dysfunction during neurodegenerative tauopathies.

  20. Frontal sinus recognition for human identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, Juan Rogelio; Falguera, Fernanda Pereira Sartori; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu

    2008-03-01

    Many methods based on biometrics such as fingerprint, face, iris, and retina have been proposed for person identification. However, for deceased individuals, such biometric measurements are not available. In such cases, parts of the human skeleton can be used for identification, such as dental records, thorax, vertebrae, shoulder, and frontal sinus. It has been established in prior investigations that the radiographic pattern of frontal sinus is highly variable and unique for every individual. This has stimulated the proposition of measurements of the frontal sinus pattern, obtained from x-ray films, for skeletal identification. This paper presents a frontal sinus recognition method for human identification based on Image Foresting Transform and shape context. Experimental results (ERR = 5,82%) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Evolution of cortical neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mannan, Omar; Cheung, Amanda F P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2008-03-18

    The neurons of the mammalian neocortex are organised into six layers. By contrast, the reptilian and avian dorsal cortices only have three layers which are thought to be equivalent to layers I, V and VI of mammals. Increased repertoire of mammalian higher cognitive functions is likely a result of an expanded cortical surface area. The majority of cortical cell proliferation in mammals occurs in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ), with a small number of scattered divisions outside the germinal zone. Comparative developmental studies suggest that the appearance of SVZ coincides with the laminar expansion of the cortex to six layers, as well as the tangential expansion of the cortical sheet seen within mammals. In spite of great variation and further compartmentalisation in the mitotic compartments, the number of neurons in an arbitrary cortical column appears to be remarkably constant within mammals. The current challenge is to understand how the emergence and elaboration of the SVZ has contributed to increased cortical cell diversity, tangential expansion and gyrus formation of the mammalian neocortex. This review discusses neurogenic processes that are believed to underlie these major changes in cortical dimensions in vertebrates.

  2. Visuo-Spatial Imagery Impairment in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: A Cognitive and SPECT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gardini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cognitive profile and the cerebral perfusion pattern in a highly educated 70 year old gentleman with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA. Visuo-perceptual abilities, spatial memory, spatial representation and navigation, visuo-spatial mental imagery, semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory were assessed. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF was imaged with SPECT. Cognitive testing showed visual-perceptual impairment, apperceptive visual and landmark agnosia, topographical disorientation with way-finding deficits, impaired map learning and poor mental image generation. Semantic memory was normal, while episodic-autobiographical memory was impaired. Reduced rCBF was found mainly in the right hemisphere, in the precentral gyrus, posterior cingulate and middle temporal gyri, cuneus and precuneus, in the left superior temporal and lingual gyri and in the parahippocampus bilaterally. Hypoperfusion in occipito-parietal regions was associated with visuo-spatial deficits, whereas deficits in visuo-spatial mental imagery might reflect dysfunction related to hypoperfusion in the parahippocampus and precuneus, structures which are responsible for spatial and imagery processing. Dissociating performance between preserved semantic memory and poor episodic-autobiographical recall is consistent with a pattern of normal perfusion in frontal and anterior temporal regions but abnormal rCBF in the parahippocampi. The present findings indicate that PCA involves visuo-spatial imagery deficits and provide further validation to current neuro-cognitive models of spatial representation and topographical disorientation.

  3. Visual imagery influences brain responses to visual stimulation in bilateral cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Tamietto, Marco; Pegna, Alan J; Van den Stock, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Mental imagery is a powerful mechanism that may facilitate visual perception as well as compensate for it. The role of V1 in mental imagery is still a matter of debate. Our goal here was to investigate whether visual imagery was still possible in case of bilateral V1 destruction behaviorally evidenced by total clinical blindness and if so, whether it might boost residual visual perception. In a factorial fMRI design, faces, scenes or scrambled images were presented while a rare patient with cortical blindness over the whole visual field due to bilateral V1-lesions (TN) was instructed to imagine either an angry person or a neutral object (tree). The results show that visual imagery of a person activates frontal, parietal and occipital brain regions similar to control subjects and hence suggest that V1 is not necessary for visual imagery. In addition, the combination of visual stimulation and visual imagery of socio-emotional stimuli triggers activation in superior parietal lobule (SPL) and ventromedial (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Finally, activation during residual vision, visual imagery and their interaction overlapped in the SPL, arguing for a central role of feeling in V1-independent vision and imagery.

  4. PERSISTENT LEFT SUPERIOR VENACAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Persistent Left Superior Venacava (PLSVC is the most common variation of the thoracic venous system and rare congenital vascular anomaly and is prevalent in 0.3% of the population. It may be associated with other cardiovascular abnormalities including atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, coronary sinus ostial atresia, and cor triatriatum. Incidental rotation of a dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should raise the suspicion of PLSVC. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. Condition is usually asymptomatic. Here we present a rare case of persistent left superior vena cava presented in OPD with dyspnoea & palpitations.

  5. Cognitive priming in sung and instrumental music: activation of inferior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Koelsch, S; Escoffier, N; Bigand, E; Lalitte, P; Friederici, A D; von Cramon, D Y

    2006-07-15

    Neural correlates of the processing of musical syntax-like structures have been investigated via expectancy violation due to musically unrelated (i.e., unexpected) events in musical contexts. Previous studies reported the implication of inferior frontal cortex in musical structure processing. However - due to the strong musical manipulations - activations might be explained by sensory deviance detection or repetition priming. Our present study investigated neural correlates of musical structure processing with subtle musical violations in a musical priming paradigm. Instrumental and sung sequences ended on related and less-related musical targets. The material controlled sensory priming components, and differences in target processing required listeners' knowledge on musical structures. Participants were scanned with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while performing speeded phoneme and timbre identification judgments on the targets. Behavioral results acquired in the scanner replicated the facilitation effect of related over less-related targets. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal linked to target processing revealed activation of right inferior frontal areas (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, frontal operculum, anterior insula) that was stronger for less-related than for related targets, and this was independent of the material carrying the musical structures. This outcome points to the implication of inferior frontal cortex in the processing of syntactic relations also for musical material and to its role in the processing and integration of sequential information over time. In addition to inferior frontal activation, increased activation was observed in orbital gyrus, temporal areas (anterior superior temporal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyrus) and supramarginal gyrus.

  6. Subbrow Approach as a Minimally Invasive Reduction Technique in the Management of Frontal Sinus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFrontal sinus fractures, particularly anterior sinus fractures, are relatively common facial fractures. Many agree on the general principles of frontal fracture management; however, the optimal methods of reduction are still controversial. In this article, we suggest a simple reduction method using a subbrow incision as a treatment for isolated anterior sinus fractures.MethodsBetween March 2011 and March 2014, 13 patients with isolated frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through a subbrow incision. The subbrow incision line was designed to be precisely at the lower margin of the brow in order to obtain an inconspicuous scar. A periosteal incision was made at 3 mm above the superior orbital rim. The fracture site of the frontal bone was reduced, and bone fixation was performed using an absorbable plate and screws.ResultsContour deformities were completely restored in all patients, and all patients were satisfied with the results. Scars were barely visible in the long-term follow-up. No complications related to the procedure, such as infection, uncontrolled sinus bleeding, hematoma, paresthesia, mucocele, or posterior wall and brain injury were observed.ConclusionsThe subbrow approach allowed for an accurate reduction and internal fixation of the fractures in the anterior table of the frontal sinus by providing a direct visualization of the fracture. Considering the surgical success of the reduction and the rigid fixation, patient satisfaction, and aesthetic problems, this transcutaneous approach through a subbrow incision is concluded to be superior to the other reduction techniques used in the case of an anterior table frontal sinus fracture.

  7. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  8. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gilad; Amit, Moran; Ben-Ari, Oded; Gil, Ziv; Abergel, Abraham; Margalit, Nevo; Cavel, Oren; Wasserzug, Oshri; Fliss, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. Retrospective case series. Tertiary academic medical center. Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59%) or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%). The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%), mucocele (n = 27, 39%), fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%), and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%). Complications included skin infections (n = 6), postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1), telecanthus (n = 4), diplopia (n = 3), nasal deformity (n = 2) and epiphora (n = 1). None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (Pmucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  10. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  11. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  12. The Behavior Of Asymmetric Frontal Couplings With Permanent Magnets In Magnetic Powder And High Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DOBROTA

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the comparative analysis of the behavior of frontal couplings with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in difficult environments, specific to metallurgy – such as environments with magnetic powders and high temperature – in two constructive variants: symmetric couplings and asymmetric couplings (with divided poles. The results show the superior performance of asymmetric couplings under the given conditions

  13. Orbitofrontal cortical dysfunction in akinetic catatonia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during negative emotional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg; Kötter, Rolf; Baumgart, Frank; Danos, Peter; Boeker, Heinz; Kaulisch, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Walter, Henrik; Heinzel, Alexander; Witzel, Thomas; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome characterized by concurrent emotional, behavioral, and motor anomalies. Pathophysiological mechanisms of psychomotor disturbances may be related to abnormal emotional-motor processing in prefrontal cortical networks. We therefore investigated prefrontal cortical activation and connectivity patterns during emotional-motor stimulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). We investigated 10 akinetic catatonic patients in a postacute state and compared them with 10 noncatatonic postacute psychiatric controls (age-, sex-, diagnosis-, and medication-matched) and 10 healthy controls. Positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System were used for emotional stimulation. FMRI measurements covered the whole frontal lobe, activation signals in various frontal cortical regions were obtained, and functional connectivity between the different prefrontal cortical regions was investigated using structural equation modeling. Catatonic patients showed alterations in the orbitofrontal cortical activation pattern and in functional connectivity to the premotor cortex in negative and positive emotions compared to psychiatric and healthy controls. Catatonic behavioral and affective symptoms correlated significantly with orbitofrontal activity, whereas catatonic motor symptoms were rather related to medial prefrontal activity. It is concluded that catatonic symptoms may be closely related to dysfunction in the orbitofrontal cortex and consequent alteration in the prefrontal cortical network during emotional processing. Because we investigated postacute patients, orbitofrontal cortical alterations may be interpreted as a trait marker predisposing for development of catatonic syndrome in schizophrenic or affective psychosis.

  14. Auditory aura in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a red flag to suspect an extra-frontal epileptogenic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Lorenzo; Bisulli, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Tassi, Laura; Licchetta, Laura; Mostacci, Barbara; Stipa, Carlotta; Mainieri, Greta; Bernabè, Giorgia; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    To describe the anatomo-electro-clinical findings of patients with nocturnal hypermotor seizures (NHS) preceded by auditory symptoms, to evaluate the localizing value of auditory aura. Our database of 165 patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosis confirmed by videopolysomnography (VPSG) was reviewed, selecting those who reported an auditory aura as the initial ictal symptom in at least two NHS during their lifetime. Eleven patients were selected (seven males, four females). According to the anatomo-electro-clinical data, three groups were identified. Group 1 [defined epileptogenic zone (EZ)]: three subjects were studied with stereo-EEG. The EZ lay in the left superior temporal gyrus in two cases, whereas in the third case seizures arose from a dysplastic lesion located in the left temporal lobe. One of these three patients underwent left Heschl's gyrus resection, and is currently seizure-free. Group 2 (presumed EZ): three cases in which a presumed EZ was identified; in the left temporal lobe in two cases and in the left temporal lobe extending to the insula in one subject. Group 3 (uncertain EZ): five cases had anatomo-electro-clinical correlations discordant. This work suggests that auditory aura may be a helpful anamnestic feature suggesting an extra-frontal seizure origin. This finding could guide secondary investigations to improve diagnostic definition and selection of candidates for surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  16. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The signer and the sign: cortical correlates of person identity and language processing from point-light displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruth; Capek, Cheryl M; Gazarian, Karine; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie; David, Anthony S; McGuire, Philip K; Brammer, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the first to explore the cortical correlates of signed language (SL) processing under point-light display conditions, the observer identified either a signer or a lexical sign from a display in which different signers were seen producing a number of different individual signs. Many of the regions activated by point-light under these conditions replicated those previously reported for full-image displays, including regions within the inferior temporal cortex that are specialised for face and body-part identification, although such body parts were invisible in the display. Right frontal regions were also recruited - a pattern not usually seen in full-image SL processing. This activation may reflect the recruitment of information about person identity from the reduced display. A direct comparison of identify-signer and identify-sign conditions showed these tasks relied to a different extent on the posterior inferior regions. Signer identification elicited greater activation than sign identification in (bilateral) inferior temporal gyri (BA 37/19), fusiform gyri (BA 37), middle and posterior portions of the middle temporal gyri (BAs 37 and 19), and superior temporal gyri (BA 22 and 42). Right inferior frontal cortex was a further focus of differential activation (signer>sign). These findings suggest that the neural systems supporting point-light displays for the processing of SL rely on a cortical network including areas of the inferior temporal cortex specialized for face and body identification. While this might be predicted from other studies of whole body point-light actions (Vaina, Solomon, Chowdhury, Sinha, & Belliveau, 2001) it is not predicted from the perspective of spoken language processing, where voice characteristics and speech content recruit distinct cortical regions (Stevens, 2004) in addition to a common network. In this respect, our findings contrast with studies of voice/speech recognition (Von Kriegstein, Kleinschmidt, Sterzer

  18. Maternal breast milk odour induces frontal lobe activation in neonates: a NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Shiori; Toshima, Tamotsu; Saito, Yuri; Konishi, Nakao; Motoshige, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masao

    2010-09-01

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine differences in neonates' orbito-frontal cortical activation in response to the odours of maternal breast milk and formula milk in terms of changes in the oxygenation of cerebral blood flow. Twenty-six healthy neonates were tested in their cribs while they slept in a silent room. The neonates were exposed to each olfactory stimulus by an experimenter. NIRS monitoring was performed using optodes placed above the bilateral anterior orbito-frontal gyri. The differences in oxygenated haemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values between baseline and stimulation were defined as the change in oxy-Hb. The degrees of change were calculated by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A 2 (stimulus: breast milk and formula milk) × 2 (probe location: right and left) ANOVA showed that the odour of maternal breast milk (right/left: M=0.28/0.48) induced a significantly (F=6.36, pmilk (right/left: M=-0.03/-0.07). Differences in the intensity of odour had no significant influence on the blood oxygenation of the orbito-frontal region. Maternal breast milk odour increased oxygenated blood flow in the orbito-frontal region to a greater extent than did formula milk odour. These results suggest that neonates can distinguish between the odours of maternal breast milk versus formula.

  19. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Spatial organization of neurons in the frontal pole sets humans apart from great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendeferi, Katerina; Teffer, Kate; Buxhoeveden, Dan P; Park, Min S; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin; Travis, Katie; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Few morphological differences have been identified so far that distinguish the human brain from the brains of our closest relatives, the apes. Comparative analyses of the spatial organization of cortical neurons, including minicolumns, can aid our understanding of the functionally relevant aspects of microcircuitry. We measured horizontal spacing distance and gray-level ratio in layer III of 4 regions of human and ape cortex in all 6 living hominoid species: frontal pole (Brodmann area [BA] 10), and primary motor (BA 4), primary somatosensory (BA 3), and primary visual cortex (BA 17). Our results identified significant differences between humans and apes in the frontal pole (BA 10). Within the human brain, there were also significant differences between the frontal pole and 2 of the 3 regions studied (BA 3 and BA 17). Differences between BA 10 and BA 4 were present but did not reach significance. These findings in combination with earlier findings on BA 44 and BA 45 suggest that human brain evolution was likely characterized by an increase in the number and width of minicolumns and the space available for interconnectivity between neurons in the frontal lobe, especially the prefrontal cortex.

  1. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy improves frontal control in bipolar disorder: a pilot EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howells Fleur M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive processing in Bipolar Disorder is characterized by a number of attentional abnormalities. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy combines mindfulness meditation, a form of attentional training, along with aspects of cognitive therapy, and may improve attentional dysfunction in bipolar disorder patients. Methods 12 euthymic BD patients and 9 control participants underwent record of electroencephalography (EEG, band frequency analysis during resting states (eyes open, eyes closed and during the completion of a continuous performance task (A-X version, EEG event-related potential (ERP wave component analysis. The individuals with BD completed an 8-week MBCT intervention and record of EEG was repeated. Results (1 Brain activity, individuals with BD showed significantly decreased theta band power, increased beta band power, and decreased theta/beta ratios during the resting state, eyes closed, for frontal and cingulate cortices. Post MBCT intervention improvement over the right frontal cortex was seen in the individuals with BD, as beta band power decreased. (2 Brain activation, individuals with BD showed a significant P300-like wave form over the frontal cortex during the cue. Post MBCT intervention the P300-like waveform was significantly attenuated over the frontal cortex. Conclusions Individuals with BD show decreased attentional readiness and activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes. These data are the first that show, MBCT in BD improved attentional readiness, and attenuated activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes.

  2. Effective Connectivity Hierarchically Links Temporoparietal and Frontal Areas of the Auditory Dorsal Stream with the Motor Cortex Lip Area during Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech…

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  4. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Friberg, L

    1985-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work...... study was taken with the subjects at rest. Then the rCBF was measured during three different simple algorithm tasks, each consisting of retrieval of a specific memory followed by a simple operation on the retrieved information. Once started, the information processing went on in the brain without any...... that they started at their front door and then walked alternatively to the left or the right each time they reached a corner. The rCBF increased only in homotypical cortical areas during thinking. The areas in the superior prefrontal cortex increased their rCBF equivalently during the three types of thinking...

  5. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  6. [Correlation of evoked potentials in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of cats in emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanetsian, G L; Pavlova, I V

    2002-01-01

    Averaged auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded in symmetric points of the frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of cats performing acquired conditioned food-procuring reaction reinforced in 100% cases, urgent transition to 30%-reinforcement, and return to 100%-reinforcement. Emotional stress estimated by a heart rate rise developed during increased food motivation of a cat as well as during change in ordinary food-procuring stereotype. The emotional stress was accompanied by a high positive correlation of cortical and hippocampal AEPs. Decrease in the stress level led to a drop between AEP correlations and appearance of their negative values. In emotional stress, the interactions between the frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus were asymmetric: right-side correlations were higher.

  7. Spatio-temporal extension in site of origin for cortical calretinin neurons in primates

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    Ana eHladnik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of cortical GABAergic neurons can be defined by parvalbumin, somatostatin or calretinin expression. In most mammalians parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons have constant proportions, each representing 5-7% of the total neuron number. In contrast, there is a 3 fold increase in the proportion of calretinin interneurons, which do not exceed 4% in rodents and reach 12% in higher order areas of primate cerebral cortex. In rodents almost all parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons originate from the medial part of the subpallial proliferative structure, the ganglionic eminence (GE, while almost all calretinin interneurons originate from its caudal part. The spatial pattern of cortical GABAergic neurons origin from the GE is preserved in the monkey and human brain. However, it could be expected that the evolution is changing developmental rules to enable considerable expansion of calretinin interneuron population. During the early fetal period in primates cortical GABAergic neurons are almost entirely generated in the subpallium, as in rodents. Already at that time the primate caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE shows a relative increase in size and production of calretinin interneurons. During the second trimester of gestation, that is the main neurogenetic stage in primates without clear correlates found in rodents, the pallial production of cortical GABAergic neurons together with the extended persistence of the GE is observed. We propose that the CGE could be the main source of calretinin interneurons for the posterior and lateral cortical regions, but not for the frontal cortex. The associative granular frontal cortex represents around one third of the cortical surface and contains almost half of cortical calretinin interneurons. The majority of calretinin interneurons destined for the frontal cortex could be generated in the pallium, especially in the newly evolved outer subventricular zone that becomes the main pool of

  8. Frontal Sinus Development and Juvenile Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Ross, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University. The sample included individuals who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years. Anterior view (or AP) radiographs were examined and were grouped based upon the presence or absence of the frontal sinus. Individuals were grouped into four age categories. A one-way ANOVA was performed to test whether developmental phase was related to age. Results from the ANOVA show that developmental phase is significantly related to age (P Anat Rec, 300:1609-1617, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  10. Cross-frequency power correlations reveal the right superior temporal gyrus as a hub region during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, June Sic; Jensen, Ole; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized within- and cross-frequency power correlations from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data in order to understand how different brain regions cooperate as a network to maintain working memory representations with several features. The working memory items were composed of spatially arranged dots supposedly requiring both the dorsal and the ventral stream to be engaged during maintenance. Using a beamforming technique, we localized memory-dependent sources in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. After the single-trial power values were extracted from these frequency bands with respect to each source, we calculated the correlations within- and cross-frequency bands. The following general picture emerged: gamma power in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during working memory maintenance was correlated with numerous other sources in the alpha band in prefrontal, parietal, and posterior regions. In addition, the power correlations within the alpha band showed correlations across posterior-parietal-frontal regions. From these findings, we suggest that the STG dominated by gamma activity serves as a hub region for the network nodes responsible for the retention of the stimulus used in this study, which is likely to depend on both the "where-" and the "what-" visual system simultaneously. The present study demonstrates how oscillatory dynamics reflecting the interaction between cortical areas can be investigated by means of cross-frequency power correlations in source space. This methodological framework could be of general utility when studying functional network properties of the working brain.

  11. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heredero Jung

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2004. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes revisados es de 34 años. La mayoría son hombres (78% y la causa más frecuente del traumatismo, los accidentes de tráfico. El patrón de fractura más común es el que afecta únicamente a la pared anterior del seno frontal. Las complicaciones descritas son: deformidad estética frontal, sinusitis frontal, mucocele frontal, celulitis fronto-orbitaria, intolerancia al material de osteosíntesis, complicaciones infecciosas del SNC y persistencia de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Conclusiones. El objetivo ha de estar encaminado a prevenir las complicaciones asociadas a los pacientes con fracturas de seno frontal. Hay que individualizar el protocolo de tratamiento en cada caso. Es recomendable un seguimiento a largo plazo para identificar precozmente las posibles complicaciones.Introduction. Frontal sinus fractures are caused by high velocity impacts. Inappropriate treatment can lead to serious complications, even many years after the trauma. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological data and associated complications. To standardize the treatment protocol. Materials and methods. the clinical records of 95 patients with frontal sinus fractures treated between January 1990 and December 2004 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, "12 de Octubre" Hospital (Madrid, Spain, were reviewed. Results. The average age of

  12. Human cortical control of hand movements: parietofrontal networks for reaching, grasping, and pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimon, Flavia

    2010-08-01

    In primates, control of the limb depends on many cortical areas. Whereas specialized parietofrontal circuits have been proposed for different movements in macaques, functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed widespread, overlapping activations for hand and eye movements and for movements such as reaching and grasping. This review examines the involvement of frontal and parietal areas in hand and arm movements in humans as revealed with functional neuroimaging. The degree of functional specialization, possible homologies with macaque cortical regions, and differences between frontal and posterior parietal areas are discussed, as well as a possible organization of hand movements with respect to different spatial reference frames. The available evidence supports a cortical organization along gradients of sensory (visual to somatosensory) and effector (eye to hand) preferences.

  13. Giant Frontal Mucocele Occurring 32 Years after Frontal Bone Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuta Kamoshima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant mucoceles of the frontal sinus are rare but their recognition is important in the differential diagnosis of proptosis and fronto-orbital lesions. The authors describe a patient with frontal giant mucocele with intracranial as well as orbit and ethmoid sinus involvement. Thirty-two years after a frontal sinus fracture, a 51-year-old female presented with headache, and left exophthalmos and ophthalmoplegia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a giant frontal sinus mucocele with extension into the left anterior cranial fossa. The mucocele was treated with a transcranial and endoscopic transnasal approach. The frontal sinus was then cranialized with reconstruction of the posterior wall, and finally a wide nasal drainage was performed. The clinical symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery.

  14. Cortical thickness and behavior abnormalities in children born preterm.

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    Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL on cortical thickness (CTh. To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. METHODS: We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. RESULTS: We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. INTERPRETATION: The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems.

  15. Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvolden, Peter; Woody, Erik Z

    2004-01-01

    According to the dissociated-control hypothesis forwarded by Woody and Bowers (1994), the effects of hypnosis are consistent with attenuated frontal lobe functioning. The present study was designed to compare the performance of participants with high and low hypnotic ability on a variety of memory tasks thought to be sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, as well as some control memory tasks not considered to be sensitive to such functioning. Results generally indicated that participants with high hypnotic ability have more difficulty with tasks sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, including free recall, proactive interference, and source amnesia tasks, both within and outside of the context of hypnosis. These differences, which were not found for nonfrontal tasks, are generally supportive of the dissociated control theory of hypnotic responding.

  16. Attention Induced Gain Stabilization in Broad and Narrow-Spiking Cells in the Frontal Eye-Field of Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander; Brandt, Christian; Dasilva, Miguel; Gotthardt, Sascha; Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano; Distler, Claudia

    2016-07-20

    Top-down attention increases coding abilities by altering firing rates and rate variability. In the frontal eye field (FEF), a key area enabling top-down attention, attention induced firing rate changes are profound, but its effect on different cell types is unknown. Moreover, FEF is the only cortical area investigated in which attention does not affect rate variability, as assessed by the Fano factor, suggesting that task engagement affects cortical state nonuniformly. We show that putative interneurons in FEF of Macaca mulatta show stronger attentional rate modulation than putative pyramidal cells. Partitioning rate variability reveals that both cell types reduce rate variability with attention, but more strongly so in narrow-spiking cells. The effects are captured by a model in which attention stabilizes neuronal excitability, thereby reducing the expansive nonlinearity that links firing rate and variance. These results show that the effect of attention on different cell classes and different coding properties are consistent across the cortical hierarchy, acting through increased and stabilized neuronal excitability. Cortical processing is critically modulated by attention. A key feature of this influence is a modulation of "cortical state," resulting in increased neuronal excitability and resilience of the network against perturbations, lower rate variability, and an increased signal-to-noise ratio. In the frontal eye field (FEF), an area assumed to control spatial attention in human and nonhuman primates, firing rate changes with attention occur, but rate variability, quantified by the Fano factor, appears to be unaffected by attention. Using recently developed analysis tools and models to quantify attention effects on narrow- and broad-spiking cell activity, we show that attention alters cortical state strongly in the FEF, demonstrating that its effect on the neuronal network is consistent across the cortical hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Thiele et al.

  17. Parvalbumin, somatostatin and cholecystokinin as chemical markers for specific GABAergic interneuron types in the rat frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kondo, Satoru

    2002-01-01

    It remains to be clarified how many classes of GABAergic nonpyramidal cells exist in the cortical circuit. We have divided GABA cells in the rat frontal cortex into 3 groups, based on their firing characteristics: fast-spiking (FS) cells, late-spiking (LS) cells, and non-FS cells. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and peptides could be shown in separate groups of GABA cells in layers II/III and V of the frontal cortex: (1) parvalbumin cells, (2) somatostatin cells, (3) calretinin and/or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) cells [partially positive for cholecystokinin (CCK)] and (4) large CCK cells (almost negative for VIP/calretinin). Combining the physiological and chemical properties of morphologically diverse nonpyramidal cells allows division into several groups, including FS basket cells containing parvalbumin, non-FS somatostatin Martinotti cells with ascending axonal arbors, and non-FS large basket cells positive for CCK. These subtypes show characteristic spatial distributions of axon collaterals and the innervation tendency of postsynaptic elements. With synchronized activity induced by cortical excitatory or inhibitory circuits, firing patterns were also found to differ. Subtype-selective occurrence of electrical coupling, finding for potassium channel Kv3.1 proteins, and cholinergic and serotonergic modulation supports our tentative classification. To clarify the functional architecture in the frontal cortex, it is important to reveal the connectional characteristics of GABA cell subtypes and determine whether they are similar to those in other cortical regions.

  18. Cortical Activation during Action Observation, Action Execution, and Interpersonal Synchrony in Adults: A functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana N. Bhat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014. In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation (“Watch” partner, action execution (“Do” on your own, and IPS (move “Together”.Methods: Fifteen typically developing adults completed a reach and cleanup task with the right arm while cortical activation was examined using a 24-channel, Hitachi fNIRS system. Each adult completed 8 trials across three conditions (Watch, Do, and Together. For each fNIRS channel, we obtained oxy hemoglobin (HbO2 and deoxy hemoglobin (HHb profiles. Spatial registration methods were applied to localize the cortical regions underneath each channel and to define six regions of interest (ROIs, right and left supero-anterior (SA or pre/post-central gyri, infero-posterior (IP or angular/supramarginal gyri, and infero-anterior (IA or superior/middle temporal gyri regions.Results: In terms of task-related differences, the majority of the ROIs were more active during Do and Together compared to Watch. Only the right/ipsilateral fronto-parietal and inferior parietal cortices had greater activation during Together compared to Do.Conclusions: The similarities in cortical activation between action execution and IPS suggest that neural control of IPS is more similar to its execution than observational aspects. To be clear, the more complex the actions performed, the more difficult the IPS behaviors. Secondly, IPS behaviors required slightly more right-sided activation (vs. execution/observation suggesting that IPS is a higher-order process involving more bilateral activation compared to its sub

  19. Cortical Activation during Action Observation, Action Execution, and Interpersonal Synchrony in Adults: A functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anjana N; Hoffman, Michael D; Trost, Susanna L; Culotta, McKenzie L; Eilbott, Jeffrey; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together"). Methods: Fifteen typically developing adults completed a reach and cleanup task with the right arm while cortical activation was examined using a 24-channel, Hitachi fNIRS system. Each adult completed 8 trials across three conditions (Watch, Do, and Together). For each fNIRS channel, we obtained oxy hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy hemoglobin (HHb) profiles. Spatial registration methods were applied to localize the cortical regions underneath each channel and to define six regions of interest (ROIs), right and left supero-anterior (SA or pre/post-central gyri), infero-posterior (IP or angular/supramarginal gyri), and infero-anterior (IA or superior/middle temporal gyri) regions. Results: In terms of task-related differences, the majority of the ROIs were more active during Do and Together compared to Watch. Only the right/ipsilateral fronto-parietal and inferior parietal cortices had greater activation during Together compared to Do. Conclusions: The similarities in cortical activation between action execution and IPS suggest that neural control of IPS is more similar to its execution than observational aspects. To be clear, the more complex the actions performed, the more difficult the IPS behaviors. Secondly, IPS behaviors required slightly more right-sided activation (vs. execution/observation) suggesting that IPS is a higher-order process involving more bilateral activation compared to its sub-components. These findings

  20. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  1. Contabilidad Financiera Superior

    OpenAIRE

    Ipiñazar Petralanda, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    Duración (en horas): De 31 a 40 horas. Destinatario: Estudiante y Docente A través de este material se presentan las pautas necesarias para implementar un aprendizaje basado en problemas en la asignatura de Contabilidad Financiera Superior dentro de los temas “Constitución de S.A. y S.R.L.” (Tema 2), “Ampliaciones de Capital” (Tema 3) y “Reducciones de Capital” (Tema 4). En primer lugar se presentan las guías generales de la asignatura, y a continuación, las diferentes activida...

  2. Macrostructural brain changes in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus - a cortical thickness analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, J B; Brock, C; Søfteland, E

    2013-01-01

    with longstanding (average 24.6 years) type 1 DM and 20 healthy controls were studied in a 3T magnetic resonance scanner. Using an automated surface based cortical segmentation method, cortical thickness was assessed in anatomical regions including total and lobe-wise grey and white matter volumes. Also.......03) and superior parietal gyrus (P=0.008) in patients. The cortical thickness of these regions was not associated with diabetes duration, age at diabetes onset or to HbA1c (all P>0.08). Patients with peripheral neuropathy showed reduced right postcentral gyrus cortical thickness compared to patients without...

  3. Extrastriate cortical areas activated during visual discrimination in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, PE

    1981-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 254 different regions of the human extrastriate cerebral cortex during rest and during visual shape discrimination. Visual shape discrimination increased the rCBF markedly in the frontal eye fields, the upper part of the prefrontal cortex......, the lateral occipital cortex and the superior parietal cortex. Moderate increases of rCBF appeared in the inferotemporal cortex, the parietotemporo-occipital region and scattered in the lateral part of the prefrontal cortex....

  4. Statistics of superior records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  5. Frenillo labial superior doble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz López del Castillo

    Full Text Available El frenillo labial superior doble no sindrómico es una anomalía del desarrollo que no hemos encontrado reportada en la revisión bibliográfica realizada. Se presenta una niña de 11 años de edad que fue remitida al servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "Eduardo Agramonte Piña", de Camagüey, por presentar un frenillo labial superior doble de baja inserción. Se describen los síntomas clínicos asociados a esta anomalía y el tratamiento quirúrgico utilizado para su solución: una frenectomía y plastia sobre la banda muscular frénica anormal que provocaba exceso de tejido en la mucosa labial. Consideramos muy interesante la descripción de este caso, por no haber encontrado reporte similar en la literatura revisada.

  6. Cortical and trabecular load sharing in the human femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawathe, Shashank; Nguyen, Bich Phuong; Barzanian, Nasim; Akhlaghpour, Hosna; Bouxsein, Mary L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-03-18

    The relative role of the cortical vs trabecular bone in the load-carrying capacity of the proximal femur-a fundamental issue in both basic-science and clinical biomechanics-remains unclear. To gain insight into this issue, we performed micro-CT-based, linear elastic finite element analysis (61.5-micron-sized elements; ~280 million elements per model) on 18 proximal femurs (5M, 13F, ages 61-93 years) to quantify the fraction of frontal-plane bending moment shared by the cortical vs trabecular bone in the femoral neck, as well as the associated spatial distributions of stress. Analyses were performed separately for a sideways fall and stance loading. For both loading modes and across all 18 bones, we found consistent patterns of load-sharing in the neck: most proximally, the trabecular bone took most of the load; moving distally, the cortical bone took increasingly more of the load; and more distally, there was a region of uniform load-sharing, the cortical bone taking the majority of the load. This distal region of uniform load-sharing extended more for fall than stance loading (77 ± 8% vs 51 ± 6% of the neck length for fall vs. stance; mean ± SD) but the fraction of total load taken by the cortical bone in that region was greater for stance loading (88 ± 5% vs. 64 ± 9% for stance vs. fall). Locally, maximum stress levels occurred in the cortical bone distally, but in the trabecular bone proximally. Although the distal cortex showed qualitative stress distributions consistent with the behavior of an Euler-type beam, quantitatively beam theory did not apply. We conclude that consistent and well-delineated regions of uniform load-sharing and load-transfer between the cortical and trabecular bone exist within the femoral neck, the details of which depend on the external loading conditions.

  7. Music Shifts Frontal EEG in Depressed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Martinez, Alex; Nawrocki, Thomas; Pickens, Jeffrey; Fox, Nathan A.; Schanberg, Saul

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. EEG was recorded and saliva samples were collected to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone cortisol levels. No differences were reported for mood state; however, cortisol levels decreased and relative right-frontal activation was…

  8. Infant Frontal Asymmetry Predicts Child Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Paulus, Markus; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Meinhardt, Jorg; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While factors influencing maternal emotional availability (EA) have been well investigated, little is known about the development of child EA. The present longitudinal study investigated the role of frontal brain asymmetry in young children with regard to child EA (child responsiveness and involvement) in mother-child interaction in a sample of 28…

  9. Modulation of frontal effective connectivity during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rachel; Leff, Alex P; Penny, William D; Rothwell, John C; Crinion, Jenny

    2016-10-15

    Noninvasive neurostimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can elicit long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes in neocortical excitability. In a previous concurrent tDCS-fMRI study of overt picture naming, we reported significant behavioural and regionally specific neural facilitation effects in left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) with anodal tDCS applied to left frontal cortex (Holland et al., 2011). Although distributed connectivity effects of anodal tDCS have been modelled at rest, the mechanism by which 'on-line' tDCS may modulate neuronal connectivity during a task-state remains unclear. Here, we used Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) to determine: (i) how neural connectivity within the frontal speech network is modulated during anodal tDCS; and, (ii) how individual variability in behavioural response to anodal tDCS relates to changes in effective connectivity strength. Results showed that compared to sham, anodal tDCS elicited stronger feedback from inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) to ventral premotor (VPM) accompanied by weaker self-connections within VPM, consistent with processes of neuronal adaptation. During anodal tDCS individual variability in the feedforward connection strength from IFS to VPM positively correlated with the degree of facilitation in naming behaviour. These results provide an essential step towards understanding the mechanism of 'online' tDCS paired with a cognitive task. They also identify left IFS as a 'top-down' hub and driver for speech change.

  10. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  11. Sound to language: different cortical processing for first and second languages in elementary school children as revealed by a large-scale study using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6-10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, particularly in the superior/middle temporal and inferior parietal regions (angular/supramarginal gyri). The greater L1-elicited activation in these regions suggests that they are phonological loci, reflecting processes tuned to the phonology of the native language, while phonologically unfamiliar L2 words were processed like nonword auditory stimuli. The activation was bilateral in the auditory and superior/middle temporal regions. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in the inferior frontal region (right dominant), and in the inferior parietal region with interactions: low-frequency words elicited more right-hemispheric activation (particularly in the supramarginal gyrus), while high-frequency words elicited more left-hemispheric activation (particularly in the angular gyrus). The present results reveal the strong involvement of a bilateral language network in children's brains depending more on right-hemispheric processing while acquiring unfamiliar/low-frequency words. A right-to-left shift in laterality should occur in the inferior parietal region, as lexical knowledge increases irrespective of language.

  12. Sound to Language: Different Cortical Processing for First and Second Languages in Elementary School Children as Revealed by a Large-Scale Study Using fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6–10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, particularly in the superior/middle temporal and inferior parietal regions (angular/supramarginal gyri). The greater L1-elicited activation in these regions suggests that they are phonological loci, reflecting processes tuned to the phonology of the native language, while phonologically unfamiliar L2 words were processed like nonword auditory stimuli. The activation was bilateral in the auditory and superior/middle temporal regions. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in the inferior frontal region (right dominant), and in the inferior parietal region with interactions: low-frequency words elicited more right-hemispheric activation (particularly in the supramarginal gyrus), while high-frequency words elicited more left-hemispheric activation (particularly in the angular gyrus). The present results reveal the strong involvement of a bilateral language network in children’s brains depending more on right-hemispheric processing while acquiring unfamiliar/low-frequency words. A right-to-left shift in laterality should occur in the inferior parietal region, as lexical knowledge increases irrespective of language. PMID:21350046

  13. Temporo-spacial correlations between cortical and subcortical EEG spike-wave complexes of the Idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, M; Velasco, F; Velasco, A L

    1997-01-01

    All-night EEG recordings of the interictal 2/s spike-wave complexes (SKW) from different cortical and subcortical regions were performed in 5 patients with atypical absences of the Idiopathic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (ILGS), in whom multicontact depth electrodes were implanted in the centromedian thalamic region as a part of a neuroaugmentive procedure for seizure control. Since during slow wave sleep III cortical spike (S2) and subcortical negative spike (NSK) consisting of simple monophasic negative potentials appeared together with a ratio of almost 1:1 and with fixed temporal relations, it was possible to determine visually the differences in peak-to-peak intervals of S2 and NSK, as well as their amplitude distribution in different cortical and subcortical structures. It was found that the peak of subcortical NSK preceded by 35 ms that of cortical S2. In addition, subcortical NSK and cortical S2 potentials attained maximal amplitude at the mesencephalic-thalamic reticular and frontal cortical regions, respectively, from which amplitude of NSK and S2 decreased with distance to other subcortical and cortical regions. These data suggest that interictal 2/s SKW of the ILGS result from ascending reticular impulses impinging upon the frontal cortical neurons.

  14. Cortical regions recruited for complex active-learning strategies and action planning exhibit rapid reactivation during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L; Galvan, Ashley; Gonsalves, Brian D

    2011-12-01

    Memory retrieval can involve activity in the same sensory cortical regions involved in perception of the original event, and this neural "reactivation" has been suggested as an important mechanism of memory retrieval. However, it is still unclear if fragments of experience other than sensory information are retained and later reactivated during retrieval. For example, learning in non-laboratory settings generally involves active exploration of memoranda, thus requiring the generation of action plans for behavior and the use of strategies deployed to improve subsequent memory performance. Is information pertaining to action planning and strategic processing retained and reactivated during retrieval? To address this question, we compared ERP correlates of memory retrieval for objects that had been studied in an active manner involving action planning and strategic processing to those for objects that had been studied passively. Memory performance was superior for actively studied objects, and unique ERP retrieval correlates for these objects were identified when subjects remembered the specific spatial locations at which objects were studied. Early-onset frontal shifts in ERP correlates of retrieval were noted for these objects, which parallel the recruitment of frontal cortex during learning object locations previously identified using fMRI with the same paradigm. Notably, ERPs during recall for items studied with a specific viewing strategy localized to the same supplementary motor cortex region previously identified with fMRI when this strategy was implemented during study, suggesting rapid reactivation of regions directly involved in strategic action planning. Collectively, these results implicate neural populations involved in learning in important retrieval functions, even for those populations involved in strategic control and action planning. Notably, these episodic features are not generally reported during recollective experiences, suggesting that

  15. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  16. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  17. Rapid cortical dynamics associated with auditory spatial attention gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ryan Mock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and EEG studies suggest spatial attention is allocated as a gradient in which processing benefits decrease away from an attended location. Yet the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical processes that contribute to attentional gradients are unclear. We measured EEG while participants (n=35 performed an auditory spatial attention task that required button press to sounds at one target location on either the left or right. Distractor sounds were randomly presented at four non-target locations evenly spaced up to 180° from the target location. Attentional gradients were quantified by regressing ERP amplitudes elicited by distractors against their spatial location relative to the target. Independent component analysis was applied to each subject’s scalp channel data, allowing isolation of distinct cortical sources. Results from scalp ERPs showed a tri-phasic response with gradient slope peaks at ~300 ms (frontal, positive, ~430 ms (posterior, negative, and a plateau starting at ~550 ms (frontal, positive. Corresponding to the first slope peak, a positive gradient was found within a central component when attending to both target locations and for two lateral frontal components when contralateral to the target location. Similarly, a central posterior component had a negative gradient that corresponded to the second slope peak regardless of target location. A right posterior component had both an ipsilateral followed by a contralateral gradient. Lateral posterior clusters also had decreases in α and β oscillatory power with a negative slope and contralateral tuning. Only the left posterior component (120-200 ms corresponded to absolute sound location. Results characterize a rapid, temporally-organized sequence of gradients thought to reflect interplay between frontal and parietal regions. We conclude these gradients support a target-based saliency map exhibiting aspects of both right-hemisphere dominance and opponent process models.

  18. Rapid cortical dynamics associated with auditory spatial attention gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jeffrey R; Seay, Michael J; Charney, Danielle R; Holmes, John L; Golob, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and EEG studies suggest spatial attention is allocated as a gradient in which processing benefits decrease away from an attended location. Yet the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical processes that contribute to attentional gradients are unclear. We measured EEG while participants (n = 35) performed an auditory spatial attention task that required a button press to sounds at one target location on either the left or right. Distractor sounds were randomly presented at four non-target locations evenly spaced up to 180° from the target location. Attentional gradients were quantified by regressing ERP amplitudes elicited by distractors against their spatial location relative to the target. Independent component analysis was applied to each subject's scalp channel data, allowing isolation of distinct cortical sources. Results from scalp ERPs showed a tri-phasic response with gradient slope peaks at ~300 ms (frontal, positive), ~430 ms (posterior, negative), and a plateau starting at ~550 ms (frontal, positive). Corresponding to the first slope peak, a positive gradient was found within a central component when attending to both target locations and for two lateral frontal components when contralateral to the target location. Similarly, a central posterior component had a negative gradient that corresponded to the second slope peak regardless of target location. A right posterior component had both an ipsilateral followed by a contralateral gradient. Lateral posterior clusters also had decreases in α and β oscillatory power with a negative slope and contralateral tuning. Only the left posterior component (120-200 ms) corresponded to absolute sound location. The findings indicate a rapid, temporally-organized sequence of gradients thought to reflect interplay between frontal and parietal regions. We conclude these gradients support a target-based saliency map exhibiting aspects of both right-hemisphere dominance and opponent process models.

  19. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    whose frequency correlated significantly with generalized reductions in cortical thickness. Patients with both posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease showed lower gain in smooth pursuit compared to controls. The current study establishes that eye movement abnormalities are near-ubiquitous in posterior cortical atrophy, and highlights multiple aspects of saccadic performance which distinguish posterior cortical atrophy from typical Alzheimer's disease. We suggest the posterior cortical atrophy oculomotor profile (e.g. exacerbation of the saccadic gap/overlap effect, preserved saccadic velocity) reflects weak input from degraded occipito-parietal spatial representations of stimulus location into a superior collicular spatial map for eye movement regulation. This may indicate greater impairment of identification of oculomotor targets rather than generation of oculomotor movements. The results highlight the critical role of spatial attention and object identification but also precise stimulus localization in explaining the complex real world perception deficits observed in posterior cortical atrophy and many other patients with dementia-related visual impairment.

  20. Decrease in N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the motor area and the frontal lobe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Takanashi, M.; Yanagihara, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Fujita, N.; Hirabuki, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We studied whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a neuronal marker, is reduced in the brain of 14 patients with clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and whether NAA levels in the motor area and frontal lobe correlate with the clinical features, including frontal lobe function. We also studied 14 normal controls were evaluated. We obtained peak integrals in {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for NAA, creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Severity of the disease was determined using the manual muscle strength test, and the Norris limb and bulbar scales. In the patients, the NAA/Cr ratio was reduced in the motor area and frontal lobe, while the Cho/Cr ratio was normal throughout the brain. There were significant correlations between the NAA/Cr ratio in the motor area and the Norris limb scale (r = 0.50; P < 0.01) and between the NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe and the number of categories achieved in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (r = 0.71; P < 0.05), implying frontal lobe dysfunction. These correlations suggest that a reduced NAA/Cr ratio is a marker of cortical neuronal loss and dysfunction in ALS. (orig.)

  1. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety: Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrewijn, A; Van der Molen, M J W; Westenberg, P M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta correlation during resting state and during a social performance task in high (HSA) versus low (LSA) socially anxious females. Participants performed a social performance task in which they first watched and evaluated a video of a peer, and then prepared their own speech. They believed that their speech would be videotaped and evaluated by a peer. We found that HSA participants showed significant negative delta-beta correlation as compared to LSA participants during both anticipation of and recovery from the stressful social situation. This negative delta-beta correlation might reflect increased activity in subcortical brain regions and decreased activity in cortical brain regions. As we hypothesized, no group differences in delta-beta correlation were found during the resting state. This could indicate that a certain level of stress is needed to find EEG measures of social anxiety. As for frontal alpha asymmetry, we did not find any group differences. The present frontal alpha asymmetry results are discussed in relation to the evident inconsistencies in the frontal alpha asymmetry literature. Together, our results suggest that delta-beta correlation is a putative EEG measure of social anxiety.

  2. Expert cognitive control and individual differences associated with frontal and parietal white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Edward; Anderson, Elaine J; Husain, Masud

    2010-12-15

    Although many functional imaging studies have reported frontal activity associated with "cognitive control" tasks, little is understood about factors underlying individual differences in performance. Here we compared the behavior and brain structure of healthy controls with fighter pilots, an expert group trained to make precision choices at speed in the presence of conflicting cues. Two different behavioral paradigms--Eriksen Flanker and change of plan tasks--were used to assess the influence of distractors and the ability to update ongoing action plans. Fighter pilots demonstrated superior cognitive control as indexed by accuracy and postconflict adaptation on the Flanker task, but also showed increased sensitivity to irrelevant, distracting choices. By contrast, when pilots were examined on their ability to inhibit a current action plan in favor of an alternative response, their performance was no better than the control group. Diffusion weighted imaging revealed differences in white matter radial diffusivity between pilots and controls not only in the right dorsomedial frontal region but also in the right parietal lobe. Moreover, analysis of individual differences in reaction time costs for conflict trials on the Flanker task demonstrated significant correlations with radial diffusivity at these locations, but in different directions. Postconflict adaptation effects, however, were confined to the dorsomedial frontal locus. The findings demonstrate that in humans expert cognitive control may surprisingly be mediated by enhanced response gain to both relevant and irrelevant stimuli, and is accompanied by structural alterations in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobe.

  3. Cortical Button Fixation: A Better Patellar Tendon Repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Gabriella E; Piasecki, Dana P; Habet, Nahir A; Peindl, Richard D

    2016-10-01

    Patellar tendon ruptures require surgical repair to optimize outcomes, but no consensus exists regarding the ideal repair technique. Cortical button fixation is a secure method for tendon repair that has not been studied in patellar tendons. Cortical button repair is biomechanically superior to the standard transpatellar repair and biomechanically equivalent to suture anchor repair. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-three fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used to compare 3 techniques of patellar tendon repair after a simulated rupture at the inferior pole of the patella. Repairs were performed at 45° of flexion using a standard transpatellar suture repair (n = 7), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) suture anchor repair (n = 8), or cortical button repair (n = 8). All specimens were tested on a custom apparatus to simulate cyclic open kinetic chain quadriceps contraction from extension to 90(o) of flexion. Outcomes of gap formation up to 250 cycles, maximum load to failure, and mode of failure were evaluated. Cortical button repair had significantly less gap formation than anchor repair after 1 cycle (P button repair sustained significantly higher loads to failure than anchor repair and suture repair (P button repairs either failed through the suture (n = 5), secondary failure of the patellar tendon (n = 2), or subsidence of the button through the anterior cortex of the patella (n = 1). Patellar tendon repair using cortical button fixation demonstrated mechanical advantages over suture repair and anchor repair in cadaveric specimens. Cortical button fixation showed less cyclic gap formation and withstood at least twice the load to failure of the construct. The biomechanical superiority of cortical button fixation may impart clinical advantages in accelerating postoperative rehabilitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Faciolingual Hemiparesis with Mild Limb Weakness of Cortical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisanchez-Nieva, Aintzine; Bocos-Portillo, Jone; Vazquez-Picon, Rakel; Tamayo, David Anguizola; Pardina-Vilella, Lara; Gomez-Beldarrain, Marian; Garcia-Monco, Juan Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The clinical combination of unilateral facial and hypoglossal palsy with upper limb weakness is known as the capsular genu syndrome and responds most often to an ischemic infarct in the internal capsule. We here describe a patient with this peculiar combination, in whom the responsible lesion was located in the contralateral prefrontal cortex, involving the corresponding areas of the Penfield's homunculus. Contralateral cortical frontal lesions should be considered in patients with facial and hypoglossal palsy with upper limb weakness. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under "Cocktail-Party" Listening Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated "cocktail-party" listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the "cocktail-party" listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process.

  6. Recently learned foreign abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct cortical networks similar to the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    In the native language, abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct areas of the cerebral cortex. Currently, it is unknown whether this is also the case for abstract and concrete nouns of a foreign language. Here, we taught adult native speakers of German 45 abstract and 45 concrete nouns of a foreign language. After learning the nouns for 5 days, participants performed a vocabulary translation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Translating abstract nouns in contrast to concrete nouns elicited responses in regions that are also responsive to abstract nouns in the native language: the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and superior temporal gyri. Concrete nouns elicited larger responses in the angular gyri bilaterally and the left parahippocampal gyrus than abstract nouns. The cluster in the left angular gyrus showed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) with the left lingual gyrus. The left parahippocampal gyrus showed PPI with the posterior cingulate cortex. Similar regions have been previously found for concrete nouns in the native language. The results reveal similarities in the cortical representation of foreign language nouns with the representation of native language nouns that already occur after 5 days of vocabulary learning. Furthermore, we showed that verbal and enriched learning methods were equally suitable to teach foreign abstract and concrete nouns. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4398-4412, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Increased water diffusivity in the frontal and temporal cortices of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Wook; Kwon, Jun Soo; Ha, Tae Hyon; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Dae Jin; Hong, Soon Beom; Moon, Won-Jin; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I; Chung, Eun Chul

    2006-05-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to be the result of both macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities in the brain. Although no definitive clinico-pathological correlations have been found to reconcile the many facets inherent in this disorder, the recent development of the magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has allowed us to gather useful information regarding the microcircuitry of the brain. Specifically, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) reflects the degree of diffusion barriers and heterosynaptic communication for the brain neurotransmitter. Nineteen patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in DTI, and the severity of the patients' symptoms was evaluated according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The ADC values were determined and compared between patients and control subjects via voxel-based morphometry. The results show an increased ADC in the bilateral fronto-temporal regions of the schizophrenic patients, as compared with those of the control subjects. In addition, the ADC values in the area of the right insular were correlated with the negative syndromes from the PANSS. Our findings of increased water diffusivity in the fronto-temporal regions of schizophrenic patients and the correlation between negative symptom scales and the ADC in the right insular region indicate that damaged brain microcircuitry might contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These findings contribute towards integrating micro and macrostructural abnormalities and syndromes of schizophrenia.

  8. Impaired frontal cortical energy metabolism underlies an anhedonic-like behaviour in METH-treated mice

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Bioquimica , apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra . Methamphetamine (METH) is an illegal stimulant drug with over 500,000 individuals estimated to abuse METH, in the United States, each month (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010). Long term users are at greatly increased risk for psychiatric problems including depression pathology (Curtis 2006; Hendrickson e...

  9. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  10. Entorhinal cortex of the rat: cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and the origin and distribution of cortical efferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, R; Herrero, M T; Witter, M P

    1997-01-01

    The origins and terminations of entorhinal cortical projections in the rat were analyzed in detail with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected in different portions of olfactory, medial frontal (infralimbic and prelimbic areas), lateral frontal (motor area), temporal (auditory), parietal (somatosensory), occipital (visual), cingulate, retrosplenial, insular, and perirhinal cortices. Anterograde tracer injections were placed in various parts of the rat entorhinal cortex to demonstrate the laminar and topographical distribution of the cortical projections of the entorhinal cortex. The retrograde experiments showed that each cortical area explored receives projections from a specific set of entorhinal neurons, limited in number and distribution. By far the most extensive entorhinal projection was directed to the perirhinal cortex. This projection, which arises from all layers, originates throughout the entorhinal cortex, although its major origin is from the more lateral and caudal parts of the entorhinal cortex. Projections to the medial frontal cortex and olfactory structures originate largely in layers II and III of much of the intermediate and medial portions of the entorhinal cortex, although a modest component arises from neurons in layer V of the more caudal parts of the entorhinal cortex. Neurons in layer V of an extremely laterally located strip of entorhinal cortex, positioned along the rhinal fissure, give rise to the projections to lateral frontal (motor), parietal (somatosensory), temporal (auditory), occipital (visual), anterior insular, and cingulate cortices. Neurons in layer V of the most caudal part of the entorhinal cortex originate projections to the retrosplenial cortex. The anterograde experiments confirmed these findings and showed that in general, the terminal fields of the entorhinal-cortical projections were densest in layers I, II, and III, although particularly in the more densely

  11. Electroencephalographic frontal synchrony and caudal asynchrony during painful hand immersion in cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Joshua; Choo, Hyunwoo J; Smith, Kelsey A; LeBlanc, Brian W; Saab, Carl Y

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies in our laboratory showed that cortical theta oscillations correlate with pain in rodent models. In this study, we sought to validate our pre-clinical data using EEG recordings in humans during immersion of the hand in ice cold water, a moderately noxious stimulus. Power spectral analysis shows that an increase in pain score is associated with an increase in power amplitude within a frequency range of 6-7Hz at the frontal (Fz) electrode. These results are consistent with our previous pre-clinical animal studies and the clinical literature. We also report a novel reduction in power at the caudal (O1) electrode within a broader 3-30Hz rand and decreased coherence between Fz and C3, C4 electrodes within the theta (4-8Hz) and low beta (13-21Hz) bands, while coherence (an indirect measure of functional connectivity) between Fz and O1 increased within the theta and alpha (8-12Hz) bands. We argue that pain is associated with EEG frontal synchrony and caudal asynchrony, leading to the disruption of cortico-cortical connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional quantitative analysis of cortical surface maps of FDG PET images

    CERN Document Server

    Protas, H D; Hayashi, K M; Chin Lung, Yu; Bergsneider, M; Sung Cheng, Huang

    2006-01-01

    Cortical surface maps are advantageous for visualizing the 3D profile of cortical gray matter development and atrophy, and for integrating structural and functional images. In addition, cortical surface maps for PET data, when analyzed in conjunction with structural MRI data allow us to investigate, and correct for, partial volume effects. Here we compared quantitative regional PET values based on a 3D cortical surface modeling approach with values obtained directly from the 3D FDG PET images in various atlas-defined regions of interest (ROIs; temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes). FDG PET and 3D MR (SPGR) images were obtained and aligned to ICBM space for 15 normal subjects. Each image was further elastically warped in 2D parameter space of the cortical surface, to align major cortical sulci. For each point within a 15 mm distance of the cortex, the value of the PET intensity was averaged to give a cortical surface map of FDG uptake. The average PET values on the cortical surface map were calcula...

  13. [Giant vertebro-basilar aneurysm. Frontal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A; Mizon, J P; Sevestre, H

    1991-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with an apparent frontal syndrome. He also had bilateral trigeminal neuralgia, a pyramidal syndrome of all 4 limbs, balance disturbances, a horizontal nystagmus when looking to the left and a right velopalatine paralysis. CT scan with contrast showed a hyperdense rounded lesion in the left cerebello-pontine angle. Cerebral angiography showed this to be a large aneurysm of the end of the vertebral arteries. The patient died suddenly. Autopsy confirmed the site and presence of the aneurysm. Balance disturbances, the pyramidal syndrome and velopalatine paralysis could all be explained by brain stem compression and the bilateral nature of the trigeminal neuralgia by compression of the trigemino-thalamic tract. The apparent frontal syndrome, the authors suggest could have resulted from subacute raised intracranial pressure.

  14. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility.

  15. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  16. TDCS increases cortical excitability: direct evidence from TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Rosanova, Mario; Mattavelli, Giulia; Convento, Silvia; Pisoni, Alberto; Opitz, Alexander; Bolognini, Nadia; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Despite transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly used in experimental and clinical settings, its precise mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. At a neuronal level, tDCS modulates the resting membrane potential in a polarity-dependent fashion: anodal stimulation increases cortical excitability in the stimulated region, while cathodal decreases it. So far, the neurophysiological underpinnings of the immediate and delayed effects of tDCS, and to what extent the stimulation of a given cerebral region may affect the activity of anatomically connected regions, remain unclear. In the present study, we used a combination of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Electroencephalography (EEG) in order to explore local and global cortical excitability modulation during and after active and sham tDCS. Single pulse TMS was delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), before, during, and after 15 min of tDCS over the right PPC, while EEG was recorded from 60 channels. For each session, indexes of global and local cerebral excitability were obtained, computed as global and local mean field power (Global Mean Field Power, GMFP and Local Mean Field Power, LMFP) on mean TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) for three temporal windows: 0-50, 50-100, and 100-150 msec. The global index was computed on all 60 channels. The local indexes were computed in six clusters of electrodes: left and right in frontal, parietal and temporal regions. GMFP increased, compared to baseline, both during and after active tDCS in the 0-100 msec temporal window. LMFP increased after the end of stimulation in parietal and frontal clusters bilaterally, while no difference was found in the temporal clusters. In sum, a diffuse rise of cortical excitability occurred, both during and after active tDCS. This evidence highlights the spreading of the effects of anodal tDCS over remote cortical regions of stimulated and contralateral hemispheres.

  17. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    Full Text Available Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz, followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz, alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  18. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  19. Clinical-physiologic correlates of Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagust, W.J.; Reed, B.R.; Seab, J.P.; Kramer, J.H.; Budinger, T.F. (Martinez Veterans Administration Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Thirty patients with degenerative dementia underwent clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the blood flow tracer ({sup 123}I)-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine. Five of these patients were clinically and psychologically different from the others, demonstrating predominant behavioral disturbances with relative preservation of memory function. These five patients, who were felt to have a frontal lobe dementia (FLD), showed SPECT perfusion patterns which differed from the remaining 25 patients, who were diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from 16 healthy control subjects. The FLD patients showed diminished perfusion in orbitofrontal, dorsolateral frontal, and temporal cortex relative to controls, while the AD patients showed lower perfusion in temporal and parietal cortex than controls. The FLD patients also showed hypoperfusion in both frontal cortical regions relative to AD patients. The pattern of performance on neuropsychological testing paralleled these differences in regional perfusion. These results suggest that clinical evaluation and physiological imaging may enable the differentiation of groups of degenerative dementia patients during life.

  20. Manganese exposure induces α-synuclein aggregation in the frontal cortex of non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verina, Tatyana; Schneider, Jay S; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2013-03-13

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain is a defining pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders classified as synucleinopathies. They include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Occupational and environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with a neurological syndrome consisting of psychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment and parkinsonism. In this study, we examined α-syn immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of Cynomolgus macaques as part of a multidisciplinary assessment of the neurological effects produced by exposure to moderate levels of Mn. We found increased α-syn-positive cells in the gray matter of Mn-exposed animals, typically observed in pyramidal and medium-sized neurons in deep cortical layers. Some of these neurons displayed loss of Nissl staining with α-syn-positive spherical aggregates. In the white matter we also observed α-syn-positive glial cells and in some cases α-syn-positive neurites. These findings suggest that Mn exposure promotes α-syn aggregation in neuronal and glial cells that may ultimately lead to degeneration in the frontal cortex gray and white matter. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mn-induced neuronal and glial cell α-syn accumulation and aggregation in the frontal cortex of non-human primates.

  1. HIV Infection Is Associated with Impaired Striatal Function during Inhibition with Normal Cortical Functioning on Functional MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Plessis, Stéfan; Vink, Matthijs; Joska, John A; Koutsilieri, Eleni; Bagadia, Asif; Stein, Dan J; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HIV infection on cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal-striatal system involved in the inhibition of voluntary movement. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with

  2. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  3. Combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy for management of complex frontal sinus pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Pete S; Citardi, Martin J; Lanza, Donald C

    2005-01-01

    The advances in endoscopic sinus surgery have revolutionized the management of frontal sinus disease. Despite the successes, the purely endoscopic approach has its limitations, especially in patients with alterations in anatomy caused by previous surgical intervention or complex frontal sinus pneumatization patterns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy (the above and below approach) in the management of these difficult cases. Chart review was performed on patients undergoing the combined approach from October 1999 to June 2004. Demographic data, symptomatology, comorbidity, previous surgery, and primary pathology were determined. Outcome was assessed based on subjective symptom relief and objective endoscopic patency. Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 49.2 years underwent the combined approach. The primary pathology included mucoceles (15 patients), frontal sinusitis (2 patients), inverted papilloma (2 patients), osteoma (1 patient), fibrous dysplasia (1 patient), and pneumocephalus (1 patient). A total of 25 above and below procedures (22 primary and 3 revision procedures) were performed to manage the pathology. Postoperatively, headaches resolved in 47%, improved in 35%, and remained unchanged in 18% of the patients. Orbital symptoms resolved in 63%, improved in 25%, and remained unchanged in 12% of the patients. Endoscopic patency of the frontal sinusotomy was confirmed in 19 of 22 cases (86%) at a mean follow-up of 16.2 months. Management of complex frontal sinus pathology may require adjunct approaches in conjunction to the standard endoscopic techniques. In this series, the above and below approach was used successfully in 22 patients. The combined approach may serve as an important adjunct for management of complex frontal sinus disease.

  4. Fibromyalgia is characterized by altered frontal and cerebellar structural covariance brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Cahalan, Christine; Garcia, Ronald G.; Vangel, Mark G.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Altered brain morphometry has been widely acknowledged in chronic pain, and recent studies have implicated altered network dynamics, as opposed to properties of individual brain regions, in supporting persistent pain. Structural covariance analysis determines the inter-regional association in morphological metrics, such as gray matter volume, and such structural associations may be altered in chronic pain. In this study, voxel-based morphometry structural covariance networks were compared between fibromyalgia patients (N = 42) and age- and sex-matched pain-free adults (N = 63). We investigated network topology using spectral partitioning, which can delineate local network submodules with consistent structural covariance. We also explored white matter connectivity between regions comprising these submodules and evaluated the association between probabilistic white matter tractography and pain-relevant clinical metrics. Our structural covariance network analysis noted more connections within the cerebellum for fibromyalgia patients, and more connections in the frontal lobe for healthy controls. For fibromyalgia patients, spectral partitioning identified a distinct submodule with cerebellar connections to medial prefrontal and temporal and right inferior parietal lobes, whose gray matter volume was associated with the severity of depression in these patients. Volume for a submodule encompassing lateral orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, postcentral, lateral temporal, and insular cortices was correlated with evoked pain sensitivity. Additionally, the number of white matter fibers between specific submodule regions was also associated with measures of evoked pain sensitivity and clinical pain interference. Hence, altered gray and white matter morphometry in cerebellar and frontal cortical regions may contribute to, or result from, pain-relevant dysfunction in chronic pain patients. PMID:25844321

  5. Fibromyalgia is characterized by altered frontal and cerebellar structural covariance brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered brain morphometry has been widely acknowledged in chronic pain, and recent studies have implicated altered network dynamics, as opposed to properties of individual brain regions, in supporting persistent pain. Structural covariance analysis determines the inter-regional association in morphological metrics, such as gray matter volume, and such structural associations may be altered in chronic pain. In this study, voxel-based morphometry structural covariance networks were compared between fibromyalgia patients (N = 42 and age- and sex-matched pain-free adults (N = 63. We investigated network topology using spectral partitioning, which can delineate local network submodules with consistent structural covariance. We also explored white matter connectivity between regions comprising these submodules and evaluated the association between probabilistic white matter tractography and pain-relevant clinical metrics. Our structural covariance network analysis noted more connections within the cerebellum for fibromyalgia patients, and more connections in the frontal lobe for healthy controls. For fibromyalgia patients, spectral partitioning identified a distinct submodule with cerebellar connections to medial prefrontal and temporal and right inferior parietal lobes, whose gray matter volume was associated with the severity of depression in these patients. Volume for a submodule encompassing lateral orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, postcentral, lateral temporal, and insular cortices was correlated with evoked pain sensitivity. Additionally, the number of white matter fibers between specific submodule regions was also associated with measures of evoked pain sensitivity and clinical pain interference. Hence, altered gray and white matter morphometry in cerebellar and frontal cortical regions may contribute to, or result from, pain-relevant dysfunction in chronic pain patients.

  6. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  7. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Pievani, Michela; Boccardi, Marina; Rasser, Paul E; Thompson, Paul M; Cavedo, Enrica; Cotelli, Maria; Rosini, Sandra; Beneduce, Rossella; Bignotti, Stefano; Magni, Laura R; Rillosi, Luciana; Magnaldi, Silvia; Cobelli, Milena; Rossi, Giuseppe; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients‘ affective,cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38±11; females: 16, 61%). Results BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (p<0.005). Our BPD subjects displayed a symmetric distribution of anomalies in the dorsal aspect of the cortical mantle, but a wider involvement of the left hemisphere in the mesial aspect in terms of lower density. A few restricted regions of higher density were detected in the right hemisphere. All regions remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons via permutation testing. Conclusions BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. PMID:25561291

  8. The cortical motor system of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Sophia; Burman, Kathleen J; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-04-01

    Precise descriptions of the anatomical pathways that link different areas of the cerebral cortex are essential to the understanding of the sensorimotor and association processes that underlie human actions, and their impairment in pathological situations. Many years of research in macaque monkeys have critically shaped how we currently think about cortical motor function in humans. However, it is important to obtain additional understanding about the homologies between cortical areas in human and various non-human primates, and in particular how evolutionary changes in connectivity within specific neural circuits impact on the capacity for different behaviors. Current research has converged on the New World marmoset monkey as an important animal model for cortical function and dysfunction, emphasizing advantages unique to this species. However, the motor repertoire of the marmoset differs from that of the macaque in many ways, including the capacity for skilled use of the hands. Here, we review current knowledge about the cortical frontal areas in marmosets, which are key to the generation and control of motor behaviors, with focus on comparative analyses. We note significant parallels with the macaque monkey, as well as a few potentially important differences, which suggest future directions for work involving architectonic and functional analyses.

  9. Visualization of cortical lamination patterns with magnetic resonance imaging.

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    Barazany, Daniel; Assaf, Yaniv

    2012-09-01

    The ability to image the cortex laminar arrangements in vivo is one of the holy grails of neuroscience. Recent studies have visualized the cortical layers ex vivo and in vivo (on a small region of interest) using high-resolution T(1)/T(2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we used inversion-recovery (IR) MRI to increase the sensitivity of MRI toward cortical architecture and achieving whole-brain characterization of the layers, in vivo, in 3D on humans and rats. Using the IR measurements, we computed 3D signal intensity plots along the cortex termed corticograms to characterize cortical substructures. We found that cluster analyses of the multi-IR images along the cortex divides it into at least 6 laminar compartments. To validate our observations, we compared the IR-MRI analysis with histology and revealed a correspondence, although these 2 measures do not represent similar quantities. The abilities of the method to segment the cortex into layers were demonstrated on the striate cortex (visualizing the stripe of Gennari) and on the frontal cortex. We conclude that the presented methodology can serve as means to study and characterize individual cortical architecture and organization.

  10. Human cerebral cortices: signal variation on diffusion-weighted MR imaging

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    Asao, Chiaki [Kumamoto Regional Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirai, Toshinori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Yoshimatsu, Shunji [National Hospital Organization Kumamoto Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Imuta, Masanori [Kumamoto Regional Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Sagara, Katsuro [Kumamoto Regional Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We have often encountered high signal intensity (SI) of the cingulate gyrus and insula during diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) on neurologically healthy adults. To date, cortical signal heterogeneity on DW images has not been investigated systematically. The purpose of our study was to determine whether there is regional signal variation in the brain cortices of neurologically healthy adults on DW-MR images. The SI of the cerebral cortices on DW-MR images at 1.5 T was evaluated in 50 neurologically healthy subjects (34 men, 16 women; age range 33-84 years; mean age 57.6 years). The cortical SI in the cingulate gyrus, insula, and temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes was graded relative to the SI of the frontal lobe. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) on DW-MR images were compared for each cortical area. Diffusion changes were analyzed by visually assessment of the differences in appearance among the cortices on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Increased SI was frequently seen in the cingulate gyrus and insula regardless of patient age. There were no significant gender- or laterality-related differences. The CNR was significantly higher in the cingulate gyrus and insula than in the other cortices (p <.01), and significant differences existed among the cortical regions (p <.001). There were no apparent ADC differences among the cortices on ADC maps. Regional signal variation of the brain cortices was observed on DW-MR images of healthy subjects, and the cingulate gyrus and insula frequently manifested high SI. These findings may help in the recognition of cortical signal abnormalities as visualized on DW-MR images. (orig.)

  11. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

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    Franziska Dambacher

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP. We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of t

  12. Cortical thickness and semantic fluency in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

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    Eastman, Jennifer A; Hwang, Kristy S; Lazaris, Andreas; Chow, Nicole; Ramirez, Leslie; Babakchanian, Sona; Woo, Ellen; Thompson, Paul M; Apostolova, Liana G

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is declarative memory loss, but deficits in semantic fluency are also observed. We assessed how semantic fluency relates to cortical atrophy to identify specific regions that play a role in the loss of access to semantic information. Whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were analyzed from 9 Normal Control (NC)(M=76.7, SD=5.6), 40 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (M=74.4, SD=8.6), and 10 probable AD (M=72.4, SD=8.0) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). They all were administered the Category Fluency (CF) animals and vegetables tests. Poorer semantic fluency was associated with bilateral cortical atrophy of the inferior parietal lobule (Brodman areas (BA) 39 and 40) and BA 6, 8, and 9 in the frontal lobe, as well as BA 22 in the temporal lobe. More diffuse frontal associations were seen in the left hemisphere involving BA 9, 10, 32, 44, 45, and 46. Additional cortical atrophy was seen in the temporoparietal (BA 37) and the right parastriate (BA 19, 18) cortices. Associations were more diffuse for performance on vegetable fluency than animal fluency. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF animals was pcorrected=0.01 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.06 for the right hemisphere. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF vegetables was pcorrected=0.009 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.03 for the right hemisphere. These results demonstrate the profound effect of cortical atrophy on semantic fluency. Specifically, tapping into semantic knowledge involves the frontal lobe in addition to the language cortices of the temporoparietal region.

  13. Palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal manifestations in a patient with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang-Je; Han, Sang-Don; Song, Sook Keun; Lee, Byung In; Heo, Kyoung

    2009-06-01

    Palilalia is a relatively rare pathologic speech behavior and has been reported in various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. We encountered a case of palilalia, echolalia, and echopraxia-palipraxia as ictal phenomena of left frontal lobe epilepsy. A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of frequent episodes of rapid reiteration of syllables. Video-electroencephalography monitoring revealed stereotypical episodes of palilalia accompanied by rhythmic head nodding and right-arm posturing with ictal discharges over the left frontocentral area. He also displayed echolalia or echopraxia-palipraxia, partially responding to an examiner's stimulus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed encephalomalacia on the left superior frontal gyrus and ictal single photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion just above the lesion, corresponding to the left supplementary motor area (SMA), and subcortical nuclei. This result suggests that the neuroanatomic substrate involved in the generation of these behaviors as ictal phenomena might exist in the SMA of the left frontal lobe.

  14. Alopecia frontal fibrosante: relato de seis casos Frontal fibrosing alopecia: report of six cases

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    Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia frontal fibrosante é forma progressiva de alopecia cicatricial. Os casos iniciais foram relatados a partir 1994, na Austrália, em pacientes do sexo feminino pós-menopausa. Desde então inúmeros casos foram descritos na literatura sugerindo que ela é mais prevalente do que inicialmente se supunha. Seu curso progressivo se assemelha ao da alopecia androgenética; histologicamente, entretanto, o infiltrado liquenóide é evidente. O artigo relata seis casos brasileiros e discute a alopecia frontal fibrosante dentro do grupo das alopecias cicatriciais, como variante do líquen plano pilar.Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a progressive cicatricial alopecia. The first cases were described in Australia in postmenopausal women, in 1994. Since then, numerous cases were reported, suggesting that frontal fibrosing alopecia is more prevalent than initially thought. Its progressive course in postmenopausal women, clinically resembles androgenetic alopecia; however, histologically, lichenoid infiltrate is evident. This article report six brazilian cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia and discusses them in the context of cicatricial alopecias, as a variant of lichen planopilaris.

  15. Contralesional cortical structural reorganization contributes to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

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    Jianxin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first -onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Motricity Index assessments in the acute (< 5 days and chronic stages (1 year later. The GMVs were calculated and compared between the two stages using nonparametric permutation paired t tests. Moreover, the Spearman correlations between the GMV changes and clinical recoveries were analyzed. Compared with the acute stage, significant decreases in GMV were observed in the ipsilesional precentral gyrus (PreCG, paracentral gyrus, and contralesional cerebellar lobule VII in the chronic stage. Additionally, significant increases in GMV were found in the contralesional orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and middle (MFG and inferior (IFG frontal gyri. Furthermore, severe GMV atrophy in the ipsilesional PreCG predicted poorer clinical recovery, and greater GMV increases in the contralesional OFG and MFG predicted better clinical recovery. Our findings suggest that structural reorganization of the contralesional ‘cognitive’ cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  16. Cholesterol Granuloma of the Frontal Sinus: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Manola; Ida, Casorelli; Francesco Luigi, Pietrafesa; Giampiero, Mottola; Domenico, Lacerenza; Giuseppe, Battiloro; Giuseppe, Patitucci; Giulia Anna Carmen, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol granulomas are common in the mastoid antrum and air cells of the temporal bone. In the paranasal sinuses, especially in the frontal sinus, they have occasionally been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the majority of the authors support the concept of airway obstruction in the cells well pneumatised of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus treated with radical surgical techniques, and they also recommend an endoscopic approach to frontal sinus to restore or enlarge the nose-frontal canal and promote drainage and ventilation of the frontal sinus. PMID:23150840

  17. Cholesterol Granuloma of the Frontal Sinus: A Case Report

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    Manola Marco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol granulomas are common in the mastoid antrum and air cells of the temporal bone. In the paranasal sinuses, especially in the frontal sinus, they have occasionally been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the majority of the authors support the concept of airway obstruction in the cells well pneumatised of temporal bone and paranasal sinuses. The authors report a case of cholesterol granuloma of the frontal sinus treated with radical surgical techniques, and they also recommend an endoscopic approach to frontal sinus to restore or enlarge the nose-frontal canal and promote drainage and ventilation of the frontal sinus.

  18. Correlations between brain cortical thickness and cutaneous pain thresholds are atypical in adults with migraine.

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    Todd J Schwedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Migraineurs have atypical pain processing, increased expectations for pain, and hypervigilance for pain. Recent studies identified correlations between brain structure and pain sensation in healthy adults. The objective of this study was to compare cortical thickness-to-pain threshold correlations in migraineurs to healthy controls. We hypothesized that migraineurs would have aberrant relationships between the anatomical neurocorrelates of pain processing and pain thresholds. METHODS: Pain thresholds to cutaneously applied heat were determined for 31 adult migraineurs and 32 healthy controls. Cortical thickness was determined from magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted sequences. Regional cortical thickness-to-pain threshold correlations were determined for migraineurs and controls separately using a general linear model whole brain vertex-wise analysis. A pain threshold-by-group interaction analysis was then conducted to estimate regions where migraineurs show alterations in the pain threshold-to-cortical thickness correlations relative to healthy controls. RESULTS: Controls had negative correlations (p<0.01 uncorrected between pain thresholds and cortical thickness in left posterior cingulate/precuneus, right superior temporal, right inferior parietal, and left inferior temporal regions, and a negative correlation (p<0.01 Monte Carlo corrected with a left superior temporal/inferior parietal region. Migraineurs had positive correlations (p<0.01 uncorrected between pain thresholds and cortical thickness in left superior temporal/inferior parietal, right precuneus, right superior temporal/inferior parietal, and left inferior parietal regions. Cortical thickness-to-pain threshold correlations differed between migraine and control groups (p<0.01 uncorrected for right superior temporal/inferior parietal, right precentral, left posterior cingulate/precuneus, and right inferior parietal regions and (p<0.01 Monte Carlo corrected

  19. Detection of concealed information by P3 and frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Izumi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Allen, John J B

    2013-03-14

    Psychophysiological detection of deception has seen increased attention in both research and applied settings. In this field, the most scientifically validated paradigm is the Concealed Information Test (CIT). The CIT does not directly deal with whether a participant is lying, but examines whether a participant recognizes a critical relevant detail, inferred by differences in physiological responses between critical and non-critical items. Although event-related potential (ERP) approaches to the CIT have shown high accuracy, a combination of measures might improve the test's performance. We thus assessed whether a new CIT index, frontal EEG asymmetry that is supposed to reflect differences in approach/withdrawal motivation, would prove useful. Nineteen participants were asked to steal one item in a mock crime, and were then administered two CITs while concealing the stolen item. One CIT included the stolen item (i.e., guilty condition), whereas the other CIT did not (i.e., innocent condition). In the guilty condition, the concealed stolen item elicited greater relative left frontal alpha activity (indicative of relative right frontal cortical activity) as compared to the other items, suggesting that the recognition of the concealed item might have induced withdrawal motivation. Although the discrimination between guilty and innocent conditions by the asymmetry score alone was not as good as that by the ERP P3 index, combining the asymmetry score and P3 improved the detection performance significantly. The results suggest that the frontal EEG asymmetry can be used as a new measure in the CIT that provides additional information beyond that captured by the traditional ERP index.

  20. Examining the exercise-affect dose-response relationship: does duration influence frontal EEG asymmetry?

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    Woo, Minjung; Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu; Petruzzello, Steven J; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2009-05-01

    The "feel better" effect of exercise has been well established, but the specific influence of exercise duration on affect has not been systematically studied from a multi-level measurement approach. Such an approach offers the opportunity to assess psychophysiological responses that relate to psychological state. One relevant response is the change in frontal brain processes indexed by anterior EEG asymmetry, which is related to approach-withdrawal orientation and affective state [Davidson, R.J., 1993. Cerebral asymmetry and emotion: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Cogn. Emot. 7, 138; Davidson, R.J., 1998. Anterior electrophysiological asymmetries, emotion, and depression: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Psychophysiology 35(5), 607-614.]. To examine the relationship between exercise duration and affective response, as well as the role of frontal brain processes in this relationship, female undergraduate students (N=16, VO(2) max=35.93 ml kg(-1) min(-1), aged 19-23 yrs) were assessed for frontal EEG and self-reported affective responses, as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS), following rest and three different durations of exercise (15, 30 and 45 min) performed at a standardized intensity (i.e., just below the ventilatory threshold (VT)). Psychological vigor and frontal EEG asymmetry following exercise of 30 min were elevated compared to that observed following rest and other exercise durations (i.e., 15, 45 min). The results support a dose-response relationship between exercise duration and affect characterized by an inverted-U. Furthermore, the covariance analysis, conducted to assess the role of cortical activation at the homologous sites in the post-exercise affective response, suggests that the enhanced vigor observed after 30 min of exercise results from the reduction of withdrawal-oriented processes rather than the facilitation of approach-oriented processes.

  1. From perceptual to lexico-semantic analysis--cortical plasticity enabling new levels of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rüther, Naima N; Heba, Stefanie; Haag, Lauren M; Schultz, Thomas; Rosengarth, Katharina; Tegenthoff, Martin; Bellebaum, Christian; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    Certain kinds of stimuli can be processed on multiple levels. While the neural correlates of different levels of processing (LOPs) have been investigated to some extent, most of the studies involve skills and/or knowledge already present when performing the task. In this study we specifically sought to identify neural correlates of an evolving skill that allows the transition from perceptual to a lexico-semantic stimulus analysis. Eighteen participants were trained to decode 12 letters of Morse code that were presented acoustically inside and outside of the scanner environment. Morse code was presented in trains of three letters while brain activity was assessed with fMRI. Participants either attended to the stimulus length (perceptual analysis), or evaluated its meaning distinguishing words from nonwords (lexico-semantic analysis). Perceptual and lexico-semantic analyses shared a mutual network comprising the left premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Perceptual analysis was associated with a strong brain activation in the SMA and the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (STG), which remained unaltered from pre and post training. In the lexico-semantic analysis post learning, study participants showed additional activation in the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and in the left occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), regions known to be critically involved in lexical processing. Our data provide evidence for cortical plasticity evolving with a learning process enabling the transition from perceptual to lexico-semantic stimulus analysis. Importantly, the activation pattern remains task-related LOP and is thus the result of a decision process as to which LOP to engage in.

  2. Normalisation of frontal theta activity following methylphenidate treatment in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirrow, Caroline; McLoughlin, Grainne; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with cognitive performance and functional brain changes that are sensitive to task conditions, indicating a role for dynamic impairments rather than stable cognitive deficits. Prominent hypotheses consistent with this observation are a failure to optimise brain arousal or activation states. Here we investigate cortical activation during different conditions. Using a sample of 41 non-comorbid adults with ADHD and 48 controls, we examine quantitative EEG activity during a resting state, a cued continuous performance test with flankers (CPT-OX) and the sustained attention to response task (SART). We further investigate the effects of methylphenidate in a subsample of 21 ADHD cases. Control participants showed a task-related increase in theta activity when engaged in cognitive tasks, primarily in frontal and parietal regions, which was absent in participants with ADHD. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in normalisation of the resting state to task activation pattern. These findings suggest that ADHD in adults is associated with insufficient allocation of neuronal resources required for normal cortical activation commensurate with task demands. Further work is required to clarify the causal role of the deficit in cortical activation and provide a clearer understanding of the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal lobe decortication (frontal lobectomy with ventricular preservation) in epilepsy: anatomical landmarks and surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Maria Da Róz

    2016-01-01

    A lobectomia frontal é um procedimento neurocirúrgico frequentemente realizado para o tratamento de tumores cerebrais, epilepsia refratária, e outras patologias que requerem remoção extensa do lobo frontal. Embora seja um procedimento relativamente comum, foram encontrados apenas alguns relatos na literatura acerca da técnica cirúrgica, com pouca consideração acerca da anatomia relevante para esse procedimento. OBJETIVOS: O principal objetivo desta tese é apresentar parâmetros anatômicos e co...

  4. Tratamiento y complicaciones de las fracturas de seno frontal Frontal sinus fracture treatment and complications

    OpenAIRE

    S. Heredero Jung; I. Zubillaga Rodríguez; M. Castrillo Tambay; Sánchez Aniceto, G.; J.J. Montalvo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. Las fracturas de seno frontal se producen como resultado de impactos de alta energía. Un tratamiento inadecuado puede conducir a complicaciones serias incluso muchos años después del traumatismo. Objetivos. Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos y revisar las complicaciones asociadas. Estandarizar el protocolo de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron 95 pacientes diagnosticados de fracturas de seno frontal pertenecientes al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospit...

  5. Frontal lobe neurology and the creative mind

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    Leonardo Cruz De Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Concepts from cognitive neuroscience strongly suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays a crucial role in the cognitive functions necessary for creative thinking. Functional imaging studies have repeatedly demonstrated the involvement of PFC in creativity tasks. Patient studies have demonstrated that frontal damage due to focal lesions or neurodegenerative diseases are associated with impairments in various creativity tasks.However, against all odds, a series of clinical observations has reported the facilitation of artistic production in patients with neurodegenerative diseases affecting PFC, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD. An exacerbation of creativity in frontal diseases would challenge neuroimaging findings in controls and patients, as well as the theoretical role of prefrontal functions in creativity processes. To explore this paradox, we reported the history of a FTD patient who exhibited the emergence of visual artistic productions during the course of the disease. The patient produced a large amount of drawings, which have been evaluated by a group of professional artists who were blind to the diagnosis. We also reviewed the published clinical cases reporting a change in the artistic abilities in patients with neurological diseases.We attempted to reconcile these clinical observations to previous experimental findings by addressing several questions raised by our review. For instance, to what extent can the cognitive, conative and affective changes following frontal damage explain changes in artistic abilities? Does artistic exacerbation truly reflect increased creative capacities? These considerations could help to clarify the place of creativity - as it has been defined and explored by cognitive neuroscience - in artistic creation and may provide leads for future lesion studies.

  6. Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of The Frontal Assessment Battery Performance in Alzheimer Disease: A FDG-PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Byun, Min Soo; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choe, Young Min; Yi, Dahyun; Han, Ji Young; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to elucidate the functional neuroanatomical correlates of Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) performances by applying [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to a large population of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The FAB was administered to 177 patients with AD, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) was measured by FDG-PET scan. Correlations between FAB scores and rCMglc were explored using both region-of-interest-based (ROI-based) and voxel-based approaches. The ROI-based analysis showed that FAB scores correlated with the rCMglc of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Voxel-based approach revealed significant positive correlations between FAB scores and rCMglc which were in various cortical regions including the temporal and parietal cortices as well as frontal regions, independent of age, gender, and education. After controlling the effect of global disease severity with Mini-Mental State Examination score, significant positive correlation was found only in the bilateral prefrontal regions. Although FAB scores are influenced by temporoparietal dysfunction due to the overall progression of AD, it likely reflects prefrontal dysfunction specifically regardless of global cognitive state or disease severity in patients with AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The unimodal distribution of sub-threshold, ongoing activity in cortical networks

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    Anat eYaron-Jakoubovitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the subthreshold, ongoing-activity in cortical neurons has been the focus of numerous studies. This activity, described as spontaneous slow waves in membrane potential, has been observed in a span of species in diverse cortical and subcortical areas. We here characterized membrane potential fluctuations in motor and the frontal association cortices cortical neurons of ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats. We recorded from 95 neurons from a range of cortical depths to unravel the network and cellular mechanisms that shape the subthreshold ongoing spontaneous activity of these neurons. We define a unitary event that generates the sub-threshold ongoing activity: Giant Synaptic Potentials (GSPs. These events have a duration of 87 ± 50 ms and an amplitude of 19 ± 6.4 mV. They occur at a frequency of 3.7 ± 0.8 Hz and involve an increase in conductance change of 22 ± 21%. GSPs are mainly due to excitatory activity that occurs throughout all cortical layers, unaffected by the intrinsic properties of the cells. Indeed, blocking the GABAA receptors, a procedure that had a profound effect on cortical activity, did not alter these unitary events. We propose that this unitary event is composed of individual, excitatory synaptic potentials that appear at different levels of synchrony and that the level of synchrony determines the shape of the subthreshold activity.

  8. The Relation of Focal Lesions to Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Zielinski, Brandon A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Black, Garrett M; Huff, B S Trevor; Christiansen, Zachary; Wood, Dawn-Marie; Abildskov, Tracy J; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined. Both traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury children had normally reduced cortical thickness with age, assumed to reflect neuronal pruning. However, the reductions observed within the traumatic brain injury sample were similar to those in the orthopedic injury group, suggesting that in this sample traumatic brain injury, per se, did not uniquely alter cortical thickness in any brain region at the group level. Injury severity in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale or longer length of stay was associated with greater reductions in frontal and occipitoparietal cortical thickness. However, presence of focal lesions were not related to unique changes in cortical thickness despite having a prominent distribution of lesions within frontotemporal regions among children with traumatic brain injury. Because focal lesions were highly heterogeneous, their association with cortical thickness and development appeared to be idiosyncratic, and not associated with group level effects.

  9. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement.

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    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self.

  10. [Affective disorders and dementia of the frontal lobe type. Hypothesis of a pathogenic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, J P; Favel, P; Rémy, C; Sanabria, E; Bidault, E

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of some dysthymic states towards dementia is now rarely considered whereas it was well known at the beginning of the century. In French the final stage of this evolution was known as "démence vésanique". In recent years it has been noted that a proportion of patients with presenile dementia do not have Alzheimer's disease (AD) but a particular type of cognitive impairment., called dementia of the frontal lobe type (DFT), characterised by clinical and neuropsychological signs of frontal lobe disorder as well as an anterior defect of cerebral perfusion or metabolism. The onset of DFT is insiduous and marked by personality changes and inappropriate affect. It has not yet been reported as starting with true dysthymic disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Ten right handed patients (F/M = 9/1) became dysthymic in their fifties (m = 49.8 + 7.6 yr). All initially met the DSM III-R criteria for mood disorders. They were all treated with the standard drugs or ECT. Although initially responsive all the patients relapsed and their dysthymic disorders became less typical in presentation. At a mean age of 63.6 +/- 2.9 yrs a particular type of dementia became evident. None of the patients had a previous history of mood disorder or a family history of dementia. The demented patients received thorough clinical examinations and 8/10 were tested with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). All had XCT and HMPAO-SPECT scans using a rotating gamma camera. Three patients had a MRI Scan. RESULTS. The main symptoms were apathy and a lack of spontaneity as a result of which the patients were no longer able to live alone. HMPAO-SPECT: All the patients had clear hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes with seven showing a left predominance. XCT: A moderate degree of cortical atrophy, more pronounced in the frontal lobes, was observed in 6 patients. In 3 of them a previous XCT scan had been normal. MRI: Subcortical white matter hyperintensities were seen in the 3

  11. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Luchsinger

    Full Text Available Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing.To compare biathletes (serving as experts and cross-country skiers (novices and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting.EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill.Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01. Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044, but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72.Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.

  12. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment seeking cocaine dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression and smoking

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    Cleo Lina Crunelle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In cocaine-dependent patients, grey matter (GM volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as of trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Score, BIS, smoking, depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right OFC, the left precentral gyrus and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  13. The early argument for prefrontal leucotomy: the collision of frontal lobe theory and psychosurgery at the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Lillian B; Menacho, Sarah T

    2017-09-01

    The pathophysiology of mental illness and its relationship to the frontal lobe were subjects of immense interest in the latter half of the 19th century. Numerous studies emerged during this time on cortical localization and frontal lobe theory, drawing upon various ideas from neurology and psychiatry. Reflecting the intense interest in this region of the brain, the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London hosted a special session on the frontal lobe. Among other presentations, Yale physiologists John Fulton and Carlyle Jacobsen presented a study on frontal lobectomy in primates, and neurologist Richard Brickner presented a case of frontal ablation for olfactory meningioma performed by the Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon Walter Dandy. Both occurrences are said to have influenced Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz (1874-1955) to commence performing leucotomies on patients beginning in late 1935. Here the authors review the relevant events related to frontal lobe theory leading up to the 1935 Neurological Congress as well as the extent of this meeting's role in the genesis of the modern era of psychosurgery.

  14. 鼻内镜下额窦开放术治疗慢性额窦炎%Intranasal frontal sinusotomy under nasal en-doscope for chronic frontal sinusitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈昌德; 王文; 黄静江; 王传喜

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦在治疗慢性额窦炎中的应用方法。方法:总结88例慢性额窦炎在鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦。术前仔细阅读鼻窦CT,了解额窦、额隐窝气房发育及病变情况、钩突附着方式,术中以钩突上端为标志准确定位额窦口,清除阻塞额窦口的病变组织,使额窦引流通畅。结果:88例以钩突上端为标志均成功找到额窦开口。术后随访6~12个月,全部病例症状消失或改善,无术后严重并发症发生。结论:鼻内镜下以钩突上端为标志开放额窦是一种解剖结构易辨认、安全有效的术式,适用于大多数额窦病变。%Objective:To explore the treatment methods for chronic frontal si-nusitis by using the mark access of superior attachment of the uncinate process to the frontal sinus .Methods:Eighty-eight patients with chronic fron-tal sinusitis undergone frontal sinus surgery were included .Before procedure , nasal CT findings were examined in great detail to fully understand the struc-ture and lesion condition of the frontal sinus and frontal recess cell as well as the attachment of the uncinate process .Intranasal frontal sinusotomy was per-formed by referring to the tip attachment of the unicinate process ,with remov-al of the diseased tissues around the aperture of frontal sinus to ensure open frontal sinus drainage .Results:Opening of the frontal sinus was successfully anchored in the total 88 cases by the approaches described above .Postopera-tive follow-up from 6 to 12 months showed that all patients had recovered or had partial relief , and no serious postoperative complications occurred . Conclusion:Intranasal frontal sinusotomy under endoscope starting with the superior attachment of the uncinate process ensures easy recognition of the anatomical characteristics of the frontal sinus and safe procedure ,which may be recommendation in most lesions at

  15. Synchronous changes of cortical thickness and corresponding white matter microstructure during brain development accessed by diffusion MRI tractography from parcellated cortex

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    Tina eJeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical thickness (CT changes during normal brain development is associated with complicated cellular and molecular processes including synaptic pruning and apoptosis. In parallel, the microstructural enhancement of developmental white matter (WM axons with their neuronal bodies in the cerebral cortex has been widely reported with measurements of metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, especially fractional anisotropy (FA. We hypothesized that the changes of CT and microstructural enhancement of corresponding axons are highly interacted during development. DTI and T1-weighted images of 50 healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 7 to 25 years were acquired. With the parcellated cortical gyri transformed from T1-weighted images to DTI space as the tractography seeds, probabilistic tracking was performed to delineate the WM fibers traced from specific parcellated cortical regions. CT was measured at certain cortical regions and FA was measured from the WM fibers traced from same cortical regions. The CT of all frontal cortical gyri, includeing Brodmann areas 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46 and 47, decreased significantly and heterogeneously; concurrently, significant and heterogeneous increases of FA of WM traced from corresponding regions were found. We further revealed significant correlation between the slopes of the CT decrease and the slopes of corresponding WM FA increase in all frontal cortical gyri, suggesting coherent cortical pruning and corresponding WM microstructural enhancement. Such correlation was not found in cortical regions other than frontal cortex. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of these synchronous changes may be associated with overlapping signaling pathways of axonal guidance, synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and more prevalent interstitial neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Revealing the coherence of cortical and WM structural changes during development may open a new window for

  16. Frontal lobe dementia syndrome as a first manifestation of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönstrup, Marlene; Ott, Katja; Glatzel, Markus; Magnus, Tim

    2016-02-01

    This case presents a clinical course of a frontal lobe dysexecutive syndrome with dementia caused by a primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) of exclusively very small vessels. An isolated frontal lobe dementia syndrome as a primary manifestation of PACNS highlights the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease. The patient presented with a progressive cognitive decline with loss of memory, disinhibited behavior, inappropriate affect and frontal release signs. The diagnostic workup essentially revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid and a generalized cortical atrophy without any vascular abnormalities. To grasp a diagnosis for this enigmatic clinical picture of a frontal lobe syndrome with signs of inflammation we targeted a tissue-based diagnosis. A brain biopsy gave the decisive hint towards a microvasculitis. Although the histopathologic picture showed peculiarities, a destruction of the vascular bed of very small vessels by lymphocytic infiltration was evident. Our case illustrates an uncommon clinical picture of a PACNS and points to shortcomings of the current histopathologic criteria if only very small vessels are involved.

  17. Motor Speech Apraxia in a 70-Year-Old Man with Left Dorsolateral Frontal Arachnoid Cyst: A [18F]FDG PET-CT Study

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    Nicolaas I. Bohnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor speech apraxia is a speech disorder of impaired syllable sequencing which, when seen with advancing age, is suggestive of a neurodegenerative process affecting cortical structures in the left frontal lobe. Arachnoid cysts can be associated with neurologic symptoms due to compression of underlying brain structures though indications for surgical intervention are unclear. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a two-year history of speech changes along with decreased initiation and talkativeness, shorter utterances, and dysnomia. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG Positron Emission and Computed Tomography (PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed very focal left frontal cortical hypometabolism immediately adjacent to an arachnoid cyst but no specific evidence of a neurodegenerative process.

  18. Motor Speech Apraxia in a 70-Year-Old Man with Left Dorsolateral Frontal Arachnoid Cyst: A [18F]FDG PET-CT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Jacob; Kluin, Karen; Kotagal, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Motor speech apraxia is a speech disorder of impaired syllable sequencing which, when seen with advancing age, is suggestive of a neurodegenerative process affecting cortical structures in the left frontal lobe. Arachnoid cysts can be associated with neurologic symptoms due to compression of underlying brain structures though indications for surgical intervention are unclear. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a two-year history of speech changes along with decreased initiation and talkativeness, shorter utterances, and dysnomia. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission and Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed very focal left frontal cortical hypometabolism immediately adjacent to an arachnoid cyst but no specific evidence of a neurodegenerative process. PMID:28003922

  19. Treatment of Frontal Hyperhidrosis With Botulinum Toxin

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    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu

    Full Text Available Focal hyperhidrosis is usually localized to the axillae, palms and soles. Less frequently, hyperhidrosis may be confined to the forehead and may have negative impact on patient’s quality of life. A 34-year-old man presented to our clinic with the complaint of frontal hyperhidrosis. He was treated with botulinum toxin A. Thirty points were marked over the forehead and at each injection point, 0.15 ml (3U botulinum toxin A were injected intracutaneously. Hyperhidrosis was significantly reduced and the effect lasted for 12 months. Skindex-29, a quality-of-life measure for skin disease, was administered to the patient at the beginning and at the end of second week of botulinum toxin A injection. There was a significant improvement on the Skindex-29 scale at the end of the treatment. There was no any side effect detected during and after the treatment. Botulinum toxin A treatment is considered to be effective and safe for frontal hyperhidrosis.

  20. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    2012-01-01

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  1. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    2012-01-01

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  2. Cranialization of the frontal sinus-the final remedy for refractory chronic frontal sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Buiter, C. T. Kees; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    Object. Chronic sinusitis can be a debilitating disease with significant impact on quality of life. Frontal sinusitis has a relatively low prevalence, but complications can be severe due to its anatomical location. After failure of conservative measures, typically endoscopic procedures are performed

  3. Motor-language coupling: direct evidence from early Parkinson's disease and intracranial cortical recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Cardona, Juan F; Dos Santos, Yamil Vidal; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Aravena, Pía; Roca, María; Hurtado, Esteban; Nerguizian, Mirna; Amoruso, Lucía; Gómez-Arévalo, Gonzalo; Chade, Anabel; Dubrovsky, Alberto; Gershanik, Oscar; Kochen, Silvia; Glenberg, Arthur; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristán

    2013-04-01

    Language and action systems are functionally coupled in the brain as demonstrated by converging evidence using Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and lesion studies. In particular, this coupling has been demonstrated using the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) in which motor activity and language interact. The ACE task requires participants to listen to sentences that described actions typically performed with an open hand (e.g., clapping), a closed hand (e.g., hammering), or without any hand action (neutral); and to press a large button with either an open hand position or closed hand position immediately upon comprehending each sentence. The ACE is defined as a longer reaction time (RT) in the action-sentence incompatible conditions than in the compatible conditions. Here we investigated direct motor-language coupling in two novel and uniquely informative ways. First, we measured the behavioural ACE in patients with motor impairment (early Parkinson's disease - EPD), and second, in epileptic patients with direct electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings. In experiment 1, EPD participants with preserved general cognitive repertoire, showed a much diminished ACE relative to non-EPD volunteers. Moreover, a correlation between ACE performance and action-verb processing (kissing and dancing test - KDT) was observed. Direct cortical recordings (ECoG) in motor and language areas (experiment 2) demonstrated simultaneous bidirectional effects: motor preparation affected language processing (N400 at left inferior frontal gyrus and middle/superior temporal gyrus), and language processing affected activity in movement-related areas (motor potential at premotor and M1). Our findings show that the ACE paradigm requires ongoing integration of preserved motor and language coupling (abolished in EPD) and engages motor-temporal cortices in a bidirectional way. In addition, both experiments

  4. Cortical Amyloid β Deposition and Current Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.

  5. Dynamics of cortical neuronal ensembles transit from decision making to storage for later report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Nácher, Verónica; Luna, Rogelio; Riehle, Alexa; Romo, Ranulfo

    2012-08-29

    Decisions based on sensory evaluation during single trials may depend on the collective activity of neurons distributed across brain circuits. Previous studies have deepened our understanding of how the activity of individual neurons relates to the formation of a decision and its storage for later report. However, little is known about how decision-making and decision maintenance processes evolve in single trials. We addressed this problem by studying the activity of simultaneously recorded neurons from different somatosensory and frontal lobe cortices of monkeys performing a vibrotactile discrimination task. We used the hidden Markov model to describe the spatiotemporal pattern of activity in single trials as a sequence of firing rate states. We show that the animal's decision was reliably maintained in frontal lobe activity through a selective state sequence, initiated by an abrupt state transition, during which many neurons changed their activity in a concomitant way, and for which both latency and variability depended on task difficulty. Indeed, transitions were more delayed and more variable for difficult trials compared with easy trials. In contrast, state sequences in somatosensory cortices were weakly decision related, had less variable transitions, and were not affected by the difficulty of the task. In summary, our results suggest that the decision process and its subsequent maintenance are dynamically linked by a cascade of transient events in frontal lobe cortices.

  6. Cognitive enhancers versus addictive psychostimulants: The good and bad side of dopamine on prefrontal cortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagno, Veronica; González, Betina; Urbano, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    In this review we describe how highly addictive psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine actions might underlie hypoexcitabilty in frontal cortical areas observed in clinical and preclinical models of psychostimulant abuse. We discuss new mechanisms that describe how increments on synaptic dopamine release are linked to reduce calcium influx in both pre and postsynaptic compartments on medial PFC networks, therefore modulating synaptic integration and information. Sustained DA neuromodulation by addictive psychostimulants can "lock" frontal cortical networks in deficient states. On the other hand, other psychostimulants such as modafinil and methylphenidate are considered pharmacological neuroenhancement agents that are popular among healthy people seeking neuroenhancement. More clinical and preclinical research is needed to further clarify mechanisms of actions and physiological effects of cognitive enhancers which show an opposite pattern compared to chronic effect of addictive psychostimulants: they appear to increase cortical excitability. In conclusion, studies summarized here suggest that there is frontal cortex hypoactivity and deficient inhibitory control in drug-addicted individuals. Thus, additional research on physiological effects of cognitive enhancers like modafinil and methylphenidate seems necessary in order to expand current knowledge on mechanisms behind their therapeutic role in the treatment of addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Cortical areas related to performance of WAIS Digit Symbol Test: a functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Nobuo; Haji, Tomoki; Maruyama, Masakazu; Katsuyama, Narumi; Uchida, Shinya; Hozawa, Atsushi; Omori, Kahoru; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kawashima, Ryuta; Taira, Masato

    2009-09-29

    Many neuropsychological studies have shown that the Digit Symbol Test (DST) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is useful for screening for dysfunctions of the brain. However, it remains unclear which brain areas are actually involved in the performance of DST and what brain functions are used for executing this test. In this study, we examined the cortical areas related to cognitive aspects of DST using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and determined executive brain functions involved in this test on the basis of fMRI results. Eleven healthy young adults (mean=21.6 years) performed a modified DST (mDST) task and its control task, which required a simple graphomotor response during fMRI data acquisition. The direct comparison of brain activations between the mDST task and the control task revealed greater activations in a fronto-parietal cortical network, including the bilateral inferior frontal sulci, left middle frontal gyrus (close to the frontal eye field) and left posterior parietal cortex. These activations are interpreted as reflecting the visual search process and/or the updating process of working memory during the mDST task execution. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the number of correct responses and activations in the bilateral inferior frontal regions, suggesting that these prefrontal areas have a crucial role in the performance of DST in a healthy young adult population.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in Malformations of Cortical Development

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    Widjaja, ED.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, P.D. [Academic Section of Radiolog y, Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Malformations of cortical development vary in neuronal maturity and level of functioning. Purpose: To characterize regional relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and difference in first moment transit time (TTfm) in polymicrogyria and cortical tubers using magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging. Material and Methods: MR imaging and dynamic T2*-weighted MR perfusion imaging were performed in 13 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, 10 with polymicrogyria, and 18 controls with developmental delay but no macroscopic brain abnormality. Regions of interest were placed in cortical tubers or polymicrogyric cortex and in the contralateral normal-appearing side in patients with malformations. In 'control' subjects, regions of interest were placed in the frontal and parietal lobes in both hemispheres. The rCBV and TTfm of the tuber/contralateral side (rCBVRTSC and TTFMTSC) as well as those of the polymicrogyria/contralateral side (rCBVRPMG and TTFMPMG) were assessed. The right-to-left asymmetry of rCBV and TTfm in the control group was also assessed (rCBVRControls and TTFMControls). Results: There was no significant asymmetry between right and left rCBV or TTfm (P>0.05) in controls. There was significant reduction in rCBVRTSC compared to rCBVRControls (P<0.05), but no significant difference in TTFMTSC compared to TTFMControls (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between rCBVRPMG and rCBVRControls (P>0.05) or TTFMPMG and TTFMControls (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings imply that cerebral blood volume of polymicrogyria is similar to normal cortex, but there is reduced cerebral blood volume in cortical tubers. The lower rCBV ratio of cortical tubers may be related to known differences in pathogenetic timing of the underlying abnormalities during brain development or the presence of gliosis.

  9. Cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Y; Kyuhou, S; Matsuzaki, R; Gemba, H

    2001-08-17

    The cerebello-thalamo-posterior parietal cortical projections were investigated electrophysiologically and morphologically in macaque monkeys. In anesthetized monkeys, electrical stimulation of every cerebellar nucleus evoked marked surface-positive, depth-negative (s-P, d-N) cortical field potentials in the superior parietal lobule and the cortical bank of the intraparietal sulcus, but no responses in the inferior parietal lobule. Tract-tracing experiments combining the anterograde method with the retrograde one indicated that the interposed and lateral cerebellar nuclei projected to the posterior parietal cortex mainly through the nucleus ventral lateralis caudalis of the thalamus. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with cognitive functions.

  10. Fragmento de hueso frontal del musteriense de Cueva Horá (Granada, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María HABER URIARTE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia un hueso frontal procedente del nivel III de Cueva Horá (Darro, Granada, ubicada al sureste de la Península Ibérica. Es uno de los yacimientos que, junto a la Cueva de La Carigüela, presenta una larga estratigrafía en la que se puede seguir la evolución de las industrias. El fragmento óseo a analizar se localiza en los niveles superiores del Musteriense, definido como Típico, que refleja una pervivencia musteriense durante el Pleniglacial Superior. No sólo se plantea el estudio antropológico de este fragmento neurocraneal, sino que se analiza el contexto en el que aparece, así como sus implicaciones.

  11. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  12. Evaluating mandibular cortical index quantitatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Fusun; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to assess whether Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity analysis can discriminate patients having different mandibular cortical shape. Panoramic radiographs of 52 patients were evaluated for mandibular cortical index. Weighted Kappa between the observations were varying between 0.718-0.805. These radiographs were scanned and converted to binary images. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity were calculated from the regions where best represents the cortical morphology. It was found that there were statistically significant difference between the Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 1 and Cl 2 (Fractal Dimension P:0.000; Lacunarity P:0.003); and Cl 1 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:0.008; Lacunarity P:0.001); but there was no statistically significant difference between Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 2 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:1.000; Lacunarity P:0.758). FD and L can differentiate Cl 1 mandibular cortical shape from both Cl 2 and Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape but cannot differentiate Cl 2 from Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape on panoramic radiographs.

  13. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Roland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  14. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Suo, X. M.; Zhou, S. S.; Meng, S. Q.; Chen, S. S.; Mu, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI) method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  15. Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eThomas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meditation proficiency is related to trait-like (learned effects on brain function, developed over time. Previous studies show increases in EEG power in lower frequency bands (theta, alpha in experienced meditators in both meditation states and baseline conditions. Higher gamma band power has been found in advanced Buddhist meditators, yet it is not known if this occurs in Yoga meditation practices. This study used eLORETA to compare differences in cortical source activity underlying scalp EEG from intermediate (mean experience 4 years and advanced (mean experience 30 years Australian meditators from the Satyananda Yoga tradition during a body-steadiness meditation, mantra meditation and non-meditation mental calculation condition. Intermediate Yoga meditators showed greater source activity in low frequencies (particularly theta and alpha1 during mental calculation, body-steadiness and mantra meditation. A similar spatial pattern of significant differences was found in all conditions but the number of significant voxels was double during body-steadiness and mantra meditation than in the non-meditation (calculation condition. These differences were greatest in right (R superior frontal and R precentral gyri and extended back to include the R parietal and occipital lobes. Advanced Yoga meditators showed greater activity in high frequencies (beta and especially gamma in all conditions but greatly expanded during meditation practice. Across all conditions (meditation and non-meditation differences were greatest in the same regions; R insula, R inferior frontal gyrus and R anterior temporal lobe. Distinct R core networks were identified in alpha1 (8-10 Hz and gamma (25-42 Hz bands respectively. The voxels recruited to these networks greatly expanded during meditation practice to include homologous regions of the left hemisphere. Functional interpretation parallels traditionally described stages of development in Yoga proficiency.

  16. Pott's Puffy Tumor Arising from Frontal Sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hyun Koo [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Pott's puffy tumor is an extremely rare and potentially life-threatening complication of frontal sinusitis. We report a case of a 64-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with mild tenderness on the glabellar area and diplopia. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Following sinus trephination and long-term antibiotic therapy, the patient achieved a complete recovery.

  17. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  18. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  19. Cortical and spinal assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, I W; Gram, Mikkel; Hansen, T M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standardized objective methods to assess the analgesic effects of opioids, enable identification of underlying mechanisms of drug actions in the central nervous system. Opioids may exert their effect on both cortical and spinal levels. In this study actions of morphine at both levels...... subjects was included in the data analysis. There was no change in the activity in resting EEG (P>0.05) after morphine administration as compared to placebo. During cold pressor stimulation, morphine significantly lowered the relative activity in the delta (1-4Hz) band (P=0.03) and increased the activity...... morphine administration (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor EEG and the nociceptive reflex were more sensitive to morphine analgesia than resting EEG and can be used as standardized objective methods to assess opioid effects. However, no correlation between the analgesic effect of morphine on the spinal...

  20. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Orelvis Pérez Duerto

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco mes...

  1. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  2. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  3. Evaluation and Decision Making in Frontal Sinus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Alok T; Govindaraj, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Management of frontal sinusitis can be challenging for even the most experienced otolaryngologists. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the frontal sinus is essential to properly manage disease affecting the frontal sinus. Being able to distinguish acute viral from acute bacterial and acute from chronic sinusitis is crucial because these distinctions guide appropriate management. Nasal endoscopy can confirm diagnosis, and radiologic imaging, including computed tomography and MRI, is often a necessary adjunct that aids in determining appropriate therapeutic decisions. One must be aware of the many procedures used in the surgical treatment of frontal sinusitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortical and subcortical changes in typically developing preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuler, L Tugan; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Buss, Claudia; Head, Kevin; Hasso, Anton N; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-07-05

    There is evidence that abnormal cerebral development during childhood is a risk factor for various cognitive and psychiatric disorders. There is not, however, sufficient normative data available on large samples of typically developing children, especially within the narrow preadolescent age range. We analyzed high resolution MRI images from 126 normally developing children between ages 6 and 10 years. Age related differences in cortical thickness and in the volumes of major subcortical structures were assessed. Thinner cortices were observed in the occipital, parietal and somatosensory regions as well as in distinct regions of the temporal and frontal lobes with increasing age. Among the major subcortical structures analyzed in this study, only the thalamus showed increased volume with age after accounting for intracranial volume. Within the age range studied age-related cortical and subcortical differences were similar for boys and girls except for the right insula, where girls showed a slight increase in thickness with age. The findings reveal age-associated changes in brain anatomy, providing information about the trajectory of normal brain development during late childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Broadband cortical desynchronization underlies the human psychedelic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Moran, Rosalyn J; Brookes, Matthew J; Williams, Tim M; Errtizoe, David; Sessa, Ben; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Bolstridge, Mark; Singh, Krish D; Feilding, Amanda; Friston, Karl J; Nutt, David J

    2013-09-18

    Psychedelic drugs produce profound changes in consciousness, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Spontaneous and induced oscillatory activity was recorded in healthy human participants with magnetoencephalography after intravenous infusion of psilocybin--prodrug of the nonselective serotonin 2A receptor agonist and classic psychedelic psilocin. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous cortical oscillatory power from 1 to 50 Hz in posterior association cortices, and from 8 to 100 Hz in frontal association cortices. Large decreases in oscillatory power were seen in areas of the default-mode network. Independent component analysis was used to identify a number of resting-state networks, and activity in these was similarly decreased after psilocybin. Psilocybin had no effect on low-level visually induced and motor-induced gamma-band oscillations, suggesting that some basic elements of oscillatory brain activity are relatively preserved during the psychedelic experience. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that posterior cingulate cortex desynchronization can be explained by increased excitability of deep-layer pyramidal neurons, which are known to be rich in 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that the subjective effects of psychedelics result from a desynchronization of ongoing oscillatory rhythms in the cortex, likely triggered by 5-HT2A receptor-mediated excitation of deep pyramidal cells.

  6. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R; Lanfredi, M; Pievani, M; Boccardi, M; Rasser, P E; Thompson, P M; Cavedo, E; Cotelli, M; Rosini, S; Beneduce, R; Bignotti, S; Magni, L R; Rillosi, L; Magnaldi, S; Cobelli, M; Rossi, G; Frisoni, G B

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients' affective, cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38 ± 11; females: 16, 61%). BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (Pmultiple comparisons via permutation testing. BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT, surface area (SA, gray matter volume (GMV, and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1 persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2 remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores, and (3 remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores; and a control group of (4 typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  10. Conserved Sequence Processing in Primate Frontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing. The findings carry implications for the origins of domain-general capacities underlying core language functions in humans. Here, we synthesize this research into a 'ventrodorsal gradient' model, where frontal cortex engagement along this axis depends on sequencing complexity, mapping onto the sequencing capacities of different species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frictionally decaying frontal warm-core eddies

    CERN Document Server

    Rubino, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of nonstationary, nonlinear, axisymmetric, warm-core geophysical surface frontal vortices affected by Rayleigh friction is investigated semi-analytically using the nonlinear, nonstationary reduced-gravity shallow-water equations. In this frame, it is found that vortices characterized by linear distributions of their radial velocity and arbitrary structures of their section and azimuthal velocity can be described exactly by a set of nonstationary, nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The first-order problem (i.e., that describing vortices characterized by a linear azimuthal velocity field and a quadratic section) consists of a system of 4 differential equations, and each further order introduces in the system three additional ordinary differential equations and two algebraic equations. In order to illustrate the behavior of the nonstationary decaying vortices, the system's solution for the first-order and for the second-order problem is then obtained numerically using a Runge-Kutta m...

  12. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  13. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  14. A hierarchy of timescales explains distinct effects of local inhibition of primary visual cortex and frontal eye fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Sale, Martin V; L Gollo, Leonardo; Bell, Peter T; Nguyen, Vinh T; Zalesky, Andrew; Breakspear, Michael; Mattingley, Jason B

    2016-09-06

    Within the primate visual system, areas at lower levels of the cortical hierarchy process basic visual features, whereas those at higher levels, such as the frontal eye fields (FEF), are thought to modulate sensory processes via feedback connections. Despite these functional exchanges during perception, there is little shared activity between early and late visual regions at rest. How interactions emerge between regions encompassing distinct levels of the visual hierarchy remains unknown. Here we combined neuroimaging, non-invasive cortical stimulation and computational modelling to characterize changes in functional interactions across widespread neural networks before and after local inhibition of primary visual cortex or FEF. We found that stimulation of early visual cortex selectively increased feedforward interactions with FEF and extrastriate visual areas, whereas identical stimulation of the FEF decreased feedback interactions with early visual areas. Computational modelling suggests that these opposing effects reflect a fast-slow timescale hierarchy from sensory to association areas.

  15. Relationship of frontal D2/3 binding potentials to cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D2 receptors in striatal areas or on D1 receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective...... was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D2/3 receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case-control study using...... single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D2/3-receptor ligand [123I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls matched...

  16. Visual masking with frontally applied pre-stimulus TMS and its subject-specific neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutiku, Renate; Tulver, Kadi; Aru, Jaan; Bachmann, Talis

    2016-07-01

    The visibility of a visual target stimulus depends on the local state of the early visual cortex shortly before the stimulus itself is presented. This view is supported by the observation that occipitally applied pre-stimulus TMS can disrupt subsequent information processing leading to visual masking effects. According to another line of accumulating evidence, however, global pre-stimulus connectivity patterns could be as crucial as local cortical states. In line with the latter view we show that pre-stimulus masking occurs even if TMS is directed to the frontal cortex. Importantly, the individual extent of this effect is strongly correlated with the subject-specific peak latency of a late positive TMS-evoked potential. Our results thus suggest a third type of masking occurring neither through direct interaction with visual areas nor by a modal visual masking input. Our results also shed light on the inter-individual differences in TMS research in general.

  17. Quantificação da ação do músculo frontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz José Ribamar Souza da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a ação do músculo frontal. MÉTODOS: A ação do músculo frontal foi quantificada por meio da medida da mobilidade do supercílio em 81 sujeitos normais, divididos, segundo a faixa etária, em três grupos: crianças com idades entre 6 e 12 anos (n = 20, adultos com idades entre 20 e 38 anos (n = 33 e idosos com idades entre 60 e 80 anos (n = 28. As medidas foram realizadas com o processamento digital de imagem. Obteve-se uma imagem da face do sujeito com o frontal em repouso e outra com contração voluntária da fronte. Como índice de ação frontal foi tomada a excursão do supercílio na parte média da fenda palpebral. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios da excursão superior do supercílio variaram, de acordo com o grupo etário, de 7,57 a 9,02 mm. Apesar de nítida tendência de aumento da mobilidade com a idade, as diferenças entre os três grupos não foram significativas. CONCLUSÕES: A magnitude da excursão da porção central do supercílio independe da idade.

  18. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under “Cocktail-Party” Listening Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated “cocktail-party” listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the “cocktail-party” listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process. PMID:28239344

  19. Topography of Cortical Microbleeds in Alzheimer's Disease with and without Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Post-Mortem 7.0-Tesla MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reuck, J; Auger, F; Durieux, N; Deramecourt, V; Cordonnier, C; Pasquier, F; Maurage, C A; Leys, D; Bordet, R

    2015-11-01

    Cortical microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered as a possible hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI study investigates whether topographic differences exist in Alzheimer's brains without (AD) and with CAA (AD-CAA). The distribution of CMBs in thirty-two post-mortem brains, consisting of 12 AD, 8 AD-CAA and 12 controls, was mutually compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean numbers of CMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. As a whole there was a trend of more CMBs on GRE MRI in the prefrontal section of the AD, the AD-CAA as well as of the control brains. Compared to controls AD brains had significantly more CMBs in the superior frontal, the inferior temporal, the rectus and the cinguli gyrus, and in the insular cortex. In AD-CAA brains CMBs were increased in all gyri with exception of the medial parietal gyrus and the hippocampus. AD-CAA brains showed a highly significant increase of CMBs in the inferior parietal gyrus (p value: 0.001) and a significant increase in the precuneus and the cuneus (p value: 0.01) compared to the AD brains. The differences in topographic distribution of CMBs between AD and AD-CAA brains should be further investigated on MRI in clinically suspected patients.

  20. Coherent delta-band oscillations between cortical areas correlate with decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher, Verónica; Ledberg, Anders; Deco, Gustavo; Romo, Ranulfo

    2013-01-01

    Coherent oscillations in the theta-to-gamma frequency range have been proposed as a mechanism that coordinates neural activity in large-scale cortical networks in sensory, motor, and cognitive tasks. Whether this mechanism also involves coherent oscillations at delta frequencies (1–4 Hz) is not known. Rather, delta oscillations have been associated with slow-wave sleep. Here, we show coherent oscillations in the delta frequency band between parietal and frontal cortices during the decision-making component of a somatosensory discrimination task. Importantly, the magnitude of this delta-band coherence is modulated by the different decision alternatives. Furthermore, during control conditions not requiring decision making, delta-band coherences are typically much reduced. Our work indicates an important role for synchronous activity in the delta frequency band when large-scale, distant cortical networks coordinate their neural activity during decision making. PMID:23980180

  1. Coherent delta-band oscillations between cortical areas correlate with decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher, Verónica; Ledberg, Anders; Deco, Gustavo; Romo, Ranulfo

    2013-09-10

    Coherent oscillations in the theta-to-gamma frequency range have been proposed as a mechanism that coordinates neural activity in large-scale cortical networks in sensory, motor, and cognitive tasks. Whether this mechanism also involves coherent oscillations at delta frequencies (1-4 Hz) is not known. Rather, delta oscillations have been associated with slow-wave sleep. Here, we show coherent oscillations in the delta frequency band between parietal and frontal cortices during the decision-making component of a somatosensory discrimination task. Importantly, the magnitude of this delta-band coherence is modulated by the different decision alternatives. Furthermore, during control conditions not requiring decision making, delta-band coherences are typically much reduced. Our work indicates an important role for synchronous activity in the delta frequency band when large-scale, distant cortical networks coordinate their neural activity during decision making.

  2. Detection of viable cortical neurons using benzodiazepine receptor imaging after reversible focal ischaemia in rats: comparison with regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Nakano, Takayuki; Yutani, Kenji; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Div. of Tracer Kinetics, Osaka University Medical School (Japan); Kusuoka, Hideo [Clinical Research Institute, Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Nakamura, Hironobu [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    To elucidate the utility of benzodiazepine receptor imaging for the detection of viable cortical neurons, dual-tracer autoradiography using iodine-125 iomazenil (IMZ) and iodine-123 N-isopropyl-4-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed in a model of reversible focal ischaemia during the acute and subacute phases. The right middle cerebral artery of anaesthetized rats was occluded for 60 min using an intraluminal filament and reperfused. In the acute phase study, {sup 125}I-IMZ (370 kBq) was injected via the femoral vein at 2 h after reperfusion, and {sup 123}I-IMP (37 MBq) was injected at 50 min post-injection. Rats were sacrificed 10 min after the injection of {sup 123}I-IMP. In the subacute phase study, the same procedure was performed at 5 days after reperfusion. In the acute phase, the IMP uptake was significantly decreased in almost all areas of the lesioned hemisphere, an exception being the cerebellum; however, the IMZ uptake was significantly decreased only in ischaemic cores. The discrepancy between IMZ and IMP uptake was observed in the lateral neocortex and the lateral caudate putamen (CPu), which were most frequently damaged in this ischaemic model. In the subacute phase, the IMZ uptake in lesioned rats was significantly decreased only in the parietal lobe and hippocampus, though the IMP uptake was decreased in many regions of lesioned hemispheres (the frontal, parietal cortex, CPu, hippocampus and thalamus). Histopathological findings indicated that both the IMP and the IMZ uptake was markedly decreased in necrotic areas. Although the IMP uptake was significantly decreased in the ischaemic areas, the IMZ uptake was maintained in these areas. These results suggest that benzodiazepine receptor imaging is superior to regional cerebral blood flow imaging for the detection of viable cortical neurons in both the acute and subacute phases of ischaemia. (orig.)

  3. Cortical Network Dynamics of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eSiegel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed behavior requires the flexible transformation of sensory evidence about our environment into motor actions. Studies of perceptual decision-making have shown that this transformation is distributed across several widely separated brain regions. Yet, little is known about how decision-making emerges from the dynamic interactions among these regions. Here, we review a series of studies, in which we characterized the cortical network interactions underlying a perceptual decision process in the human brain. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure the large-scale cortical population dynamics underlying each of the sub-processes involved in this decision: the encoding of sensory evidence and action plan, the mapping between the two, and the attentional selection of task-relevant evidence. We found that these sub-processes are mediated by neuronal oscillations within specific frequency ranges. Localized gamma-band oscillations in sensory and motor cortices reflect the encoding of the sensory evidence and motor plan. Large-scale oscillations across widespread cortical networks mediate the integrative processes connecting these local networks: Gamma- and beta-band oscillations across frontal, parietal and sensory cortices serve the selection of relevant sensory evidence and its flexible mapping onto action plans. In sum, our results suggest that perceptual decisions are mediated by oscillatory interactions within overlapping local and large-scale cortical networks.

  4. Adolescent brain maturation and cortical folding: evidence for reductions in gyrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klein

    Full Text Available Evidence from anatomical and functional imaging studies have highlighted major modifications of cortical circuits during adolescence. These include reductions of gray matter (GM, increases in the myelination of cortico-cortical connections and changes in the architecture of large-scale cortical networks. It is currently unclear, however, how the ongoing developmental processes impact upon the folding of the cerebral cortex and how changes in gyrification relate to maturation of GM/WM-volume, thickness and surface area. In the current study, we acquired high-resolution (3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data from 79 healthy subjects (34 males and 45 females between the ages of 12 and 23 years and performed whole brain analysis of cortical folding patterns with the gyrification index (GI. In addition to GI-values, we obtained estimates of cortical thickness, surface area, GM and white matter (WM volume which permitted correlations with changes in gyrification. Our data show pronounced and widespread reductions in GI-values during adolescence in several cortical regions which include precentral, temporal and frontal areas. Decreases in gyrification overlap only partially with changes in the thickness, volume and surface of GM and were characterized overall by a linear developmental trajectory. Our data suggest that the observed reductions in GI-values represent an additional, important modification of the cerebral cortex during late brain maturation which may be related to cognitive development.

  5. High-expanding cortical regions in human development and evolution are related to higher intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Westlye, Lars T; Amlien, Inge; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Engvig, Andreas; Espeseth, Thomas; Reinvang, Ivar; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2015-01-01

    Cortical surface area has tremendously expanded during human evolution, and similar patterns of cortical expansion have been observed during childhood development. An intriguing hypothesis is that the high-expanding cortical regions also show the strongest correlations with intellectual function in humans. However, we do not know how the regional distribution of correlations between intellectual function and cortical area maps onto expansion in development and evolution. Here, in a sample of 1048 participants, we show that regions in which cortical area correlates with visuospatial reasoning abilities are generally high expanding in both development and evolution. Several regions in the frontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate, showed high expansion in both development and evolution. The area of these regions was related to intellectual functions in humans. Low-expanding areas were not related to cognitive scores. These findings suggest that cortical regions involved in higher intellectual functions have expanded the most during development and evolution. The radial unit hypothesis provides a common framework for interpretation of the findings in the context of evolution and prenatal development, while additional cellular mechanisms, such as synaptogenesis, gliogenesis, dendritic arborization, and intracortical myelination, likely impact area expansion in later childhood.

  6. Distinct roles of left inferior frontal regions that explain individual differences in second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kuniyoshi L; Nauchi, Arihito; Tatsuno, Yoshinori; Hirano, Kazuyoshi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Kimura, Masakazu; Bostwick, Mike; Yusa, Noriaki

    2009-08-01

    Second language (L2) acquisition is more susceptible to environmental and idiosyncratic factors than first language acquisition. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging for L2 learners of different ages of first exposure (mean: 12.6 and 5.6 years) in a formal school environment, and compared the cortical activations involved in processing English sentences containing either syntactic or spelling errors, where the testing ages and task performances of both groups were matched. We found novel activation patterns in two regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) that correlated differentially with the performances of the late and early learners. Specifically, activations of the dorsal and ventral triangular part (F3t) of the left IFG correlated positively with the accuracy of the syntactic task for the late learners, whereas activations of the left ventral F3t correlated negatively with the accuracy for the early learners. In contrast, other cortical regions exhibited differential correlation patterns with the reaction times (RTs) of the syntactic task. Namely, activations of the orbital part (F3O) of the left IFG, as well as those of the left angular gyrus, correlated positively with the RTs for the late learners, whereas those activations correlated negatively with the RTs for the early learners. Moreover, the task-selective activation of the left F3O was maintained for both the late and early learners. These results explain individual differences in L2 acquisition, such that the acquisition of linguistic knowledge in L2 is subserved by at least two distinct inferior frontal regions of the left F3t and F3O.

  7. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta [San Raffaele Foundation Rome, Rehabilitation Facility Ceglie Messapica, Rome (Italy); Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Education and Human Sciences, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga [University Sapienza, NESMOS, Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiararelli, Laura [University Sapienza, Department of Medical Physics, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Iani, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Communication and Economy, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Albertini, Giorgio [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Paediatrics, Rome (Italy); Pierallini, Alberto [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  8. Aplicaciones médico-quirúrgicas de la anatomía ósea del seno frontal en relación al trauma cráneo facial

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, S.; Micheloud, M.; Ferreiro, P.; Viscuso, M.; Scarpinelli, Liliana; Mayo, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Los senos frontales son dos cavidades en forma de pirámide triangular, de vértice superior y base inferior, a cada lado de la línea media y excavados en el espesor de este hueso. La anatomía y morfología de los senos frontales se utiliza desde hace años en la medicina forense para la identificación de cadáveres dada su gran versatilidad. En lo que respecta a la cirugía maxilofacial es de suma importancia la presencia de megasenos frontales en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de fracturas hundimie...

  9. Are frontal cognitive and atrophy patterns different in PSP and bvFTD? A comparative neuropsychological and VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lagarde

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD are two clinicohistological entities that share a severe prefrontal syndrome. To what extent do the cognitive syndrome and the location of the underlying brain atrophy unify or segregate these entities? Here, we examined the clinical and radiological patterns of frontal involvement and the neural bases of the cognitive dysfunctions observed in the Richardson form of PSP and the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD. The cognitive profile and grey and white matter volume of PSP (n = 19 and bvFTD (n = 16 patients and control participants (n = 18 were compared using a standard battery of neuropsychological tests and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, respectively. Analyses of correlations between neuropsychological and morphometric data were additionally performed. The severity and qualitative pattern of cognitive dysfunction was globally similar between the two patient groups. Grey matter volume was decreased in widespread frontal areas and in the temporal uncus in bvFTD, while it was decreased in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the thalamus in PSP. We also found an unexpected involvement of the frontal rectal gyrus in PSP patients compared to controls. Correlation analyses yielded different results in the two groups, with no area showing significant correlations in PSP patients, while several frontal and some temporal areas did so in bvFTD patients. In spite of minor neuropsychological and morphological differences, this study shows that the patterns of cognitive dysfunction and atrophy are very similar in PSP and bvFTD. However, executive dysfunction in these diseases may stem from partially divergent cortical and subcortical neural circuits.

  10. Are frontal cognitive and atrophy patterns different in PSP and bvFTD? A comparative neuropsychological and VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Valabrègue, Romain; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Pineau, Fanny; Le Ber, Isabelle; Vidailhet, Marie; Dubois, Bruno; Levy, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD) are two clinicohistological entities that share a severe prefrontal syndrome. To what extent do the cognitive syndrome and the location of the underlying brain atrophy unify or segregate these entities? Here, we examined the clinical and radiological patterns of frontal involvement and the neural bases of the cognitive dysfunctions observed in the Richardson form of PSP and the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD). The cognitive profile and grey and white matter volume of PSP (n = 19) and bvFTD (n = 16) patients and control participants (n = 18) were compared using a standard battery of neuropsychological tests and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), respectively. Analyses of correlations between neuropsychological and morphometric data were additionally performed. The severity and qualitative pattern of cognitive dysfunction was globally similar between the two patient groups. Grey matter volume was decreased in widespread frontal areas and in the temporal uncus in bvFTD, while it was decreased in the frontal and temporal lobes as well as in the thalamus in PSP. We also found an unexpected involvement of the frontal rectal gyrus in PSP patients compared to controls. Correlation analyses yielded different results in the two groups, with no area showing significant correlations in PSP patients, while several frontal and some temporal areas did so in bvFTD patients. In spite of minor neuropsychological and morphological differences, this study shows that the patterns of cognitive dysfunction and atrophy are very similar in PSP and bvFTD. However, executive dysfunction in these diseases may stem from partially divergent cortical and subcortical neural circuits.

  11. Frontal oscillatory dynamics predict feedback learning and action adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, I. van de; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Cohen, M.X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation ta

  12. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained durin

  13. Frontal Oscillatory Dynamics Predict Feedback Learning and Action Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Cohen, Michael X.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal oscillatory dynamics in the theta (4-8 Hz) and beta (20-30 Hz) frequency bands have been implicated in cognitive control processes. Here we investigated the changes in coordinated activity within and between frontal brain areas during feedback-based response learning. In a time estimation task, participants learned to press a button after…

  14. Is the Frontal Assessment Battery reliable in ALS patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raaphorst; E. Beeldman; B. Jaeger; B. Schmand; L.H. van den Berg; J.G. Weikamp; H.J. Schelhaas; M. de Visser; R.J. de Haan

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frontal functions in ALS patients is important because of the overlap with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We investigated the applicability and reliability of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) within a cohort of predominantly prevalent ALS patients.

  15. UNIFIED THEORETICAL MOMENT EXPRESSIONS FOR ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FRONTAL CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGengliang; TAOZuyi

    1992-01-01

    The unified theoretical moment expressions for elution chromatography and frontal chromatography when the sorption process is described by a linear model were derived. The moment expressions derived by previous authors can be obtained from these unified theoretical moment expressions. In this paper, a mathematical analysis has been carried out so as to set up a unified theoretical basis for elution and frontal chromatography.

  16. Non-frontal model based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance vie

  17. An orbital fistula complicating anaerobic frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.J.F. Peeters; G.M. Bleeker

    1982-01-01

    textabstractA patient is described with an orbital fistula complicating frontal sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. The fistula was excised, but a fortnight later an acute exacerbation occurred. From the discharging pus a Staphylococcus aureus was cultured and from mucosa obtained durin

  18. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Kumar, A; Ghosal, S

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. was assessed on rat brain frontal cortical, striatal and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, following administration for 7, 14 or 21 days. The effects induced by this extract (bacoside A content 82% +/- 0.5%), administered in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, orally, were compared with the effects induced by (-) deprenyl (2 mg/kg, p. o.) administered for the same time periods. Bacopa monniera (BM) induced a dose-related increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities, in all the brain regions investigated, after 14 and 21 days of drug administration. On the contrary, deprenyl induced an increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the frontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus, after treatment for 14 or 21 days. The results suggest that BM, like deprenyl, exhibits a significant antioxidant effect after subchronic administration which, unlike the latter, extends to the hippocampus as well. The results suggest that the increase in oxidative free radical scavenging activity by BM may explain, at least in part, the cognition- facilitating action of BM, recorded in Ayurvedic texts, and demonstrated experimentally and clinically.

  19. Association of ideomotor apraxia with frontal gray matter volume loss in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Edward D; Pardini, Matteo; Cavanagh, Alyson; Wassermann, Eric M; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Spina, Salvatore; Ghetti, Bernardino; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-10-01

    To determine the brain areas associated with specific components of ideomotor apraxia (IMA) in corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Case-control and cross-sectional study. Forty-eight patients with CBS and 14 control subjects. Intervention Administration of the Test of Oral and Limb Apraxia. Differences between patients with CBS and healthy controls and associations between areas of gray matter volume and IMA determined by voxel-based morphometry in patients with CBS. Overall, IMA was associated with decreased gray matter volume in the left supplemental motor area, premotor cortex, and caudate nucleus of patients with CBS. The overall degree of apraxia was independent of the side of motor impairment. Praxis to imitation (vs command) was particularly impaired in the patients with CBS. Patients demonstrated equal impairment in transitive and intransitive praxis. In patients with CBS, IMA is associated with left posterior frontal cortical and subcortical volume loss. Despite showing left frontal volume loss associated with IMA, patients with CBS have particularly impaired imitation of gestures. These findings suggest either that the IMA of CBS affects a route of praxis that bypasses motor engrams or that motor engrams are affected but that they exist in areas other than the inferior parietal cortex.

  20. Distinct frontal and amygdala correlates of change detection for facial identity and expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibou, Amal; Loth, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of ‘top-down’ frontal attentional mechanisms is held to support detection of changes in task-relevant stimuli. Fluctuations in intrinsic frontal activity have been shown to impact task performance more generally. Meanwhile, the amygdala has been implicated in ‘bottom-up’ attentional capture by threat. Here, 22 adult human participants took part in a functional magnetic resonance change detection study aimed at investigating the correlates of successful (vs failed) detection of changes in facial identity vs expression. For identity changes, we expected prefrontal recruitment to differentiate ‘hit’ from ‘miss’ trials, in line with previous reports. Meanwhile, we postulated that a different mechanism would support detection of emotionally salient changes. Specifically, elevated amygdala activation was predicted to be associated with successful detection of threat-related changes in expression, over-riding the influence of fluctuations in top-down attention. Our findings revealed that fusiform activity tracked change detection across conditions. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortical activity was uniquely linked to detection of changes in identity not expression, and amygdala activity to detection of changes from neutral to fearful expressions. These results are consistent with distinct mechanisms supporting detection of changes in face identity vs expression, the former potentially reflecting top-down attention, the latter bottom-up attentional capture by stimulus emotional salience. PMID:26245835

  1. Distinct frontal and amygdala correlates of change detection for facial identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibou, Amal; Loth, Eva; Bishop, Sonia J

    2016-02-01

    Recruitment of 'top-down' frontal attentional mechanisms is held to support detection of changes in task-relevant stimuli. Fluctuations in intrinsic frontal activity have been shown to impact task performance more generally. Meanwhile, the amygdala has been implicated in 'bottom-up' attentional capture by threat. Here, 22 adult human participants took part in a functional magnetic resonance change detection study aimed at investigating the correlates of successful (vs failed) detection of changes in facial identity vs expression. For identity changes, we expected prefrontal recruitment to differentiate 'hit' from 'miss' trials, in line with previous reports. Meanwhile, we postulated that a different mechanism would support detection of emotionally salient changes. Specifically, elevated amygdala activation was predicted to be associated with successful detection of threat-related changes in expression, over-riding the influence of fluctuations in top-down attention. Our findings revealed that fusiform activity tracked change detection across conditions. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortical activity was uniquely linked to detection of changes in identity not expression, and amygdala activity to detection of changes from neutral to fearful expressions. These results are consistent with distinct mechanisms supporting detection of changes in face identity vs expression, the former potentially reflecting top-down attention, the latter bottom-up attentional capture by stimulus emotional salience.

  2. Rib Geometry Explains Variation in Dynamic Structural Response: Potential Implications for Frontal Impact Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Michelle M; Kang, Yun-Seok; Goldman, Samuel D; Schafman, Michelle A; Schlecht, Stephen H; Moorhouse, Kevin; Bolte, John H; Agnew, Amanda M

    2017-05-25

    The human thorax is commonly injured in motor vehicle crashes, and despite advancements in occupant safety rib fractures are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to quantify the ability of gross and cross-sectional geometry, separately and in combination, to explain variation of human rib structural properties. One hundred and twenty-two whole mid-level ribs from 76 fresh post-mortem human subjects were tested in a dynamic frontal impact scenario. Structural properties (peak force and stiffness) were successfully predicted (p geometry obtained via direct histological imaging (total area, cortical area, and section modulus) and were improved further when utilizing a combination of cross-sectional and gross geometry (robusticity, whole bone strength index). Additionally, preliminary application of a novel, adaptive thresholding technique, allowed for total area and robusticity to be measured on a subsample of standard clinical CT scans with varied success. These results can be used to understand variation in individual rib response to frontal loading as well as identify important geometric parameters, which could ultimately improve injury criteria as well as the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element (FE) models of the human thorax.

  3. Parietal and Frontal Cortex Encode Stimulus-Specific Mnemonic Representations during Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F; Sprague, Thomas C; Serences, John T

    2015-08-19

    Working memory (WM) enables the storage and manipulation of information in an active state. WM storage has long been associated with sustained increases in activation across a network of frontal and parietal cortical regions. However, recent evidence suggests that these regions primarily encode information related to general task goals rather than feature-selective representations of specific memoranda. These goal-related representations are thought to provide top-down feedback that coordinates the representation of fine-grained details in early sensory areas. Here, we test this model using fMRI-based reconstructions of remembered visual details from region-level activation patterns. We could reconstruct high-fidelity representations of a remembered orientation based on activation patterns in occipital visual cortex and in several sub-regions of frontal and parietal cortex, independent of sustained increases in mean activation. These results challenge models of WM that postulate disjoint frontoparietal "top-down control" and posterior sensory "feature storage" networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patients with Poor Response to Antipsychotics Have a More Severe Pattern of Frontal Atrophy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Treatment Resistance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Quarantelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  5. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  6. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  7. Frontal Cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul Natinal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    Cardiac mensuration by radiographic frontal cardiac area method was carried out on 21 patent ductus arteriosus patients, 15 females and 6 males. Formula used in this study is as follows. Frontal cardiac area = {pi}/4 X long diameter X broad diameter. Increase of frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients seems to be evident but the degree of the cardiomegaly is variable. Comparing to normal data by Choo and Kim, frontal cardiac area in patent ductus arteriosus patients in this series is increased in 15.9% to 98.1%. After surgical ligation of the ductus arteriosus, significant decrease of the frontal cardiac area is observed and the average is 12.5%.

  8. [The superior laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Nachbaur, S; Fischer, K; Vogel, E

    1987-01-01

    Length, diameter and anastomoses of the nervus vagus and its ganglion inferius were measured 44 halved heads. On the average, 8.65 fiber bundles of the vagus nerve leave the retro-olivary area. In the area of the jugular foramen is the near superior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve. In this area were found 1.48 (mean value) anastomoses with the 9th cranial nerve. 11.34 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea branches off the ramus internus of the accessory nerve which has a length of 9.75 mm. Further anastomoses with the 10th cranial nerve were found. The inferior ganglion of the 10th nerve had a length of 25.47 mm and a diameter of 3.46 mm. Five mm below the ganglion the 10th nerve had a width of 2.9 and a thickness of 1.5 mm. The mean length of the superior sympathetic ganglion was 26.6 mm, its width 7.2 and its thickness 3.4 mm. In nearly all specimens anastomoses of the superior sympathetic ganglion with the ansa cervicalis profunda and the inferior ganglion of the 10th cranial nerve were found. The superior laryngeal nerve branches off about 36 mm below the margo terminalis sigmoidea. The width of this nerve was 1.9 mm, its thickness 0.8 mm on the right and 1.0 mm on the left side. The division in the internal and external rami was found about 21 mm below its origin. Between the n. vagus and thyreohyoid membrane the ramus internus had a length of 64 mm, the length of external ramus between the vagal nerve and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle was 89 mm. Its mean length below the thyreopharyngeal part was 10.7 mm, 8.6 branchlets to the cricothyroid muscle were counted. The superior laryngeal artery had its origin in 80% of cases in the superior thyroideal artery, in 6.8% this vessel was a branch of the external carotid artery. Its average outer diameter was 1.23 mm on the right side and 1.39 mm on the left. The length of this vessel between its origin and the thyreohyoid membrane was 34 mm. In 7% on the right side and in 13% on the left, the superior

  9. Analysis of Cortical Flow Models In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benink, Hélène A.; Mandato, Craig A.; Bement, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Cortical flow, the directed movement of cortical F-actin and cortical organelles, is a basic cellular motility process. Microtubules are thought to somehow direct cortical flow, but whether they do so by stimulating or inhibiting contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is the subject of debate. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) triggers cortical flow toward the animal pole of the oocyte; this flow is suppressed by microtubules. To determine how this suppression occurs and whether it can control the direction of cortical flow, oocytes were subjected to localized manipulation of either the contractile stimulus (PMA) or microtubules. Localized PMA application resulted in redirection of cortical flow toward the site of application, as judged by movement of cortical pigment granules, cortical F-actin, and cortical myosin-2A. Such redirected flow was accelerated by microtubule depolymerization, showing that the suppression of cortical flow by microtubules is independent of the direction of flow. Direct observation of cortical F-actin by time-lapse confocal analysis in combination with photobleaching showed that cortical flow is driven by contraction of the cortical F-actin network and that microtubules suppress this contraction. The oocyte germinal vesicle serves as a microtubule organizing center in Xenopus oocytes; experimental displacement of the germinal vesicle toward the animal pole resulted in localized flow away from the animal pole. The results show that 1) cortical flow is directed toward areas of localized contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; 2) microtubules suppress cortical flow by inhibiting contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; and 3) localized, microtubule-dependent suppression of actomyosin-based contraction can control the direction of cortical flow. We discuss these findings in light of current models of cortical flow. PMID:10930453

  10. Focal laminar cortical infarcts following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, Stefan; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Zanella, Friedhelm [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Vatter, Hartmut; Beck, Juergen; Raabe, Andreas; Seifert, Volker [University of Frankfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this prospective study was to analyse small band-like cortical infarcts after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with reference to additional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In a 5-year period between January 2002 and January 2007 10 out of 188 patients with aneurysmal SAH were evaluated (one patient Hunt and Hess grade I, one patient grade II, four patients grade III, two patients grade IV, and two patients grade V). The imaging protocol included serially performed MRI with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted images (DWI/PWI) at three time points after aneurysm treatment, and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) was analysed on follow-up DSA on day 7{+-}3 after SAH. The lesions were located in the frontal lobe (n=10), in the insular cortex (n=3) and in the parietal lobe (n=1). The band-like infarcts occurred after a mean time interval of 5.8 days (range 3-10 days) and showed unexceptional adjacent thick sulcal clots. Seven out of ten patients with cortical infarcts had no or mild CVS, and in the remaining three patients DSA disclosed moderate (n=2) or severe (n=1) CVS. The infarct pattern after aneurysmal SAH includes cortical band-like lesions. In contrast to territorial infarcts or lacunar infarcts in the white matter which develop as a result of moderate or severe proximal and/or distal vasospasm visible on angiography, the cortical band-like lesions adjacent to sulcal clots may also develop without evidence of macroscopic vasospasm, implying a vasospastic reaction of the most distal superficial and intraparenchymal vessels. (orig.)

  11. Trauma of the Frontal Region Is Influenced by the Volume of Frontal Sinuses. A Finite Element Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbislav S. Pajic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses. By modifying the reference model, three additional models were generated: a model without sinuses, with hypoplasic, and with hyperplasic sinuses. A 7.7 kN force was applied perpendicularly to the forehead of each model, in order to simulate a frontal impact. The results demonstrated that the distribution of impact stress in frontal region depends on the frontal sinus volume. The anterior sinus wall showed the highest fragility in case with hyperplasic sinuses, whereas posterior wall/inner plate showed more fragility in cases with hypoplasic and undeveloped sinuses. Well-developed frontal sinuses might, through absorption of the impact energy by anterior wall, protect the posterior wall and intracranial contents.

  12. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-04-30

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implied Motion Activation in Cortical Area MT Can Be Explained by Visual Low-level Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Barraclough, Nick E.; Jellema, Tjeerd; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Xiao, Dengke; Oram, Mike W.; Lankheet, Martin J.M.; Perrett, David I.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    To investigate form-related activity in motion-sensitive cortical areas, we recorded cell responses to animate implied motion in macaque middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) cortex and investigated these areas using fMRI in humans. In the single-cell studies, we compared responses

  14. Greater Left Inferior Frontal Activation for SVO than VOS during Sentence Comprehension in Kaqchikel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho

    2016-01-01

    Cortical activations during the processing of Kaqchikel transitive sentences with canonical and non-canonical word orders were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Kaqchikel is an endangered Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. The word order in this language is relatively flexible. We observed higher cortical activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus for sentences with the subject-verb-object (SVO) word order, as compared to sentences with the verb-object-subject (VOS) word order, suggesting that Kaqchikel sentences are easier to process when they have the VOS order than when they have the SVO order. This supports the traditional analysis of Mayan word order: the syntactically simplest word order of transitive sentences in Mayan languages, including Kaqchikel, is VOS. More importantly, the results revealed that the subject-before-object word order preference in sentence comprehension, previously observed in other languages, might not reflect a universal aspect of human languages. Rather, processing preference may be language-specific to some extent, reflecting syntactic differences in individual languages. PMID:27790165

  15. Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG activity and mediumship: a comparative study between spiritist mediums and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Vinhosa Bastos Jr.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mediumship and spirit possession are cultural phenomena found worldwide. The Spiritism, popular in Brazil, is a religious tradition that emphasizes mediumship. The “absorption hypothesis” (the association of marked increases in focused attention with concomitant decreases in self-awareness is one of the neuropsychological explanatory theories for these experiences. We measured electroencephalographic (EEG spectral power in frontal electrodes within theta, alpha and beta bandwidths, as well as cross-regional cortical coherences, in female Spiritist experienced mediums (n = 10 and in female non-medium control subjects from the same religious context (n = 10. Scalp EEG signals were captured simultaneously from participants in each of the two groups in three different moments: before, during and immediately after mediumistically speaking. Compared to non-medium controls, the mediums had greater beta power on some electrodes in all phases of the experiment, greater theta power on one electrode at the communication phase and greater alpha power on one electrode at the post-communication phase. No condition effects (within-group comparisons were detected in any group. No group effects were noted for cross regional cortical coherences. No ictal EEG pattern was observed, except for one participant in the mediums group. These findings support the hypothesis that absorption could have a mechanistic role in anomalous sensorial experiences such as mediumship. The coherence pattern in mediums during the anomalous experience differed from prior studies on pathological dissociation and on hypnotic states. Cognitive control processes seem to be engaged during the anomalous sensorial experiences.

  16. What are Millian Qualitative S