WorldWideScience

Sample records for superior electrical performance

  1. Realization of Quasi-Omnidirectional Solar Cells with Superior Electrical Performance by All-Solution-Processed Si Nanopyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Tan, Miao; Zhuang, Yufeng; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale (156 mm × 156 mm) quasi-omnidirectional solar cells are successfully realized and featured by keeping high cell performance over broad incident angles (θ), via employing Si nanopyramids (SiNPs) as surface texture. SiNPs are produced by the proposed metal-assisted alkaline etching method, which is an all-solution-processed method and highly simple together with cost-effective. Interestingly, compared to the conventional Si micropyramids (SiMPs)-textured solar cells, the SiNPs-textured solar cells possess lower carrier recombination and thus superior electrical performances, showing notable distinctions from other Si nanostructures-textured solar cells. Furthermore, SiNPs-textured solar cells have very little drop of quantum efficiency with increasing θ, demonstrating the quasi-omnidirectional characteristic. As an overall result, both the SiNPs-textured homojunction and heterojunction solar cells possess higher daily electric energy production with a maximum relative enhancement approaching 2.5%, when compared to their SiMPs-textured counterparts. The quasi-omnidirectional solar cell opens a new opportunity for photovoltaics to produce more electric energy with a low cost.

  2. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  3. Electrical Microstimulation of the Superior Colliculus in Strabismic Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M G; Ono, Seiji; Mustari, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Visually guided saccades are disconjugate in human and nonhuman strabismic primates. The superior colliculus (SC) is a region of the brain topographically organized in visual and motor maps where the saccade goal is spatially coded. The present study was designed to investigate if a site of stimulation on the topographic motor map was evoking similar or different saccade vectors for each eye. We used microelectrical stimulation (MS) of the SC in two strabismic (one esotrope and one exotrope) and two control macaques under binocular and monocular viewing conditions. We compared the saccade amplitudes and directions for each SC site and each condition independently of the fixating eye and then between each fixating eye. A comparison with disconjugacies of visually guided saccades was also performed. We observed different saccade vectors for the two eyes in strabismic monkeys, but conjugate saccades in normal monkeys. Evoked saccade vectors for the left eye when that eye was fixating the target were different from those of the right eye when it was fixating. The disconjugacies evoked by the MS were not identical but similar to those observed for visually guided saccades especially for the dominant eye. Our results suggest that, in strabismus, the saccade generator does not interpret activation of a single location of the SC as the same desired displacement for each eye. This finding is important for advancing understanding of the development of neural circuits in strabismus. French Abstract.

  4. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  5. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  6. Electrical stimulation of superior colliculus affects strabismus angle in monkey models for strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suraj; Meng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of binocular vision during the critical period for development leads to eye misalignment in humans and in monkey models. We have previously suggested that disruption within a vergence circuit could be the neural basis for strabismus. Electrical stimulation in the rostral superior colliculus (rSC) leads to vergence eye movements in normal monkeys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SC stimulation on eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. Electrical stimulation was delivered to 51 sites in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC (400 Hz, 0.5-s duration, 10–40 μA) in 3 adult optical prism-reared strabismic monkeys. Scleral search coils were used to measure movements of both eyes during a fixation task. Staircase saccades with horizontal and vertical components were elicited by stimulation as predicted from the SC topographic map. Electrical stimulation also resulted in significant changes in horizontal strabismus angle, i.e., a shift toward exotropia/esotropia depending on stimulation site. Electrically evoked saccade vector amplitude in the two eyes was not significantly different (P > 0.05; paired t-test) but saccade direction differed. However, saccade disconjugacy accounted for only ~50% of the change in horizontal misalignment while disconjugate postsaccadic movements accounted for the other ~50% of the change in misalignment due to electrical stimulation. In summary, our data suggest that electrical stimulation of the SC of strabismic monkeys produces a change in horizontal eye alignment that is due to a combination of disconjugate saccadic eye movements and disconjugate postsaccadic movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus in strabismic monkeys results in a change in eye misalignment. These data support the notion of developmental disruption of vergence circuits leading to maintenance of eye misalignment in strabismus. PMID:28031397

  7. Essen Superior Court. Judgement of September 24, 1982. ('Boycott of electricity bills')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Essen Superiour Court decided by judgement published on September 24, 1982 that an electricity supply company is not, by the supply contract, obliged to his customers to do without electric energy generated from nuclear energy. Even though the basic rights of the constitution may influence the contractual relations between the electricity supply compagny and the customers, the basic rights of freedom of conscience and the right of free speech do not entitle the customer to interfere with the lawful performance of the freedom of entrepreneurial activity of the electricity supply company. (WB) [de

  8. Changes in the frequency of swallowing during electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kojun; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Sakai, Shogo; Nakamura, Yuki; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the adaptation of the swallowing reflex in terms of reduced swallowing reflex initiation following continuous superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. To identify swallowing, electromyographic activity of the left mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles was recorded. To evoke the swallowing response, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), recurrent laryngeal nerve, or cortical swallowing area was electrically stimulated. Repetitive swallowing evoked by continuous SLN stimulation was gradually reduced, and this reduction was dependent on the resting time duration between stimulations. Prior SLN stimulation also suppressed subsequent swallowing initiation. The reduction in evoked swallows induced by recurrent laryngeal nerve or cortical swallowing area stimulation was less than that following superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Decerebration had no effect on the reduction in evoked swallows. Prior subthreshold stimulation reduced subsequent initiation of swallowing, suggesting that there was no relationship between swallowing movement evoked by prior stimulation and the subsequent reduction in swallowing initiation. Overall, these data suggest that reduced sensory afferent nerve firing and/or trans-synaptic responses, as well as part of the brainstem central pattern generator, are involved in adaptation of the swallowing reflex following continuous stimulation of swallow-inducing peripheral nerves and cortical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific Human Capital as a Source of Superior Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Franck; Stephan Nüesch; Jan Pieper

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance effect of team-specific human capital in highly interactive teams. Based on the tenets of the resource-based view of the firm and on the ideas of typical learning functions, we hypothesize that team members’ shared experience in working together positively impacts team performance, but at diminishing rates. Holding a team’s stock of general human capital and other potential drivers constant, we find support for this prediction. Implica...

  10. Nitrogen-containing hydrothermal carbons with superior performance in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Li [Colloid Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14424 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 27th Taoyuan South Road, 030001 Taiyuan (China); Fan, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Meng-Qi; Guan, Hui; Qiao, Suyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Antonietti, Markus; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena [Colloid Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14424 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    Microporous nitrogen-doped carbons produced by hydrothermal carbonization of biomass derivative followed by chemical activation showed excellent supercapacitive capacitance performance both in acid and base electrolytes. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the cricothyroid muscle in patients with suspected superior laryngeal nerve weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Rubin, Adam; Cox, Paul; Landini, Fernando; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective case study, we report the apparent clinical effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in combination with voice therapy (VT) for rehabilitating dysphonia secondary to suspected superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) weakness in two female patients. Both patients failed or plateaued with traditional VT but had significant improvement with the addition of NMES of the cricothyroid muscle and SLN using a VitalStim unit. Stimulation was provided simultaneously with voice exercises based on musical phonatory tasks. Both acoustic analysis and endoscopic evaluation demonstrated important improvements after treatment. In the first patient, the major change was obtained within the primo passaggio region; specifically, a decrease in voice breaks was demonstrated. In the second patient, an improvement in voice quality (less breathiness) and vocal range were the most important findings. Additionally, each patient reported a significant improvement in their voice complaints. Neuromuscular laryngeal electrical stimulation in combination with vocal exercises might be a useful tool to improve voice quality in patients with SLN injury. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  13. Substitutional Doping for Aluminosilicate Mineral and Superior Water Splitting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Liangjie; Shu, Zhan; Yang, Huaming; Tang, Aidong; Jiang, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to reveal the geometric and electronic structure evolution upon metal doping, as well as to verify the atom-level effect of the La doping. The CdS loading and its corresponding water splitting performance could demonstrate the effect of La doping. CdS nanoparticles (11 wt.%) were uniformly deposited on the surface of La-doped halloysite nanotube (La-HNT) with the average size of 5 nm, and the notable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS/La-HNT reached up to 47.5 μmol/h. The results could provide a new strategy for metal ion doping and constructive insight into the substitutional doping mechanism.

  14. Novel yellow colored flame compositions with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of colored flames is the primary purpose of military signaling, projectile tracing, and illuminating devices. Certain elements and compounds when heated to high temperature have the unique property of emitting lines or narrow bands in the visible region (380–780 nm. This study, reports on the development of novel yellow colored flame compositions with enhanced spectral performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality to standard Russian yellow tracer. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed yellow flares were measured using digital luxmeter and UV–Vis. spectrometer respectively. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity, and color quality of Russian yellow tracer were improved by 287%, and 170% respectively. This was accomplished by means of optimizing the ratio of novel binder to color source using aluminum metal fuel. Aluminum-based formulations were found to maximize the formation of yellow reactive emitting specimens, and to eliminate any interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO. Quantification of yellow color emitting specimens in the combustion gaseous products was achieved using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology in Germany, Virgin 2008; in an attempt to judge the light quality. This improvement in yellow flare performance established the rule that the emission intensity increases as the reaction temperature increases. In the meantime upper limit of temperature was avoided to maximize the color quality.

  15. Electrical actuators applications and performance

    CERN Document Server

    De Fornel, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This helpful resource covers a large range of information regarding electrical actuators. In particular, robustness, a very problematic issue, is fully explored in a dedicated chapter. The text also deals with he estimate of non-measurable mechanical variables by examining the estimate of load moment, then observation of the positioning of a command without mechanical sensor. Finally, it examines the conditions needed to measure variables and real implementation of numerical algorithms. This is a key working resource for electrical engineers.

  16. Electricity system performance in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires Rodrigues, A.; Souza Dias, D. De

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays, there is great uncertainty and concern about the capacity of the electric sector to go ahead with the programme of investments which was planned to keep pace with the growth in electricity demand. The sector is in an important financial crisis caused by the progressive reduction in its ability to generate resources either through self-financing or through external sources. The Brazilian electric sector is mostly public. Moreover, it is marked by a high degree of integration, which makes the whole system vulnerable to problem in each of its parts. First, the financial health of the Electrobras system which is at the top of the pyramidal sectoral structure depends on the capacity of the state-level utilities (operating mainly on the distribution side) to pay for the bulk supplies which they buy from Electrobras-controlled utilities. Second, tariffs are equal in the country as a whole regardless of differences in costs. Differences must be covered by the transfers between state utilities. Thus, there is also a significant horizontal financial inter-dependence in the sector. These institutional characteristics have been very important in the context of the present financial crisis

  17. Competitively Distinct Operations as a Key for Superior and Sustainable Business Performance: An Example from Walmart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Timilsina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on the resource-based view (RBV has provided limited evidence on how firms achieve superior and sustainable business performance; this failure is because current literature de-emphasizes the importance of operations. This paper argues that to gain and sustain superior business performance, a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage is not enough, its operations also needs to be competitively distinct. Therefore, through unifying the necessary conditions of superior and sustainable business performance the paper presents a better understanding of the RBV. The success story of Walmart, from existing literature, is considered as an example to support the proposed framework. The paper concludes that the cost of operations, opportunity cost, cost of resources and possible output are the crucial factors in resource choice and operations decision to secure competitively distinct operations. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications, research limitations and future research possibilities are discussed.

  18. A hydrothermally synthesized LiFePO4/C composite with superior low-temperature performance and cycle life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Liu, Na; Gao, Xuguang; Tian, Xiaohui; Zhu, Yanbin; Zhou, Yingke; Zhu, Qingyou

    2018-03-01

    The LiFePO4/C composites have been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal process, with the combined carbon sources of fructose and calcium lignosulfonate. The morphology and microstructure of LiFePO4/C were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by the constant-current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The uniform carbon coating layer derived from calcium lignosulfonate can effectively improve the electronic conductivity, lithium-ion diffusivity and surface stability of the LiFePO4/C composites and prevent the side reactions between the LiFePO4 particles and electrolytes. The LiFePO4/C composites display excellent rate capability, superior cycle life and outstanding low temperature performance, which are promising for lithium-ion battery applications in electrical vehicles and electrical energy storage systems.

  19. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Sandwiched Porous Carbon Enabling Superior Sodium Storage Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Xiongwu; Cheng, Xiaolong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Yu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The red P anode for sodium ion batteries has attracted great attention recently due to the high theoretical capacity, but the poor intrinsic electronic conductivity and large volume expansion restrain its widespread applications. Herein, the red P is successfully encapsulated into the cube shaped sandwich-like interconnected porous carbon building (denoted as P@C-GO/MOF-5) via the vaporization-condensation method. Superior cycling stability (high capacity retention of about 93% at 2 A g -1 after 100 cycles) and excellent rate performance (502 mAh g -1 at 10 A g -1 ) can be obtained for the P@C-GO/MOF-5 electrode. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the successful incorporation of red P into the unique carbon matrix with large surface area and pore volume, interconnected porous structure, excellent electronic conductivity and superior structural stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Revising superior planning performance in chess players: the impact of time restriction and motivation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Josef Martin; Kaller, Christoph Philipp; Leonhart, Rainer; Rahm, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study (Unterrainer, Kaller, Halsband, & Rahm, 2006), chess players outperformed non-chess players in the Tower of London planning task but exhibited disproportionately longer processing times. This pattern of results raises the question of whether chess players' planning capabilities are superior or whether the results reflect differences in the speed-accuracy trade-off between the groups, possibly attributable to sports motivation. The present study was designed to disambiguate these alternative suggestions by implementing various constraints on planning time and by assessing self-reported motivation. In contrast to the previous study, chess players' performance was not superior, independently of whether problems had to be solved with (Experiment 1) or without (Experiment 2) time limits. As expected, chess players reported higher overall trait and state motivation scores across both experiments. These findings revise the notion of superior planning performance in chess players. In consequence, they do not conform with the assumption of a general transfer of chess-related planning expertise to other cognitive domains, instead suggesting that superior performance may be possible only under specific circumstances such as receiving competitive instructions.

  1. Investigation on Superior Performance by Fractional Controller for Cart-Servo Laboratory Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Anil Kesarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is made on the superiority of fractional PID controller (PI^alpha D^beta over conventional PID for the cart-servo laboratory set-up. The designed controllers are optimum in the sense of Integral Absolute Error (IAE and Integral Square Error (ISE. The paper contributes in three aspects: 1 Acquiring nonlinear mathematical model for the cart-servo laboratory set-up, 2 Designing fractional and integer order PID for minimizing IAE, ISE, 3 Analyzing the performance of designed controllers for simulated plant model as well as real plant. The results show a significantly superior performance by PI^alpha D^beta as compared to the conventional PID controller.

  2. Superior temporal gyrus thickness correlates with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Asaf; Chapman, Joab; Tal, Sigal; Bercovich, Eran; Gil, Hararai; Achiron, Anat

    2013-07-01

    Decreased cortical thickness that signifies gray matter pathology and its impact on cognitive performance is a research field with growing interest in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and needs to be further elucidated. Using high-field 3.0 T MRI, three-dimensional T1-FSPGR (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) cortical thickness was measured in 82 regions in the left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) in 20 RRMS patients with low disease activity and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects that in parallel underwent comprehensive cognitive evaluation. The correlation between local cortical atrophy and cognitive performance was examined. We identified seven regions with cortical tissue loss that differed between RRMS and age-matched healthy controls. These regions were mainly located in the frontal and temporal lobes, specifically within the gyrus rectus, inferior frontal sulcus, orbital gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, with preferential left asymmetry. Increased cortical thickness was identified in two visual sensory regions, the LH inferior occipital gyrus, and the RH cuneus, implicating adaptive plasticity. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the LH superior temporal gyrus thickness was associated with cognitive performance and its thickness correlated with motor skills (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), attention (r = 0.45, p = 0.042), and information processing speed (r = 0.50, p = 0.025). Our findings show that restricted cortical thinning occurs in RRMS patients with mild disease and that LH superior temporal gyrus atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Active vacuum brazing of CNT films to metal substrates for superior electron field emission performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Rémi; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Shorubalko, Ivan; Furrer, Roman; Hack, Erwin; Elsener, Hansrudolf; Gröning, Oliver; Greenwood, Paul; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Kenneth; Leinenbach, Christian; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2015-02-01

    The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal substrate contacts. The interfacial electrical resistances of the joints were measured to be as low as 0.35 Ω. The improved interfacial transport properties in the brazed films lead to superior electron field-emission properties when compared to the as-grown films. An emission current of 150 μA was drawn from the brazed nanotubes at an applied electric field of 0.6 V μm-1. The improvement in electron field-emission is mainly attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between the nanotubes and the substrate. The joints have high re-melting temperatures up to the solidus temperatures of the alloys; far greater than what is achievable with standard solders, thus expanding the application potential of CNT films to high-current and high-power applications where substantial frictional or resistive heating is expected.

  4. Performance parameters of electric power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, M.Th.; Lima, J.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    The aspects referring to the evaluation of distribution system reliability are presented: consumers, companies and regulator institutes. The different strategies for fixing of probabilistic criterions of performance are mentioned, including the economic valorization of continuity restriction of electric supply. (C.G.C.)

  5. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  6. Graphene as a protective coating and superior lubricant for electrical contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2014-12-01

    Potential for graphene to be used as a lubricant for sliding electrical contacts has been evaluated. Graphene, being deposited as a sporadic flakes on the gold substrate sliding against titanium nitride ball shows not only significant improvement in tribological behavior by reducing both friction (by factor of 2-3) and wear (by 2 orders) but also, even more importantly, demonstrates stable and low electrical resistance at the sliding contacts undergoing thousands of sliding passes regardless of the test environment (i.e., both in humid and dry conditions).

  7. Restructuring and performance in India's electricity sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Arun Kumar

    Restructuring and privatization, used as major tools in electricity sector reform, are often viewed as part of the same process and the terms used interchangeably. Although related, they represent quite different dimensions of change and reform. Privatization is the result of change in the management/ownership. Restructuring, on the other hand, refers to changes in structure such as the unbundling of vertically integrated utilities, and the introduction of competition. Most studies attempt to assess the impact of privatization of the electric utilities on their tariff structure, performance and efficiency. They have not tried to estimate the effect of restructuring on the performance of the unbundled utilities. Using panel data on the state electricity boards and the thermal power plants, and employing variance-component fixed effects and random effects models, this study examines the effects of restructuring and ownership on the performance of India's electricity sector. We also study the effects of absolute majority of political parties on performance. The study also uses a cross-country-comparison-framework to compare the electricity sector reforms of India with those of Chile, Hungary and Norway. Results show that restructuring has significantly positive effects on such performance indicators as plant availability, plant load factor, forced outage, average tariff collection, and sales revenue as a ratio of cost. With regard to labor efficiency indicators, we find mixed results. Restructuring also appears to entail reduction in the extent of cross-subsidization. However, the cost of supply seems to be unaffected by restructuring. Absolute majority of the party in government shows adverse effects on costs, sales revenue as a ratio of cost, and labor efficiency. The effects of ownership are somewhat mixed, with state ownership (as opposed to federal or private) indicating adverse effects on plant performance. Interestingly, after controlling for location

  8. Patterns of Change in Psychological Variables Leading up to Competition in Superior Versus Inferior Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, Ruth; Taylor, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants' race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times. Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant differences in growth trajectories over the 2-week period in mental skills use, social support, and fatigue. The results provide novel insight into how athletes' fluctuating psychological state in the 2 weeks before competition may be crucial in determining performance.

  9. Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel Film Leads to Integrated Flexible Supercapacitors with Superior Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiong; Li, Chen; Sun, Xianzhong; Meng, Qinghai; Ma, Yanwei; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-12-02

    A high-strength poly(vinyl alcohol) chemical hydrogel (PCH) film is prepared by coupling covalent crosslinking with a film-casting process. Conducting polyaniline (PANI) is then embedded in the PCH film by in situ growth to form a composite film with a PANI-hydrogel-PANI configuration, which leads to a new conceptual flexible supercapacitor with all-in-one configuration that exhibits superior electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Specific Consideration on Superior Performance and Evaluation Methods of Polymer-housed Surge Arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Misao; Suzuki, Hironori; Futagami, Koichi

    It is very suitable to select the polymer materials for the housings of surge arresters (SAs), because the polymer materials are generally soft and light weight. Therefore, many kinds of polymer-housed SAs using various polymer materials have been developed, and expanding into many countries. Considering these backgrounds, the JEC technical report (JEC-TR) 23002-2008; polymer-housed surge arrester(1) has been established based on the existent relevant standards of arresters, such as JEC-2371-2003; Insulator-housed surge arresters(2) and IEC 60099-4 Edition 2.2, Metal-oxide surge arresters (MOSAs) without gaps for a.c. systems(3) in order to introduce the technology and provide a common guide for testing of polymer-housed SAs. According as the JEC-TR, the various new applications of the polymer-housed SAs, which are caused by superior advantages such as compact, light weight, safe failure mode, anti-seismic performance, anti-pollution performance and cost efficiency design, have been realized recently in Japan. Therefore, this paper gives specific consideration on the superior performance of the polymer-housed SAs and the evaluation methods of the polymer-housed SAs, because there are some issues in the existent standards to be solved.

  11. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  12. Insights into collaborative separation process of photogenerated charges and superior performance of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Gu, Yuzong [Institute of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2016-07-25

    ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZnO/CBS) and ZnO nanowires/CBS-graphene nanoplates (ZnO/CBS-GNs), as well as two types of solar cells were prepared. The photovoltaic responses of CBS-GNs and ZnO/CBS-GNs can be improved with incorporation of GNs. The transient surface photovoltage (TPV) can provide detailed information on the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers. The multichannel separation process from the TPVs indicates that the macro-photoelectric signals can be attributed to the photogenerated charges separated at the interface of CBS/GNs, rather than CBS/ZnO. The multi-interfacial recombination is the major carrier loss, and the hole selective p-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can efficiently accelerate the charge extraction to the external circuit. The ZnO/CBS-GNs cell exhibits the superior performance, and the highest efficiency is 10.9%. With the adequate interfaces of CBS/GNs, GNs conductive network, energy level matching, etc., the excitons can easily diffuse to the interface of CBS/GNs, and the separated electrons and holes can be collected quickly, inducing the high photoelectric properties. Here, a facile strategy for solid state solar cells with superior performance presents a potential application.

  13. STRATEGIES FOR SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE IN RECESSIONS: PRO OR COUNTER-CYCLICAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ramos Conti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recessions are recurring events in which most firms suffer severe impacts while others are less affected or may even prosper. Strategic management has made little progress in understanding such performance differences. In a scenario of decreased demand, intensified competition, and higher uncertainty, most firms try to survive by pro-cyclically cutting costs and investments. But firms could take advantage of undervalued resources in the market to counter-cyclically invest in new business opportunities to overtake competitors. We survey Brazilian firms in various industries about the 2008-2009 recession and analyze data using PLS-SEM. We find that while most firms pro-cyclically reduce costs and investments in recessions, a counter-cyclical strategy of investing in opportunities created by changes in the market enables superior performance. Most successful are firms with a propensity to recognize opportunities, an entrepreneurial orientation to invest, and the flexibility to efficiently implement investments.

  14. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working...... memory (SWM) performance improves significantly throughout the childhood years, and several lines of evidence implicate the left fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts in SWM processing. Here we report results from a study of 76 typically developing children, 7 to 13 years of age. We...... hypothesized that better SWM performance would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left fronto-parietal network composed of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the regional white matter underlying the dorsolateral pFC, and the posterior parietal cortex. As hypothesized, we...

  15. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Jinkui, E-mail: jinkui@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Ci, Lijie [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  16. Performance study of thermo-electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, G.; Manaswini, D.; Kotebavi, Vinod; R, Nagaraja S.

    2017-07-01

    Devices like automobiles, stoves, ovens, boilers, kilns and heaters dissipate large amount of waste heat. Since most of this waste heat goes unused, the efficiency of these devices is drastically reduced. A lot of research is being conducted on the recovery of the waste heat, among which Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) is one of the popular method. TEG is a semiconductor device that produces electric potential difference when a thermal gradient develops on it. This paper deals with the study of performance of a TEG module for different hot surface temperatures. Performance characteristics used here are voltage, current and power developed by the TEG. One side of the TEG was kept on a hot plate where uniform heat flux was supplied to that. And the other side was cooled by supplying cold water. The results show that the output power increases significantly with increase in the temperature of the hot surface.

  17. Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; O'Daly, Owen G; Uher, Rudolf; Schiöth, Helgi B; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Genci Sharko; Nike Shanku

    2010-01-01

    Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many m...

  19. Development of an Enhanced Payback Function for the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; Sabouni, Ridah; Sheihing, Paul

    2015-08-03

    The U.S. DOE Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program provides recognition to industrial and commercial facilities that achieve certification to the ISO 50001 energy management system standard and third party verification of energy performance improvements. Over 50 industrial facilities are participating and 28 facilities have been certified in the SEP program. These facilities find value in the robust, data driven energy performance improvement result that the SEP program delivers. Previous analysis of SEP certified facility data demonstrated the cost effectiveness of SEP and identified internal staff time to be the largest cost component related to SEP implementation and certification. This paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification. By disaggregating “sunk energy management system (EnMS) labor costs”, this analysis results in a more accurate and detailed understanding of the costs and benefits of SEP participation. SEP is shown to significantly improve and sustain energy performance and energy cost savings, resulting in a highly attractive return on investment. To illustrate these results, a payback function has been developed and is presented. On average facilities with annual energy spend greater than $2M can expect to implement SEP with a payback of less than 1.5 years. Finally, this paper also observes and details decreasing facility costs associated with implementing ISO 50001 and certifying to the SEP program, as the program has improved from pilot, to demonstration, to full launch.

  20. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Wei

    2012-04-20

    Upconversion rare-earth nanomaterials (URENs) possess highly efficient near-infrared (NIR), e.g., 980 nm, laser absorption and unique energy upconversion capabilities. On the other hand, graphene and its derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO), show excellent performance in optical limiting (OL); however, the wavelengths of currently used lasers for OL studies mainly focus on either 532 or 1064 nm. To design new-generation OL materials working at other optical regions, such as the NIR, a novel nanocomposites, GO-URENs, which combines the advantages of both its components, is synthesized by a one-step chemical reaction. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence studies prove that the α-phase URENs uniformly attach on the GO surface via covalent chemical bonding, which assures highly efficient energy transfer between URENs and GO, and also accounts for the significantly improved OL performance compared to either GO or URENs. The superior OL effect is also observed in the proof-of-concept thin-film product, suggesting immediate applications in making high-performance laser-protecting products and optoelectronic devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  2. Superior eco-efficiency performance in industry: hidden risks and value potential for strategic investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, M.; Kiernan, M.J. [Innovest Strategic Value Advisors Inc., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    It is now widely recognized that high eco-efficiency and competitiveness and financial performance go hand in hand. Innovest assessed more than 60 facets of business development, management and environmental risks in global companies representing the petroleum, chemicals, forest products, electrical utilities and other industries. It did not matter whether return on investment (ROI), return on equity (ROE) or total stock market return was considered as a basis for evaluation. Those companies that ranked at the top on environmental performance outperformed their rivals in the same sector by 17 per cent annually. In addition, the authors noticed variances as large as 500 per cent in the environmental risk profiles of companies whose credit and investment risks were deemed identical. The eco-efficiency helped generate competitive advantage and financial performance by enhancing: (1) cost containment and liability reduction, (2) sales and market share growth, (3) franchise and brand value, (4) stakeholder satisfaction and (5) innovation capacity. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Performance improvements from imagery:evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola eCallow

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report three experiments investigating the hypothesis that use of internal visual imagery (IVI would be superior to external visual imagery (EVI for the performance of different slalom-based motor tasks. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants (IVI, EVI, and a control group performed a driving-simulation slalom task. The IVI group achieved significantly quicker lap times than EVI and the control group. In Experiment 2, participants performed a downhill running slalom task under both IVI and EVI conditions. Performance was again quickest in the IVI compared to EVI condition, with no differences in accuracy. Experiment 3 used the same group design as Experiment 1, but with participants performing a downhill ski-slalom task. Results revealed the IVI group to be significantly more accurate than the control group, with no significant differences in time taken to complete the task. These results support the beneficial effects of IVI for slalom-based tasks, and significantly advances our knowledge related to the differential effects of visual imagery perspectives on motor performance.

  4. Facile synthesis of core–shell structured PANI-Co_3O_4 nanocomposites with superior electrochemical performance in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, Zhenyin; Gao, Libo; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Hongyan; Cui, Danfeng; Zhang, Zengxing; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Tang, Jun; Yan, Shubin; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI-Co_3O_4 is synthesized by carbon-assisted and in situ polymerization methods. • PANI coating improves the properties of Co_3O_4 affecting electrochemical performance. • The nanocomposites exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1184 F g"−"1 at 1.25 A g"−"1. - Abstract: Core–shell structured PANI-Co_3O_4 nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications were synthesized by combination of carbon-assisted method and in situ polymerization method. The crystalline structure, optical band gap, morphology, and hydrophilic property, as the major factors affecting the performances of supercapacitors, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometry (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and water contact angle (WCA). The core–shell structured PANI-Co_3O_4 nanocomposites are characterized by amorphous PANI, small bandgaps, large surface area and favorable hydrophilicity, which indicates the superior electrochemical performances of the nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitors. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted in 6 M KOH aqueous solution to evaluate the electrochemical performances. The results shows that core–shell structured PANI-Co_3O_4 nanocomposites exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1184 F g"−"1 at 1.25 A g"−"1, excellent cycling stability of a capacitance retention of 84.9% after 1000 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles, good electrical conductivity and ion diffusion behavior.

  5. Microwave assisted synthesis of camellia oleifera shell-derived porous carbon with rich oxygen functionalities and superior supercapacitor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiyuan; Qu, Tingting; Kun, Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shanyong; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng

    2018-04-01

    Biomass-derived carbon (BDCs) materials are receiving extensive attention as electrode materials for energy storage because of the considerable economic value offering possibility for practical applications, but the electrochemical capacitance of BDCs are usually relatively low resulted from limited electric double layer capacitance. Herein, an oxygen-rich porous carbon (KMAC) was fabricated through a rapid and convenient microwave assisted carbonization and KOH activation of camellia oleifera shell. The obtained KMAC possesses three-dimensional porous architecture, large surface area (1229 m2/g) and rich oxygen functionalities (C/O ratio of 1.66). As the electrode materials for supercapacitor, KMAC exhibits superior supercapacitive performances as compared to the activated carbon (KAC) derived from direct carbonization/KOH activation method in 2.0 M H2SO4 (315 F/g vs. 202 F/g) and 6.0 M KOH (251 F/g vs. 214 F/g) electrolyte due to the rich oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of porous carbon resulted from the developed microwave-assisted carbonization/activation approach.

  6. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  7. Rational design of reduced graphene oxide for superior performance of supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2016-10-24

    Strategies to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) abound but, in most studies, research teams select one particular oxidation-reduction method without providing a methodic reasoning for doing so. Herein, it is analyzed how diverse oxidation-reduction strategies commonly used can result in considerable performance differences of rGO for supercapacitor applications. Depending on the graphite oxidation method followed, the surface chemistry analysis of the products confirms that there is a marked disparity in the degree of oxidation and the nature of the oxygen functional groups present. Subsequent reduction of the oxidized graphite (using three different methods) showed that the maximum specific capacitance of rGOs produced from the classical Hummers\\' method was 128 F g−1 whereas an analogous material obtained from an improved Hummers\\' method reached ∼274 F g−1 (both via an hydrothermal reduction route). Besides showing that the improved oxidation method results in superior capacitance performance, explained by the higher number of structural defects allied to a surface chemistry where residual hydroxyl and epoxy functional groups predominate, this study highlights the need to rationalize the oxidation-reduction strategies followed when investigating applications of rGO materials.

  8. Designing Appraisal Pattern for Performance of Superior League Football Teams by Emphasizing on Stakeholders’ Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi TAYEBI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessment by stakeholders is a strategic process that this research formed based on Freeman Stakeholders’ theory (1986 and Lee Stakeholders’ model and its goal is replying to following questions in order to present proper model for performance assessment: Who are most important stakeholders of superior football teams? What are their most important purposes? What are most important actions for fulfilling their needs? The research information collected from ministry of sport and youth, federation, club universalities, library and f iled experts and in first stage based on Freeman theory and past studies and experts’ opinions, a questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.891 and by using Shannon entropy model and TOPSIS method extracted 9 priorities out of 21. In second stage, a second questionnaire was developed with Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.928 and 20 most important requests out of 71extracted by TOPSIS method. In 3rd stage, a third questionnaire was developed through interview with managers of 3 sup erior leagues and took measures to examine most implorations actions for providing stakeholders requests that 49 executive actions was recognized and performed by QFD model and quality house model indicated relation among requests of stakeholders, actions, weighting and ranked ultimately 24 important actions was recognized and by using results and normalization, performance assessment model extracted from above three processes that indicated victory result and monetary benefits included their most important requests and teams shall take action to establish clear financial and planning unit and shall be assessed periodically.

  9. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  10. Right Occipital Cortex Activation Correlates with Superior Odor Processing Performance in the Early Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Cécile B.; Dricot, Laurence; Plaza, Paula; Lerens, Elodie; Rombaux, Philippe; De Volder, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten early blind humans, we found robust occipital activation during two odor-processing tasks (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower odors), as well as during control auditory-verbal conditions (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower names). We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the ventral part of the occipital cortex, with dissociation according to stimulus modality: the right fusiform gyrus was most activated during olfactory conditions while part of the left ventral lateral occipital complex showed a preference for auditory-verbal processing. Only little occipital activation was found in sighted subjects, but the same right-olfactory/left-auditory-verbal hemispheric lateralization was found overall in their brain. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various odor-processing tasks. Moreover, the level of right fusiform gyrus activation during the olfactory conditions was highly correlated with individual scores in a variety of odor recognition tests, indicating that the additional occipital activation may play a functional role in odor processing. PMID:23967263

  11. Early 'visual' cortex activation correlates with superior verbal memory performance in the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedi, Amir; Raz, Noa; Pianka, Pazit; Malach, Rafael; Zohary, Ehud

    2003-07-01

    The visual cortex may be more modifiable than previously considered. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten congenitally blind human participants, we found robust occipital activation during a verbal-memory task (in the absence of any sensory input), as well as during verb generation and Braille reading. We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the occipital cortex, along the anterior-posterior axis. Whereas anterior regions showed preference for Braille, posterior regions (including V1) showed preference for verbal-memory and verb generation (which both require memory of verbal material). No such occipital activation was found in sighted subjects. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various verbal-memory tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of V1 activation during the verbal-memory condition was highly correlated with the blind individual's abilities in a variety of verbal-memory tests, suggesting that the additional occipital activation may have a functional role.

  12. Assessing the performance of renewable electricity support instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of feed-in tariffs and tradable certificates is assessed on criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and institutional feasibility. In the early stage of transition to an energy system based entirely on renewable energy supplies, renewable electricity can only thrive if support takes into account the specific technical, economic and political problems which result from embedding this electricity in conventional power systems whose technology, organizational structure, environmental responsibility and general mission differ profoundly from the emerging, renewable-based system. Support schemes need to capture the diversity of power supplies, the variable nature of some renewable supplies, and their different attributes for the purposes of public policy. They must take into account the variety of generators – including small, decentralized generation – emerging in a renewable-based system, and the new relationships between generators and customers. Renewable energy policies need a clear point of reference: because the incumbent power systems are not sustainable they must adapt to the requirements of the renewable ones, not the other way round. Incumbent systems carry the responsibility of paying the transition, something that corresponds best with the polluter pays principle. - Highlights: ► Present power systems must adapt to the requirements of growing renewable ones, not the opposite. ► Well performing support systems capture the diversity of renewable sources and technologies. ► Feed-in Tariffs are superior in addressing the renewables' diversity and in promoting innovation. ► Feed-in Tariffs put transition burdens on incumbents and stimulate independent producers.

  13. Radial electric fields for improved tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of externally-imposed radial electric fields on the fusion energy output, energy multiplication, and alpha-particle ash build-up in a TFTR-sized, fusing tokamak plasma is explored. In an idealized tokamak plasma, an externally-imposed radial electric field leads to plasma rotation, but no charge current flows across the magnetic fields. However, a realistically-low neutral density profile generates a non-zero cross-field conductivity and the species dependence of this conductivity allows the electric field to selectively alter radial particle transport

  14. NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companies | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric Companies NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian performance and impacts of today's advanced solar inverters, as well as proprietary feedback to the inverter

  15. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  16. Factors Related to How Superiors Establish Goals and Review Performance for Their Subordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Stephen J., Jr.; And Others

    The objective of the study was to identify the characteristics of the superior, the subordinate, and the situation which were related to the manner in which the "Management by Objectives" (MBO) process is carried out. Data collected from 112 managers in a national industrial firm was used in the analysis. Previous research with this data had…

  17. Popcorn-Derived Porous Carbon Flakes with an Ultrahigh Specific Surface Area for Superior Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Wei, Rui; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Shen, Ming; Wang, Xiaozhi; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-09-13

    Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize. Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The following chemical activation method enabled the as-prepared products to possess optimized porous structures for electrochemical energy-storage devices, such as multilayer flake-like structures, ultrahigh specific surface area (S BET : 3301 m 2 g -1 ), and a high content of micropores (microporous surface area of 95%, especially the optimized sub-nanopores with the size of 0.69 nm) that can increase the specific capacitance. The as-obtained sample displayed excellent specific capacitance of 286 F g -1 at 90 A g -1 for supercapacitors. Moreover, the unique porous structure demonstrated an ideal way to improve the volumetric energy density performance. A high energy density of 103 Wh kg -1 or 53 Wh L -1 has been obtained in the case of ionic liquid electrolyte, which is the highest among reported biomass-derived carbon materials and will satisfy the urgent requirements of a primary power source for electric vehicles. This work may prove to be a fast, green, and large-scale synthesis route by using the large nubby granular materials to synthesize applicable porous carbons in energy-storage devices.

  18. Electricity markets. Investment, performance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of deregulation on the theory and practice of investment appraisal is addressed in this comprehensive treatment of the restructuring of the electricity supply industry. Demonstrating that the classical approach to generation investment appraisal is no longer valid, a new approach is developed using three economic models to represent differing market conditions. Highlighting the impact on the organisation of the utilities and their suppliers, this book offers essential advice for survival in the deregulated environment worldwide. (author)

  19. Superior cycle performance of Sn-C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shuzhao; Zhu Xuefeng; Lian Peichao; Yang Weishen; Wang Haihui

    2011-01-01

    A novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, tin nanoparticles coated with carbon embedded in graphene (Sn-C/graphene), was fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The size of the Sn-C nanoparticles is about 50-200 nm. The reversible specific capacity of the nanocomposite is ∼662 mAh g -1 at a specific current of 100 mA g -1 after 100 cycles, even ∼417 mAh g -1 at the high current of 1000 mA g -1 . These results indicate that Sn-C/graphene possesses superior cycle performance and high rate capability. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the characteristic structure of the nanocomposite with both of the graphene and carbon shells, which buffer the volume change of the metallic tin and prevent the detachment and agglomeration of pulverized tin. - Graphical abstract: Tin nanoparticles coated with carbon embedded in graphene have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing. This nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits superior cycle performance. Highlights: → A novel Sn-C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. → Carbon coating and graphene improve the cycle performance of the Sn anode material. → Possess large capacity, superior cycle performance, and high rate capability.

  20. [A comparison of time resolution among auditory, tactile and promontory electrical stimulation--superiority of cochlear implants as human communication aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, J; Kumagai, M; Harada, C; Takahashi, K; Inuyama, Y; Ifukube, T

    1992-09-01

    Our previous reports showed that second formant information, using a speech coding method, could be transmitted through an electrode on the promontory. However, second formant information can also be transmitted by tactile stimulation. Therefore, to find out whether electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve would be superior to tactile stimulation for our speech coding method, the time resolutions of the two modes of stimulation were compared. The results showed that the time resolution of electrical promontory stimulation was three times better than the time resolution of tactile stimulation of the finger. This indicates that electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is much better for our speech coding method than tactile stimulation of the finger.

  1. Effectiveness of a refuge for Lake Trout in Western Lake Superior II: Simulation of future performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the effect of maintaining the refuge as a harvest management tool versus removing the refuge. In general, median abundances of age-4, age-4 and older (age-4+), and age-8+ fish collapsed at lower instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F) when the refuge was removed than when the refuge was maintained. With the refuge in place, the F that resulted in collapse depended on the rate of movement into and out of the refuge. Too many fish stayed in the refuge when movement was low (0–2%), and too many fish became vulnerable to fishing when movement was high (≥22%); thus, the refuge was more effective at intermediate rates of movement (10–11%). With the refuge in place, extinction did not occur at any simulated level of F, whereas refuge removal led to extinction at all combinations of commercial F and recreational F. Our results indicate that the Lake Trout population would be sustained by the refuge at all simulated F-values, whereas removal of the refuge would risk population collapse at much lower F (0.700–0.744). Therefore, the Gull Island Shoal Refuge is needed to sustain the Lake Trout population in eastern Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.

  2. Superior Performance Nanocomposites from Uniformly Dispersed Octadecylamine Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2015-12-08

    Polyetherimide (PEI) is a widely applied as engineering plastic in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries but the disadvantages of extremely low conductivity, atmospheric moisture absorption, and poor fluidity at high temperature limits its application. Herein, commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified with a long alkyl chain molecule, octadecylamine (ODA), to produce a uniform dispersion in commercial PEI matrices. Both covalent and noncovalent modification of MWCNTs with ODA, were prepared and compared. Modified MWCNTs were incorporated in PEI matrices to fabricate nanocomposite membranes by a simple casting method. Investigating mechanical properties, thermal stability, and conductivity of the polyetherimide (PEI)/MWCNT composites showed a unique combination of properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high mechanical properties, and high thermal stability at a low content of 1.0 wt % loading of ODA modified MWCNTs. Moreover, electrical resistivity decreased around 10 orders of magnitude with only 0.5 wt % of modified MWCNTs.

  3. Superior Performance Nanocomposites from Uniformly Dispersed Octadecylamine Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye; Tao, Jing; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Mahfouz, Remi; Al-Shahrani, Abdullah; Alabedi, Gasan; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    Polyetherimide (PEI) is a widely applied as engineering plastic in the electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries but the disadvantages of extremely low conductivity, atmospheric moisture absorption, and poor fluidity at high temperature limits its application. Herein, commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified with a long alkyl chain molecule, octadecylamine (ODA), to produce a uniform dispersion in commercial PEI matrices. Both covalent and noncovalent modification of MWCNTs with ODA, were prepared and compared. Modified MWCNTs were incorporated in PEI matrices to fabricate nanocomposite membranes by a simple casting method. Investigating mechanical properties, thermal stability, and conductivity of the polyetherimide (PEI)/MWCNT composites showed a unique combination of properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high mechanical properties, and high thermal stability at a low content of 1.0 wt % loading of ODA modified MWCNTs. Moreover, electrical resistivity decreased around 10 orders of magnitude with only 0.5 wt % of modified MWCNTs.

  4. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  5. EHV AC undergrounding electrical power performance and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Benato, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Analytical methods of cable performance in EHV AC electrical power are discussed in this comprehensive reference. Descriptions of energization, power quality, cable safety constraints and more, guide readers in cable planning and power network operations.

  6. Superior Cycle Stability Performance of Quasi-Cuboidal CoV2O6 Microstructures as Electrode Material for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Chai, Hui; Dong, Hong; Xu, Jiayu; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhou, Wanyong

    2016-10-12

    In this study, a rapid, facile, and environment-friendly microwave-assisted method followed by annealing for synthesizing the quasi-cuboidal CoV 2 O 6 is developed. The as-prepared samples manifest high supercapacitor properties with a specific capacitance of 223 F g -1 , good rate capability, and superior cycle stability, retaining 123.3% capacitance when the number of cycles reaches 15,000 after determined by electrochemical tests. More importantly, the quasi-cuboidal CoV 2 O 6 for the first time is introduced into the supercapacitor as a kind of electrode material. The superior electrochemical performance of the quasi-cuboidal CoV 2 O 6 will render the metal vanadium oxides as new and attractive active material for promising application in supercapacitors.

  7. Performance measurement of electricity suppliers using PROMETHEE and balance scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Osati; Manouchehr Omidvari

    2016-01-01

    Performance measurement in energy industry plays an important role on increasing the productivity. Electricity is also among the most essential components of energy in mega cities like Tehran. The lack of a good service in this city may result unpleasant consequences on most civilians who live in this city. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the performance of six major electricity contractors in city of Tehran, Iran. The study implements grey numbers to handle any unce...

  8. Neural basis of superior performance of action videogame players in an attention-demanding task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jyoti; Zinni, Marla; Bavelier, Daphne; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-01-19

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) were recorded from action videogame players (VGPs) and from non-videogame players (NVGPs) during an attention-demanding task. Participants were presented with a multi-stimulus display consisting of rapid sequences of alphanumeric stimuli presented at rates of 8.6/12 Hz in the left/right peripheral visual fields, along with a central square at fixation flashing at 5.5 Hz and a letter sequence flashing at 15 Hz at an upper central location. Subjects were cued to attend to one of the peripheral or central stimulus sequences and detect occasional targets. Consistent with previous behavioral studies, VGPs detected targets with greater speed and accuracy than NVGPs. This behavioral advantage was associated with an increased suppression of SSVEP amplitudes to unattended peripheral sequences in VGPs relative to NVGPs, whereas the magnitude of the attended SSVEPs was equivalent in the two groups. Group differences were also observed in the event-related potentials to targets in the alphanumeric sequences, with the target-elicited P300 component being of larger amplitude in VGPS than NVGPs. These electrophysiological findings suggest that the superior target detection capabilities of the VGPs are attributable, at least in part, to enhanced suppression of distracting irrelevant information and more effective perceptual decision processes.

  9. High-Stacking-Density, Superior-Roughness LDH Bridged with Vertically Aligned Graphene for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Yu, Chang; Li, Shaofeng; Yang, Juan; Liu, Zhibin; Zhao, Changtai; Huang, Huawei; Zhang, Mengdi; Han, Xiaotong; Niu, Yingying; Qiu, Jieshan

    2017-10-01

    The high-performance electrode materials with tuned surface and interface structure and functionalities are highly demanded for advanced supercapacitors. A novel strategy is presented to conFigure high-stacking-density, superior-roughness nickel manganese layered double hydroxide (LDH) bridged by vertically aligned graphene (VG) with nickel foam (NF) as the conductive collector, yielding the LDH-NF@VG hybrids for asymmetric supercapacitors. The VG nanosheets provide numerous electron transfer channels for quick redox reactions, and well-developed open structure for fast mass transport. Moreover, the high-stacking-density LDH grown and assembled on VG nanosheets result in a superior hydrophilicity derived from the tuned nano/microstructures, especially microroughness. Such a high stacking density with abundant active sites and superior wettability can be easily accessed by aqueous electrolytes. Benefitting from the above features, the LDH-NF@VG can deliver a high capacitance of 2920 F g -1 at a current density of 2 A g -1 , and the asymmetric supercapacitor with the LDH-NF@VG as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode can deliver a high energy density of 56.8 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 260 W kg -1 , with a high specific capacitance retention rate of 87% even after 10 000 cycles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Easy synthesis of hierarchical carbon spheres with superior capacitive performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinhua; Kim, Seok; Heo, Min Seon; Kim, Ji Eun; Suh, Hongsuk; Kim, Il

    2013-10-01

    An easy template-free approach to the fabrication of pure carbon microspheres has been achieved via direct pyrolysis of as-prepared polyaromatic hydrocarbons including polynaphthalene and polypyrene. The polyaromatics were synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) using anhydrous zinc chloride as the Friedel-Crafts catalyst and chloromethyl methyl ether as a cross-linker. The experimental results show that the methylene bridges between phenyl rings generate a hierarchical porous polyaromatic precursor to form three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected micro-, meso-, and macroporous networks during carbonization. These hierarchical porous carbon aggregates of spherical carbon spheres exhibit faster ion transport/diffusion behavior and increased surface area usage in electric double-layer capacitors. Furthermore, micropores are present in the 3D interconnected network inside the cross-linked AHC-based carbon microspheres, thus imparting an exceptionally large, electrochemically accessible surface area for charge accumulation.

  11. Interface engineered ferrite@ferroelectric core-shell nanostructures: A facile approach to impart superior magneto-electric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ann Rose; Raneesh, B.; Das, Dipankar; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi Samuel; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    The electric field control of magnetism in multiferroics is attractive for the realization of ultra-fast and miniaturized low power device applications like nonvolatile memories. Room temperature hybrid multiferroic heterostructures with core-shell (0-0) architecture (ferrite core and ferroelectric shell) were developed via a two-step method. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images confirm the core-shell structure. The temperature dependant magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectra reveal superparamagnetic nature of the core-shell sample. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops reveal leaky nature of the samples. The results indicate the promising applications of the samples for magneto-electric memories and spintronics.

  12. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Nuno [ISEL-ADESPA, Lisbon (Portugal); FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de [FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  13. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Nuno; Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de

    2017-01-01

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  14. The circular electrical mobility spectrometer; theory, performances and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Boualem

    1995-04-01

    A new type of electrical mobility spectrometer (S.M.E.C.) has been designed in the Service d'Etudes et de Recherches en Aerocontamination et en Confinement (CEA) laboratories. It differs from classical electrical mobility spectrometers in its plan circular geometry and its radial flow. This gives some advantages and the possibility of new applications. The theories that we derive for the different versions of this device are confirmed by experimental results obtained using aerosol particles with known electrical mobility. The S.M.E.C's performances are tested for several applications: - controlled surface contamination, - monodisperse aerosol production, - fine and ultrafine aerosol sizing. (author) [fr

  15. Polymer/boron nitride nanocomposite materials for superior thermal transport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Li; Wang, Ping; Cao, Li; Anderson, Ankoma; Meziani, Mohammed J; Farr, Andrew J; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2012-06-25

    Boron nitride nanosheets were dispersed in polymers to give composite films with excellent thermal transport performances approaching the record values found in polymer/graphene nanocomposites. Similarly high performance at lower BN loadings was achieved by aligning the nanosheets in poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix by simple mechanical stretching (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Discerning measures of conscious brain processes associated with superior early motor performance: Capacity, coactivation, and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Tina; Buszard, Tim; Hoskens, Merel C J; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity, corticocortical communication (EEG coherence), and propensity for conscious control of movement during the performance of a complex far-aiming task. We were specifically interested in the role of these variables in predicting motor performance by novices. Forty-eight participants completed (a) an assessment of WM capacity (an adapted Rotation Span task), (b) a questionnaire that assessed the propensity to consciously control movement (the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale), and (c) a hockey push-pass task. The hockey push-pass task was performed in a single task (movement only) condition and a combined task (movement plus decision) condition. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine brain activity during the single task. WM capacity best predicted single task performance. WM capacity in combination with T8-Fz coherence (between the visuospatial and motor regions of the brain) best predicted combined task performance. We discuss the implied roles of visuospatial information processing capacity, neural coactivation, and propensity for conscious processing during performance of complex motor tasks. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing the performance index for a hybrid electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D. V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A. F A

    2011-01-01

    The definition of a performance index for the optimization design and optimal control problem of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is not often considered and analyzed explicitly. In literature, there is no study about proposing a method of building or evaluating whether a performance index is appropriate.

  18. T-gate aligned nanotube radio frequency transistors and circuits with superior performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yuchi; Lin, Yung-Chen; Kim, Pyojae; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-05-28

    In this paper, we applied self-aligned T-gate design to aligned carbon nanotube array transistors and achieved an extrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency (ft) of 25 GHz, which is the best on-chip performance for nanotube radio frequency (RF) transistors reported to date. Meanwhile, an intrinsic current-gain cutoff frequency up to 102 GHz is obtained, comparable to the best value reported for nanotube RF transistors. Armed with the excellent extrinsic RF performance, we performed both single-tone and two-tone measurements for aligned nanotube transistors at a frequency up to 8 GHz. Furthermore, we utilized T-gate aligned nanotube transistors to construct mixing and frequency doubling analog circuits operated in gigahertz frequency regime. Our results confirm the great potential of nanotube-based circuit applications and indicate that nanotube transistors are promising building blocks in high-frequency electronics.

  19. Boys with autism spectrum disorders show superior performance on the adult Embedded Figures Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlooz, W.A.J.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2014-01-01

    Weak central coherence is frequently studied using the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) yielding mixed and ambiguous results. In this study, the performance of 36 boys (9–14 years) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is compared with that of 46 typical peers using both the children's and the adult

  20. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and upconversion rare-earth nanocrystals with superior optical limiting performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Wei; He, Tingchao; Teng, Xue; Wu, Shixin; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Yang, Yanhui; Chen, Hongyu; Han, Yu; Sun, Handong; Huang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    ), show excellent performance in optical limiting (OL); however, the wavelengths of currently used lasers for OL studies mainly focus on either 532 or 1064 nm. To design new-generation OL materials working at other optical regions, such as the NIR, a novel

  1. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly…

  2. Fabrication and magnetic-induced aggregation of Fe3O4–noble metal composites for superior SERS performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Zibao; Zhao, Aiwu; Zhang, Maofeng; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gao, Qian; Mao, Ranran; Liu, Erhu

    2013-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal composites were obtained by combining Au, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 NPs. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates the obtained Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal composites inherit the typical surface plasmon resonance bands of Au, Ag at 533 and 453 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements also indicated that the superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal composites have excellent magnetic response behavior. A magnetic-induced idea was introduced to change their aggregated states and take full advantage of their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Under the induction of an external magnetic field, the bifunctional Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal aggregates exhibit the unique superiority in SERS detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), compared with the naturally dispersed Au, Ag NPs. Especially, the detection limit of the Fe 3 O 4 –Ag aggregates for R6G is as low as 10 −14  M, and the calculated EF reaches up to 1.2 × 10 6 , which meets the requirements for trace detection of analytes. Furthermore, the superiority could be extended to sensitive detection of other organic molecules, such as 4-mercaptopyridine. This work provides a new insight for active adjustment of the aggregated states of SERS substrates and the optimization of SERS performances

  3. Hollow-in-Hollow Carbon Spheres for Lithium-ion Batteries with Superior Capacity and Cyclic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Jun; Ye, Jianchuan; Fang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Zheng, Mingsen; Dong, Quanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hollow-in-hollow structured HIHCS was synthesized via a facile templating strategy. • The HCS core and hollow carbon shell constitute the hollow-in-hollow structure. • The HIHCS exhibited superior rate capability and cycle stability as anode material. • The excellent performance is attributed to the unique hollow-in-hollow structure. - Abstract: Hollow spheres structured materials have been intensively pursued due to their unique properties for energy storage. In this paper, hollow-in-hollow carbon spheres (HIHCS) with a multi-shelled structure were successfully synthesized using a facile hard-templating procedure. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant HIHCS anode exhibited superior capacity and cycling stability than HCS. It could deliver reversible capacities of 937, 481, 401, 304 and 236 mAh g −1 at current densities of 0.1 A g −1 , 1 A g −1 , 2 A g −1 , 5 A g −1 and 10 A g −1 , respectively. And capacity fading is not apparent in 500 cycles at 5 A g −1 . The excellent performance of the HIHCS anode is ascribed to its unique hollow-in-hollow structure and high specific surface area.

  4. A framework for the integration of Green and Lean Six Sigma for superior sustainability performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherrafi, Anass; Elfezazi, Said; Govindan, Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that Lean, Six Sigma and Green approaches make a positive contribution to the economic, social and environmental (i.e. sustainability) performance of organisations. However, evidence also suggests that organisations have found their integration and implementation challenging....... The purpose of this research is therefore to present a framework that methodically guides companies through a five stages and sixteen steps process to effectively integrate and implement the Green, Lean and Six Sigma approaches to improve their sustainability performance. To achieve this, a critical review...... of the existing literature in the subject area was conducted to build a research gap, and subsequently develop the methodological framework proposed. The paper presents the results from the application of the proposed framework in four organisations with different sizes and operating in a diverse range...

  5. Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon derived from artemia cyst shells with superior electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ran, Wei; He, Jing; Song, Yanfang; Zhang, Chunming; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Gao, Faming; Wu, Jinsong; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-01-21

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous carbon with abundant functional groups is produced through a very simple low-cost carbonization of Artemia cyst shells. The unique hierarchical porous structure of this material, combining large numbers of micropores and macropores, as well as reasonable amount of mesopores, is proven favorable to capacitive behavior. The abundant oxygen functional groups from the natural carbon precursor contribute stable pseudocapacitance. As-prepared sample exhibits high specific capacitance (369 F g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 and 349 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH), excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 100% over 10 000 cycles, and promising rate performance. This work not only describes a simple way to produce high-performance carbon electrode materials for practical application, but also inspires an idea for future structure design of porous carbon.

  6. Superior recognition performance for happy masked and unmasked faces in both younger and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aging literature it has been shown that even though emotion recognition performance decreases with age, the decrease is less for happiness than other facial expressions. Studies in younger adults have also revealed that happy faces are more strongly attended to and better recognized than other emotional facial expressions. Thus, there might be a more age independent happy face advantage in facial expression recognition. By using a backward masking paradigm and varying stimulus onset asynchronies (17–267 ms the temporal development of a happy face advantage, on a continuum from low to high levels of visibility, was examined in younger and older adults. Results showed that across age groups, recognition performance for happy faces was better than for neutral and fearful faces at durations longer than 50 ms. Importantly, the results showed a happy face advantage already during early processing of emotional faces in both younger and older adults. This advantage is discussed in terms of processing of salient perceptual features and elaborative processing of the happy face. We also investigate the combined effect of age and neuroticism on emotional face processing. The rationale was previous findings of age related differences in physiological arousal to emotional pictures and a relation between arousal and neuroticism. Across all durations, there was an interaction between age and neuroticism, showing that being high in neuroticism might be disadvantageous for younger, but not older adults’ emotion recognition performance during arousal enhancing tasks. These results indicate that there is a relation between aging, neuroticism, and performance, potentially related to physiological arousal.

  7. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  8. Performance measurement of electricity suppliers using PROMETHEE and balance scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Osati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement in energy industry plays an important role on increasing the productivity. Electricity is also among the most essential components of energy in mega cities like Tehran. The lack of a good service in this city may result unpleasant consequences on most civilians who live in this city. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the performance of six major electricity contractors in city of Tehran, Iran. The study implements grey numbers to handle any uncertainty associated with numbers. The study has also adopted four main perspectives used in balanced scorecard as part of PROMETHEE method to rank different contractors.

  9. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol-gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables selective molecular sieving of small molecules from larger ones. In the dehydration of n-butanol with 5% of water, the membrane shows a high separation factor of over 4000 and ultra-fast water transport at a rate of more than 20 kg m{sup -2} h{sup -1} at 150C. This can be related to the high adsorption capacity of the material and the sub-micron thickness of the selective layer. The selectivity has now remained constant over almost one and a half years under continuous process testing conditions. Apart from the hydrothermal stability, the membrane exhibits a high tolerance for acid contamination. A slow performance decline in flux and separation factor is only observed at a pH lower than 2. The high stability and effective separation indicate a broad industrial application potential of the hybrid membrane material.

  10. Cobalt-based metal organic framework with superior lithium anodic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaoshi; Hu, Huiping; Li, Chao; Li, Tian; Lou, Xiaobing; Chen, Qun; Hu, Bingwen, E-mail: bwhu@phy.ecnu.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    The reversible charging of a Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF (Co-BDC MOF) prepared via an one-pot solvothermal method was studied for use as the anode in a Li-ion cell. It was found that this MOF anode provides high reversible capacities (1090 and 611 mA h g{sup −1} at current densities of 0.2 and 1 A g{sup −1}, respectively), and an impressive rate performance. Such an outstanding Li-ion storage property has not been reported previously for the LIB anodes within the MOFs category. Ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) studies of this material at different state of charge suggest that cobalt stays at Co{sup 2+} state during discharge/charge process, so that in this case Li{sup +} may be inserted into the organic moiety without the direct participation of cobalt ions. - Graphical abstract: Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF, synthesized through a straightforward solvothermal method, shows outstanding lithium storage performance. - Highlights: • Co-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate MOF is synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal method. • Reversible capacity of 1090 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}. • Reversible capacity of 611 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. • Li-ions may be inserted into the organic moieties.

  11. Personal Rotorcraft Design and Performance with Electric Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and projected improvements for more or all-electric aviation propulsion systems can enable greater personal mobility, while also reducing environmental impact (noise and emissions). However, all-electric energy storage capability is significantly less than present, hydrocarbon-fueled systems. A system study was performed exploring design and performance assuming hybrid propulsion ranging from traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (gasoline Otto and diesel) to all-electric systems using electric motors generators, with batteries for energy storage and load leveling. Study vehicles were a conventional, single-main rotor (SMR) helicopter and an advanced vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew); the design range for the VTOL aircraft was set to 150 miles (about one hour total flight). Search and rescue (SAR), loiter, and cruise-dominated missions were chosen to illustrate each vehicle and degree of hybrid propulsion strengths and weaknesses. The traditional, SMR helicopter is a hover-optimized design; electric hybridization was performed assuming a parallel hybrid approach by varying degree of hybridization. Many of the helicopter hybrid propulsion combinations have some mission capabilities that might be effective for short range or on-demand mobility missions. However, even for 30 year technology electrical components, all hybrid propulsion systems studied result in less available fuel, lower maximum range, and reduced hover and loiter duration than the baseline vehicle. Results for the VTOL aircraft were more encouraging. Series hybrid combinations reflective of near-term systems could improve range and loiter duration by 30. Advanced, higher performing series hybrid combinations could double or almost triple the VTOL aircrafts range and loiter duration. Additional details on the study assumptions and work performed are given, as well as suggestions for future study effort.

  12. High-Frequency Electrical Modulation of the Superior Ovarian Nerve as a Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikov, Victor; Sridhar, Arun; Lara, Hernan E

    2018-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent ovarian pathology in women, with excessive sympathetic activity in the superior ovarian nerve (SON) playing an important role in inducing the PCOS symptoms in the rats and humans. Our previous studies have shown that surgical transection of the SON can reverse the disease progression, prompting us to explore the effect of the kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) modulation as a method of reversible non-surgical suppression of the nerve activity in the rodent model of PCOS. 56 animals were randomly allocated to three groups: the Control group ( n = 18), the PCOS group ( n = 15), and the PCOS + KHFAC group ( n = 23). The physiological, anatomical, and biochemical parameters of ovarian function were evaluated during the progression of the experimentally-induced PCOS and during long-term KHFAC modulation applied for 2-3 weeks. The KHFAC modulation has been able to reverse the pathological changes in assessed PCOS parameters, namely the irregular or absent estrous cycling, formation of ovarian cysts, reduction in the number of corpora lutea, and ovarian norepinephrine concentration. The fertility capacity was similar in the PCOS and the PCOS + KHFAC groups, indicating the safety of KHFAC modulation approach. In summary, these results suggest that the KHFAC modulation approach of suppressing the SON activity could become a useful treatment modality for PCOS and potentially other pathological ovarian conditions.

  13. High-Frequency Electrical Modulation of the Superior Ovarian Nerve as a Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Pikov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most prevalent ovarian pathology in women, with excessive sympathetic activity in the superior ovarian nerve (SON playing an important role in inducing the PCOS symptoms in the rats and humans. Our previous studies have shown that surgical transection of the SON can reverse the disease progression, prompting us to explore the effect of the kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC modulation as a method of reversible non-surgical suppression of the nerve activity in the rodent model of PCOS. 56 animals were randomly allocated to three groups: the Control group (n = 18, the PCOS group (n = 15, and the PCOS + KHFAC group (n = 23. The physiological, anatomical, and biochemical parameters of ovarian function were evaluated during the progression of the experimentally-induced PCOS and during long-term KHFAC modulation applied for 2–3 weeks. The KHFAC modulation has been able to reverse the pathological changes in assessed PCOS parameters, namely the irregular or absent estrous cycling, formation of ovarian cysts, reduction in the number of corpora lutea, and ovarian norepinephrine concentration. The fertility capacity was similar in the PCOS and the PCOS + KHFAC groups, indicating the safety of KHFAC modulation approach. In summary, these results suggest that the KHFAC modulation approach of suppressing the SON activity could become a useful treatment modality for PCOS and potentially other pathological ovarian conditions.

  14. Superior lithium storage performance of hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers for lithium ion battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bo [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); National Key Laboratory of Power Sources, Tianjin Institute of Power Sources, Tianjin 300381 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Minsi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Dong, Lei; Xiong, Dongbin [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Energy & Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous vanadium pentoxide nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers showed much enhanced lithium storage performance. • Kinetics process of electrospinning V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers was studied by means of EIS for the first time. • Strategies to enhance the electrochemical performance of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode were concluded. - Abstract: The hierarchical V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers cathode materials with diameter of 200–400 nm are successfully synthesized via an electrospinning followed by annealing. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of phase-pure product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obviously display the hierarchical porous nanofibers constructed by attached tiny vanadium oxide nanoplates. Electrochemical behavior of the as-prepared product is systematically studied using galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It turns out that in comparison to the commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and other unique nanostructured materials in the literature, our V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers show much enhanced lithium storage capacity, improved cyclic stability, and higher rate capability. After 100 cycles at a current density of 800 mA g{sup −1}, the specific capacity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers retain 133.9 mAh g{sup −1}, corresponding to high capacity retention of 96.05%. More importantly, the EIS at various discharge depths clearly reveal the kinetics process of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode reaction with lithium. Based on our results, the possible approach to improve the specific capacity and rate capability of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode material is proposed. It is expected that this study could accelerate the development of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} cathode in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  15. Facile fabrication of graphene/nickel oxide composite with superior supercapacitance performance by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Peng; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Yiming; Li, Zhenghui; Huang, Zhikun; Xu, Xingfa; Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • G/NiO was synthesized by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. • G/NiO presents a globule-on-sheet structure and reveals a synergistic effect. • G/NiO displays high specific capacitance and superior cycling stability. - Abstract: Graphene/nickel oxide composite (G/NiO) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method and subsequently microwave thermal treatment by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. The as-prepared G/NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the graphene oxide has been successfully reduced to graphene, and NiO nanoparticles are homogeneous anchored on the surface of graphene, forming a globule-on-sheet structure. The loading content of NiO nanoparticles anchoring on the surface of graphene nanosheets can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature. The G/NiO displays superior electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 530 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 in 2 M of NaOH. After 5000 cycles, the supercapacitor still maintains a specific capacitance of 490 F g −1 (92% retention of the initial capacity), exhibiting excellent cycling stability

  16. Honeycomb-Like Interconnected Network of Nickel Phosphide Heteronanoparticles with Superior Electrochemical Performance for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shude; Sankar, Kalimuthu Vijaya; Kundu, Aniruddha; Ma, Ming; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Jun, Seong Chan

    2017-07-05

    Transition-metal-based heteronanoparticles are attracting extensive attention in electrode material design for supercapacitors owing to their large surface-to-volume ratios and inherent synergies of individual components; however, they still suffer from limited interior capacity and cycling stability due to simple geometric configurations, low electrochemical activity of the surface, and poor structural integrity. Developing an elaborate architecture that endows a larger surface area, high conductivity, and mechanically robust structure is a pressing need to tackle the existing challenges of electrode materials. This work presents a supercapacitor electrode consisting of honeycomb-like biphasic Ni 5 P 4 -Ni 2 P (Ni x P y ) nanosheets, which are interleaved by large quantities of nanoparticles. The optimized Ni x P y delivers an ultrahigh specific capacity of 1272 C g -1 at a current density of 2 A g -1 , high rate capability, and stability. An asymmetric supercapacitor employing as-synthesized Ni x P y as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode exhibits significantly high power and energy densities (67.2 W h kg -1 at 0.75 kW kg -1 ; 20.4 W h kg -1 at 15 kW kg -1 ). These results demonstrate that the novel nanostructured Ni x P y can be potentially applied in high-performance supercapacitors.

  17. Superior Antifouling Performance of a Zwitterionic Peptide Compared to an Amphiphilic, Non-Ionic Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huijun; Wang, Libing; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Liu, Boshi; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of amphiphilic and zwitterionic structures on the resistance of protein adsorption to peptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and gain insight into the associated antifouling mechanism. Two kinds of cysteine-terminated heptapeptides were studied. One peptide had alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues with an amphiphilic sequence of CYSYSYS. The other peptide (CRERERE) was zwitterionic. Both peptides were covalently attached onto gold substrates via gold-thiol bond formation. Surface plasmon resonance analysis results showed that both peptide SAMs had ultralow or low protein adsorption amounts of 1.97-11.78 ng/cm2 in the presence of single proteins. The zwitterionic peptide showed relatively higher antifouling ability with single proteins and natural complex protein media. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to understand their respective antifouling behaviors. The results indicated that strong surface hydration of peptide SAMs contributes to fouling resistance by impeding interactions with proteins. Compared to the CYSYSYS peptide, more water molecules were predicted to form hydrogen-bonding interactions with the zwitterionic CRERERE peptide, which is in agreement with the antifouling test results. These findings reveal a clear relation between peptide structures and resistance to protein adsorption, facilitating the development of novel peptide-containing antifouling materials.

  18. Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres: facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yiren; Su, Liwei; Yang, Mei; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2013-11-13

    Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres were prepared via a facile and economic one-step hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology evolution mechanism was disclosed through time-dependent experiments. After undergoing the symmetric inside-out Ostwald ripening, the resultants formed microporous/nanoporous constructions composed of numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanofiber building blocks. Tested as anode materials of Li-ion batteries, FeCO3 hollow microspheres presented attractive electrochemical performances. The capacities were over 1000 mAh g(-1) for initial charge, ~880 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1), and ~710 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The 1D nanofiber assembly and hollow interior endow this material efficient contact with electrolyte, short Li(+) diffusion paths, and sufficient void spaces to accommodate large volume variation. The cost-efficient FeCO3 with rationally designed nanostructures is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  19. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  20. Performance and energy management of a novel full hybrid electric powertrain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance and energy management between a novel full hybrid electric powertrain and a traditional power-split hybrid system. The developed planetary gearset and dual clutch configuration provides five operation modes. Equations for the torque and speed of power sources for the planetary gearset and dual clutch system and the Toyota Hybrid System are firstly derived. By giving vehicle performance of gradability, maximal speeds in hybrid and pure electric modes, the power sources of the 210 kg target vehicle are: a 125 cc engine and two 1.8 kW motor and generator. The optimal tank-to-wheel efficiencies, ratios of circulating power, and operation points at specific vehicle speeds and out loads are calculated. Simulation results show that the dual-motor electric vehicle mode offers superior performance regarding electric drive; the low capacity of the battery is conducive to reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs; the tank-to-wheel efficiency is mainly operated above 20% while the power split electronic-continuously-variable-transmission mode is the major operation mode, and a maximum of 17% fuel economy improvement is achieved compared with the Toyota Hybrid System in most of the vehicle speed ranges. The outstanding performance warrants further real-system development, especially regarding the implementation in plug-in and sport hybrid powertrain designs. - Highlights: • An innovative power split hybrid powertrain was designed. • Dual-motor electric-vehicle mode highlighted for plug-in function. • Power circulation ratios and five driving modes were analyzed. • Global search method utilized for optimal energy management. • Maximal 17+% fuel improvement compared to Toyota Hybrid System

  1. {331}-Faceted trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals: synthesis, superior electrocatalytic performance and highly efficient SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yahui; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Peina; Bi, Cuixia; Xia, Haibing; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the effect of gold (Au) seeds prepared in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC-Au seeds) on the index facets of trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals (TOH Au NCs). We demonstrate that monodisperse {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with controllable sizes (from 60 to 255 nm) can be successfully prepared in high yield by using 3.0 nm CTAC-Au seeds or as-prepared 70 nm TOH Au NCs as seeds. We find that the electrocatalytic performance on methanol oxidation and surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity of {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs is size-dependent. In comparison with well-known nanoporous gold (0.088 mA cm-2), {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with sizes of 110 nm exhibit fairly high catalytic activity (0.178 mA cm-2) on methanol oxidation (1.0 M) in alkaline media due to the presence of increasing density of atomic steps, ledges, and kinks on the NC surfaces. Their current density is reduced by less than 7% after 500 cycling tests. {331}-Faceted TOH Au NCs with sizes of 175 nm exhibit the highest SERS activity for 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) molecules. The enhancement factors of a1 modes of 4-ATP molecules can reach the order of 109 when the 4-ATP concentration is 3 × 10-6 M. Moreover, Raman signals (ag modes) of 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) molecules on TOH Au NCs are stronger than those on spherical Au NCs of comparable size due to the enhanced laser-induced transformation of 4-ATP molecules by high-index {331}-facets during SERS measurement. Furthermore, the SERS intensities of 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MTP) molecules on TOH Au NCs are also higher than those on spherical Au NCs of comparable size due to sharp extremities.We investigate the effect of gold (Au) seeds prepared in cetyltrimethylammonium chloride solution (CTAC-Au seeds) on the index facets of trisoctahedral gold nanocrystals (TOH Au NCs). We demonstrate that monodisperse {331}-faceted TOH Au NCs with controllable sizes (from 60 to 255 nm) can be successfully prepared in high yield by

  2. Electrical and Quench Performance of the First MICE Coupling Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, M. A.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Nogiec, Jerzy; Orris, D.; Pilipenko, R.; Sylvester, C.; Caspi, S.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.

    2014-01-01

    The first MICE Coupling Coil has been tested in a conduction-cooled environment in the new Solenoid Test Facility at Fermilab. We present an overview of the power and quench protection scheme, and report on the electrical and quench performance results obtained during cold power tests of the magnet

  3. Performance degradation of integrated optical modulators due to electrical crosstalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator arrays based on n-doped InP substrate and show that it can be the cause for transmitter performance degradations. In particular, a common ground return path between adjacent modulators can cause high coupling

  4. Modelo de Gestión para el tratamiento de la Basura Electrónica en la Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaluisa Lozano, Iván Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación propone un Modelo de Gestión para el tratamiento de la basura electrónica que se genera en la Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, con lo cual se pretende prevenir la contaminación ambiental y a su vez servir de modelo para otras instituciones. Los métodos de investigación científica que se usaron son los teóricos y los empíricos (información primaria) con la aplicación de encuestas a 458 personas, estratificada por empleados, docentes y estudiantes, además se realiz...

  5. Synthesis and superior lithium storage performances of hybrid hollow urchin-like silicate constructed by nanotubes wrapped in reduced graphene oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuefang; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Kaichuang; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid hollow urchin-like cobalt and copper silicate constructed by nanotubes encapsulated in graphene nanosheets composites were successfully prepared using graphene oxide as carrier and silica spheres as template, which were done through a well-known Stȍber process and a hydrothermal method. In fact, the synthesis of hybrid urchin-like silicate constructed by nanotubes through onestep hydrothermal reaction has rarely been reported.The electrochemical performances of the composites as lithium-ion battery anode materials were studiedfor the first time. As novel anode materials of Li-ion batteries, the special hollow urchin-like structure not only could facilitate the Li + diffusion and electron transport but alsocouldaccommodate the volume variation during the conversion reactions. In addition, the introduction of graphene can make the electrical conductivity better. Graphene wrapped hollow urchin-like silicate compositespossesses superior electrochemical cycling properties. The first discharge capacity is1955.2mAh/g with a current density of 300 mA/g. The unique well-designed configuration presents a beneficial method to synthesize efficient and high performance electrode materials for advanced power applications.

  6. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  7. Ultra High Electrical Performance of Nano Nickel Oxide and Polyaniline Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Cai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative effects between the PANI (polyaniline/nano-NiO (nano nickel oxide composite electrode material and redox electrolytes (potassium iodide, KI for supercapacitor applications was firstly discussed in this article, providing a novel method to prepare nano-NiO by using β-cyelodextrin (β-CD as the template agent. The experimental results revealed that the composite electrode processed a high specific capacitance (2122.75 F·g−1 at 0.1 A·g−1 in 0.05 M KI electrolyte solution, superior energy density (64.05 Wh·kg−1 at 0.2 A·g−1 in the two-electrode system and excellent cycle performance (86% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles at 1.5 A·g−1. All those ultra-high electrical performances owe to the KI active material in the electrolyte and the PANI coated nano-NiO structure.

  8. Stimulus modality and working memory performance in Greek children with reading disabilities: additional evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Evripidou, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of stimulus presentation modality on working memory performance in children with reading disabilities (RD) and in typically developing children (TDC), all native speakers of Greek. It was hypothesized that the visual presentation of common objects would result in improved learning and recall performance as compared to the auditory presentation of stimuli. Twenty children, ages 10-12, diagnosed with RD were matched to 20 TDC age peers. The experimental tasks implemented a multitrial verbal learning paradigm incorporating three modalities: auditory, visual, and auditory plus visual. Significant group differences were noted on language, verbal and nonverbal memory, and measures of executive abilities. A mixed-model MANOVA indicated that children with RD had a slower learning curve and recalled fewer words than TDC across experimental modalities. Both groups of participants benefited from the visual presentation of objects; however, children with RD showed the greatest gains during this condition. In conclusion, working memory for common verbal items is impaired in children with RD; however, performance can be facilitated, and learning efficiency maximized, when information is presented visually. The results provide further evidence for the pictorial superiority hypothesis and the theory that pictorial presentation of verbal stimuli is adequate for dual coding.

  9. Template-free synthesis of novel SnS2 array and its superior performances for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anquan; Qiao, Lulu; Tan, Pengfei; Ma, Yongjin; Liu, Yi; Pan, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A kind of novel three-dimensional SnS2 array was fabricated by an ethylenediamine (EDA) assisting low-temperature solvothermal method. It was observed that as-obtained SnS2 array was composed of numerous SnS2 nanosheets with the thickness of about 22 nm. When used as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the SnS2 array displayed remarkable capacities on rate and cycling performances, delivering the rates with reversible capacities of 763.3, 658.6, 593.6, 554.4 and 450.3 mAh g-1 at the current densities of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the satisfactory cycling performance was also disclosed, remaining capacity of 547.8 mAh g-1 after 100th cycle at 0.2 A g-1, better than some reported pure SnS2 nanostructures. Based on the characterization and experimental results, the reasons of such superior electrochemical performances were determined and elaborated. It means that the SnS2 array possesses promising potential on the renewable energy field.

  10. Facile synthesis of core–shell structured PANI-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites with superior electrochemical performance in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Zhenyin [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Gao, Libo [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Kowloon 999077 (Hong Kong); Zhang, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Xu, Hongyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Cui, Danfeng; Zhang, Zengxing [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Tsoukalas, Dimitris [Department of Applied Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou GR-15780 (Greece); Tang, Jun; Yan, Shubin [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Xue, Chenyang, E-mail: xuechenyang@nuc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation and Dynamic Measurement of Ministry of Education, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} is synthesized by carbon-assisted and in situ polymerization methods. • PANI coating improves the properties of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} affecting electrochemical performance. • The nanocomposites exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1184 F g{sup −1} at 1.25 A g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Core–shell structured PANI-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications were synthesized by combination of carbon-assisted method and in situ polymerization method. The crystalline structure, optical band gap, morphology, and hydrophilic property, as the major factors affecting the performances of supercapacitors, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometry (UV–vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and water contact angle (WCA). The core–shell structured PANI-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites are characterized by amorphous PANI, small bandgaps, large surface area and favorable hydrophilicity, which indicates the superior electrochemical performances of the nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitors. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted in 6 M KOH aqueous solution to evaluate the electrochemical performances. The results shows that core–shell structured PANI-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1184 F g{sup −1} at 1.25 A g{sup −1}, excellent cycling stability of a capacitance retention of 84.9% after 1000 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles, good electrical conductivity and ion diffusion behavior.

  11. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  12. Flexible one-dimensional carbon-selenium composite nanofibers with superior electrochemical performance for Li-Se/Na-Se batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linchao; Wei, Xiang; Wang, Jiaqing; Jiang, Yu; Li, Weihan; Yu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A facile strategy is developed to synthesis selenium/carbon composites (Se@CNFs-CNT) by co-heating Se powder and electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-CNT nanofibers at 600°Cin a sealed vessel. The Se molecules are chemically bonded and physical encapsulated by carbonized PAN-CNT composite (CNFs-CNT), which leads to prevent the dissolution of polyselenide intermediates in carbonate based electrolyte. When directly used as flexible free-standing cathode material for Li-Se batteries in low cost carbonate-based electrolyte, the Se@CNFs-CNT electrode exhibits improved cyclability (517 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 A g-1) and rate capability (485 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1). Moreover, when tested as sodium batteries, it maintains a reversible capacity of 410 mAh g-1 after 240 cycles at 0.5 A g-1. The superior electrochemical performance (especially at high rates) of Se@CNFs-CNT is attributed to synergistic effect of the additive of CNT, the well confine of Se in the CNFs-CNT matrix through chemical bonding and the 3D interconnected carbon nanofibers (CNFs). This simple yet efficient process thus provides a promising route towards fabrication of a variety of high performance flexible Li-Se and Na-Se batteries.

  13. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  14. Design and performance of low-wattage electrical heater probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, R.; Wetzel, J.R.; Cech, R.

    1997-01-01

    A mound electrical calibration heater (MECH) has been used in several EG and G Mound developed calorimeters as a calibration tool. They are very useful over the wattage range of a few to 500 W. At the lower end of the range, a bias develops between the MECH probe and calibrated heat standards. A low-wattage electrical calibration heater (L WECH) probe is being developed by the Safeguards Science and Technology group (NIS-5) of Los Alamos National Laboratory based upon a concept proposed by EG and G Mound personnel. The probe combines electrical resistive heating and laser-light powered heating. The LWECH probe is being developed for use with power settings up to 2W. The electrical heater will be used at the high end of the range, and laser-light power will be used low end of the wattage range. The system consists of two components: the heater probe and a control unit. The probe is inserted into the measuring cavity through an opening in the insulating baffle, and a sleeve is required to adapt to the measuring chamber. The probe is powered and controlled using electronics modules located separately. This paper will report on the design of the LWECH probe, initial tests, and expected performance

  15. Performance of an active electric bearing for rotary micromotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, F T; Wang, L; Wu, Q P; Liu, Y F

    2011-01-01

    An electric bearing used to support a micromachined rotor of variable-capacitance motors was designed and tested in order to study the characteristics of this frictionless bearing. Electrostatic suspension of a ring-shaped rotor in five degrees of freedom is required to eliminate the mechanical bearing and thus the friction and wear between the rotor and the substrate. Bulk microfabrication-based glass/silicon/glass bonding is chosen for this device, allowing the fabrication of large area sense capacitors and rotor, which make the device potentially suitable for the development of an electrostatically suspended micromachined gyroscope. The device and its basic operating principle are described, as well as the dynamics of the rotor and basic design considerations of the electric bearing system. A theoretical relationship to relate the characteristics of a classical lag–lead compensator to the stiffness properties of the electric bearing is developed to explain the experimental bearing measurements. The experimental results of closed-loop frequency response, suspension stiffness and drive voltage effects are presented and discussed for the bearing operated initially in the atmospheric environment. The performance of a tri-axial electrostatic accelerometer has also been experimentally investigated on the prototype of the electric bearing system

  16. The etomidate analog ET-26 HCl retains superior myocardial performance: Comparisons with etomidate in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingxing; Song, Haibo; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Cheng; Kang, Yi; Yang, Linghui; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    (R)-2-methoxyethyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a novel etomidate analogue. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether ET-26 HCl could retain the superior myocardial performance of etomidate in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the influence of ET-26 HCl and etomidate on the cardiac function of dogs was confirmed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. In vitro, a Langendorff preparation was used to examine direct myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts, and a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study effects on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. In vivo, after a single bolus administration of ET-26 HCl or etomidate, no significant difference in echocardiography and electrocardiogram parameters was observed. No arrhythmia occurred and no QT interval prolongation happened during the study period. In the in vitro Langendorff preparation, none of the cardiac parameters were abnormal, and the hERG recordings showed that ET-26 HCl and etomidate inhibited the tail current of the hERG in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 742.51 μM and 263.60 μM, respectively. In conclusion, through an in vivo experiment and a whole organ preparation, the current study found that ET-26 HCl can maintain a myocardial performance that is similar to that of etomidate. In addition, the electrophysiology study indicated that ET-26 HCl and etomidate inhibited the hERG at a supra-therapeutic concentration.

  17. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 nanowires grown on hollow NiO microspheres with superior electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Meiqing; Ren, Bo; Yu, Lei; Song, Dalei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Wang, Jun; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The NiO hollow spheres were decorated by Co 3 O 4 nanowires. • The NiO hollow spheres were comprised of many NiO particles. • The Co 3 O 4 nanowires were composed of nanoparticles. • The NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell nanocomposites have good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: The NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites as a promising supercapacitor material have been fabricated by facile hydrothermal process. The structure and morphology of the NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the NiO hollow spheres were decorated by Co 3 O 4 nanowires, and the nanowires were composed of nanoparticles. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results suggested that the NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites had good electrochemical reversibility and displayed superior capacitive performance with large capacitance (510 F g −1 ). Moreover, NiO/Co 3 O 4 core/shell composites showed excellent cyclic performanceafter 1000 cycles

  18. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts.

  19. Uniformly active phase loaded selective catalytic reduction catalysts (V_2O_5/TNTs) with superior alkaline resistance performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Wang, Penglu; Chen, Xiongbo; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VOSO_4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH_4VO_3. • Ion-exchange reaction occurs between VOSO_4 and titanate nanotubes. • Ion-exchange resulting in uniformly vanadium distribution on titanate nanotubes. • VOSO_4-based catalyst exhibited impressive SCR activity and alkaline resistance. - Abstract: In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH_4VO_3 and VOSO_4) were used to synthesize deNO_x catalysts. The results showed that VOSO_4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH_4VO_3, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V"5"+/V"4"+ redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved. Besides, VOSO_4-based titanate nanotubes catalysts also showed enhanced alkaline resistance than particles (P25) based catalysts. It was strongly associated with its abundant acid sites, large surface area, flexible redox cycles and oxygen transfer ability. For the loading on protonated titanate nanotubes, active metal with cation groups was better precursors than anion ones. V_2O_5/TNTs catalyst was a promising substitute for the commercial vanadium catalysts and the work conducted herein provided a useful idea to design uniformly active phase loaded catalyst.

  20. Development of high performance nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophilic surface and superior antifouling properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour, Ahmad; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Mortazavian, Narmin

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophilic nano-porous polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes were developed for milk concentration. The membranes were prepared from new dope solution containing polyethersulfone (PES)/polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP)/polyethyleneglycole (PEG)/cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)/acrylic acid/Triton X-100 using phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation technique. This casting solution leads to formation of new hydrophilic membranes. The morphological studies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the hydrophilicity and performance of membranes were examined by contact angel measurements and cross-flow filtration (pure water flux, milk water permeation, protein rejection and antifouling measurements). The contact angle measurements indicate that a surface with superior hydrophilicity was obtained for PES membranes. Two concentrations of PES (16 and 14.4 wt.%) and two different non-solvents (pure water and mixtures of water and IPA) were used for preparation of membranes. The morphological studies showed that the higher concentration of PES and the presence of IPA in the gelation media results in formation of a membrane with a dense top and sub-layer with small pores on the surface. The pure water flux of membranes was decreased when higher polymer concentration and mixtures of water and IPA were employed for membrane formation. On the other hand, the milk water permeation and protein rejection were increased using mixtures of water and IPA as non-solvent. Furthermore, the fouling analysis of the membranes demonstrated that the membrane surface with fewer tendencies for fouling was obtained.

  1. Design of a 200kW electric powertrain for a high performance electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martinez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of designing the electric powertrain of a high performance electric vehicle capable of running a quarter mile in 10 seconds, firstly it is necessary to calculate the required energy, torque, and power in order to size and select the suitable storage components and electric motors. Secondly, an assessment of the powertrain arrangement is needed to choose the best internal configuration of the vehicle and guarantee the highest efficiency possible. Finally, a design of the power conversion stages, specifically the DC-DC converter that interfaces the storage unit with the electric motors, is required as well. This paper shows the energy calculation procedure based on a longitudinal dynamic model of the vehicle and the selection method of the storage components and motors needed for this application, as well as the design of two 100kW interleaved boost converters with coupled inductors. In addition, a novel operation of the interleaved boost converter is proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the converter. As a result, the designed converter achieved a power density of 24,2kW/kg with an efficiency of 98 %, which was validated by experimental tests of a low power prototype.

  2. Electrical and Magnetic Performance of the LHC Short Straight Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfilippo, S; Bottura, L; Buzio, M; Coccoli, M; García-Pérez, J; Pugnat, P; Sammut, N; Siemko, A; Smirnov, N; Stafiniak, A; Wildner, E

    2006-01-01

    The Short Straight Section (SSS) for the Large Hadron Collider arcs, containing in a common cryostat the lattice quadrupoles and correction magnets, have now entered series production. The foremost features of the lattice quadrupole magnets are a two-in-one structure containing two 56 mm aperture, two-layers coils wound from 15.1 mm wide NbTi cables, enclosed by the stainless steel collars and ferromagnetic yoke, and inserted into the inertia tube. Systematic cryogenic tests are performed at CERN in order to qualify these magnets with respect to their cryogenic and electrical integrity, the quench performance and the field quality in all operating conditions. This paper reports the main results obtained during tests and measurements in superfluid helium. The electrical characteristics, the insulation measurements and the quench performance are compared to the specifications and expected performances for these magnets. The field in the main quadrupole is measured using three independent systems: 10-m lon...

  3. Análise comparativa de carteiras com práticas de governança corporativa inferiores e superiores Stock performance of companies with superior and inferior practices of corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Soares Teixeira Rabelo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para os investidores em carteiras de ações, a criação de um clima de negócios mais saudável, obtido por meio de melhores práticas de governança corporativa, pode assegurar sobremaneira o recurso investido, diminuindo assim o risco dos retornos. Este trabalho objetiva investigar se um investidor com uma carteira de ações de empresas que possuem práticas de governança corporativa superiores (Tipo I apresenta melhor performance do que outro investidor com uma carteira de ações de empresas que possuem práticas de governança corporativa inferiores (Tipo II. Para tanto, aplicou-se um estudo de carteiras, construídas aleatoriamente e avaliadas pelo Índice de Sharpe (IS. Foi constatado que a carteira ótima de Tipo I possui maior IS do que a carteira ótima de Tipo II, e que existe uma probabilidade de 56,49% de as carteiras de Tipo I superarem o retorno da Taxa SELIC no período, enquanto essa probabilidade, para as carteiras de Tipo II, é de 55,20%. Apesar de pouco significativos, os resultados mostram indícios de que é vantajoso para um investidor formar carteiras apenas de ações de empresas que possuem práticas de governança corporativa superiores.For investors who own stock portfolios, a healthier business climate brought about by superior corporate governance may better safeguard investments. An investigation was made to determine if a portfolio of stocks of companies with superior corporate governance (Type I had a better performance than one of companies with inferior governance (Type II. Randomly assembled portfolios were evaluated by the Sharpe Index (IS and showed that the Type I portfolio had a higher IS and a higher probability of return above the SELIC rate, 56.49%, than the Type II portfolio where this probability was less, 55.20%. Although not highly significant, results pointed to an advantage for the stock portfolio of companies with the superior corporate governance

  4. Analysis of interlocking performances on non-oriented electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Liu, Lee-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    In order to reduce energy loss in motor, applications of high-efficiency non-oriented electrical steel sheets and optimal laminating process are both important elements. The motor core loss deterioration is influenced by a number of factors, such as flux distribution, stress and strain, space harmonics, temperature, and short circuits between lamination. In conventional clamping method, steel sheets are laminated via interlocking or welding in general manner. The measured energy loss by welding was much larger than that by interlocking. Therefore, interlocking is well known and usually employed with benefit of easy conducting. The protuberance shapes affected the fastening strength. Generally, the intensity of rectangular type is stronger than the circular counterparts. However, the circular interlocking has better magnetic characteristics. To clarify the method effectiveness, interlocking performances regarding fastened strength and magnetic deterioration by lamination were investigated. The key parameters of protuberance shape and forming depth were designed. Precisely manufacturing operation was applied to avoid interlocking failure. Magnetic properties largely influenced by clamping method are crucial to minimizing the magnetic deterioration during laminating procedure. Several experiments for various processing conditions were undertaken, and the quantification results showed the rectangular interlocking had better fastened strength but worsened iron loss comparing with the circular arrangement. To acquire the comprehensive mechanical and electrical identities for electrical steel lamination, deliberate producing conditions regarding minimizing the magnetic deterioration should be adopted prudently.

  5. WARRIOR II, a high performance modular electric robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downton, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    Initially designed for in-reactor welding by the Central Electricity Generating Board, WARRIOR has been developed using the concept of modular technology to become a light-weight, high performance robotic system. Research work on existing machines for in-reactor inspection and repair and heavy duty hydraulic manipulators was progressed in order to develop WARRIOR II, a versatile in-reactor welding system usable at any nuclear power station light enough to be deployed by existing remote handling equipment. WARRIOR II can be significantly reconfigured quickly to pursue different ends. (UK)

  6. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  7. Superior performance of nanoscaled Fe3O4 as anode material promoted by mosaicking into porous carbon framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wang; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Weidong; Chen, Jitao; Zhou, Henghui; Zhang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    A nanoscale Fe3O4/porous carbon-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite is synthesized through a simple hard-template method by using Fe2O3 nanoparticles as the precursor and SiO2 nanoparticles as the template. The composite shows good cycle performance (941 mAh g-1 for the first cycle at 0.1 C, with 106% capacity retention at the 80th cycle) and high rate capability (71% capacity retained at 5 C rate). Its excellent electrical properties can be attributed to the porous carbon framework structure, which is composed of carbon and MWCNTs. In this composite, the porous structure provides space for the change in Fe3O4 volume during cycling and shortens the lithium ion diffusion distance, the MWCNTs increase the electron conductivity, and the carbon coating reduces the risk of side reactions. The results provide clear evidences for the utility of porous carbon framework to improve the electrochemical performances of nanosized transition-metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  9. Performance monitoring of electric shovels digging oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnayak, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Natural Resources Engineering Facility; Tannant, D.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering; Parsons, I. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre; Del Valle, V. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Some of the largest available mining equipment is used for oil sand mining operations. However, the performance of electric cable shovels varies with the diggability characteristics of the ground. In particular, oil sands diggability with cable shovels depends on structural geology, the depositional environment and geotechnical parameters. This paper described some of the key shovel performance indicators such as dig cycle time, digging energy and digging power. In winter, frost penetration can also affect oil sands diggability. The challenge of hard digging in oil sands is often addressed by blasting or ripping, which increases the cost of production and impedes productivity. The shovel performance is also influenced by other parameters such as operator skills, bucket and tooth design and shovel dipper trajectory. This paper demonstrated that hoist and crowd motor voltages and currents are useful in identifying the beginning and end of dig cycles. Performance indicators such as dig cycle time, hoist motor energy and power, and crowd motor energy and power were considered to assess material diggability. It was suggested that hoist power represents the ground diggability better than other performance indicators. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  10. Utilization of oil wells for electricity generation: Performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2015-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the climate change, which is the most important challenge facing humanity, is anthropogenic and attributed to fossil fuel consumption. Therefore, deploying more renewable energy resources is an urgent issue to be addressed. Geothermal refers to existing heat energy in deep rock and sedimentary basins. Traditionally, geothermal energy has been exploited in places with plentiful hot water at relatively shallow depth. Unfortunately, the high exploration and drilling costs of boreholes is the main barrier to the commerciality of geothermal worldwide. In oil producing countries, such problems can be overcome by utilizing oil or gas wells. The current study presents thermodynamic and economic analyses of a binary geothermal power generation system for commercial electricity generation. Two different source temperatures (100 and 120 °C) and constant sink temperature (29 °C) were considered. The optimal working fluid and optimal design that improve the performance of the plant are determined. For the current costs in Qatar, the economical analysis of 5 MW geothermal plant shows that the levelized cost of electricity for the plant varies from 5.6 to 5.2 ¢/kW. Whereas, the payback period of such plants lies between 5.8 and 4.8 years. - Highlights: • Utilizing oil well makes geothermal plant competitive with other resources. • R32 seems to be the best working fluid. • The levelized cost of electricity for geothermal plant is less than 5.6 ¢/kWh. • The payback time of geothermal plant is less than 6 years.

  11. Covalently coupled hybrid of graphitic carbon nitride with reduced graphene oxide as a superior performance lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Zhu, Junwu; Hu, Chong; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xin

    2014-10-01

    An in situ chemical synthetic approach has been designed for the fabrication of a covalently coupled hybrid consisting of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with differing g-C3N4/rGO ratio. The epoxy groups of graphene oxide (GO) undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with dicyandiamide (C2H4N4) to form the C2H4N4-GO composite via a covalent C-N bond, and then both the in situ polymerization of C2H4N4 and the thermal reduction of GO can be achieved at higher temperatures, forming the covalently coupled g-C3N4-rGO. FT-IR, CP-MAS NMR and XPS analyses, clearly revealed a covalent interaction between the g-C3N4 and rGO sheets. The g-C3N4-rGO exhibits an unprecedented high, stable and reversible capacity of 1525 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. Even at a large current density of 1000 mA g-1, a reversible capacity of 943 mA h g-1 can still be retained. The superior electrochemical performance of g-C3N4-rGO is attributed to the specific characteristics of the unique nanostructure of g-C3N4-rGO and the concerted effects of g-C3N4 and rGO, including covalent interactions between the two moieties, the good conductivity and high special surface area of the nanocomposite, as well as the template effect of the planar amino group of g-C3N4 for the dispersed decoration of Li+ ions.An in situ chemical synthetic approach has been designed for the fabrication of a covalently coupled hybrid consisting of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with differing g-C3N4/rGO ratio. The epoxy groups of graphene oxide (GO) undergo a nucleophilic substitution reaction with dicyandiamide (C2H4N4) to form the C2H4N4-GO composite via a covalent C-N bond, and then both the in situ polymerization of C2H4N4 and the thermal reduction of GO can be achieved at higher temperatures, forming the covalently coupled g-C3N4-rGO. FT-IR, CP-MAS NMR and XPS analyses, clearly revealed a covalent interaction between

  12. Performance assessment of the PNM Prosperity electricity storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Dakota [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellison, James F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the technical performance of the PNM Prosperity electricity storage project, and to identify lessons learned that can be used to improve similar projects in the future. The PNM Prosperity electricity storage project consists of a 500 kW/350 kWh advanced lead-acid battery with integrated supercapacitor (for energy smoothing) and a 250 kW/1 MWh advanced lead-acid battery (for energy shifting), and is co-located with a 500 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) resource. The project received American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding. The smoothing system is e ective in smoothing intermittent PV output. The shifting system exhibits good round-trip efficiencies, though the AC-to-AC annual average efficiency is lower than one might hope. Given the current utilization of the smoothing system, there is an opportunity to incorporate additional control algorithms in order to increase the value of the energy storage system.

  13. Performance evaluation of a transformerless multiphase electric submersible pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hakeem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using of low-voltage variable-frequency drive followed by a step-up transformer is the most preferable way to feed an electrical submersible pump motor. The existence of long feeder between the motor and drive systems usually causes over-voltage problems because of the travelling wave phenomenon, which makes the employment of filter networks on the motor or inverter terminals mandatory. The so-called boost-inverter inherently can solve this problem with filter-less operation as it offers a direct sinusoidal output voltage. As boost inverters have voltage boosting capability, it can provide a transformer-less operation as well. This study investigates the performance of a five-phase modular winding induction machine fed from a boost-inverter through a long feeder. A simulation study using a 1000 Hp system and experimental investigation on a 1 Hp prototype machine are used to support the presented approach.

  14. STUDENTS’MOTIVATION IN THE TRAINING PROCESS AND ITS RELATIONTO THE REWARDS FROM SUPERIORS FOR GETTING BETTER PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Elitsa Stoyanova Petrova

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a research on the influence of positive reinforcements on the motivation of civilian and military students in the training process and its relation with therewards given from the superiors for getting better performanceat the university. The study is conducted in a real educational environment. The subject of the study is the positive reinforcements and the end results in the training process. The object of the study is cadets in the last year of their education in the M...

  15. Surface–active bismuth ferrite as superior peroxymonosulfate activator for aqueous sulfamethoxazole removal: Performance, mechanism and quantification of sulfate radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Wen-Da, E-mail: wdoh@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dong, Zhili [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ronn, Goei [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Lim, Teik-Thye, E-mail: cttlim@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoplates (BF-nP) was synthesized via a hydrothermal method. • BF-nP was used as peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator for sulfamethoxazole (SMX) removal. • The Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} and Bi{sup 3+}/Bi{sup 5+} couples are responsible for PMS activation. • The sulfate radical concentration was quantified through benzoquinone detection. - Abstract: A surface–active Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoplates (BF–nP) was prepared using a facile hydrothermal protocol for sulfamethoxazole (SMX) removal via peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The catalytic activity of BF–nP was superior to other catalysts with the following order of performance: BF–nP > Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} (nanocubes) >> Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (low temperature co–precipitation method) > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hydrothermal method) ∼ Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} ∼ Bi{sup 3+} ∼ Fe{sup 3+}. The empirical relationship of the apparent rate constant (k{sub app}), BF–nP loading and PMS dosage can be described as follows: k{sub app} = 0.69[BF–nP]{sup 0.6}[PMS]{sup 0.4} (R{sup 2} = 0.98). The GC–MS study suggests that the SMX degradation proceed mainly through electron transfer reaction. The XPS study reveals that the interconversion of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} and Bi{sup 3+}/Bi{sup 5+} couples are responsible for the enhanced PMS activation. The radical scavenging study indicates that SO{sub 4}·{sup −} is the dominant reactive radical (>92% of the total SMX degradation). A method to quantify SO{sub 4}·{sup −} in the heterogeneous Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}/PMS systems based on the quantitation of benzoquinone, which is the degradation byproduct of p–hydroxybenzoic acid and SO{sub 4}·{sup −}, is proposed. It was found that at least 7.8 ± 0.1 μM of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} was generated from PMS during the BF–nP/PMS process (0.1 g L{sup −1}, 0.40 mM PMS, natural pH). The Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanoplates has a remarkable potential for use as a

  16. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Trevor [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States); Polzin, Kurt A. [NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  17. Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  18. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  19. Grain Refinement and High-Performance of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Cu-Mg Alloy for Electrical Contact Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibin Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (EACP was applied to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG Cu-0.2wt%Mg alloy contact wire with high mechanical/electric performance, aim to overcome the catenary barrier of high-speed trains by maximizing the tension and improving the power delivery. Microstructure evolution and overall properties of the Cu-Mg alloy after different severe-plastic-deformation (SPD routes were investigated by microscopic observation, tensile and electric tests. The results show that the Cu-Mg alloy after multi-pass ECAP at 473 K obtains ultrafine grains, higher strength and desired conductivity. More passes of ECAP leads to finer grains and higher strength, but increasing ECAP temperature significantly lower the strength increment of the UFG alloy. Grain refinement via continuous SPD processing can endow the Cu-Mg alloy superior strength and good conductivity characteristics, which are advantageous to high-speed electrification railway systems.

  20. MHD electrical boundary layer theory and applications to the performance of channels with partial wraparound electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, S.A.; Doss, E.D.; West Florida University, Pensacola, FL)

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed for calculating the potential and currents near boundary singularities caused by electrode edges or abrupt drops in conductivity or in the induction field. A three-dimensional control volume (finite-difference) model for solving the MHD electrical problems in oblique coordinates has been developed, which accounts for the near-wall singular behavior accurately and can be used with relatively sparse grids. Analyses based on the model indicate that, for practical generator design where the electrode pitch is in the order of 1 to 5 cm and the wall temperature less than 2100 K, the performance of diagonal conducting wall (DCW) channels is always superior to that of channels with insulating sidewalls, although the performance of insulating sidewall channel is better at higher wall temperatures. Sidewall electrode extensions up to a wraparound of about 20% of the channel height are shown to cause an increase in power output. The output of diagonally connected channels remains approximately the same for more than 20% wraparound whereas the power output of Faraday channels drops off with further extensions of the sidewall conductors

  1. Sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation fosters motor imagery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Tiffany; Iturrate, Iñaki; Pereira, Michael; Perdikis, Serafeim; Millán, José Del R

    2018-04-21

    Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern. In this study we propose a novel feedback modality to guide subjects during MI based on sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation (St-NMES). St-NMES depolarizes sensory and motor axons without eliciting any muscular contraction. We hypothesize that St-NMES does not induce detectable ERD brain patterns and fosters MI performance. Twelve novice subjects were included in a cross-over design study. We recorded their EEG, comparing St-NMES with visual feed-back during MI or resting tasks. We found that St-NMES not only induced significantly larger desynchronization over sensorimotor areas (p<0.05) but also significantly enhanced MI brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, classification accuracy and stability were significantly higher with St-NMES. Importantly, St-NMES alone did not induce detectable artifacts, but rather the changes in the detected patterns were due to an increased MI performance. Our findings indicate that St-NMES is a promising feedback in order to foster MI performance and cold be used for BMI online applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Efficient Transfer of Graphene-Physical and Electrical Performance Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2012-11-01

    Efficient Transfer of Graphene –Physical and Electrical Performance Perspective Graphene has become one of the most widely used atomic crystal structure materials since its first experimental proof by Geim-Novoselov in 2004 [1]. This is attributed to its reported incredible carrier mobility, mechanical strength and thermal conductivity [2] [3] [4]. These properties suggest interesting applications of Graphene ranging from electronics to energy storage and conversion [5]. In 2008, Chen et al reported a 40,000 cm2V-1s-1 mobility for a Single Layer Graphene (SLG) on SiO2 compared to 285 cm2V-1s-1 for silicon channel devices [6]. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a common method for growing graphene on a metal surface as a catalyst for graphene nucleation. This adds a necessary transfer step to the target substrate ultimately desired for graphene devices fabrication. Interfacing with graphene is a critical challenge in preserving its promising high mobility. This initiated the motivation for studying the effect of intermediate interfaces imposed by transfer processes. In this work, few layers graphene (FLG) was grown on copper foils inside a high temperature furnace. Then Raman spectroscopy was performed on grown graphene sample to confirm few (in between 3-10) layers. Afterwards the sample was cut into three pieces and transferred to 300 nm SiO2 on Si substrates using three techniques, namely: (i) pickup transfer with top side of Graphene brought in contact with SiO2 [7], (ii) Ploy (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transfer with Graphene and a PMMA support layer on top scooped from bottom side [8], and (iii) a modified direct transfer which is similar to PMMA transfer without the support layer [9]. Comparisons were done using Raman spectroscopy to determine the relative defectivity, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to observe discontinuities and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure surface roughness. Then we conclude with electrical data based on the contact

  3. Performance tests of communal electric-powered vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, J.

    1993-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles within the service industry (such as the town's sanitation, its trash collection and horticultural authority) can lead to a visible environmental relief, particularly in the inner city. The RWE in Essen has been supporting the development and use of electric vehicles for over 20 years and introduced a program in 1990 for the communities(ProKom) which provides 5 million DM for over 5 years for the support of electric vehicles. In this article the communities' requirements for electric vehicles are discussed, the types of vehicles which are mediated by ProKom are introduced and the first practical experiences made are also reported. (BWI) [de

  4. Constructing nanoporous carbon nanotubes/Bi2Te3 composite for synchronous regulation of the electrical and thermal performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihao; Xu, Leilei; Zhou, Zhenxing; Wang, Lianjun; Jiang, Wan; Chen, Lidong

    2017-02-01

    Porous nanograined thermoelectric materials exhibit low thermal conductivity due to scattering of phonons by pores, which are favorable for thermoelectric applications. However, the benefit is not large enough to overcome the deficiency in the electrical performance. Herein, an approach is presented to reduce the thermal conductivity and synchronously enhance the electrical conductivity through constructing a nanoporous thermoelectric composite. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are truncated and homogeneously dispersed within the Bi2Te3 matrix by a cryogenic grinding (CG) technique for the first time, which efficiently suppress the Bi2Te3 grain growth and create nanopores with the size ranging from dozens to hundreds of nanometers. The lattice thermal conductivity is substantially decreased by broad wavelength phonon scattering resulting from nanopores, increased grain boundaries, and newly formed interfaces. Meanwhile, the electrical conductivity is improved due to the enhanced carrier mobility, which may originate from the bridging effect between the Bi2Te3 grains and CNTs. The maximum ZT is improved by almost a factor of 2 due to the simultaneous optimization of electrical and thermal performances. Our study demonstrates the superiority of constructing a bulk thermoelectric composite with nanopores by the uniform dispersion of CNTs through a CG technique for enhanced thermoelectric properties, which provides a wider approach to thermoelectric nanostructure engineering.

  5. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of ...

  6. WARRIOR II, a high performance modular electric robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downton, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance electric robot, WARRIOR, was built for in-reactor welding at the Oldbury nuclear power plant in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s. WARRIOR II has been developed as a lighter, smaller diameter articulated welding robot which can be deployed on its umbilical down a stand pipe for remote docking with the manipulator system which delivers it to its work site. A key feature of WARRIOR II has been the development of a prototype spherical modular joint. The module provides the drive torque necessary to motivate the robot arm, acts as the joint bearing, has standard mechanical interfaces for the limb sections, accurately measures the joint angle and has cable services running through the centre. It can act either as a bend or rotate joint and the interconnecting limb sections need only to be simple tubular sections. A wide range of manipulator configurations to suit the access constraints of particular problems can be achieved with a set of joint modules and limb sections. A general purpose motion controller has also been developed which is capable of kinematically controlling any configuration of WARRIOR II thus contributing to the realisation of the concept of a general purpose tool which can be used over and over again, at short notice, in any situation where a high precision, light weight, versatile manipulator is required. (UK)

  7. MINAC radiography performed on susquehanna Steam Electric Station Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognet, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ten welds were volumetrically examined with a manual and automated ultrasonic (UT) system during a Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SES) Unit 1 preservice inspection. The automated system had been recently developed and several problems were encountered in this first field application. The ten welds examined had a Sweepolet-to-Risor weld configuration, which further complicated the examination effort. This weld configuration has corrosion-resistant cladding applied to the outside and inside circumference and, as a result of an installation/removal/reinstallation sequence during plant construction, is often referred to as the double weld. After several attempts to obtain interpretable UT data failed (e.g., repeatable data), the examination effort was terminated. PP and L opted to pursue using the Miniature Linear Accelerator (MINAC) to perform radiographic examination. The results were referenced in the Susquehanna SES Unit 1 outage summary report and submitted to the NRC. The total effort was viewed as a complete success with no impact to the overall outage duration. All welds previously attempted by automated and manual UT were successfully examined using the MINAC

  8. Synthesis and superior anode performances of TiO2-carbon-rGO composites in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yameng; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Hongbian; Wei, Huijuan; Li, Baojun; Wang, Xiangyu

    2012-09-26

    In this article, TiO(2)-Carbon-rGO (GCT) three-component composite material has been constructed by anchoring TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in carbon shells onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The structure of GCT was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This material shows a superior retention as the anode materials in lithium ion battery with a specific discharge capacity of 188 mA h g(-1) in the initial cycle and 158 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles.

  9. STUDENTS’MOTIVATION IN THE TRAINING PROCESS AND ITS RELATIONTO THE REWARDS FROM SUPERIORS FOR GETTING BETTER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova Petrova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a research on the influence of positive reinforcements on the motivation of civilian and military students in the training process and its relation with therewards given from the superiors for getting better performanceat the university. The study is conducted in a real educational environment. The subject of the study is the positive reinforcements and the end results in the training process. The object of the study is cadets in the last year of their education in the Military Science professional field, specialising in Organisation and Management of Military Units at a Tactical Level at the National Military University in Bulgaria. In the course of theoretical research were studied motivational theories of needs, socially acquired knowledge, behavioural, cognitive, psychoanalytic and biological motivational theories.

  10. Low-frequency rTMS in the superior parietal cortex affects the working memory in horizontal axis during the spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica Alves; Marinho, Francisco Victor Costa; Rocha, Kaline; Magalhães, Francisco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Cagy, Mauricio; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Gupta, Daya; Teixeira, Silmar

    2018-03-01

    Spatial working memory has been extensively investigated with different tasks, treatments, and analysis tools. Several studies suggest that low frequency of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the parietal cortex may influence spatial working memory (SWM). However, it is not yet known if after low-frequency rTMS applied to the superior parietal cortex, according to Pz electroencephalography (EEG) electrode, would change the orientation interpretation about the vertical and horizontal axes coordinates in an SWM task. The current study aims at filling this gap and obtains a better understanding of the low-frequency rTMS effect in SWM. In this crossover study, we select 20 healthy subjects in two conditions (control and 1-Hz rTMS). The subjects performed an SWM task with two random coordinates. Our results presented that low-frequency rTMS applied over the superior parietal cortex may influence the SWM to lead to a larger distance of axes interception point (p low-frequency rTMS over the superior parietal cortex (SPC) changes the SWM performance, and it has more predominance in horizontal axis.

  11. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  12. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  13. Carbon intensity of electricity in ASEAN: Drivers, performance and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Goh, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), with its ten member countries, has a total population exceeding 600 million. Its energy-related CO 2 emissions have been growing and in 2013 amounted to 3.6% of total global emissions. About 40% of ASEAN's energy-related CO 2 emissions are currently attributable to electricity production. In view of this high share, we study the CO 2 emissions of ASEAN's electricity production sector with a focus on the aggregate emission intensity (ACI) given by the level of CO 2 emissions for each unit of electricity produced. Drivers of ACI are analysed for individual countries and spatial analysis is conducted by comparing factors contributing to differences between the ACIs of individual countries and that of the ASEAN average. Arising from these analyses and in light of the current developments, it is concluded that drastic actions need to be taken both at the national and regional levels in order to reduce growth in the region's electricity-related CO 2 emissions. Two key policy issues, namely overcoming national circumstances to improve electricity generation mix and improving power generation efficiency, are further discussed. - Highlights: • Aggregate carbon intensities (ACIs) of ASEAN countries analysed temporally and spatially using index decomposition analysis. • Bleak future for emissions and ACI of ASEAN countries with increasing inclination towards coal for electricity production. • National circumstances impact ability of countries to improve electricity generation mix. • Significant unexploited potential for improvements in thermal efficiency of generation.

  14. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  15. Enhancement of plate heat exchanger performance using electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, E.M.

    2000-12-01

    The falling film plate evaporator is often used in the food processing industry to remove large amounts of water from liquids, pulps and slurries. Although a compact efficient device with high heat transfer rates, there is a requirement for even greater performance, particularly when fuelled by the low grade energy from many renewable sources. Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) has been shown to give large heat transfer enhancements under many conditions, but most of this previous research has been with working fluids having much lower electrical conductivities than the water-based fluids that are the main concern of this study. The liquid flow in falling film plate evaporators is in the form of a very thin (less than a millimetre) film falling down a heated plate under the effect of gravity. The film surface exhibits waviness over much of the operating range of industrial heat exchangers, and the degree of waviness has previously been shown to have a large effect on the rate of heat transfer. A theoretical model was developed which suggested that significant increases in waviness, and therefore heat transfer, could be stimulated using high voltage electrodes, and these were subsequently observed on the surface of a pool of water during bench-top experiments. An experimental falling film rig was designed to study this EHD effect but the 2.5 kV maximum voltage attainable was thought to be too low to stimulate wave enlargement and no heat transfer enhancement was seen. Significant heat transfer enhancement was observed in the falling film rig when utilising corona discharge electrodes. This was thought to be due to a thinning of the film in the vicinity of the electrode via the corona wind and increased fluid mixing downstream of the electrode. Both point and wire electrodes improved heat transfer rates but wire electrodes were thought to have more potential for integration into existing industrial heat exchanger designs, so were studied more closely. Heat transfer rates

  16. The influence of the picture superiority effect on performance in the word and picture form of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a delayed cued recall test that controls attention and cognitive processing to obtain a measure of episodic memory that is unconfounded by normal age-related changes in cognition. Performance in the FCSRT is sensitive to the early changes in episodic memory associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There are two forms of the FCSRT: a ‘word’ form and a ‘picture’ form. This study aimed to examine whether the picture superiority e...

  17. Enhancement of the Performance of a Transfer Field Electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the enhancement of the output power and power factor of a transfer field machine operating in the asynchronous mode by direct capacitance injection into the auxiliary winding of the machine, which is electrically isolated from the main winding but magnetically coupled to it. It is shown that by proper ...

  18. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Bryan M.; Wachsman, Eric D.; Van Assche, IV, Frederick Martin

    2015-05-19

    Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided. According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. The shaped electric fields can alter surface dynamics, system thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and adsorption/desorption processes. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor.

  19. SnS{sub 2} nanoplates embedded in 3D interconnected graphene network as anode material with superior lithium storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hongli [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Han, Weijia; Ren, Long; Liu, Yundan [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Xingyan, E-mail: xywangxtu@163.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Zhong, Jianxin [Hunan Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, and School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic formation process of 3D interconnected SnS{sub 2}/graphene composite, and its superior lithium storage performance. - Highlights: • 3D graphene network embedded with SnS{sub 2} is synthesized by a facile two-step method. • This structure produces a synergistic effect between graphene and SnS{sub 2} nanoplates. • High capacity, excellent cycle performance and good rate capability are achieved. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) interconnected graphene network embedded with uniformly distributed tin disulfide (SnS{sub 2}) nanoplates was prepared by a facile two-step method. The microstructures and morphologies of the SnS{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite (SSG) are experimentally confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using the as-prepared SSG as an anode material for lithium batteries, its electrochemical performances were investigated by cyclic voltammograms (CV), charge/discharge tests, galvanostatic cycling performance and AC impedance spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared SSG exhibits excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 1060 mAh g{sup −1} retained after 200 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, also a superior rate capability of 670 mAh g{sup −1} even at such a high current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}. This favorable performance can be attributed to the unique 3D interconnected architecture with great electro-conductivity and its intimate contact with SnS{sub 2}. Our results indicate a potential application of this novel 3D SnS{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite in lithium-ion battery.

  20. Designing for human performance - CANDU electrical panels - then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    Experience has shown that few changes are made to CANDU control center panels once plants are in service. There are several reasons for this, for example, operational conservatism, outage minimization, avoidance of retraining effort, and perhaps lack of appreciation of improvement opportunities. Since the initial CANDU 6 plants were designed, the industry has moved forward with adoption of new approaches to control room interface design that have introduced changes in design principles and emphasis. At Point Lepreau, the electrical panels have remained virtually unchanged since initial design. The author, the original electrical system commissioning engineer, reviews the design considerations that led to the initial panel design, reviews some of the operational limitations discovered during use, and offers some suggestions on improvement directions, if these panels were being designed today, that would offer an implementation to better support operator tasks. (author)

  1. Non-aqueous hybrid supercapacitors fabricated with mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and activated carbon electrodes with superior performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Zhao, Bote; Wang, Jie; Shao, Zongping

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 microspheres, synthesized by a facile template-free solvothermal method and subsequent heat treatment, are exploited as the electrode for hybrid supercapacitors. The effects of the calcination temperature on the phase composition, particulate microstructure and morphology are characterized by XRD, Raman, FE-SEM and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements. Hybrid supercapacitors utilizing the as-prepared TiO2 mesoporous microspheres as the negative electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the positive electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte are fabricated. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid supercapacitors is studied by galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The hybrid supercapacitor built from TiO2 microspheres calcined at 400 °C shows the best performance, delivering an energy density of 79.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 178.1 W kg-1. Even at a power density of 9.45 kW kg-1, an energy density of 31.5 Wh kg-1 is reached. These values are much higher than the AC-AC symmetric supercapacitor. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling performance, retaining 98% of the initial energy density after 1000 cycles. Such outstanding electrochemical performance of the hybrid supercapacitor is attributed to the matched reaction kinetics between the two electrodes with different energy storage mechanisms.

  2. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material for photovol...

  3. What doesn't kill me…: Adversity-related experiences are vital in the development of superior Olympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David; Brown, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Recent research suggests that experiencing some adversity can have beneficial outcomes for human growth and development. The purpose of this paper was to explore the adversities that the world's best athletes encounter and the perceived role that these experiences play in their psychological and performance development. A qualitative design was employed because detailed information of rich quality was required to better understand adversity-related experiences in the world's best athletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Olympic gold medalists from a variety of sports. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that the participants encountered a range of sport- and non-sport adversities that they considered were essential for winning their gold medals, including repeated non-selection, significant sporting failure, serious injury, political unrest, and the death of a family member. The participants described the role that these experiences played in their psychological and performance development, specifically focusing on their resultant trauma, motivation, and learning. Adversity-related experiences were deemed to be vital in the psychological and performance development of Olympic champions. In the future, researchers should conduct more in-depth comparative studies of Olympic athletes' adversity- and growth-related experiences, and draw on existing and alternative theoretical explanations of the growth-performance relationship. For professional practitioners, adversity-related experiences offer potential developmental opportunities if they are carefully and purposely harnessed. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward Aerogel Electrodes of Superior Rate Performance in Supercapacitors through Engineered Hollow Nanoparticles of NiCo2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjiang; Chen, Shuai; Zhu, Xiaoyi; She, Xilin; Liu, Tongchao; Zhang, Huawei; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yang, Dongjiang; Yao, Xiangdong

    2017-12-01

    A biomass-templated pathway is developed for scalable synthesis of NiCo 2 O 4 @carbon aerogel electrodes for supercapacitors, where NiCo 2 O 4 hollow nanoparticles with an average outer diameter of 30-40 nm are conjoined by graphitic carbon forming a 3D aerogel structure. This kind of NiCo 2 O 4 aerogel structure shows large specific surface area (167.8 m 2 g -1 ), high specific capacitance (903.2 F g -1 at a current density of 1 A g -1 ), outstanding rate performance (96.2% capacity retention from 1 to 10 A g -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (nearly without capacitance loss after 3000 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). The unique structure of the 3D hollow aerogel synergistically contributes to the high performance. For instance, the 3D interconnected porous structure of the aerogel is beneficial for electrolyte ion diffusion and for shortening the electron transport pathways, and thus can improve the rate performance. The conductive carbon joint greatly enhances the specific capacity, and the hollow structure prohibits the volume changes during the charge-discharge process to significantly improve the cycling stability. This work represents a giant step toward the preparation of high-performance commercial supercapacitors.

  5. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  6. Sandwich morphology and superior dye-removal performances for nanofiltration membranes self-assemblied via graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui; Shi, Jie; Liu, Liyan; Shan, Mingjing; Xu, Zhiwei; Li, Nan; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Qian, Xiaoming; Zhao, Lihuan

    2018-01-01

    To tune interlayer spacing, regulate water channel and improve stability of composite membrane, graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized carbon nanotubes (OCNTs) were assembled alternately to form sandwich morphology on a polyacrylonitrile substrate by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Polyelectrolyte played a part in cross-linking between GO and OCNTs. The effects about concentration ratio of GO and OCNTs on nanofiltration performance were investigated in detail. The composite membrane was used for dye rejection. When composite membrane with concentration ratio of GO and OCNTs was 10:1, water flux and rejection rate for methyl blue reached 21.71 L/(m2 h) and 99.3%, respectively. Meanwhile, this composite membrane had higher flux compared with reported literatures in which rejection also reached up to 99%. When concentration ratio of composite membranes about GO and OCNTs were 10:1 and 15:1, dye rejection for methyl blue remained 99.3% and 99.6% respectively after operating time of 50 h. Irreversible fouling ratio of composite membrane in a concentration ratio of 10:1 was only 4.4%, indicating that composite membrane had excellent antifouling performance for Bovine Serum Albumin. It was speculated that proper distribution of OCNTs in the sandwich morphology formed proper support points and water channels which benefited for a more stable performance.

  7. Mesoporous nickel oxide nanowires: hydrothermal synthesis, characterisation and applications for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with superior performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dawei; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Woo-Seong; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-06-25

    Mesoporous nickel oxide nanowires were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction and subsequent annealing at 400 °C. The porous one-dimensional nanostructures were analysed by field-emission SEM, high-resolution TEM and N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherm measurements. When applied as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared mesoporous nickel oxide nanowires demonstrated outstanding electrochemical performance with high lithium storage capacity, satisfactory cyclability and an excellent rate capacity. They also exhibited a high specific capacitance of 348 F g(-1) as electrodes in supercapacitors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Pseudocapacitive Behaviors of Li2FeTiO4/C Hybrid Porous Nanotubes for Novel Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes with Superior Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yakun; Liu, Lang; Zhao, Hongyang; Zhang, Yue; Kong, Ling Bing; Gao, Shasha; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Lei; Jia, Dianzeng

    2018-06-20

    Hybrid nanotubes of cation disordered rock salt structured Li 2 FeTiO 4 nanoparticles embedded in porous CNTs were developed. Such unique hybrids with continuous 3D electron transportation paths and isolated small particles have been shown to be an ideal architecture that brought out enhanced electrochemical performances. Meanwhile, they exhibited improved extrinsic capacitive characteristics. In addition, we demonstrate a successful example to use cathode active material as anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). More importantly, our hybrids had much superior electrochemical performances than most of the reported Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -based nanocomposites. Therefore, it is concluded that Li 2 FeTiO 4 can be a prospective anode material for LIBs.

  9. Microporous ceramic coated separators with superior wettability for enhancing the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharto, Yustian; Lee, Yongho; Yu, Ji-Sang; Choi, Wonchang; Kim, Ki Jae

    2018-02-01

    Finding an alternative to glass fiber (GF) separators is a crucial factor for the fast commercialization of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), because GF separators are too thick for use in SIBs, thereby decreasing the volumetric and gravimetric energy density. Here we propose a microporous composite separator prepared by introducing a polymeric coating layer of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP co-polymer) with ZrO2 nanoparticles to a polyethylene (PE) separator. The coated separator efficiently enhances the cell performance of SIBs. The ZrO2 nanoparticles, finely dispersed on the polymeric coating layer, induce the formation of many micropores on the polymeric coating layer, suggesting that micropore formation on the coating layer renders the composite separator more open in structure. An ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte for SIBs is not absorbed by PE separators even after 1 h of electrolyte droplet testing, while the proposed separator with many micropores is completely wetted by the electrolyte. Sodium ion migration across the composite separator is therefore effectively enhanced by the formation of ion transfer pathways, which improve ionic conductivity. As a result, the microporous composite separator affords stable cycle performances and excellent specific capacity retention (95.8%) after 50 cycles, comparable to those offered by a SIB with a GF separator.

  10. Modelo de avaliação de desempenho global para instituição de ensino superior Evaluation Model of Global Performance for Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Martins Galvão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a model to evaluate overall performance for Higher Education Institutions. It is unquestionable the importance of organizations from the education sector for knowledge development and dissemination of information, necessary for the progress of a city, region or country. However, it is necessary to develop tools for planning and management control to monitor organizational performance. In this case, one of the most important tasks is related to the types of information that managers need to monitor and tune the performance of the organization. The proposed evaluation model helps to improve the organizational performance of education institutions, creating higher value in the services offered.Este estudo propõe um modelo de avaliação de desempenho global para instituições de ensino superior. É indiscutível a importância das organizações do setor da educação, decisivas para o progresso de uma cidade, região ou país, por serem indutoras do desenvolvimento do conhecimento e da disseminação da informação. Por isso, torna-se necessário desenvolver, para essas instituições educacionais, instrumentos gerenciais de planejamento e de controle que monitorem o desempenho organizacional. Neste caso, uma das tarefas mais relevantes relaciona-se aos tipos de informações que os gerentes necessitam para monitorar e ajustar o desempenho da organização. O modelo de avaliação proposto contribui para melhorar o desempenho organizacional das instituições de ensino, criando valor superior nos serviços oferecidos.

  11. Superior electrode performance of LiFePO4/C composite prepared by an in situ polymerization restriction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jian; Zou, Yong-Cun; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Chun; Guo, Fei-Fan; Li, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LiFePO 4 /C composite was prepared by an in situ polymerization restriction method. ► The size of LiFePO 4 in the composite is effectively restricted. ► The high-rate capability and cycling performance of LiFePO 4 are enhanced greatly. -- Abstract: The LiFePO 4 /C composite is prepared by heating the mixture of resorcinol–formaldehyde gel and FePO 4 , synthesized by an in situ polymerization restriction method, and lithium acetate dihydrate in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The physical and electrochemical properties of the LiFePO 4 /C composite are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements. The discharge capacity of LiFePO 4 is as high as 155.6 mA h g −1 in the first cycle at 0.5C, and it could remain 144.0 mA h g −1 after 50 cycles. Even at the high rates of 10C, 20C and 50C, the initial discharge capacities of the electrodes exhibit 115.6 mA h g −1 , 84.5 mA h g −1 and 67.8 mA h g −1 , and the electrodes deliver capacity retention of 89.5%, 90.9% and 85.7% after 1000 cycles, respectively. The outstanding electrochemical performance could be attributed to the small particle size and good electronic conductivity of the composite

  12. Performance of electrical contact pins near a nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.; Silbert, M.G.; Ellis, A.N.; Robinson, E.E.; Daddario, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The pressures attainable in equation-of-state studies using nuclear-explosion-driven shock waves greatly exceed those that can be reached in normal laboratory conditions. However, the diagnostic instrumentation must survive in the high-radiation environment present near such an explosion. Therefore, a set of experiments were fielded on the Redmud event to test the feasibility of using electrical contact pins in this environment. In these experiments a 60-cm-high shield of boron-lead was placed on the rack lid approximately 1 m from the device. A sample consisting of slabs of molybdenum and 238 U was placed on top of the shield, and twelve electrical contact pins were embedded to five different depths in the materials. Five different multiplexing-charging circuits were used for the pins, and a piezoelectric quartz gauge was placed on top of the uranium to obtain an estimate of the fission-energy deposition. All of the charged pins survived the radiation and produced signals indicating shock arrival. The uncertainty in determining the pin-closure time was approximately 3 ns. The signal from the quartz gauge corresponded to a pressure that was consistent with the calculated neutron fluence

  13. Interdispersed amorphous MnO{sub x}-carbon nanocomposites with superior electrochemical performance as lithium-storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Juchen; Wang, Chunsheng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Qing; Zachariah, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-02-22

    The realization of manganese oxide anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is hindered by inferior cycle stability, rate capability, and high overpotential induced by the agglomeration of manganese metal grains, low conductivity of manganese oxide, and the high stress/strain in the crystalline manganese oxide structure during the repeated lithiation/delithiation process. To overcome these challenges, unique amorphous MnO{sub x}-C nanocomposite particles with interdispersed carbon are synthesized using aerosol spray pyrolysis. The carbon filled in the pores of amorphous MnO{sub x} blocks the penetration of liquid electrolyte to the inside of MnO{sub x}, thus reducing the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase and lowering the irreversible capacity. The high electronic and lithium-ion conductivity of carbon also enhances the rate capability. Moreover, the interdispersed carbon functions as a barrier structure to prevent manganese grain agglomeration. The amorphous structure of MnO{sub x} brings additional benefits by reducing the stress/strain of the conversion reaction, thus lowering lithiation/delithiation overpotential. As the result, the amorphous MnO{sub x}-C particles demonstrated the best performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries to date. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Evaluation of the Impact of Outsourcing on the Performance of Lithuanian Electricity Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Gasparėnienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at evaluation of the impact of outsourcing on the performance of Lithuanian electricity industry. Research methods include systematic analysis of the scientific literature and expert evaluation. Theoretical analysis of the literature has enabled to identify the most significant outsourcing determinants, which have the impact on the performance of electricity industry, and the main outsourcing-related risks for the companies operating in this industry. The results of the empirical research have revealed the effects of various outsourcing determinants on the performance of Lithuanian electricity industry as well as negative outcomes of outsourcing application in the researched industry.

  15. PID temperature controller in pig nursery: improvements in performance, thermal comfort, and electricity use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Granja Barros, Juliana; Rossi, Luiz Antonio; Sartor, Karina

    2016-08-01

    The use of smarter temperature control technologies in heating systems can optimize the use of electric power and performance of piglets. Two control technologies of a resistive heating system were assessed in a pig nursery: a PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) controller and a thermostat. The systems were evaluated regarding thermal environment, piglet performance, and use of electric power for 99 days. The heating system with PID controller improved the thermal environment conditions and was significantly (P PID-controlled heating system is more efficient in electricity use and provides better conditions for thermal comfort and animal performance than heating with thermostat.

  16. Electrical equipment performance under severe accident conditions (BWR/Mark 1 plant analysis): Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Medford, G.T.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of the Performance Evaluation of Electrical Equipment during Severe Accident States Program is to determine the performance of electrical equipment, important to safety, under severe accident conditions. In FY85, a method was devised to identify important electrical equipment and the severe accident environments in which the equipment was likely to fail. This method was used to evaluate the equipment and severe accident environments for Browns Ferry Unit 1, a BWR/Mark I. Following this work, a test plan was written in FY86 to experimentally determine the performance of one selected component to two severe accident environments

  17. Evaluation of SF6-alternative gas C5-PFK based on arc extinguishing performance and electric strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunlin; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Murphy, Anthony Bruce; Li, Tianwei; Zhong, Jianying; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Niu, Chunpin

    2017-09-01

    C5-PFK (C5-perfluoroketone, C5F10O) is under wide consideration as an environmentally-friendly alternative gas to SF6 in high-voltage applications, because of its superior insulation performance. The aim of this work is to study theoretically the arc extinguishing performance and electric strength of C5-PFK. The arc extinguishing performance of C5-PFK was evaluated by analyzing and comparing the thermophysical properties of C5-PFK, SF6, CF4, CO2 and N2 plasmas. It was difficult to obtain the species formed in C5-PFK plasmas because of the complex C5-PFK molecular decomposition process. In this work, the decomposition process of C5-PFK and the related species were analyzed by the bond energy analysis method. For the species for which parameters such as the partition function and the enthalpy of formation were not available, computational chemistry methods were used to obtain the required data. The collision integrals were calculated using the phenomenological potential model. Using these results, the local thermodynamic equilibrium composition at temperatures from 300 to 30 000 K at 1-10 atm of pure C5-PFK was calculated by the method of minimization of the Gibbs free energy, and the corresponding transport coefficients were calculated by Chapman-Enskog method. Through the comparison of the thermophysical properties, it was found that C5-PFK had similar characteristics to SF6, with large peaks in specific heat below 4500 K, indicating potentially good thermal interruption capability. However, the specific heat peak at 7000 K corresponding to CO decomposition may detract from the thermal interruption capability. Specific heat peaks at higher temperatures are associated with the breaking of double or triple bonds, and should be avoided if possible in the new alternative gases. The electric strength of C5-PFK was assessed using the molecular electrostatic potential, which can be accurately calculated or measured, and gives strong insights into important

  18. High Performance Electrical Modeling and Simulation Verification Test Suite - Tier I; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHELLS, REGINA L.; BOGDAN, CAROLYN W.; WIX, STEVEN D.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the High Performance Electrical Modeling and Simulation (HPEMS) Global Verification Test Suite (VERTS). The VERTS is a regression test suite used for verification of the electrical circuit simulation codes currently being developed by the HPEMS code development team. This document contains descriptions of the Tier I test cases

  19. Performance results of a solar greenhouse combining electrical and thermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Campen, J.B.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  20. Field weakening performance of flux-switching machines for hybrid/electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flux-switching machines (FSMs) are a viable candidate for electric propulsion of hybrid/electric vehicles. This paper investigates the field weakening performance of FSMs. The investigation starts with general torque and voltage expressions, which reveal the relationships between certain parameters

  1. Energy improvement and performance evaluation of a novel full hybrid electric motorcycle with power split e-CVT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative hybrid powertrain system using a planetary gearset and dual one-way clutch. • Three operation modes: EV-mode, engine-driven mode and power split e-CVT mode. • Outstanding energy improvement (max. 32+%) compared to traditional vehicles. • Experimentally implemented for light-duty vehicles in the near future. - Abstract: The power split electronic-continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) has been globally accepted as a main architecture for developing a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In this paper, a novel full hybrid electric motorcycle with power split e-CVT is proposed. It consists of an engine, a reversible generator, a reversible driving motor, a set of the planetary gear, two one-way clutches, and transmission components arranged for a planetary gearset and dual one-way clutch transmission (PDOC). Three operation modes were properly switched for optimal output dynamics: EV-mode, engine-driven mode, and power split e-CVT mode. Performance simulation compared with that of a baseline system using the conventional rubber-belt CVT is conducted to evaluate its feasibility and potential. The results present superior driving performance and fuel economy for the proposed motorcycle (maximum 32% fuel economy improvement) and thus offer a favorable support for further development

  2. A novel graphene nanoribbon FET with an extra peak electric field (EFP-GNRFET) for enhancing the electrical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari Eshkalak, Maedeh [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anvarifard, Mohammad K., E-mail: m.anvarifard@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, East of Guilan, University of Guilan, Rudsar-Vajargah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    This work has provided an efficient technique to improve the electrical performance for the Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNRFETs) successfully. The physical gate length is divided into two gates named as the original gate and the other one as the virtual gate. We have applied a voltage source between these gates to control the channel of the GNRFETs. This technique has created an extra peak electric field in the middle of the channel resulting in the redistribution of surface potential profile. The proposed structure named as EFP-GNRFET has been compared with a simple GNRFET and has shown many improvements in terms of the critical parameters such as short channel effects, leakage current, subthreshold swing, ON-state to OFF-state current ratio, transconductance, output conductance and voltage gain. The structures under the study in this paper benefits from the Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF) approach for solving Schrödinger equation coupled with the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation in a self-consistent manner. - Highlights: • Proposal of a novel graphene nanoribbon FET. • Creation of an extra peak in electric field. • Modification of the channel potential with the help of virtual gate. • Considerable improvement on electrical performances.

  3. Performance of electric and hybrid vehicles at the 1995 American Tour de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Buitrago, C.; Duoba, M.; Larsen, R.

    1995-12-31

    Energy consumption and performance data were collected on more than 40 electric and hybrid vehicles during the 1995 American Tour de Sol. At this competition, one electric vehicle drove 229 miles on one charge using nickel metalhydride batteries. The results obtained from the data show that electric vehicle efficiencies reached 9.07 mi./kWh or 70 equivalent mpg of gasoline when compared to the total energy cycle efficiency of electricity and gasoline. A gasoline-fueled 1995 Geo Metro that drove the same route attained 36.4 mpg.

  4. Harmonizing electricity markets with physics : real time performance monitoring using grid-3PTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Power Group, LLC provides management and strategic consulting services for the electric power industry, with special emphasis on industry restructuring, competitive electricity markets, grid operations and reliability, power technologies, venture investments and start-ups. The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions involves national laboratories, universities, and industry partners in researching, developing, and commercializing electric reliability technology solutions to protect and enhance the reliability of the American electric power system under the emerging competitive electricity market structure. Physics differentiate electric markets from other markets: there is real-time balancing, no storage, interconnected network, and power flows governed by physics. Some issues affecting both grid reliability and market issues are difficult to separate, such as security and congestion management, voltage management, reserves, frequency volatility, and others. The author examined the following investment challenges facing the electricity market: grid solutions, market solutions, and technology solutions. The real time performance monitoring and prediction platform, grid-3P was described and applications discussed, such as ACE-frequency monitoring, performance monitoring for automatic generation control (AGC) and frequency response, voltage/VAR monitoring, stability monitoring using phasor technology, and market monitoring. figs

  5. The performance of residential micro-cogeneration coupled with thermal and electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, John

    Over 80% of residential secondary energy consumption in Canada and Ontario is used for space and water heating. The peak electricity demands resulting from residential energy consumption increase the reliance on fossil-fuel generation stations. Distributed energy resources can help to decrease the reliance on central generation stations. Presently, distributed energy resources such as solar photovoltaic, wind and bio-mass generation are subsidized in Ontario. Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology that can be implemented as a distributed energy resource within residential or commercial buildings. Micro-cogeneration has the potential to reduce a building's energy consumption by simultaneously generating thermal and electrical power on-site. The coupling of a micro-cogeneration device with electrical storage can improve the system's ability to reduce peak electricity demands. The performance potential of micro-cogeneration devices has yet to be fully realized. This research addresses the performance of a residential micro-cogeneration device and it's ability to meet peak occupant electrical loads when coupled with electrical storage. An integrated building energy model was developed of a residential micro-cogeneration system: the house, the micro-cogeneration device, all balance of plant and space heating components, a thermal storage device, an electrical storage device, as well as the occupant electrical and hot water demands. This model simulated the performance of a micro-cogeneration device coupled to an electrical storage system within a Canadian household. A customized controller was created in ESP-r to examine the impact of various system control strategies. The economic performance of the system was assessed from the perspective of a local energy distribution company and an end-user under hypothetical electricity export purchase price scenarios. It was found that with certain control strategies the micro-cogeneration system was able to improve the

  6. Fabrication and magnetic-induced aggregation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites for superior SERS performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zibao; Zhao, Aiwu, E-mail: awzhao@iim.ac.cn; Zhang, Maofeng; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gao, Qian; Mao, Ranran; Liu, Erhu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China)

    2013-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites were obtained by combining Au, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites inherit the typical surface plasmon resonance bands of Au, Ag at 533 and 453 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements also indicated that the superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites have excellent magnetic response behavior. A magnetic-induced idea was introduced to change their aggregated states and take full advantage of their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Under the induction of an external magnetic field, the bifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal aggregates exhibit the unique superiority in SERS detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), compared with the naturally dispersed Au, Ag NPs. Especially, the detection limit of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–Ag aggregates for R6G is as low as 10{sup −14} M, and the calculated EF reaches up to 1.2 × 10{sup 6}, which meets the requirements for trace detection of analytes. Furthermore, the superiority could be extended to sensitive detection of other organic molecules, such as 4-mercaptopyridine. This work provides a new insight for active adjustment of the aggregated states of SERS substrates and the optimization of SERS performances.

  7. Design Elements and Electrical Performance of a Bifacial BIPV Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Gu Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifacial BIPV systems have great potential when applied to buildings given their use of a glass-to-glass structure. However, the performance of bifacial solar cells depends on a variety of design factors. Therefore, in order to apply bifacial solar cells to buildings, a bifacial PV module performance analysis should be carried out, including consideration of the various design elements and reflecting a wide range of installation conditions. This study focuses on the performance of a bifacial BIPV module applied to a building envelope. The results here show that the design elements of reflectivity and the transparent space ratio have the greatest impact on performance levels. The distance between the module and the wall had less of an impact on performance. The bifacial BIPV module produced output up to 30% greater than the output of monofacial PV modules, depending on the design elements. Bifacial BIPV modules themselves should have transparent space ratios of at least 30%. When a dark color is used on the external wall with reflectivity of 50% or less, bifacial BIPV modules with transparent space ratios of 40% and above should be used. In order to achieve higher performance through the installation of bifacial BIPV modules, design conditions which facilitate reflectivity exceeding 50% and a transparent space ratio which exceeds 30% must be met.

  8. Self-assembly of nano/micro-structured Fe3O4 microspheres among 3D rGO/CNTs hierarchical networks with superior lithium storage performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinlong; Feng, Haibo; Wang, Xipeng; Qian, Dong; Jiang, Jianbo; Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun; Deng, Miao; Liu, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Nano/micro-structured Fe 3 O 4 microspheres among three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hierarchical networks (the ternary composite is denoted as rGCFs) have been synthesized using a facile, self-assembled and one-pot hydrothermal approach. The rGCFs composite exhibits superior lithium storage performances: initial discharge and charge capacities of 1452 and 1036 mAh g −1 , respectively, remarkable rate capability at current densities from 100 mA g −1 to 10 A g −1 and outstanding cycling performance up to 200 cycles. The highly enhanced electrochemical performances of rGCFs depend heavily on the robust 3D rGO/CNTs hierarchical networks, the stable nano/microstructures of active Fe 3 O 4 microspheres and the positive synergistic effects of building components. The systematic structure characterizations and electrochemical investigations provide insightful understanding towards the relationship between structure/morphology and lithium storage performances, which may pave the way for the rational design of composite materials with desirable goals. (papers)

  9. Effects of pharyngeal electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) has been found to facilitate voluntary swallowing. This study investigated how PEStim contributed to modulation of swallowing function in 15 healthy humans. In the involuntary swallowing test, water was injected onto the pharynx at 0.05 ml/s and the onset latency of the first swallow was measured. In the voluntary swallowing test, subjects swallowed their own saliva as quickly as possible for 30 s and the number of swallows was counted. Voluntary and involuntary swallowing was evaluated before (baseline), immediately after, and every 10 min after 10-min PEStim for 60 min. A voluntary swallowing test with simultaneous 30-s PEStim was also conducted before and 60 min after 10-min PEStim. The number of voluntary swallows with simultaneous PEStim significantly increased over 60 min after 10-min PEStim compared with the baseline. The onset latency of the first swallow in the involuntary swallowing test was not affected by 10-min PEStim. The results suggest that PEStim may have a long-term facilitatory effect on the initiation of voluntary swallowing in healthy humans, but not on peripherally-evoked swallowing. The physiological implications of this modulation are discussed.

  10. Performance of monolayer graphene nanomechanical resonators with electrical readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Rosenblatt, Sami; Bolotin, Kirill I; Kalb, William; Kim, Philip; Kymissis, Ioannis; Stormer, Horst L; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James

    2009-12-01

    The enormous stiffness and low density of graphene make it an ideal material for nanoelectromechanical applications. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and electrical readout of monolayer graphene resonators, and test their response to changes in mass and temperature. The devices show resonances in the megahertz range, and the strong dependence of resonant frequency on applied gate voltage can be fitted to a membrane model to yield the mass density and built-in strain of the graphene. Following the removal and addition of mass, changes in both density and strain are observed, indicating that adsorbates impart tension to the graphene. On cooling, the frequency increases, and the shift rate can be used to measure the unusual negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene. The quality factor increases with decreasing temperature, reaching approximately 1 x 10(4) at 5 K. By establishing many of the basic attributes of monolayer graphene resonators, the groundwork for applications of these devices, including high-sensitivity mass detectors, is put in place.

  11. Intellectual Production Supervision Perform based on RFID Smart Electricity Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    This topic develops the RFID intelligent electricity meter production supervision project management system. The system is designed for energy meter production supervision in the management of the project schedule, quality and cost information management requirements in RFID intelligent power, and provide quantitative information more comprehensive, timely and accurate for supervision engineer and project manager management decisions, and to provide technical information for the product manufacturing stage file. From the angle of scheme analysis, design, implementation and test, the system development of production supervision project management system for RFID smart meter project is discussed. Focus on the development of the system, combined with the main business application and management mode at this stage, focuses on the energy meter to monitor progress information, quality information and cost based information on RFID intelligent power management function. The paper introduces the design scheme of the system, the overall client / server architecture, client oriented graphical user interface universal, complete the supervision of project management and interactive transaction information display, the server system of realizing the main program. The system is programmed with C# language and.NET operating environment, and the client and server platforms use Windows operating system, and the database server software uses Oracle. The overall platform supports mainstream information and standards and has good scalability.

  12. Conflicts between sensory performance and locomotion in weakly electric fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciver, Malcolm; Shirgaonkar, Anup; Patankar, Neelesh

    2008-11-01

    The knifefish Apteronotus albifrons hunts for small water insects at night using a self-generated electric field to perceive its world. Using this unique sensory adaptation, the fish senses prey that are near its body with a detection volume that approximates a cylinder that has a length ten times its radius, similar to the fish's elongated body plan. If the fish swims straight, then the back portion of the actively generated detection volume is scanning fluid already scanned by the front portion, but the energy expended to overcome drag is minimized. If it swims with the body pitched, then the rate of volume scanned for prey is increased, but the energy needed to overcome body drag is also increased. In this work we examine the compromise the fish makes between minimizing energy in overcoming drag and maximizing scan rate. We use computational fluid dynamics simulations to assess the impact of changes in body pitch angle on drag, and computational neuroscience simulations to assess the shape and size of the prey detection volume and how body angle changes the scan volume rate.

  13. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  14. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  15. SUperior PERforming Asphalt PAVEments (SUPERPAVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, Rosalín

    2012-01-01

    El asfalto puede encontrarse en forma natural, como lagos o rocas de asfalto. Sin embargo, a pesar de la calidad del asfalto natural y su fásil explotación; el asfalto para fines industriales mayormente se obtiene como un producto de desecho de las refinerías petroleras, debido que es mucho más económico. El primer registro del uso del asfalto como material para la construcción de calles procede de Babilonia desde los años 625 y 604 A.C., en la región del Rey Naboppolassar. Desde entonces,...

  16. Tribological performance of polymer composites used in electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engineering applications. ZAFER DEMIR. Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey. MS received 28 December 2011; revised 13 March 2012. Abstract. Sliding wear performance of 20% mica-filled polyamide 6 (PA6 + 20% mica) and 20% short glass fibre- reinforced polysulphone (PSU + 20 GFR) polymer composites used in ...

  17. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-03-12

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) are 2213 and 1402 mA h g(-1) with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g(-1), respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1), the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g(-1), and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g(-1) after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage.

  18. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; McInturff, A.; Savord, T.; Tool, G.

    1993-05-01

    The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

  19. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; McInturff, A.; Savord, T.; Tool, G.

    1993-01-01

    The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

  20. Tracking Neuronal Connectivity from Electric Brain Signals to Predict Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2018-05-01

    The human brain is a complex container of interconnected networks. Network neuroscience is a recent venture aiming to explore the connection matrix built from the human brain or human "Connectome." Network-based algorithms provide parameters that define global organization of the brain; when they are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals network, configuration and excitability can be monitored in millisecond time frames, providing remarkable information on their instantaneous efficacy also for a given task's performance via online evaluation of the underlying instantaneous networks before, during, and after the task. Here we provide an updated summary on the connectome analysis for the prediction of performance via the study of task-related dynamics of brain network organization from EEG signals.

  1. Investigation of Concrete Electrical Resistivity As a Performance Based Test

    OpenAIRE

    Malakooti, Amir

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent that concrete resistivity measurements (bulk and/or surface) can be used as a performance based lab test to improve the quality of concrete in Utah bridge decks. By allowing UDOT to specify a required resistivity, concrete bridge deck quality will increase and future maintenance costs will decrease. This research consisted of two phases: the field phase and the lab phase. In the field phase, concrete samples were gathered from...

  2. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  3. Performance and brain electrical activity during prolonged confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Lorenz, J; Manzey, D

    1996-01-01

    A subset of the AGARD-STRES battery including memory search, unstable tracking, and a combination of both tasks (dual-task), was applied repeatedly to the four chamber crew members before, during, and after the 60-day isolation period of EXEMSI. Five ground control group members served as a control group. A subjective state questionnaire was also included. The results were subjected to a quantitative single-subject analysis. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded to permit correlation of changes in task performance with changes in the physiological state. Evaluation of the EEG focused on spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG waves. No physiological data were collected from the control group. Significant decrements in tracking ability were observed in the chamber crew. The time course of these effects followed a triphasic pattern with initial deterioration, intermediate recovery to pre-isolation baseline scores after the first half of the isolation period, and a second deterioration towards the end. None of the control group subjects displayed such an effect. Memory search (speed and accuracy) was only occasionally impaired during isolation, but the control group displayed a similar pattern of changes. It is suggested that a state of decreased alertness causes tracking deterioration, which leads to a reduced efficiency of sustained cue utilization. The assumption of low alertness was further substantiated by higher fatigue ratings by the chamber crew compared to those of the control group. Analysis of the continuous EEG recordings revealed that only two subjects produced reliable alpha wave activity (8-12 Hz) over Pz and, to a much smaller extent, Fz-theta wave activity (5-7 Hz) during task performance. In both subjects Pz-alpha power decreased consistently under task conditions involving single-task and dual-task tracking. Fz-theta activity was increased more by single-task and dual-task memory search than by single-task tracking. The alpha attenuation appears

  4. A Thermographic Measurement Approach to Assess Supercapacitor Electrical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Galla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a proposal for the qualitative assessment of condition of supercapacitors based on the conducted thermographic measurements. The presented measurement stand was accompanied by the concept of methodology of performing tests. Necessary conditions, which were needed to minimize the influence of disturbing factors on the performance of thermal imaging measurements, were also indicated. Mentioned factors resulted from both: the hardware limitations and from the necessity to prepare samples. The algorithm that was used to determine the basic parameters for assessment has been presented. The article suggests to use additional factors that may facilitate the analysis of obtained results. Measuring the usefulness of the proposed methodology was tested on commercial samples of supercapacitors. All of the tests were taken in conjunction with the classical methods based on capacitance (C and equivalent series resistance (ESR measurements, which were also presented in the paper. Selected results presenting the observed changes occurring in both: basic parameters of supercapacitors and accompanying fluctuations of thermal fields, along with analysis, were shown. The observed limitations of the proposed assessment method and the suggestions for its development were also described.

  5. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; Mcinturff, A.; Nehring, R.; Saladin, V.; Savord, T.; Sorrensen, G.; Smellie, R.; Tool, G.; Voy, D.

    1993-05-01

    The intent of the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) is to obtain data for model verification and information on the magnitudes of pressures and voltages encountered in an accelerator environment. The ASST milestone run was achieved during July and August, 1992 and consisted of demonstrating the accelerator components could be configured together as a system operating at full current. Following the milestone run, the string was warmed to counteract some design flaws that impeded the operational range. The string was again cooled to cryogenic temperatures in October, and a comprehensive power testing program was conducted through the end of January, 1993. This paper describes how the collider arc components operate in an accelerator environment during quenches induced by firing both strip heaters and spot heaters. Evaluation of the data illustrates how variations in the design parameters on magnets used in a string environment can impact system performance

  6. Photovoltaic performance and stability of fullerene/cerium oxide double electron transport layer superior to single one in p-i-n perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhou; Li, Shu-Hui; Wu, Bao-Shan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Lu-Yao; Wang, Tan; Liu, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Mei-Lin; Yun, Da-Qin; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2018-06-01

    Interface engineering that involves in the metal cathodes and the electron transport layers (ETLs) facilitates the simultaneous improvement of device performances and stability in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, low-temperature solution-processed cerium oxide (CeOx) films are prepared by a facile sol-gel method and employed as the interface layers between [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and an Ag back contact to form PC61BM/CeOx double ETLs. The introduction of CeOx enables electron extraction to the Ag electrode and protects the underlying perovskite layer and thus improves the device performance and stability of the p-i-n PSCs. The p-i-n PSCs with double PC61BM/CeOx ETLs demonstrate a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.35%, which is superior to those of the devices with either PC61BM or CeOx single ETLs. Moreover, PC61BM/CeOx devices exhibit excellent stability in light soaking, which is mainly due to the chemically stable CeOx interlayer. The results indicate that CeOx is a promising interface modification layer for stable high-efficiency PSCs.

  7. Sustainability Performance of Scandinavian Corporations and their Value Chains assessed by UN Global Compact and Global Reporting Initiative standards - a way to identify superior performers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a combination of the two most adopted multi- stakeholder standards for sustainability reporting as an alternate framework for assessing sustainability performance in Scandinavian corporations. This novel approach leverages numeric measures on the criteria...

  8. New evidence on the impact of structural reforms on electricity sector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polemis, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of electricity industry over the last decades has shown substantial differences between OECD countries. This paper empirically investigates to what extent different structural forms of regulation, competition and privatisation explain these international differences. It distinguishes three modes of electricity performance: a) net generation per capita, b) installed capacity and c) labour productivity. The empirical model spans the period 1975–2011 and uses panel data econometric techniques. Our analysis reveals that there is a strongly significant interaction impact on the level of electricity performance between regulation and competition. The empirical findings do confirm that a robust independent regulatory scheme must be implemented in order to achieve a competitive electricity market. - Highlights: •We assess the impact of structural reforms on OECD electricity sector performance. •Regulation has stronger impact on performance when interaction terms are present. •Privatisation has unambiguous effect on the elements of performance. •The combined effect of reforms on performance is more aggressive in the long run.

  9. Electric terminal performance and characterization of solid oxide fuel cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Peter Allan

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices which can effect efficient, clean, and quiet conversion of chemical to electrical energy. In contrast to conventional electricity generation systems which feature multiple discrete energy conversion processes, SOFCs are direct energy conversion devices. That is, they feature a fully integrated chemical to electrical energy conversion process where the electric load demanded of the cell intrinsically drives the electrochemical reactions and associated processes internal to the cell. As a result, the cell's electric terminals provide a path for interaction between load side electric demand and the conversion side processes. The implication of this is twofold. First, the magnitude and dynamic characteristics of the electric load demanded of the cell can directly impact the long-term efficacy of the cell's chemical to electrical energy conversion. Second, the electric terminal response to dynamic loads can be exploited for monitoring the cell's conversion side processes and used in diagnostic analysis and degradation-mitigating control schemes. This dissertation presents a multi-tier investigation into this electric terminal based performance characterization of SOFCs through the development of novel test systems, analysis techniques and control schemes. First, a reference-based simulation system is introduced. This system scales up the electric terminal performance of a prototype SOFC system, e.g. a single fuel cell, to that of a full power-level stack. This allows realistic stack/load interaction studies while maintaining explicit ability for post-test analysis of the prototype system. Next, a time-domain least squares fitting method for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is developed for reduced-time monitoring of the electrochemical and physicochemical mechanics of the fuel cell through its electric terminals. The utility of the reference-based simulator and the EIS technique are demonstrated

  10. Performance enhancement using power beaming for electric propulsion earth orbital transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    An electric propulsion Earth orbital transport vehicle (EOTV) can effectively deliver large payloads using much less propellant than chemical transfer methods. By using an EOTV instead of a chemical upper stage, either a smaller launch vehicle can be used for the same satellite mass or a larger satellite can be deployed using the same launch vehicle. However, the propellant mass savings from using the higher specific impulse of electric propulsion may not be enough to overcome the disadvantage of the added mass and cost of the electric propulsion power source. Power system limitations have been a major factor delaying the acceptance and use of electric propulsion. This paper outlines the power requirements of electric propulsion technology being developed today, including arcjets, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and ion engines. Power supply characteristics are discussed for nuclear, solar, and power-beaming systems. Operational characteristics are given for each, as are the impacts of the power supply alternative on the overall craft performance. Because of its modular nature, the power-beaming approach is able to meet the power requirements of all three electric propulsion types. Also, commonality of approach allows different electric propulsion approaches to be powered by a single power supply approach. Power beaming exhibits better flexibility and performance than on-board nuclear or solar power systems

  11. Performance assessment of a hybrid electric-powered long-range commercial airliner

    OpenAIRE

    Zöld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent increase in the amount of smaller electric general aviation aircrafts, a fully electric airliner is not likely to fly in the near future. Partially inspired by the automotive industry’s success with the hybrid car, this thesis investigated the feasibility of an electric-hybrid propulsion system for an Airbus A340-600 on a long-haul flight and its effect on the aircraft’s performance. First, an analysis was done of the reference aircraft, A340-600, using conventional propuls...

  12. High-performance electrically conductive silver paste prepared by silver-containing precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cao, Yu; Li, Xiangyou; Wang, Xiaoye; Zeng, Xiaoyan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Wuhan (China)

    2010-09-15

    A high-performance electrically conductive silver paste with no solid particles before drying and/or sintering is developed, in which silver-containing precursor is employed as conductive functional phase. Thermogravimetry analysis, volume electrical resistivity tests and sintering experiments show that the paste with about 14 wt.% silver pristine content is able to achieve the volume electrical resistivity of (2-3) x 10{sup -5} {omega} cm after it is sintered at 220 C. A micro-pen direct-writing process indicates that it is very suitable for the fabrication of high-resolution (25 {mu}m) and high-integration devices and apparatus. (orig.)

  13. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  14. Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boyi Xiao; Huazhong Lu; Hailin Wang; Jiageng Ruan; Nong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other impr...

  15. Comparative energy and exergy performance assessments of a microcogenerator unit in different electricity mix scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Angrisani, Giovanni; Roselli, Carlo; Gaspar, Adélio R.; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and energy–exergy modelling of a 6 kW micro-combined heat and power unit. • Evaluation of energy and exergy efficiencies for performance assessment. • Use of exergy and energy indicators for comparison with a reference system. • Use of different renewables supply options into the electric and heat reference system. • The electric grid mix of Portugal and Italy is used and discussed. - Abstract: The Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration proposes a comparative indicator based on primary energy savings, neglecting some important thermodynamic aspects, such as exergy. This study aims to compare and discuss the usefulness of a set of complementary indicators for performance assessments of cogeneration systems, concerning thermodynamic principles based on first and second law (the exergy approach). As case study, a 6 kW electric output micro-combined heat and power unit was experimentally tested and a model of the unit was developed in TRNSYS. Considering as reference a set of different heat and electricity scenarios, including the actual electric mixes of Portugal and Italy, the indicators case incon (PES) and Primary and Total Irreversibilities Savings (PIS and TIS), as well as energy and exergy renewability ratios were assessed and discussed. The results show that the use of MCHP has higher advantages for the Italian electric grid, than an equivalent scenario considering the Portuguese electric network as reference. As result, for a particular scenario analysed, PES and PIS have 3% and 6% for Portugal, and 10% and 18% for Italy, respectively. Furthermore, for one particular scenario evaluated, the indicators energetic and exergetic renewability ratios have 23% and 14%, respectively for the Portuguese electric grid, and 19% and 10% for the Italian electric system

  16. Challenges and Opportunities of Very Light High-Performance Electric Drives for Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Henke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand for alternative fueling methods to reduce the need for fossil fuels is not limited to the electrification of ground vehicles. More-electric and all-electric aircraft pose challenges, with extensive requirements in terms of power density, efficiency, safety, and environmental sustainability. This paper focuses on electrical machines and their components, especially for high-power applications like the main propulsion. The electrical machine is evaluated from different aspects, followed by a closer look at the components and materials to determine the suitability of the current standard materials and advanced technologies. Furthermore, the mechanical and thermal aspects are reviewed, including new and innovative concepts for the cooling of windings and for the use of additive manufacturing. Aircraft have special demands regarding weight and installation space. Following recent developments and looking ahead to the future, the need and the possibilities for light and efficient electrical machines are addressed. All of the approaches and developments presented lead to a better understanding of the challenges to be expected and highlight the upcoming opportunities in electrical machine design for the use of electric motors and generators in future aircraft. Several prototypes of electrical machines for smaller aircraft already exist, such as the electric drive of the Siemens powered Extra 330LE. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of current technical possibilities and technical interrelations of high performance electric drives for aviation. A 1 MW drive is exemplified to present the possibilities for future drives for airplanes carrying a larger number of passengers. All presented techniques can also be applied to other drive power classes.

  17. Y and Ni Co-Doped BaZrO3 as a Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Exhibiting Superior Power Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Shafi, Shahid P.

    2015-10-16

    The fabrication of anode supported single cells based on BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) electrolyte is challenging due to its poor sinteractive nature. The acceleration of shrinkage behavior, improved sinterability and larger grain size were achieved by the partial substitution of Zr with Ni in the BZY perovskite. Phase pure Ni-doped BZY powders of nominal compositions BaZr0.8-xY0.2NixO3-δ were synthesized up to x = 0.04 using a wet chemical combustion synthesis route. BaZr0.76Y0.2Ni0.04O3-δ (BZYNi04) exhibited adequate total conductivity and the open circuit voltage (OCV) values measured on the BZYNi04 pellet suggested lack of significant electronic contribution. The improved sinterability of BZYNi04 assisted the ease in film fabrication and this coupled with the application of an anode functional layer and a suitable cathode, PrBaCo2O5+δ (PBCO), resulted in a superior fuel cell power performance. With humidified hydrogen and static air as the fuel and oxidant, respectively, a peak power density value of 428 and 240 mW cm−2 was obtained at 700 and 600°C, respectively.

  18. Flexible superior electrode architectures based on three-dimensional porous spinous α-Fe2O3 with a high performance as a supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Honghong; Yu, Liutao; Ma, Wenqin; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-05-28

    Flexible supercapacitors have recently attracted increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility and shape diversity, and they are light-weight and so on. Herein, we designed a series of 3D porous spinous iron oxide materials synthesized on a thin iron plate through a facile method under mild conditions. The unique nanostructural features endow them with excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical properties of the integrated electrodes as active electrode materials for supercapacitors have been investigated using different electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge-discharge in Na2SO4 and LiPF6/EC : DEC electrolyte solutions. These integrated electrodes showed high specific capacitance (as high as 524.6 F g(-1) at the current density of 1 A g(-1)) in 1.0 M Na2SO4 (see Table S1). Moreover, the integrated electrodes also show high power densities and high energy densities in a LiPF6/EC : DEC electrolyte solution; for example, the energy densities were 319.3, 252.5, 152.1, 74.13 and 38.6 W h kg(-1) at different power densities of 8.81, 21.59, 56.65, 92.09 and 152.64 kW kg(-1), respectively. Additionally, the flexible superior electrode exhibited excellent stability with capacitance retention of 92.9% after 5000 cycles. Therefore, such flexible integrated devices might be used in smart and portable electronics.

  19. Core–shell structure carbon coated ferric oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C) nanoparticles for supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yipeng [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Yiming, E-mail: chenym@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Deng, Peng; Huang, Zhikun [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Liying; Qian, Yannan; Li, Yunyong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Qingyu [School of Chemistry and Chemistry Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C was prepared by using arc discharge method followed by heat treatment. • KOH activation made the core–shell structure Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C porous. • The activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C supercapacitor exhibited superior electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Core–shell structure carbon coated ferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C) were fabricated by the oxidation of carbon coated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C) prepared by a direct current carbon arc discharge method. Porous activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C was prepared by KOH activation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C at the temperature of 750 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the structure and morphology of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C and activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C. The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were also tested. The activated-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C electrodes exhibited good electrochemical performance with a maximum specific capacitance of 612 F g{sup −1} at the charge/discharge current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} with 5 M NaOH electrolyte. After 10,000 cycling DC tests at the charge/discharge current density of 4 A g{sup −1}, a high level specific capacitance of 518 F g{sup −1} was obtained (90.6% retention of the initial capacity), suggesting excellent long-term cycling stability.

  20. A study on the performance valuation of small size water storage electric boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Joung Gun; Shin, Jae Ho; Bae, Chul Whan; Suh, Jeong Se; Chung, Han Shik; Jeong, Hyo Min

    2003-01-01

    We was made 150L a water storage electric boiler and obtained various performances of the storage, radiant and keeping by experimentation. The storage performance is that the heat were off about 50 minutes after heating start. Then the temperature of outlet was arrived the stead state at 91 deg. C and the storage performance was appeared 93.64%. In the radiant performance, the water temperature was decreased from 90 .deg. C to 44.8 deg. C after 960 minutes. Then the calorific value changed from 675kcal/h to 72kcal/h and the temperature decreased about 50%. The keeping performance showed mean temperature, 67.06 .deg. C according to progress 800 minutes and the maximum temperature drop were 0.2 .deg. C. By the results of the performance valuation, the water storage electric boiler was verified fitted quality on the test prescription of KERI (Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute.)

  1. Performance of fuzzy approach in Malaysia short-term electricity load forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Rosnalini; Zulkifli, Malina; Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Ismail, Mohd Isfahani; Ismail, Suzilah; Yin, Yip Chee

    2014-12-01

    Many activities such as economic, education and manafucturing would paralyse with limited supply of electricity but surplus contribute to high operating cost. Therefore electricity load forecasting is important in order to avoid shortage or excess. Previous finding showed festive celebration has effect on short-term electricity load forecasting. Being a multi culture country Malaysia has many major festive celebrations such as Eidul Fitri, Chinese New Year and Deepavali but they are moving holidays due to non-fixed dates on the Gregorian calendar. This study emphasis on the performance of fuzzy approach in forecasting electricity load when considering the presence of moving holidays. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model was estimated using simulated data by including model simplification concept (manual or automatic), day types (weekdays or weekend), public holidays and lags of electricity load. The result indicated that day types, public holidays and several lags of electricity load were significant in the model. Overall, model simplification improves fuzzy performance due to less variables and rules.

  2. Development and Performance of Alternative Electricity Sector Pathways Subject to Multiple Climate and Water Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S.; Macknick, J.; Sun, Y.; Corsi, F.; Fekete, B. M.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts on air temperatures and water availability have the potential to alter future electricity sector investment decisions as well as the reliability and performance of the power sector. Different electricity sector configurations are more or less vulnerable to climate-induced changes. For example, once-through cooled thermal facilities are the most cost-effective and efficient technologies under cooler and wetter conditions, but can be substantially affected by and vulnerable to warmer and drier conditions. Non-thermal renewable technologies, such as PV and wind, are essentially "drought-proof" but have other integration and reliability challenges. Prior efforts have explored the impacts of climate change on electric sector development for a limited set of climate and electricity scenarios. Here, we provide a comprehensive suite of scenarios that evaluate how different electricity sector pathways could be affected by a range of climate and water resource conditions. We use four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios under five global circulation models (GCM) as climate drivers to a Water Balance Model (WBM), to provide twenty separate future climate-water conditions. These climate-water conditions influence electricity sector development from present day to 2050 as determined using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) model. Four unique electricity sector pathways will be considered, including business-as-usual, carbon cap, high renewable energy technology costs, and coal reliance scenarios. The combination of climate-water and electricity sector pathway scenarios leads to 80 potential future cases resulting in different national and regional electricity infrastructure configurations. The vulnerability of these configurations in relation to climate change (including in-stream thermal pollution impacts and environmental regulations) is evaluated using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model, providing

  3. Performance analysis of a solar-powered solid state heat engine for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Rui; Li, Baode; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system consisting of a CPC (compound parabolic collector) system, a SOE (solid oxide electrolyzer) system and a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system was proposed to harvest solar energy. And a sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the system performance. The impacts of operating temperatures of the SOE and PEMFC system, and the direct irradiation intensity of the sun on the performance characteristics were systematically analyzed. Results revealed that there exists an optimal SOE operating temperature leading to the maximum power output and maximum electrical efficiency simultaneously. Larger operating temperature of the PEMFC resulted in larger power output and higher efficiency. There also existed optimal direct irradiation intensities leading to the maximum power output and maximum electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed solar energy harvesting system for practical use in real-life was also simulated. This may serve a clean technology for electricity generation. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of CPC, SOE and PEMFC is proposed to harvest solar energy. • A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the system performance. • Power output and electrical efficiency have maximum values. • Performance of the proposed hybrid system for practical use was simulated.

  4. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  5. Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

    2011-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films.

  6. Deep neural networks show an equivalent and often superior performance to dermatologists in onychomycosis diagnosis: Automatic construction of onychomycosis datasets by region-based convolutional deep neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Seog Han

    Full Text Available Although there have been reports of the successful diagnosis of skin disorders using deep learning, unrealistically large clinical image datasets are required for artificial intelligence (AI training. We created datasets of standardized nail images using a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN trained to distinguish the nail from the background. We used R-CNN to generate training datasets of 49,567 images, which we then used to fine-tune the ResNet-152 and VGG-19 models. The validation datasets comprised 100 and 194 images from Inje University (B1 and B2 datasets, respectively, 125 images from Hallym University (C dataset, and 939 images from Seoul National University (D dataset. The AI (ensemble model; ResNet-152 + VGG-19 + feedforward neural networks results showed test sensitivity/specificity/ area under the curve values of (96.0 / 94.7 / 0.98, (82.7 / 96.7 / 0.95, (92.3 / 79.3 / 0.93, (87.7 / 69.3 / 0.82 for the B1, B2, C, and D datasets. With a combination of the B1 and C datasets, the AI Youden index was significantly (p = 0.01 higher than that of 42 dermatologists doing the same assessment manually. For B1+C and B2+ D dataset combinations, almost none of the dermatologists performed as well as the AI. By training with a dataset comprising 49,567 images, we achieved a diagnostic accuracy for onychomycosis using deep learning that was superior to that of most of the dermatologists who participated in this study.

  7. Uniformly active phase loaded selective catalytic reduction catalysts (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TNTs) with superior alkaline resistance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Wang, Penglu [Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental & Resources Science, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Xiongbo [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wu, Zhongbiao, E-mail: zbwu@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental & Resources Science, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler & Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • VOSO{sub 4} exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Ion-exchange reaction occurs between VOSO{sub 4} and titanate nanotubes. • Ion-exchange resulting in uniformly vanadium distribution on titanate nanotubes. • VOSO{sub 4}-based catalyst exhibited impressive SCR activity and alkaline resistance. - Abstract: In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} and VOSO{sub 4}) were used to synthesize deNO{sub x} catalysts. The results showed that VOSO{sub 4} exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V{sup 5+}/V{sup 4+} redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved. Besides, VOSO{sub 4}-based titanate nanotubes catalysts also showed enhanced alkaline resistance than particles (P25) based catalysts. It was strongly associated with its abundant acid sites, large surface area, flexible redox cycles and oxygen transfer ability. For the loading on protonated titanate nanotubes, active metal with cation groups was better precursors than anion ones. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TNTs catalyst was a promising substitute for the commercial vanadium catalysts and the work conducted herein provided a useful idea to design uniformly active phase loaded catalyst.

  8. Deep neural networks show an equivalent and often superior performance to dermatologists in onychomycosis diagnosis: Automatic construction of onychomycosis datasets by region-based convolutional deep neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Seog; Park, Gyeong Hun; Lim, Woohyung; Kim, Myoung Shin; Na, Jung Im; Park, Ilwoo; Chang, Sung Eun

    2018-01-01

    Although there have been reports of the successful diagnosis of skin disorders using deep learning, unrealistically large clinical image datasets are required for artificial intelligence (AI) training. We created datasets of standardized nail images using a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) trained to distinguish the nail from the background. We used R-CNN to generate training datasets of 49,567 images, which we then used to fine-tune the ResNet-152 and VGG-19 models. The validation datasets comprised 100 and 194 images from Inje University (B1 and B2 datasets, respectively), 125 images from Hallym University (C dataset), and 939 images from Seoul National University (D dataset). The AI (ensemble model; ResNet-152 + VGG-19 + feedforward neural networks) results showed test sensitivity/specificity/ area under the curve values of (96.0 / 94.7 / 0.98), (82.7 / 96.7 / 0.95), (92.3 / 79.3 / 0.93), (87.7 / 69.3 / 0.82) for the B1, B2, C, and D datasets. With a combination of the B1 and C datasets, the AI Youden index was significantly (p = 0.01) higher than that of 42 dermatologists doing the same assessment manually. For B1+C and B2+ D dataset combinations, almost none of the dermatologists performed as well as the AI. By training with a dataset comprising 49,567 images, we achieved a diagnostic accuracy for onychomycosis using deep learning that was superior to that of most of the dermatologists who participated in this study.

  9. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  10. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  11. High-performance, polymer-based direct cellular interfaces for electrical stimulation and recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Nara; Kim, Youngseok; Baik, Min-Seo; Yoo, Minsu; Kim, Dongyoon; Lee, Won-June; Kang, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Kwanghee; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2018-04-01

    Due to the trade-off between their electrical/electrochemical performance and underwater stability, realizing polymer-based, high-performance direct cellular interfaces for electrical stimulation and recording has been very challenging. Herein, we developed transparent and conductive direct cellular interfaces based on a water-stable, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film via solvent-assisted crystallization. The crystallized PEDOT:PSS on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate exhibited excellent electrical/electrochemical/optical characteristics, long-term underwater stability without film dissolution/delamination, and good viability for primarily cultured cardiomyocytes and neurons over several weeks. Furthermore, the highly crystallized, nanofibrillar PEDOT:PSS networks enabled dramatically enlarged surface areas and electrochemical activities, which were successfully employed to modulate cardiomyocyte beating via direct electrical stimulation. Finally, the high-performance PEDOT:PSS layer was seamlessly incorporated into transparent microelectrode arrays for efficient, real-time recording of cardiomyocyte action potentials with a high signal fidelity. All these results demonstrate the strong potential of crystallized PEDOT:PSS as a crucial component for a variety of versatile bioelectronic interfaces.

  12. Electrical resistivity testing for as-built concrete performance assessment of chloride penetration resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of concrete can provide information about its transport properties, which is relevant for durability performance. For example, resistivity is inversely proportional to chloride diffusion, at least within similar concrete compositions. A methodology is proposed for on-site

  13. Performance of a Battery Electric Vehicle in the Cold Climate and Hilly Terrain of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-23

    The goal of this research project was to determine the performance of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) in the cold climate and hilly terrain of Vermont. For this study, a 2005 Toyota Echo was converted from an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle...

  14. Life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification versus other technologies for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification for electricity production in Denmark is evaluated and compared with that of direct combustion and anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared to those of natural gas to assess the potential...

  15. Performance of batteries for electric vehicles on short and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen - Gondelach, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355262436; Faaij, André P C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the

  16. Performance of Batteries for electric vehicles on shorter and longer term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the prospects of available and new battery technologies for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are examined. Five selected battery technologies are assessed on battery performance and cost in the short, medium and long term. Driving cycle simulations are carried out to assess the

  17. Extended performance electric propulsion power processor design study. Volume 2: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Electric propulsion power processor technology has processed during the past decade to the point that it is considered ready for application. Several power processor design concepts were evaluated and compared. Emphasis was placed on a 30 cm ion thruster power processor with a beam power rating supply of 2.2KW to 10KW for the main propulsion power stage. Extension in power processor performance were defined and were designed in sufficient detail to determine efficiency, component weight, part count, reliability and thermal control. A detail design was performed on a microprocessor as the thyristor power processor controller. A reliability analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the control electronics redesign. Preliminary electrical design, mechanical design and thermal analysis were performed on a 6KW power transformer for the beam supply. Bi-Mod mechanical, structural and thermal control configurations were evaluated for the power processor and preliminary estimates of mechanical weight were determined.

  18. ZIF-8 derived hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au nanoplates with tunable surface heterostructures for superior ethanol gas-sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Hui; Ma, Qian; Che, Quande; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Gang; Yang, Ping

    2018-05-01

    A series of hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au nanoplate heterostructures with tunable morphologies and superior ethanol gas-sensing performance were successfully synthesized via the facile multi-step reaction processes. Hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3 nanoplates with uniform size around 150 nm are employed as new sensor substrates for loading the well-distributed ZnO and Au nanoparticles with adjustable size distribution on the different surfaces. Brunauer-EmmeQ-Teller (BET) surface areas of α-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/ZnO samples are evaluated to be 37.94 and 61.27 m2/g, respectively, while α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au composites present the highest value of 79.08 m2/g. These α-Fe2O3-based functional materials can exhibit outstanding sensing properties to ethanol. When the ethanol concentration is 100 ppm, the response value of α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au composites can reach up to 170, which is 14.6 and 80.3 times higher than that of α-Fe2O3/ZnO and pure α-Fe2O3, respectively. The recycling stability and long-time effectiveness can be availably maintained within 30 days, as well as the response and recovery times are shortened to 4 and 5 s, respectively. Significantly, the response value of α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au composite is still up to 63 at an operating temperature of 280 °C even though the ethanol concentration decreases to 10 ppm. The enhanced gas sensing mechanism would be focused on the synergistic effects of phase compositions, surface heterogeneous structures, large specific surface area, and the selective depositions of Au nanoparticles in α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au sensors. The synergistic effect of different surface heterostructures referring to α-Fe2O3/Au and α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au and their novel electron transport processes on the surfaces are first investigated and discussed in details. It is expected that hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au nanoplate heterostructures with excellent sensing performance can be the promising highly-sensitive materials in the actual application for monitoring and detecting ethanol.

  19. Improving the cooling performance of electrical distribution transformer using transformer oil – Based MEPCM suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the electrical distribution transformer has been studied numerically and the effect of outside temperature on its cooling performance has been investigated. The temperature range studied covers the hot climate regions. 250 KVA distribution transformer is chosen as a study model. A novel cooling fluid is proposed to improve the cooling performance of this transformer, transformer oil-based microencapsulated phase change materials suspension is used with volume concentration (5–25...

  20. Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Messagie, M.; Mertens, J.; Laget, H.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large energy storage systems: environmental performance under different scenarios. • ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint impact assessment results are analyzed. • Energy storage systems can replace peak power generation units. • Energy storage systems and renewable energy have the best environmental scores. • Environmental performance of storage systems is application dependent. - Abstract: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems

  1. Israel Electric Corp. Experience With SO3 Flue Gas Conditioning System Electrostatic Precipitator Performance Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muginsfein, A.; Naveh, Y.; Sfez, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ash from low sulfur coals is characterized by high electrical resistivity. Generally, values above l*10 l0 ω*cm may decrease the collect ability of the fly ash in the Electrostatic precipitator-Esp. Controlling the ash resistivity by SO 3 injection may resolve the problem of the increased electrical resistivity of the collected fly ash. This paper summarizes the results of a full scale test that was performed in 350 MW coal fired unit to test the influence of SO 3 injection on the Esp collecting efficiency

  2. Electric Field Guided Assembly of One-Dimensional Nanostructures for High Performance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Various nanowire or nanotube-based devices have been demonstrated to fulfill the anticipated future demands on sensors. To fabricate such devices, electric field-based methods have demonstrated a great potential to integrate one-dimensional nanostructures into various forms. This review paper discusses theoretical and experimental aspects of the working principles, the assembled structures, and the unique functions associated with electric field-based assembly. The challenges and opportunities of the assembly methods are addressed in conjunction with future directions toward high performance sensors.

  3. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  4. A Monolithic Interconnected module with a tunnel Junction for Enhanced Electrical and Optical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher Sean; Wilt, David Morgan

    1999-06-30

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  5. Characteristic Evaluation on the Cooling Performance of an Electrical Air Conditioning System Using R744 for a Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling performance characteristics of an electrical air conditioning system using R744 as an alternative of R-134a for a fuel cell electric vehicle. In order to analyze the cooling performance characteristics of the air conditioning system using R744 for a fuel cell electric vehicle, an electrical air conditioning system using R744 was developed and tested under various operating conditions according to both inlet air conditions of the gas cooler and evaporator and compressor speed. The cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP forcooling of the tested air conditioning system were up to 6.4 kW and 2.5, respectively. In addition, the electrical air conditioning system with R744 using an inverter driven compressor showed better performance than the conventional air conditioning system with R-134a under the same operating conditions. The observed cooling performance of the developed electrical air conditioning system was found to be sufficient for cooling loads under various real driving conditions for a fuel cell electric vehicle.

  6. Development of high-performance ER gel produced by electric-field assisted molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T; Anzai, H

    2009-01-01

    Electro-rheological gel (ERG) is a novel functional elastomer whose surface frictional and adhesive property varies according to the intensity of applied electric field. This peculiar phenomenon is named as Electro-adhesive effect. A generated shear stress of ERG under applied electric field is approximately 30∼40 times higher than that of ERF because of high adhesive strength. However, the performances of ERG vary widely due to its surface condition, especially density and distribution of ER particles at the surface. In order to stabilize and improve the performance of ERG, the electric- filed assisted molding process is proposed as the producing method of ERG. In this study, first, the principle of electro-adhesive effect is theoretically investigated. Second, a high-performance ERG produced by the proposed process, in which ER particles are aligned densely at the surface, is developed and its performance is evaluated experimentally. As the experimental result, the high-performance ERG shows twice higher shear stress than the conventional ERG.

  7. Development of high-performance ER gel produced by electric-field assisted molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakinuma, Y; Aoyama, T [Department of System Design Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kouhoku-ku Yokohama (Japan); Anzai, H [Fujikura kasei Co., Ltd. 2-6-15 Shibakouen, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: kakinuma@sd.keio.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Electro-rheological gel (ERG) is a novel functional elastomer whose surface frictional and adhesive property varies according to the intensity of applied electric field. This peculiar phenomenon is named as Electro-adhesive effect. A generated shear stress of ERG under applied electric field is approximately 30{approx}40 times higher than that of ERF because of high adhesive strength. However, the performances of ERG vary widely due to its surface condition, especially density and distribution of ER particles at the surface. In order to stabilize and improve the performance of ERG, the electric- filed assisted molding process is proposed as the producing method of ERG. In this study, first, the principle of electro-adhesive effect is theoretically investigated. Second, a high-performance ERG produced by the proposed process, in which ER particles are aligned densely at the surface, is developed and its performance is evaluated experimentally. As the experimental result, the high-performance ERG shows twice higher shear stress than the conventional ERG.

  8. Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Juan J.; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan J.; Muñoz, Víctor; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Pulsed RF (PRF) is a nonablative technique for treating neuropathic pain. Bipolar PRF application is currently aimed at creating a “strip lesion” to connect the electrode tips; however, the electrical and thermal performance during bipolar PRF is currently unknown. The objective of this paper was to study the temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF. Methods: The authors developed computer models to study temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF and to assess the possible ablative thermal effect caused by the accumulated temperature spikes, along with any possible electroporation effects caused by the electrical field. The authors also modeled the bipolar ablative mode, known as bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency (CRF), in order to compare both techniques. Results: There were important differences between CRF and PRF in terms of electrical and thermal performance. In bipolar CRF: (1) the initial temperature of the tissue impacts on temperature progress and hence on the thermal lesion dimension; and (2) at 37 °C, 6-min of bipolar CRF creates a strip thermal lesion between the electrodes when these are separated by a distance of up to 20 mm. In bipolar PRF: (1) an interelectrode distance shorter than 5 mm produces thermal damage (i.e., ablative effect) in the intervening tissue after 6 min of bipolar RF; and (2) the possible electroporation effect (electric fields higher than 150 kV m −1 ) would be exclusively circumscribed to a very small zone of tissue around the electrode tip. Conclusions: The results suggest that (1) the clinical parameters considered to be suitable for bipolar CRF should not necessarily be considered valid for bipolar PRF, and vice versa; and (2) the ablative effect of the CRF mode is mainly due to its much greater level of delivered energy than is the case in PRF, and therefore at same applied energy levels, CRF, and PRF are expected to result in same outcomes in terms of thermal

  9. Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Juan J. [Instituto de Investigación Interuniversitario en Bioingeniería y Tecnología Orientada al Ser Humano, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022 (Spain); Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan J. [Pain Unit and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); Muñoz, Víctor [Neurotherm Spain, Barcelona 08303 (Spain); Berjano, Enrique, E-mail: eberjano@eln.upv.es [Biomedical Synergy, Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de València 46022 (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Pulsed RF (PRF) is a nonablative technique for treating neuropathic pain. Bipolar PRF application is currently aimed at creating a “strip lesion” to connect the electrode tips; however, the electrical and thermal performance during bipolar PRF is currently unknown. The objective of this paper was to study the temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF. Methods: The authors developed computer models to study temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF and to assess the possible ablative thermal effect caused by the accumulated temperature spikes, along with any possible electroporation effects caused by the electrical field. The authors also modeled the bipolar ablative mode, known as bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency (CRF), in order to compare both techniques. Results: There were important differences between CRF and PRF in terms of electrical and thermal performance. In bipolar CRF: (1) the initial temperature of the tissue impacts on temperature progress and hence on the thermal lesion dimension; and (2) at 37 °C, 6-min of bipolar CRF creates a strip thermal lesion between the electrodes when these are separated by a distance of up to 20 mm. In bipolar PRF: (1) an interelectrode distance shorter than 5 mm produces thermal damage (i.e., ablative effect) in the intervening tissue after 6 min of bipolar RF; and (2) the possible electroporation effect (electric fields higher than 150 kV m{sup −1}) would be exclusively circumscribed to a very small zone of tissue around the electrode tip. Conclusions: The results suggest that (1) the clinical parameters considered to be suitable for bipolar CRF should not necessarily be considered valid for bipolar PRF, and vice versa; and (2) the ablative effect of the CRF mode is mainly due to its much greater level of delivered energy than is the case in PRF, and therefore at same applied energy levels, CRF, and PRF are expected to result in same outcomes in terms of

  10. Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Juan J; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan J; Muñoz, Víctor; Berjano, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed RF (PRF) is a nonablative technique for treating neuropathic pain. Bipolar PRF application is currently aimed at creating a "strip lesion" to connect the electrode tips; however, the electrical and thermal performance during bipolar PRF is currently unknown. The objective of this paper was to study the temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF. The authors developed computer models to study temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF and to assess the possible ablative thermal effect caused by the accumulated temperature spikes, along with any possible electroporation effects caused by the electrical field. The authors also modeled the bipolar ablative mode, known as bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency (CRF), in order to compare both techniques. There were important differences between CRF and PRF in terms of electrical and thermal performance. In bipolar CRF: (1) the initial temperature of the tissue impacts on temperature progress and hence on the thermal lesion dimension; and (2) at 37 °C, 6-min of bipolar CRF creates a strip thermal lesion between the electrodes when these are separated by a distance of up to 20 mm. In bipolar PRF: (1) an interelectrode distance shorter than 5 mm produces thermal damage (i.e., ablative effect) in the intervening tissue after 6 min of bipolar RF; and (2) the possible electroporation effect (electric fields higher than 150 kV m(-1)) would be exclusively circumscribed to a very small zone of tissue around the electrode tip. The results suggest that (1) the clinical parameters considered to be suitable for bipolar CRF should not necessarily be considered valid for bipolar PRF, and vice versa; and (2) the ablative effect of the CRF mode is mainly due to its much greater level of delivered energy than is the case in PRF, and therefore at same applied energy levels, CRF, and PRF are expected to result in same outcomes in terms of thermal damage zone dimension.

  11. PROCESSING OF SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS BY POWDER METALLURGY AND ANALYSIS OF THEIR PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. D. Luna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of finite elements to analyze the yield of electric machines based on the use of different soft magnetic materials for the rotor and the stator, in order to verify the performance in electric machine using powder metallurgy. Traditionally, the cores of electric machines are built from rolled steel plates, thus the cores developed in this work are obtained from an alternative process known as powder metallurgy, where powders of soft magnetic materials are compacted and sintered. The properties of interest were analyzed (magnetic, electric and mechanical properties and they were introduced into the software database. The topology of the rotor used was 400 W three-phase synchronous motor manufactured by WEG Motors. The results show the feasibility to replace the metal sheets of the electric machines by solid blocks obtained by powder metallurgy process with only 0.37% yield losses. In addition, the powder metallurgical process reduces the use of raw materials and energy consumption per kg of raw material processed.

  12. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  13. The Impact of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) Regulation on Electricity Saving in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah Salleh, Siti; Eqwan Roslan, Mohd; Isa, Aishah Mohd; Faizal Basri Nair, Mohd; Syafiqah Salleh, Siti

    2018-03-01

    One of Malaysia’s key strategies to promote efficient energy use in the country is to implement the minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) through the Electricity Regulations (Amendment) 2013. Five selected electrical appliances (refrigerator, air conditioner, television, domestic fans and lamp fittings) must comply with MEPS requirement in order to be sold in Malaysian market. Manufacturers, importers or distributors are issued Certificate of Approval (COA) if products are MEPS-compliant. In 2015, 1,215 COAs were issued but the number of MEPS products in the market is unknown. This work collects sales data from major manufacturers to estimate the annual sales of MEPS appliances and the cumulative electricity consumption and electricity saving. It was found that most products sold have 3-star rating and above. By year 2015, total cumulative electricity savings gained from MEPS implementation is 3,645 GWh, with air conditioner being the highest contributor (30%). In the future, it is recommended that more MEPS products and related incentives be introduced to further improve efficiency of energy use in Malaysia.

  14. Joining and Performance of Alkali Metal Thermal-to-electric Converter (AMTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Min-Soo; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Woo, Sang-Kuk [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The alkali-Metal Thermal-to-electric Converter (AMTEC) is one of the promising static energy conversion technologies for the direct conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy. The advantages over a conventional energy converter are its high theoretical conversion efficiency of 40% and power density of 500 W/kg. The working principle of an AMTEC battery is the electrochemical reaction of the sodium through an ion conducting electrolyte. Sodium ion pass through the hot side of the beta”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) primarily as a result of the pressure difference. This pressure difference across the BASE has a significant effect on the overall performance of the AMTEC system. In order to build the high pressure difference across the BASE, hermeticity is required for each joined components for high temperature range of 900°C. The AMTEC battery was manufactured by utilizing robust joining technology of BASE/insulator/metal flange interfaces of the system for both structural and electrical stability. The electrical potential difference between the anode and cathode sides, where the electrons emitted from sodium ionization and recombined into sodium, was characterized as the open-circuit voltage. The efforts of technological improvement were concentrated on a high-power output and conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about the joining and performance of the AMTEC systems.

  15. Performance of a Fuel-Cell-Powered, Small Electric Airplane Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Rapidly emerging fuel-cell-power technologies may be used to launch a new revolution of electric propulsion systems for light aircraft. Future small electric airplanes using fuel cell technologies hold the promise of high reliability, low maintenance, low noise, and - with the exception of water vapor - zero emissions. An analytical feasibility and performance assessment was conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center's Airbreathing Systems Analysis Office of a fuel-cell-powered, propeller-driven, small electric airplane based on a model of the MCR-01 two-place kitplane (Dyn'Aero, Darois, France). This assessment was conducted in parallel with an ongoing effort by the Advanced Technology Products Corporation and the Foundation for Advancing Science and Technology Education. Their project - partially funded by a NASA grant - is to design, build, and fly the first manned, continuously propelled, nongliding electric airplane. In our study, an analytical performance model of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell propulsion system was developed and applied to a notional, two-place light airplane modeled after the MCR-01 kitplane. The PEM fuel cell stack was fed pure hydrogen fuel and humidified ambient air via a small automotive centrifugal supercharger. The fuel cell performance models were based on chemical reaction analyses calibrated with published data from the fledgling U.S. automotive fuel cell industry. Electric propeller motors, rated at two shaft power levels in separate assessments, were used to directly drive a two-bladed, variable-pitch propeller. Fuel sources considered were compressed hydrogen gas and cryogenic liquid hydrogen. Both of these fuel sources provided pure, contaminant-free hydrogen for the PEM cells.

  16. Economic Comparison of Electric Vehicles Performing Unidirectional and Bidirectional Frequency Control in Denmark with Practical Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    the EV is plugged into the network ready to support the system frequency. Performing unidirectional frequency control with Electric Vehicles (EVs) requires little hardware implementation in the household but has the limit that the service only can be performed until the battery is fully charged....... Bidirectional V2G frequency control requires an external charger but also enables the EV to perform services at higher powers, during the entire period the EV is parked. The yearly revenue is in both cases calculated using some assumptions that are then verified in 2 experiments. Both EVs are discharged...

  17. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  18. A highly efficient electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    N-cetylpyridinium iodide (N-CPI) as a new electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was studied.It showed high efficiency for enhancing both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current density of DSSC when the suitable amount of N-CPI as 0.02 M was added in liquid electrolyte.The energy conversion effi- ciency of DSSC increased from 4.429% to 6.535%,with 47.55% enhancement.Therefore,it is a highly efficient electric addi- tive for DSSC.The intrinsic reason is owing to the special molecular structure of N-CPI,which contains two different polarity groups.As a surfactant,N-CPI could form ordered arrangement in liquid electrolyte,which affects the diffusing ability and the redox reaction of I-/I3-,and further affects the photovoltaic performance of DSSC.

  19. Impact of Physical Deformation on Electrical Performance of Paper-Based Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-01-23

    We report on investigation of the mechanical properties of paper electronics (printed and made out of paper). One key objective of such paper electronics is to achieve ultraflexibility. Therefore, it is important to understand electrical functionality and reliability of paper electronics under various physical (mechanical) deformations. Here, we show the general mechanical properties of the cellulose paper used and its electrical behavior under applied strain, tackling the main effects that need to be identified when building paper-based systems, from product performance and stability perspective. An overview of the stress-strain behavior of silver ink on paper is discussed, and then, we tackle a more specific analysis of the performance variations of paper sensors made with recyclable household materials when exposed to various mechanical conditions of tensile and compressive bending. This paper is important for developing stable wearable sensors for incorporation into Internet of Everything applications.

  20. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  1. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report provides projected cost and performance assumptions for electric technologies considered in the Electrification Futures Study, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the effects of widespread electrification of end-use service demands in all major economic sectors - transportation, residential and commercial buildings, and industry - for the contiguous United States through 2050. Using extensive literature searches and expert assessment, the authors identify slow, moderate, and rapid technology advancement sensitivities on technology cost and performance, and they offer a comparative analysis of levelized cost metrics as a reference indicator of total costs. The identification and characterization of these end-use service demand technologies is fundamental to the Electrification Futures Study. This report, the larger Electrification Futures Study, and the associated data and methodologies may be useful to planners and analysts in evaluating the potential role of electrification in an uncertain future. The report could be broadly applicable for other analysts and researchers who wish to assess electrification and electric technologies.

  2. Optimization of NPP performance and service life in a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Spielgelberg - Planner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses how the competitive electricity market has influenced nuclear power plant operations, with a focus on optimisation of NPP performance and plant service life, and how the IAEA programme has addressed some of this issues. The definitions of Plant Life, Operational Life, Design Life and Periodical Safety Reviews are developed in the paper in order to differentiate between the terms and to show the significance in terms of Plant Life Management

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  4. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  5. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  6. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  7. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  8. Individual differences in object permanence performance at 8 months: locomotor experience and brain electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M A; Fox, N A

    1997-12-01

    This work was designed to investigate individual differences in hands-and-knees crawling and frontal brain electrical activity with respect to object permanence performance in 76 eight-month-old infants. Four groups of infants (one prelocomotor and 3 with varying lengths of hands-and-knees crawling experience) were tested on an object permanence scale in a research design similar to that used by Kermoian and Campos (1988). In addition, baseline EEG was recorded and used as an indicator of brain development, as in the Bell and Fox (1992) longitudinal study. Individual differences in frontal and occipital EEG power and in locomotor experience were associated with performance on the object permanence task. Infants successful at A-not-B exhibited greater frontal EEG power and greater occipital EEG power than unsuccessful infants. In contrast to Kermoian and Campos (1988), who noted that long-term crawling experience was associated with higher performance on an object permanence scale, infants in this study with any amount of hands and knees crawling experience performed at a higher level on the object permanence scale than prelocomotor infants. There was no interaction among brain electrical activity, locomotor experience, and object permanence performance. These data highlight the value of electrophysiological research and the need for a brain-behavior model of object permanence performance that incorporates both electrophysiological and behavioral factors.

  9. Parameters Analysis of Hydraulic-Electrical Energy Regenerative Absorber on Suspension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To recycle the vibration energy of vehicles over rough roads, a hydraulic-electricity energy regenerative suspension (HEERS was designed in the present work, and simulations were performed with focus on its performance. On the basis of the system principle, the mathematical model of hydraulic-electrical energy regenerative absorber (HEERA and two degrees of freedom (DOF suspension dynamic model were constructed. Using the model of HEERA, simulations on force-displacement and force-velocity characteristics were performed with a 1.67 Hz frequency and a sinusoidal input adopted. And then in combination with HEERA model and two DOF suspension models, simulations on the performance of HEERS also were carried out. Finally, the influences of charging pressure and volume of the accumulator, hydraulic motor displacement, orifice area of check valve, and inner diameter of hydraulic pipelines on the performance of HEERA and HEERS were investigated in depth. The simulation results indicated that (i the damping characteristic of HEERA was coincident with the damping characteristics of traditional absorber; (ii the most remarkable influencing factor on the performance of HEERS was the hydraulic motor displacement, followed by orifice area of check valve, inner diameter of pipelines, and charging pressure of accumulator, while the effects of charging volume of accumulator were quite limited.

  10. Examination of the Properties of a Spent Fuel based Electricity Generation System - Scintillator Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gammavoltaic was proposed by Karl Scharf in 1960. The low efficiency resulted in gammavoltaic being used as a radiation detector. In the 1990s the efficiency of gammavoltaic increased by the use of a scintillator. Gammavoltaic was further studied as a power source for spent fuel transportation and a nuclear battery in the 2000s Haneol Lee and Man-Sung Yim also suggested electricity generation system based on spent fuel stored inside the fuel pool of a nuclear power plant. This study proposed the systematic design of an electricity conversion system using CsI(Tl) scintillator and a-Si photovoltaic cell. As such, this study is selected to be a reference paper. The results of this paper indicate a self-absorption effect from the reference model. This effect is negligible while the irradiation degradation has to be considered. Two main ways to reduce radiation induced degradation are scintillator shielding and replacing scintillator material with a material having higher radiation resistance. The analysis of the scintillator used in the 'electricity generation system using gamma radiation from spent fuel' was performed to evaluate the ideal electricity generation in the reference research.

  11. The integrated North American electricity market : Enhancing opportunities for cross border trading and environmental performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2003-03-01

    The stability of the North American electricity industry has always been recognized, in both Canada and the United States. However, this sector is facing uncertainty mainly due to lack of clarity concerning market rules, environmental challenges, and the very poor investment climate. The principal thesis that was developed for this paper used those three factors as context and justification. The thesis is as follows: the evolving North American market is more and more regionally integrated, and that continued and growing regional integration will lessen uncertainty. All problems cannot be solved simply through increased regional integration, but it represents a step in the right direction in that it leads to greater efficiency, increased reliability, more predictable regulation and policy, lower costs and greater environmental benefits. The result is increased investor confidence and reduced uncertainty in the marketplace. To assist in the strengthening of this integration, the Canadian Electricity Association made seven recommendations. They were: (1) increased focus on harmonizing market rules and increased participation in the Regional Transmission Organizations, (2) development of North American strategy for the management of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from electricity generation, (3) identification of oportunites to further harmonize management of other air emissions, (4) creation of consistent methodology for the measurement of environmental performance, (5) enhancement of cross-border and interprovincial transmission transfer capability, (6) coordination of critical infrastructure protection, and (7) support of self-governing international organization for the development and enforcement of mandatory reliability standards for the evolving electricity industry. 5 figs

  12. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution - Case Network Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost-effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM is under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slightly changes in the results can occur if calculations were made with latest parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters. (orig.)

  13. Examination of the Properties of a Spent Fuel based Electricity Generation System - Scintillator Performance Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Gammavoltaic was proposed by Karl Scharf in 1960. The low efficiency resulted in gammavoltaic being used as a radiation detector. In the 1990s the efficiency of gammavoltaic increased by the use of a scintillator. Gammavoltaic was further studied as a power source for spent fuel transportation and a nuclear battery in the 2000s Haneol Lee and Man-Sung Yim also suggested electricity generation system based on spent fuel stored inside the fuel pool of a nuclear power plant. This study proposed the systematic design of an electricity conversion system using CsI(Tl) scintillator and a-Si photovoltaic cell. As such, this study is selected to be a reference paper. The results of this paper indicate a self-absorption effect from the reference model. This effect is negligible while the irradiation degradation has to be considered. Two main ways to reduce radiation induced degradation are scintillator shielding and replacing scintillator material with a material having higher radiation resistance. The analysis of the scintillator used in the 'electricity generation system using gamma radiation from spent fuel' was performed to evaluate the ideal electricity generation in the reference research

  14. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution. Case network performance assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost- effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent ones available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM have been under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slight changes might occur in the numerical results of calculations if they were made with the latest set of parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters

  15. Analysis of performance reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of car-tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko О.Р.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operational reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of vehicles, trucks Mercedes-Benz Actros 1844 LS and Volvo FH 1242, conducting international cargo transportation is performed. It is established that the equipment is reliable, which meets modern requirements, but where there is a violation of the resolution. The reason for repair work is constructive and operational factors. Distribution of efficiency and overall performance of operational reliability is retrieved. Items with more bounce are found. Common factors of violation of efficiency cars, trucks in operation, are largely different stages in warranty runs are obtained.

  16. The Electrical and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskites Relevant to Optoelectronic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, Valerio

    2017-10-12

    Organometal halide perovskites are under intense study for use in optoelectronics. Methylammonium and formamidinium lead iodide show impressive performance as photovoltaic materials; a premise that has spurred investigations into light-emitting devices and photodetectors. Herein, the optical and electrical material properties of organometal halide perovskites are reviewed. An overview is given on how the material composition and morphology are tied to these properties, and how these properties ultimately affect device performance. Material attributes and techniques used to estimate them are analyzed for different perovskite materials, with a particular focus on the bandgap, mobility, diffusion length, carrier lifetime, and trap-state density.

  17. Effort to increase an engine performance using electrical ignition system for motor vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Bandem Adnyana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing engine performances using electrical ignition system on motor vehicle. In accordance with the development oftechnology, improvisation of automotive is created in order to increase the performance of engine. The method to increase thisperformance has been done by modify the ignition system, where the conventional method of ignition system which uses contactbreaker substituted by using capacitor. The improvisation of ignition system has been tested by increasing the speed and load onstationary condition. Results show that the improvisation of ignition system by using capacitor increases the effective power andreduce the specific fuel consumption of engine and reduce the gas emission of CO.

  18. Emprego de uma abordagem multicritério para classificação do desempenho de instituições de ensino superior Utilización de una metodología multicriterio para la clasificación del desempeño de instituciones de educación superior Using a multicriteria approach for classifying universities' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2009-12-01

    Ponderada para clasificar el funcionamiento de las Instituciones de Educación Superior segundo la opinión de profesores y estudiantes. Con el deseo de investigar el uso de esta metodología, fue realizado un experimento en una universidad publica - el análisis de los resultados y algunas conclusiones son presentadas. Las potencialidades/debilidades y los puntos críticos que se deben dar la prioridad a favor de la mejora de la Calidad en la Educación fueran identificados.Since the 90's, the Brazilian University System has experienced a fast growth, which is characterized by the increasing quantity of Universities and University Degree Courses. In this context, it's essential that exists an efficient Education Evaluation System to monitor the information of these universities and to assure that the education quality provided by them achieve the recommended standards. One way to get the Education System efficiency is to continuously evaluate the performance of Universities concerning several criteria. Thus, this work presents a multicriteria approach based on the traditional Weighted Average method for sorting the universities performance according to professors and students points of view. In order to investigate the application of this approach, a case study was conducted in a Public university. The weaknesses/potentialities and the critical points which must be prioritized in order to improve the Education Quality were identified.

  19. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  20. Performance analysis of the electric vehicle air conditioner by replacing hydrocarbon refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal comfort in passenger cabins needs an automotive air-conditioning system. The electric vehicle air conditioner system is driven by an electric compressor which includes a compressor and an electric motor. Almost air-conditioning system uses CFC-12, CFC-22 and HFC-134a as refrigerant. However, CFC-12 and CFC-22 will damage the ozone layer. The extreme huge global warming potentials (GWP) values of CFC-12, CFC-22, and HFC-134a represent the serious greenhouse effect of Earth. This article shows new experimental measurements and analysis by using a mixture of HC-134 to replace HFC-134a. The result is a refrigerating effect, the coefficient of performance and energy factor increase along with cooling capacity, both for HFC-134a and HC-134. The refrigerating effect of HC-134 is almost twice higher than HFC-134a. The coefficient of performance value of HC-134 is also 36.42% greater than HFC-134a. Then, the energy factor value of HC-134 is 3.78% greater than HFC-134a.

  1. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work. Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal collectors, Electrical performance, Thermal performance, Compound parabolic concentrator, Jet impingement

  2. A study on the implementation of the performance of electrical products standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M A

    1984-03-01

    The Steering Committee on Electrical Products (SCOPEP) has developed a number of performance standards for selected electrical products and product attributes, under the direction of the Canadian Standards Association. Although the development of these standards shows that a successful standards writing process is in place, the initiation and implementation has been achieved by one or more stakeholder groups spearheading the requirement for the standard. As a result, SCOPEP has been unable to achieve its full potential in its role of developing peformance standards for electrical products. A study was undertaken with the aim of developing a strategic plan for SCOPEP which would be supported by marketing and other strategies. The major elements of the strategy include: selecting those products for which the benefits of a standards program significantly outweigh the costs; agreeing on the use of a framework which rigorously evaluates the cost-benefits of developing performance standards; producing a critical mass of products through the selection process so that revenues from label fees will ultimately balance program costs and support a full time SCOPEP secretariat; aggressively marketing the standards in all sectors, using a balanced push-and-pull strategy; and developing a protagonist attitude so that standards programs implemented are credible to all SCOPEP stakeholders. Detailed cost-benefit tables are appended. 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Innovation performance of the US American and European electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Christoph; Weinmann, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Using a production function approach based on Cobb–Douglas, this analysis relates R&D efforts of 32 electric utilities on both sides of the Atlantic to their performance in terms of labour productivity. We find that higher R&D levels generally have a positive impact on revenues. However, only in the sub-sample of 16 electricity suppliers in Europe this effect is significant. Knowledge spill-over effects can be estimated for the US American sub-sample, since US utilities have bundled their R&D efforts in a centralized research institution and have to report that data. Our analysis reveals, though, that collaborative research efforts do not lead to positive spill-overs at the assumption of a time delay of one year. - Highlights: • R&D expenditures and their impact on performance of 32 electric utilities are analyzed. • Extended Cobb–Douglas production function approach. • Positive and significant effect of R&D expenditures on revenues. • Effect is less pronounced in the USA than in Europe. • External knowledge spillovers of 16 US American utilities turn out to be negative.

  4. Improved performance of microbial fuel cells enriched with natural microbial inocula and treated by electrical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are increasingly attracting attention as a sustainable technology as they convert chemical energy in organic wastes to electricity. In this study, the effects of different inoculum sources (river sediment, activated sludge and anaerobic sludge) and electrical current stimulation were evaluated using single-chamber air-cathode MFCs as model reactors based on performance in enrichment process and electrochemical characteristics of the reactors. The result revealed the rapid anodic biofilm development and substrate utilization of the anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC. It was also found that the river sediment-inoculated MFC achieved the highest power output of 195 μW, or 98 mW m −2 , due to better developed anodic biofilm confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The current stimulation enhanced the anodic biofilm attachment over time, and therefore reduced the MFC internal resistance by 27%, increased the electrical capacitance by four folds, and improved the anodic biofilm resilience against substrate deprivation. For mature MFCs, a transient application of a negative voltage (−3 V) improved the cathode activity and maximum power output by 37%. This improvement was due to the bactericidal effect of the electrode potential higher than +1.5 V vs. SHE, demonstrating a substantial benefit of treating MFC cathode after long-term operation using suitable direct electrical current. -- Highlights: •Voltage stimulation (+2 V) during inoculation reduced MFC internal resistance and improved biofilm resilience. •Voltage stimulation increased biofilm electrical capacitance by 5-fold. •Negative voltage stimulation (−3 V) enhanced the maximum power output by 37%. •River sediment MFC obtained higher power due to better anodic biofilm coverage. •Anaerobic sludge quickly developed anodic biofilm for MFC and quickly utilized volatile fatty acids

  5. Electrical circuit models for performance modeling of Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    emerging technology for various applications, there is a need for Li-S battery performance model; however, developing such models represents a challenging task due to batteries' complex ongoing chemical reactions. Therefore, the literature review was performed to summarize electrical circuit models (ECMs......) used for modeling the performance behavior of Li-S batteries. The studied Li-S pouch cell was tested in the laboratory in order to parametrize four basic ECM topologies. These topologies were compared by analyzing their voltage estimation accuracy values, which were obtained for different battery...... current profiles. Based on these results, the 3 R-C ECM was chosen and the Li-S battery cell discharging performance model with current dependent parameters was derived and validated....

  6. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  7. Electrical performance of ATLAS-SCT KB end-cap modules

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, M; Donegà, M; Ferrère, D; Mangin-Brinet, M; Mikulec, B; Weber, M; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Wallny, R; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G; García, J E; Gonzáles, S; Vos, M A; Toczek, B

    2003-01-01

    The Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is one of the ATLAS Inner Detector elements which aims to track charged particles in the ATLAS experiment. It consists of four cylindrical layers (barrels) of silicon strip detectors, with nine disks in each of the forward and backward directions. Carbon fibre structures will support a total of 4088 modules, which are the basic functional sub-unit of the SCT. Each module consists of single sided silicon micro-strip detectors glued back to back with a 40 mrad stereo-angle, and attached to a hybrid. The scope of this document is to present the electrical performances of prototype end-cap modules proposed for the ATLAS-SCT, as an alternative to the baseline. The layout of these modules is based on the implementation of the barrel module hybrid in the end-cap geometry. A complete set of electrical measurements is summarized in this paper, including irradiated module tests and beam tests.

  8. Electricity mix and ecological assessments. Consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U.

    1998-12-01

    The study aims at analysing the methodological issues associated with the definition of electricity mixes and discussing the consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report has been designed as a guideline to support LCA practitioners in the systematic identification of the most appropriate electricity mixes for LCA applications. A detailed checklist has been developed for this purpose. It includes the following items: type of electricity supply (from the net, self production, direct contracts); voltage level; country/place of utilisation; year of utilisation; season/daytime of utilisation; import/export model; and, marginal vs. average approach. A few examples, utilising published LCA studies, illustrate the impacts of the insights gained in the present work. Although primarily aimed at applications in Switzerland, the main concepts, the modelling and parts of the information provided can also be applied to other European countries. In addition to the three models proposed earlier for the assessment of the Swiss yearly average electricity mix, a new model (M4) has been developed in the frame of the present task in order to take into account the conditions characteristic for Switzerland as a transit land for electricity trades between its neighbour countries. All existing electricity mix models as well as selected environmental inventories are described and compared in the report. As an example of results, the CO 2 emissions calculated for the Swiss yearly electricity supply mix are relatively small (48 g/kWh with model M4, as compared with 497 g/kWh for the average UCPTE mix). Key information on the structure of electricity generation and trade in Europe is provided. The modelling of the electricity supply for most of the European countries is less sensitive to the choice of an electricity model than for Switzerland. Considering that

  9. The effects of high frequency current ripple on electric vehicle battery performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Kotub; Moore, Andrew D.; Barai, Anup; Marco, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental study into the impact of current ripple on li-ion battery degradation. • 15 cells exercised with 1200 cycles coupled AC–DC signals, at 5 frequencies. • Results highlight a greater spread of degradation for cells exposed to AC excitation. • Implications for BMS control, thermal management and system integration. - Abstract: The power electronic subsystems within electric vehicle (EV) powertrains are required to manage both the energy flows within the vehicle and the delivery of torque by the electrical machine. Such systems are known to generate undesired electrical noise on the high voltage bus. High frequency current oscillations, or ripple, if unhindered will enter the vehicle’s battery system. Real-world measurements of the current on the high voltage bus of a series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) show that significant current perturbations ranging from 10 Hz to in excess of 10 kHz are present. Little is reported within the academic literature about the potential impact on battery system performance and the rate of degradation associated with exposing the battery to coupled direct current (DC) and alternating currents (AC). This paper documents an experimental investigation that studies the long-term impact of current ripple on battery performance degradation. Initial results highlight that both capacity fade and impedance rise progressively increase as the frequency of the superimposed AC current increases. A further conclusion is that the spread of degradation for cells cycled with a coupled AC–DC signal is considerably more than for cells exercised with a traditional DC waveform. The underlying causality for this degradation is not yet understood. However, this has important implications for the battery management system (BMS). Increased variations in cell capacity and impedance will cause differential current flows and heat generation within the battery pack that if not properly managed will further reduce battery life

  10. The Effects of Nonuniform Illumination on the Electrical Performance of a Single Conventional Photovoltaic Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV concentrators are a promising approach for lowering PV electricity costs in the near future. However, most of the concentrators that are currently used for PV applications yield nonuniform flux profiles on the surface of a PV module which in turn reduces its electrical performance if the cells are serially connected. One way of overcoming this effect is the use of PV modules with isolated cells so that each cell generates current that is proportional to the energy flux absorbed. However, there are some cases where nonuniform illumination also exists in a single cell in an isolated cells PV module. This paper systematically studied the effect of nonuniform illumination on various cell performance parameters of a single monocrystalline standard PV cell at low and medium energy concentration ratios. Furthermore, the effect of orientation, size, and geometrical shapes of nonuniform illumination was also investigated. It was found that the effect of nonuniform illumination on various PV cell performance parameters of a single standard PV cell becomes noticeable at medium energy flux concentration whilst the location, size, and geometrical shape of nonuniform illumination have no effect on the performance parameters of the cell.

  11. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  12. A review on heat sink for thermo-electric power generation: Classifications and parameters affecting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghool, Ali; Basrawi, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Thamir Khalil; Habib, Khairul; Ibrahim, Hassan; Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Daing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling a thermoelectric power generation (TEG) to a heat sink is presented. • Review the classifications and parameters affecting performance of the TEG with heat sink. • Discuss different mathematical models of the heat sinks. • The passive heat sinks are most appropriate because of the inherent efficiency of TEG. • Medium temperature range below 300 °C is found to be most suitable for HPHS. - Abstract: In recent years, there have been growing interests in key areas related to global warming resulting from environmental emissions, and the diminishing sources of fossil fuel. The increased interest has led to significant research efforts towards finding novel technologies in clean energy production. Consequently, the merits of a thermo-electric generator (TEG) have promised a revival of alternative means of producing green energy. It is, however, impractical to account for the cost of thermal energy input to the TEG which is in the form of final waste heat. This is because the technology presents critical limitations in determining its cost efficiency nor its economic disadvantages. This paper reviews the principles of thermo-electric power production, as well the materials use, performance achieved, and application areas. The paper also takes a particular deliberation on TEG heat sinks geometries and categories. The review emphasizes more on the TEG performance while considering a number of heat sink parameters related to its performance.

  13. Enhanced Regenerative Braking Strategies for Electric Vehicles: Dynamic Performance and Potential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative braking system and hydraulic braking system are used in conjunction in the majority of electric vehicles worldwide. We propose a new regenerative braking distribution strategy that is based on multi-input fuzzy control logic while considering the influences of the battery’s state of charge, the brake strength and the motor speed. To verify the braking performance and recovery economy, this strategy was applied to a battery electric vehicle model and compared with two other improved regenerative braking strategies. The performance simulation was performed using standard driving cycles (NEDC, LA92, and JP1015 and a real-world-based urban cycle in China. The tested braking strategies satisfied the general safety requirements of Europe (as specified in ECE-13H, and the emergency braking scenario and economic potential were tested. The simulation results demonstrated the differences in the braking force distribution performance of these three regenerative braking strategies, the feasibility of the braking methods for the proposed driving cycles and the energy economic potential of the three strategies.

  14. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  15. Superior performance of borocarbonitrides, BxCyNz , as stable, low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Himanshu; Chhetri, Manjeet; Maitra, Somak; Waghmare, Umesh; Rao, C. N. R.

    We report superior hydrogen evolution activity of metal-free borocarbonitride (BCN) catalysts. The highly positive onset potential (-56 mV vs. RHE) and the current density of 10 mAcm2 at an overpotential of 70 mV exhibited by a carbon-rich BCN with the composition BC7N2 demonstrates the extraordinary electrocatalytic activity at par with Pt. Theoretical studies throw light on the cause of high activity of this composition. The high activity and good stability of BCN's surpass the characteristics of other metal-free catalysts reported in recent literature. an Energy Frontier Research Centre funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-SC0012575.

  16. Theoretical analysis of heat transfer in, and electrical performance of, a milliwatt radioisotopic powered thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biver, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified, theoretical model has been made for a radioisotope-powered milliwatt thermoelectric generator (RTG). Calculations of unit heat transfer and electrical performance characteristics are made in two ways: (a) using discrete values of input physical parameters for an individual unit; and (b) using a statistical simulation (Monte Carlo) approach for estimating the variation in performance in a group of N-units. The statistical simulation approach is useful in: (a) estimating the allowable range of input parameters conducive to the production design meeting specifications in a group of N-units; and (b) determining particular parameters that must be significantly restricted in variation to achieve desired performance. The available experimental data, as compared with the discrete value calculations, are in quite good agreement (within 5 percent generally). (U.S.)

  17. Electrical performance of a string of magnets representing a half-cell of the LHC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coull, L.; Dahlerup-Petersen, K.; Hagedorn, D.; Krainz, G.; Rijllart, A.; McInturff, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tests have been carried out on a string of prototype superconducting magnets, consisting of one double-quadrupole and two double-dipoles forming the major part of a half-cell of the LHC machine. The magnets are protected individually by cold diodes and quench heaters. The electrical aspects of these tests are described here. The performance during quench of the protection diodes and the associated interconnections was studied. Tests determined the magnet quench performance in training and at different ramp-rates, and investigated the inter-magnet propagation of quenches. Current lead and inter-magnet contact resistances were controlled and the performance of the power converter and the dump switches assessed

  18. Electrical performance of a string of magnets representing a half-cell of the LHC machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Coull, L.; Dahlerup-Petersen, K.; Hagedorn, D.; Krainz, G.; Rijllart, A.; McInturff, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tests have been carried out on a string prototype superconducting magnets, consisting of one double-quadrupole and two double-dipoles forming the major part of a half-cell of the LHC machine. The magnets are protected individually by ''cold diodes'' and quench heaters. The electrical aspects of these tests are described here. The performance during quench of the protection diodes and the associated interconnections was studied. Tests determined the magnet quench performance in training and at different ramp-rates, and investigated the inter-magnet propagation of quenches. Current lead and inter-magnet contact resistances were controlled and the performance of the power converter and the dump switches assessed

  19. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  20. Does weather explain cost and quality performance? An analysis of UK electricity distribution companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, William; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of empirical studies and energy regulators have applied benchmarking techniques to measuring the efficiency and performance of network utilities. An important issue has been the extent to which the results are influenced by contextual factors. Among these, weather factors are frequently discussed as being important. We use factor analysis and two-stage data envelopment analysis techniques to examine the effect of a set of important weather factors (gale, hail, temperatures, rainfall and thunder) on the performance of electricity distribution networks in the UK. The results indicate that such factors often do not have a significant economic and statistical effect on the overall performance of the utilities. The weather parameters in some models are significant in terms of economic efficiency. The results echo our previous findings of the importance of extending the basic model to include other inputs such as total expenditure (Totex), customer minutes lost (CML) and network energy losses in regulatory benchmarking.

  1. Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Motors for Electric Vehicles (EV Traction Considering Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Anh Huynh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the electromagnetic and thermal performance of several traction motors for electric vehicles (EVs. Two different driving cycles are employed for the evaluation of the motors, one for urban and the other for highway driving. The electromagnetic performance to be assessed includes maximum motor torque output for vehicle acceleration and the flux weakening capability for wide operating range under current and voltage limits. Thermal analysis is performed to evaluate the health status of the magnets and windings for the prescribed driving cycles. Two types of traction motors are investigated: two interior permanent magnet motors and one permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor. The analysis results demonstrate the benefits and disadvantages of these motors for EV traction and provide suggestions for traction motor design. Finally, experiments are conducted to validate the analysis.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Sub-manufacturing Sectors Using TOPSIS and ELECTRE Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri ÖMÜRBEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance analysis is defined as a process of collecting, analyzing and reporting data systematically and regularly for a business to monitor its sources it has used, products and services it has produced, and the results it gained. For operators, it means quantitative expression of actions which are performed by a business or maintained in a program. In this study, financial performances of manufacture sectors are analyzed by the methods of TOPSIS and ELECTRE using current ratio, cash ratio, total debt / total assets, inventory turnover rate, equity turnover rate, net profit / equity, operating ıncome /net sales, net profit / sales and cost of good sold / net sales criteria. The findings suggest that coal and refined petroleum product manufacturing industry is in the first place in both methods.

  3. Epoxy/α-alumina nanocomposite with high electrical insulation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to improve the electrical insulation of epoxy resin. The effects of boehmite, γ-alumina and α-alumina nanoparticles on the volume resistivity, dielectric strength and glass transition temperature of epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. The results showed that α-alumina nanoparticles displayed obvious advantages in enhancing electrical insulation performance of epoxy nanocomposites, compared to boehmite and γ-alumina nanoparticles. The direct current volume resistivity and breakdown strength of epoxy nanocomposite with 2.0 wt% α-alumina nanoparticles was improved to 2.2 × 1018 Ω cm and 76.1 kV mm−1 respectively. And these improved values of electrical insulation properties are much higher than these of epoxy nanocomposites reported in previous studies. The main reason of these improvements may be that the epoxy/α-alumina interaction zone was enhanced by crosslink. Keywords: Nanocomposite, Epoxy resin, Insulation, α-alumina

  4. Prioritization and selection of electrical vehicle systems to improve its performances: An AHP approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrode, E.; Muerza, V.; Arroyo, J.B.

    2016-07-01

    In the study of the improvement of urban transport in terms of energy efficiency and environmental improvement, one of the best options is the use of electric vehicles for both passengers and freight distribution. Depending on the type of transport operation to be performed, it is necessary to select the most appropriate vehicle that meets the necessary requirements, so that the result is an improvement in energy efficiency and low environmental impact. It is therefore necessary to design architectures for electric vehicles, specially adapted to the different scenarios in which are to be used, and where they can optimize the transport operation in both reducing energy consumption and reducing emissions, maintaining a cost competitive with current vehicle operation. The electrical vehicles (EV) are composed of different systems. A typical EV structure involves five subsystems: (i) drive system, (ii) power system, (iii) control system, (iv) vehicle structure and (v) auxiliary systems. This paper focuses on the development of a multicriteria decision procedure based on the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), to prioritize among the five vehicle systems, in which the design efforts should be guided to improve the vehicle. (Author)

  5. MV-Switchgear Performance Evaluation of Electrical System at RSG-GAS after by Refunctioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-Sulsistyo; T-Komarudin; Kiswanto; Y- Andriyanto

    2005-01-01

    Switchgear represents equipment link functioning to decide or connect source ration especial energy of PLN with building RSG-GAS distribution system burden. This system is provided with equipment circuit breaker (PMT) and disconnecting switch (PMS), which aim to the insulation, controlling, and protection electrical system RSG-GAS and equipment. Evaluation Method used by that is by perceiving nominal tension condition, nominal current, performance normal good switchgear in a condition, treatment and also trouble condition and also calculate change temperature effect of electric fire bow. Pursuant to calculation result, for the mean current 800 A, room; chamber temperature 24 o C, tension 24 kV, current disconnection time link to shorten 3 second, obtained temperature of equal to 90.5 o C (T1), and room temperature 40 o C obtained by temperature of equal to 108.5 o C (T2), so that of average temperature equal to 4.63 o C. While for the mean current 1250 A, room temperature 24 o C, tension 24 kV, current disconnection time link to shorten 3 second, obtained temperature equal to 282 o C (T1), and room temperature 40 o C obtained temperature equal to 298 o C (T2), so that average temperature equal to 4.0 o C. Result of evaluation job indicates that switchgear of electrical system RSG-GAS after re-functioning function goodness. (author)

  6. Improving the cooling performance of electrical distribution transformer using transformer oil – Based MEPCM suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ismael Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the electrical distribution transformer has been studied numerically and the effect of outside temperature on its cooling performance has been investigated. The temperature range studied covers the hot climate regions. 250 KVA distribution transformer is chosen as a study model. A novel cooling fluid is proposed to improve the cooling performance of this transformer, transformer oil-based microencapsulated phase change materials suspension is used with volume concentration (5–25% as a cooling fluid instead of pure transformer oil. Paraffin wax is used as a phase change material to make the suspension, in addition to the ability of heat absorption due to melting, the paraffin wax considered as a good electrical insulator. Results obtained show that, using of MEPCM suspension instead of pure transformer oil lead to improve the cooling performance of transformer by reducing its temperature and as a consequence increasing its protection against the breakdown. The melting fraction increased with increasing outside temperature up to certain temperature after which the melting fraction reach maximum constant value (MF = 1 which indicate that, the choosing of PCM depend on the environment in which the transformer is used.

  7. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell under simulated sunlight by means of a calibrated reference cell procedure. 1.2 Electrical performance measurements are reported with respect to a select set of standard reporting conditions (SRC) (see Table 1) or to user-specified conditions. 1.2.1 The SRC or user-specified conditions include the cell temperature, the total irradiance, and the reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method is applicable only to photovoltaic cells with a linear response over the range of interest. 1.4 The cell parameters determined by this test method apply only at the time of test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this s...

  8. Performance evaluation and parametric choice criteria of a Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    A more realistic thermodynamic model of the pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) system consisting of a Brayton cycle and a reverse Brayton cycle is proposed, where the internal and external irreversible losses are took into account and several important controlling parameters, e.g., the pressure ratio and heat flows of the two isobaric processes in the Brayton cycle, are introduced. Analytic expressions for the round trip efficiency and power output of the PTES system are derived. The general performance characteristics of the PTES system are revealed. The optimal relationship between the round trip efficiency and the power output is obtained. The influences of some important controlling parameters on the performance characteristics of the PTES system are discussed and the optimally operating regions of these parameters are determined. - Highlights: • A cycle model of the Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed. • Internal and external irreversible losses are considered. • Maximum power output and efficiency of the system are calculated. • Optimum performance characteristics of the system are revealed. • Rational ranges of key controlling parameters are determined.

  9. Electrical testing and performance evaluation of 1:1 prototype JET ELM control coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabar, Deven; Roy, Swati; Ghate, Mahesh; Raj, Piyush; Kundu, Ananya; Kumar, Nitish; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An appropriate 1:1 prototype Small and Large ELM coils for JET have been successfully manufactured using indigenous technologies. • ELM coils have been tested extensively to verify and validated their performance with respect to operational requirement of JET. • The test results confirm and validate the electrical performance of ELM coils. - Abstract: Magnet Technology Development Division at Institute for Plasma research is engaged in extensive R & D for appropriate technologies towards manufacturing of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) magnets for Large Tokamak such as Joint European Torus (JET) as well as for Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). Under this project, manufacturing of 1:1 prototype of Large and Small JET ELM control coils (CC) is completed incorporating indigenously developed manufacturing and insulation technologies. Performance evaluation of both the types of coil has been completed for its current carrying capability and insulation resistance as required by various operational scenarios of JET. Experimental setups, test procedures and measurements for electrical characterization of both type of ELM control coil has been discussed in this paper.

  10. Electrical testing and performance evaluation of 1:1 prototype JET ELM control coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanabar, Deven, E-mail: deven@ipr.res.in; Roy, Swati; Ghate, Mahesh; Raj, Piyush; Kundu, Ananya; Kumar, Nitish; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An appropriate 1:1 prototype Small and Large ELM coils for JET have been successfully manufactured using indigenous technologies. • ELM coils have been tested extensively to verify and validated their performance with respect to operational requirement of JET. • The test results confirm and validate the electrical performance of ELM coils. - Abstract: Magnet Technology Development Division at Institute for Plasma research is engaged in extensive R & D for appropriate technologies towards manufacturing of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) magnets for Large Tokamak such as Joint European Torus (JET) as well as for Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). Under this project, manufacturing of 1:1 prototype of Large and Small JET ELM control coils (CC) is completed incorporating indigenously developed manufacturing and insulation technologies. Performance evaluation of both the types of coil has been completed for its current carrying capability and insulation resistance as required by various operational scenarios of JET. Experimental setups, test procedures and measurements for electrical characterization of both type of ELM control coil has been discussed in this paper.

  11. Local Electric Field Facilitates High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Zheng, Yang; He, Zhihai; Xiao, Chong; Pang, Wei Kong; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Guo, Zaiping; Xie, Yi

    2017-08-22

    By scrutinizing the energy storage process in Li-ion batteries, tuning Li-ion migration behavior by atomic level tailoring will unlock great potential for pursuing higher electrochemical performance. Vacancy, which can effectively modulate the electrical ordering on the nanoscale, even in tiny concentrations, will provide tempting opportunities for manipulating Li-ion migratory behavior. Herein, taking CuGeO 3 as a model, oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing the thickness dimension down to the atomic scale are introduced in this work. As the Li-ion storage progresses, the imbalanced charge distribution emerging around the oxygen vacancies could induce a local built-in electric field, which will accelerate the ions' migration rate by Coulomb forces and thus have benefits for high-rate performance. Furthermore, the thus-obtained CuGeO 3 ultrathin nanosheets (CGOUNs)/graphene van der Waals heterojunctions are used as anodes in Li-ion batteries, which deliver a reversible specific capacity of 1295 mAh g -1 at 100 mA g -1 , with improved rate capability and cycling performance compared to their bulk counterpart. Our findings build a clear connection between the atomic/defect/electronic structure and intrinsic properties for designing high-efficiency electrode materials.

  12. Electrical performances of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines describing a Stirling cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Boeuf, F.; Cugat, O.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines. These devices are designed to exploit the snap-through of a thermo-mechanically bistable membrane to transform a part of the heat flowing through the membrane into mechanical energy and to convert it into electric energy by means of a piezoelectric layer deposited on the surface of the bistable membrane. In this paper, we describe the properties of these heat engines in the case when they complete a Stirling cycle, and we evaluate the performances (available energy, Carnot efficiency...) of these harvesters at the macro- and micro-scale.

  13. Experimental analysis on the performance of lithium based batteries for road full electric and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Clemente; Veneri, Ottorino

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance analysis for lithium storage technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries. • Actual capacity of lithium technologies analyzed almost close to their nominal capacity also for high discharging current. • The charging efficiency for Li[NiCoMn]O 2 positively affects the regenerative breaking and fast recharging operations. • The analyzed battery packs follow dynamic power requirements on performed road driving cycles. • Experimental results demonstrate driving range is much higher when battery packs are based on lithium technology. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental evaluation regarding the real performance of lithium based energy storage systems for automotive applications. In particular real working operations of different lithium based storage system technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries, are compared in this work from the point of view of their application in supplying full electric and hybrid vehicles, taking as a reference the well-known behavior of lead acid batteries. For this purpose, the experimental tests carried out in laboratory are firstly performed on single storage modules in stationary conditions. In this case the related results are obtained by means of a bidirectional cycle tester based on the IGBT technology, and consent to evaluate, compare and contrast charge/discharge characteristics and efficiency at constant values of current/voltage/power for each storage technology analyzed. Then, lithium battery packs are tested in supplying a 1.8 kW electric power train using a laboratory test bench, based on a 48 V DC bus and specifically configured to simulate working operations of electric vehicles on the road. For this other experimentation the test bench is equipped with an electric brake and acquisition/control system, able to represent in laboratory the real vehicle conditions and road characteristics on predefined driving cycles at different slopes. The obtained

  14. Parametric performance predictions for high-power pulsed electric CO lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Center, R.E.; Caledonia, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    A kinetic model of the pulsed electrical CO laser is used to survey the time-dependent laser performance on parameters such as gas mixture, initial translational temperature, and discharge pulse length for both multiline and selected-line operation. Predictions are presented for the total output efficiency, spectral distributions of the stimulated transitions, energy partitioning in the vibrational and translational modes, and the translational temperature history in CO-N 2 mixtures. A brief description of the kinetic model is included. Simple scaling relationships are presented which can be used to scale the results to other densities in the pressure-broadened regime

  15. Effect of machining fluid on the process performance of wire electrical discharge machining of nanocomposite ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengmao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM promise to be effective and economical techniques for the production of tools and parts from conducting ceramic blanks. However, the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics blanks with these processes is a long and costly process. This paper presents a new process of machining nanocomposite ceramics using WEDM. WEDM uses water based emulsion, polyvinyl alcohol and distilled water as the machining fluid. Machining fluid is a primary factor that affects the material removal rate and surface quality of WEDM. The effects of emulsion concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration and distilled water of the machining fluid on the process performance have been investigated.

  16. Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on the Performance of a Superconducting Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; Jacek Sekutowicz; Waldemar Singer

    2005-01-01

    A special two-cell cavity was designed to obtain surface field distributions suitable for investigation of electric and magnetic field effects on cavity performance. The cavity design and preliminary results were presented in a previous contribution. The bulk niobium cavity was heat-treated in a vacuum furnace at 1250 C to improve thermal conductivity. Three seamless hydroformed Nb/Cu cavities of the same design were fabricated to investigate the role of the electron beam welds located in high field areas. This paper will present RF test results at 2 K for the bulk niobium and one of the seamless cavities

  17. Key performance indicators for electric mining shovels and oil sands diggability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnayak, Sibabrata

    A shovel performance monitoring study was undertaken in two oil sands mines operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. using performance data obtained from P&H 4100 TS and BOSS electric mining shovels. One year of shovel performance data along with geological, geotechnical, and climatic data were analyzed. The approach adopted was to use current and voltage data collected from hoist and crowd motors and to calculate the energy and/or power associated with digging. Analysis of performance data along with digital video records of operating shovels indicated that hoist and crowd motor voltages and currents can be used to identify the beginning and the end of individual dig cycles. A dig cycle identification algorithm was developed. Performance indicators such as dig cycle time, hoist motor energy and power, and crowd motor energy and power were determined. The shovel performance indicators provide important insight into how geology, equipment and operators affect the digging efficiency. The hoist motor power is a useful key performance indicator for assessing diggability. Hoist motor energy consumption per tonne of material excavated and the number of dig cycles required for loading a truck can be useful key performance indicators for assessing operator performance and productivity. Analysis of performance data along with operators team schedules showed that the performance of a shovel can be significantly influenced by the operator's digging technique while digging uniform material. Up to 25% variability in hoist motor power consumption and 50% variability in productivity was noted between different operators. Shovel type and dipper teeth configuration can also influence the power draw on electrical motors during digging. There is no common agreement existing on the influence of bitumen content on oil sands diggability. By comparing the hoist motor power consumption, it was found that the rich ore was more difficult to dig than the lean ore. Similarly, estuarine ore was more

  18. Power Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Quadratic Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An energy management strategy (EMS considering both optimality and real-time performance has become a challenge for the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs in recent years. Previous EMSes based on the optimal control theory minimize the fuel consumption, but cannot be directly implemented in real-time because of the requirement for a prior knowledge of the entire driving cycle. This paper presents an innovative design concept and method to obtain a power management strategy for HEVs, which is independent of future driving conditions. A quadratic performance index is designed to ensure the vehicle drivability, maintain the battery energy sustainability and average and smooth the engine power and motor power to indirectly reduce fuel consumption. To further improve the fuel economy, two rules are adopted to avoid the inefficient engine operation by switching control modes between the electric and hybrid modes according to the required driving power. The derived power of the engine and motor are related to current vehicle velocity and battery residual energy, as well as their desired values. The simulation results over different driving cycles in Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the fuel economy, which is very close to the optimal strategy based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle.

  19. Non-contact assessment of electrical performance for rapidly sintered nanoparticle silver coatings through colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrington, M.; Claypole, T.C.; Gethin, D.T.; Worsley, D.A.; Deganello, D.

    2012-01-01

    The color change during the ultrafast near-infrared sintering process of a nanoparticle silver ink has been correlated to its electrical performance through colorimetry using the CIELAB industry standard. Nanoparticle silver ink films, deposited over a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, presented significant shifting in the a* and b* color coordinates during sintering, exhibiting the best conductivity with an a* coordinate of approximately 0 and a b* coordinate of approximately + 10. This color change has been associated with the Lorenz–Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering. This indirect measurement technique is potentially a breakthrough technology for fast in-line non-contact characterization of the drying and sintering process of nanoparticle conductive inks for use in large area roll-to-roll processing of printed electronics. - Highlights: ► Color change of a nanoparticle silver coating was measured during sintering ► Color change was correlated to the electrical performance of the coating. ► Potential in-line non-contact measurement method for roll-to-roll printed electronics

  20. Non-contact assessment of electrical performance for rapidly sintered nanoparticle silver coatings through colorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherrington, M.; Claypole, T.C.; Gethin, D.T. [Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Worsley, D.A. [SPECIFIC, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Baglan Bay Innovation Centre, Central Avenue, Baglan Energy Park, Port Talbot, SA12 7AX (United Kingdom); Deganello, D., E-mail: d.deganello@swansea.ac.uk [Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    The color change during the ultrafast near-infrared sintering process of a nanoparticle silver ink has been correlated to its electrical performance through colorimetry using the CIELAB industry standard. Nanoparticle silver ink films, deposited over a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, presented significant shifting in the a* and b* color coordinates during sintering, exhibiting the best conductivity with an a* coordinate of approximately 0 and a b* coordinate of approximately + 10. This color change has been associated with the Lorenz-Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering. This indirect measurement technique is potentially a breakthrough technology for fast in-line non-contact characterization of the drying and sintering process of nanoparticle conductive inks for use in large area roll-to-roll processing of printed electronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Color change of a nanoparticle silver coating was measured during sintering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Color change was correlated to the electrical performance of the coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential in-line non-contact measurement method for roll-to-roll printed electronics.

  1. Induction Machine with Improved Operating Performances for Electric Trucks. A FEM-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study concerning the performance developed by induction motors destined for motorization of heavy electric vehicles such as trucks. Taking into consideration the imposed restrictions, one presents, in a comparative manner, the main geometrical parameters which come of the classical design algorithms. A special attention is dedicated to the winding design, since it has to ensure two synchronous speeds corresponding to 16 and 8 poles, respectively. Moreover, the influence of the rotor slots shape for the improvement of the start-up is analyzed. Finally, a FEM-based study (approach based on finite element method is performed to put in view specific torque and slip values such as rated, start-up and pull-out ones.

  2. Impact of nuclear fuel performance and reliability in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnoski, M.; Kaiser, B.

    1997-01-01

    US nuclear plants are now placing a great deal of importance on fuel performance and reliability because of their direct effect on a plant's capacity factor, availability, operating flexibility, outage duration, and worker exposure. This is reflected by utilities making fuel reliability a principal vendor evaluation criterion and making fuel performance an important bonus/penalty provision. Defect-free fuel, combined with ever improving design features, makes it possible for plants to operate at higher outputs while reducing operating and maintenance costs. Higher electrical output at lower cost is essential for US nuclear plants to meet the expected competition in a deregulated market. Through continued investment in manufacturing improvements and a vigilant, systematic design process, ABB's nuclear fuel has contributed to helping its nuclear utility customers reduce their cost of doing business. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Control system design for electrical stimulation in upper limb rehabilitation modelling, identification and robust performance

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive framework for model-based electrical stimulation (ES) controller design, covering the whole process needed to develop a system for helping people with physical impairments perform functional upper limb tasks such as eating, grasping and manipulating objects. The book first demonstrates procedures for modelling and identifying biomechanical models of the response of ES, covering a wide variety of aspects including mechanical support structures, kinematics, electrode placement, tasks, and sensor locations. It then goes on to demonstrate how complex functional activities of daily living can be captured in the form of optimisation problems, and extends ES control design to address this case. It then lays out a design methodology, stability conditions, and robust performance criteria that enable control schemes to be developed systematically and transparently, ensuring that they can operate effectively in the presence of realistic modelling uncertainty, physiological variation an...

  4. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  5. Development and performance assessment of electrically heating gloves with smart temperature control function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nini; Lu, Yehu; Xu, Fanfei; Dai, Hongqin

    2018-03-27

    A pair of lightweight electrically heating gloves (EHG) with smart temperature control function was developed. To evaluate thermoregulation properties of EHG, human trials were conducted in a climate chamber (2.5 °C, 60% RH). The changes in skin temperature of all fingers and opisthenar and the subjective thermal sensation were recorded in 60 min. The effects of two air velocities (i.e., 0.17 m/s and 0.50 m/s) on the cold protective performance of EHG in scenarios of heating and control were also investigated. For heating scenarios, skin temperature and thermal sensation at all fingers and opisthenar were found significantly higher than those in control conditions. Moreover, the air velocity at 0.50 m/s greatly reduced cold protective performance of the gloves. The research findings can be applied to improve thermal comfort and extend working time for persons in cold environments.

  6. Self and Superior Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    model of the self-evaluation process as it differs from the evaluation process used by superiors. Symbolic Interactionism One view of self assessment is...supplied by the symbolic interactionists (Cooley, 1902; Head, 1934), who state that self perceptions are generated largely from individuals...disagreements remained even immediately after an appraisal interview in which a great deal of feedback was given. Research on the symbolic interactionist

  7. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  8. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 DC shunt motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Both straight and chopped dc motor performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller is presented in tabular and graphical formats. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are also shown. The maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight dc mode. Chopper efficiency can be assumed to be 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight mode.

  9. A game theory simulator for assessing the performances of competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Carpaneto, Enrico; Ciwei, Gao; Napoli, Roberto; Benini, Michele; Gallanti, Massimo; Migliavacca, Gianluigi

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, electricity markets were created all over the world following different basis concepts. Market structure, market rules, demand levels, market concentration and energy sources to produce electricity have a strong influence on market performances. Modifications on these aspects may significantly affect market outcomes. Sensitivity analyses need proper simulation tools. In this paper a medium run electricity market simulator (MREMS) based on game theory is presented. This simulator incorporates two different games, one for the unit commitment of thermal units and one for strategic bidding and hourly market clearing. Either a Forchheimer (one leader) or Bertrand (all player are leaders) or even intermediate model with a whatever number of leaders can be selected, in dependence on the strategic behavior of the producers, allowing for the simulation of markets with different levels of concentration. The simulator was applied to analyse producers' behavior during the first operative year of the Italian power exchange. A comparison between simulation and true market results was carried out in order to test the simulator and validate its simplifying hypotheses. MREMS, yet capable to be used stand-alone, was conceived as the heart of a long-term market simulator (LREMS) allowing to simulate the long-run evolution of the generation park (investments in new plants, refurbishment and dismission of older ones). LREMS is a hierarchic simulator: a long-term ''outer'' game takes yearly investment decisions based on mid-term price projections provided by MREMS. Although this paper is mainly devoted to describe MREMS, one specific section will provide an overview of the ''outer'' game implemented by LREMS. (author)

  10. The growth performance of Osphronemus goramy reared in saline water with electrical field exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the optimal salinity level on growth rates of giant gouramy Osphronemus goramy  reared in different salinity with electrical field exposure. Four different salinities tested were 0; 3; 6 and 9‰ with the electrical field exposure of 10 Volt. The experiment design was arranged in completely randoumizes design with four treatments and three replications. Stock density was 3 fish/l with mean initial total body length of 7.18±0.30 cm and initial body weight of 5.68±0.67 g. Result of study showed that the treatment of 3‰ shows the best growth performance with specific growth rates of 1.02±0.10% and growth of absolute length of 0.56±0.18 cm. Key words: Salinity, electrical field, growth rate, Osphronemus goramy   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui salinitas optimal untuk pertumbuhan ikan gurame Osphronemus goramy yang dipelihara pada media bersalinitas berbeda dengan paparan medan listrik. Perlakuan meliputi empat salinitas media yang berbeda: 0, 3, 6, dan 9‰ dengan paparan medan listrik 10 Volt. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Padat penebaran ikan adalah 3 ekor/l dengan rata-rata panjang total 7,18±0,30 cm dan bobot rata-rata awal 5,68±0,67 g. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan ikan gurame terbaik pada penelitian ini dicapai pada salinitas 3‰ dengan pertumbuhan bobot 1,02±0,10% dan pertumbuhan panjang mutlak 0,56±0,18 cm.   Kata-kata kunci: Salinitas, medan listrik, laju pertumbuhan, Osphronemus goramy

  11. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, Pavel; Davis, Cliff B.

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  12. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  13. Using data envelopment analysis to evaluate the performance of post-hurricane electric power restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Allison C.; Davidson, Rachel A.; Nozick, Linda K.; Chen, Thomas; Guikema, Seth D.

    2016-01-01

    Post-hurricane restoration of electric power is attracting increasing scrutiny as customers’ tolerance for even short power interruptions decreases. At the peak, 8.5 million customers were without power after Hurricane Sandy and over 1 million customers were without power more than a week after the storm made landfall. Currently, restoration processes are typically evaluated on a case-by-case basis by a regional public service commission or similar body and lack systematic comparisons to other restoration experiences. This paper introduces a framework using data envelopment analysis to help evaluate post-hurricane restorations through comparison with the experiences of other companies in similar storms. The method accounts for the variable severity of the hurricanes themselves, so that companies are not penalized for outages that are long only because the hurricane that caused them was particularly severe. The analysis is illustrated through an application comparing 27 recent post-hurricane restoration experiences across 13 different electric power companies in the United States. The results of the study show some consistency in performance among individual utilities after the hurricanes they experience. The method could be applied to other types of infrastructure systems and other extreme events as well. - Highlights: • A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework is developed to compare post- hurricane power-outage restoration performance. • Hurricane severity is considered, so that utilities are not penalized for long outages caused by severe storms. • A case study using real data compares 27 recent post-hurricane restoration experiences. • The results of the study show utilities tend to perform consistently after the hurricanes they experience.

  14. Design and Performance of the NASA SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Patterson, Michael D.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Moore, Mark D.; Clarke, Sean; Redifer, Matthew E.; Christie, Robert J.; Stoll, Alex M.; Dubois, Arthur; Bevirt, JoeBen; hide

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) technology uses multiple propulsors driven by electric motors distributed about the airframe to yield beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. The NASA SCEPTOR flight demonstration project will retrofit an existing internal combustion engine-powered light aircraft with two types of DEP: small "high-lift" propellers distributed along the leading edge of the wing which accelerate the flow over the wing at low speeds, and larger cruise propellers co-located with each wingtip for primary propulsive power. The updated high-lift system enables a 2.5x reduction in wing area as compared to the original aircraft, reducing drag at cruise and shifting the velocity for maximum lift-to-drag ratio to a higher speed, while maintaining low-speed performance. The wingtip-mounted cruise propellers interact with the wingtip vortex, enabling a further efficiency increase that can reduce propulsive power by 10%. A tradespace exploration approach is developed that enables rapid identification of salient trades, and subsequent creation of SCEPTOR demonstrator geometries. These candidates were scrutinized by subject matter experts to identify design preferences that were not modeled during configuration exploration. This exploration and design approach is used to create an aircraft that consumes an estimated 4.8x less energy at the selected cruise point when compared to the original aircraft.

  15. Comfort and performance of power line maintainers' gloves during electrical utility work in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Boyle, C; Wells, R

    2014-01-01

    Electrical utility workers wear thick rubber gloves and often work in the cold. To document the challenge of working in the cold and the effectiveness of different glove/liner combinations in keeping workers' hands warm. Ten experienced male electrical utility employees worked in a controlled temperature walk-in chamber at -20 °C for 45 minutes for each of five glove conditions: standard five-finger rubber gloves with cotton liners and gauntlets, mitten style gloves, a prototype wool liner, and two heating options; glove or torso. Dependent measures were maximum grip force, skin temperatures, finger dexterity and sensitivity to touch, ratings of perceived effort and a rating of thermal sensation. Participants' hand skin temperatures decreased, they perceived their hands to be much colder, their finger sensitivity decreased and their ratings of perceived exertion increased, however their performance did not degrade over the 45 minute trials. The mitten-style gloves showed a smaller drop in skin temperature for the 3rd and 5th digits (pglove conditions. Mitten style gloves kept workers' hands warmer than the standard five finger glove.

  16. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  17. Enhancement of electrical and optical performance of N719 by co-sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikoh, Ali Sephar; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the electrical, optical and electrochemical properties of a metal-free dye C78H74O8 (AS-2), which has been used to improve the photo-detection properties of C58H86N8O8RuS2 (N719) based Dye sensitized photo-sensors (DSPSs). Both dyes were mixed together in various proportions and the most promising ratio N719/AS-2 (1:0.25) was selected for staining photo-anodes for DSPS integration. The fabricated DSPSs were studied in terms of electrical parameters and photodetection properties. The N719/AS-2 (1:0.25) based DSPS were found to have a reduced leakage current, increased breakdown voltage and a closer proximity to an ideal diode, as compared to the N719 based DSPS. Further, the N719/AS-2 (1:0.25) based DSPS was also found to have better linearity at high irradiance levels, thus rendering the co-sensitized device useful as a photosensor in various applications. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was also performed to explain the interfacial charge recombination process.

  18. Influence of electric current intensity on the performance of electroformed copper liner for shaped charge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic Copper used in the shaped charge liner manufacturing can be produced from acid solution using electro-deposition technique. The intensity of the applied electric current controls the quality of the produced copper grade. The electric current intensity within the electrolytic acidic solution cell with the minimum oxygen and sulfur elements in the produced copper was optimized and found to be 30–40 A/Ft2. The elemental composition of the obtained electrolytic copper was determined using high-end stationary vacuum spectrometer, while the oxygen was determined precisely using ELTRA ONH-2000 apparatus. Besides, SEM was used to investigate the shape of the copper texture inside the deposited layers and to determine the average grain size. New relations have been obtained between the applied current intensity and both the oxygen and sulfur contents and the average grain size of the produced copper. Experimental result showed that when the applied current density increases to a certain limit, the oxygen and sulfur content in the electrolytic copper decreases. Performance of the produced copper liner was investigated by the static firing of a small caliber shaped charge containing an electro-formed copper liners, where the penetration depth of the optimized electrolytic liner was enhanced by 22.7% compared to that of baseline non-optimized liner.

  19. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  20. Multiple performance characteristics optimization for Al 7075 on electric discharge drilling by Taguchi grey relational theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rajesh; Kumar, Anish; Garg, Mohinder Pal; Singh, Ajit; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-12-01

    Electric discharge drill machine (EDDM) is a spark erosion process to produce micro-holes in conductive materials. This process is widely used in aerospace, medical, dental and automobile industries. As for the performance evaluation of the electric discharge drilling machine, it is very necessary to study the process parameters of machine tool. In this research paper, a brass rod 2 mm diameter was selected as a tool electrode. The experiments generate output responses such as tool wear rate (TWR). The best parameters such as pulse on-time, pulse off-time and water pressure were studied for best machining characteristics. This investigation presents the use of Taguchi approach for better TWR in drilling of Al-7075. A plan of experiments, based on L27 Taguchi design method, was selected for drilling of material. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows the percentage contribution of the control factor in the machining of Al-7075 in EDDM. The optimal combination levels and the significant drilling parameters on TWR were obtained. The optimization results showed that the combination of maximum pulse on-time and minimum pulse off-time gives maximum MRR.

  1. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  2. Energy-related environmental and economic performance analysis of two different types of electrically heated student residence halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Khuram Pervez; Aslam, Muhammad Waqar

    2018-03-01

    Student residence halls occupy 26% of the total area of a typical university campus in the UK and are directly responsible for 24% of university's annual CO2 emissions. Based on five years measured data, this paper aims to investigate the energy-related environmental and economic performance of electrically heated residence halls in which space heating is provided by two different types of electric heaters, that is, panel heater (PHT) and storage heater (SHT). Secondly, using statistical and machine learning methods, the paper attempts to investigate the relationship between daily electricity consumption and five factors (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and type of day). Data analysis revealed that electricity consumption of both halls is mainly driven by ambient temperature only, whereas SHT residence has 39% higher annual electricity bill and emits 70% higher CO2 emissions on a per square metre basis compared to the PHT residence hall.

  3. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. Graphene electric double layer capacitor with ultra-high-power performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R.A.; Holloway, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, efficient 120 Hz filtering by an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The key to this ultra-high-power performance is electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized both electronic and ionic resistance and produced capacitors having RC time-constants of less than 200 μs. Significantly, graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increase stored charge over designs relying on basal plane surfaces. Collectively these factors make vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electrodes ideally suited for producing high-frequency EDLCs. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes are predicted to be significantly smaller than aluminum electrolyte capacitors that they could functionally replace plus be manufactured using standard semiconductor process equipment, creating interesting commercial opportunities.

  5. Improving the Performance of Electrically Activated NiTi Shape Memory Actuators by Pre-Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann1, Christian; Fleczok1, Benjamin; Otibar1, Dennis; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloys possess an array of unique functional properties which are influenced by a complex interaction of different factors. Due to thermal sensitivity, slight changes in temperature may cause the properties to change significantly. This poses a huge challenge especially for the use of shape memory alloys as actuators. The displacement is the key performance indicator, which has to be of equal or better quality compared to conventional actuators. One problem of shape memory alloys is the change in functional fatigue in the first cycles, which makes it rather difficult to design the actuator. Therefore, the reduction of this shakedown effect is crucial. For this reason, this paper investigates the effect of electrical heat treatment as a method for pre-aging. This topic has so far been little investigated so that the investigations focus on identifying important factors and effects by using the design of experiments.

  6. Superior facet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Igarashi, Seishi; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1985-01-01

    Sciatica caused by root entrapment in the lateral recess was named superior facet syndrome by Epstein in 1972. Few reports on this subject based on large numbers of cases have been documented to date. Of the patients with sciatica, 32 patients were diagnosed to have root entrapment at the lateral recess L 5 or/and S 1 lumbar spine. Out of 32 patients, 20 patients were operated on and the lateral entrapment was recognized in all of surgical cases. Neuroradiological findings, especially of metrizamide CT (met. CT), were documented in detail. Thirty two patients were classified in three types according to radiological findings. They were congenital or developmental, degenerative, and combined type, respectively, Fourteen cases belonged to the congenital type, 13 to the degenerative and 5 to the combined type. Each group had the mean ages of 23.4, 53.8, and 36.8 years old, respectively. Of 32 cases the entrapment occured in 47 L 5 roots and 11 S 1 roots. There was no remarkable laterality. In operation the unroofing of the lateral recess were done and the sciatica subsided postoperatively in all of surgical cases. Met. CT revealed extreme medial protrusion of the superior articular joint in 18 of 24 cases(75%) and none filling of the root in the lateral recess in 21 of 24 cases (87.5%). In the degenerative type, met. CT showed some degenerative changes that were hypertrophy or deformity of the articular joints and spur formation of the vertebral body. In contrast to met. CT, metrizamide myelography revealed only slight changes, which were poor filling of the root before it turned out the pedicle of lateral compression of the root. In plain films or lumbar spine articular joints at Lsub(4/5) were formed in coronal plane in 69% of cases of the L 5 root entrapment. Met. CT using ReView technique was of great diagnostic value in superior facet syndrome. (author)

  7. Activity of ISO9001:2015 certification that Fuji Electric Co., LTD. (Nuclear Power Division) performed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Kazuhiko; Umetsu, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masaaki; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the certification transition to ISO9001:2015 version, this paper introduces the contents of the revision to the 2015 version, contents of activities until the certification transition performed by Fuji Electric Co. Nuclear Power Division, and outline of the quality management system (QMS) that was established. The main contents of the revision are as follows; (1) 2015 version is composed of the unification of various management structure standards existing in ISO standards, (2) integration of business and QMS based on the understanding of organization's situation and the needs and expectations of stakeholders, (3) introduction of risk-based concept on preventive actions, (4) strengthening of leadership, (5) emphasis on performance (conversion to output matters), and (6) strengthening, addition, and expansion of the specific requirements of QMS. Regarding the certification transition activities of Fuji Electric Co. Nuclear Power Division, the schedule goal was set as transition examination with about two years of allowance, and the activities thereafter were as follows; (1) extract of the revised parts of division regulations and formulation of revision policy, (2) revision of quality manual, and implementation of gap analysis, (3) formulation of division regulations by the working group, (4) 6 months of pilot operation, and (5) acceptance of transition examination. As a result of the transition, QMS has been strengthened as described below, and customers have given greater trust. The strengthening of QMS is composed of the accumulation of organization's knowledge (specific technology) and its daily practice, which helped the company to form the organization that can prevent beforehand the problems caused by risks and opportunities in face of business management. (A.O.)

  8. Optimised performance of a plug-in electric vehicle aggregator in energy and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is developed to optimise the performance of a PEV aggregator in the power market. • PEVs aggregator can combine the PEVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. • A new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of PEV owners is proposed. • Several uncertainties are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach. • The proposed model is proficient in significantly improving the short- and long-term behaviour. - Abstract: In this paper, a new model is developed to optimise the performance of a plug-in Electric Vehicle (EV) aggregator in electricity markets, considering both short- and long-term horizons. EV aggregator as a new player of the power market can aggregate the EVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. The aggregator maximises the profit and optimises EV owners’ revenue by applying changes in tariffs to compete with other market players for retaining current customers and acquiring new owners. On this basis, a new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of EV owners and their market participation is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the behaviour of owners to select their supplying company is considered. The aggregator optimises the self-scheduling programme and submits the best bidding/offering strategies to the day-ahead and real-time markets. To achieve this purpose, the day-ahead and real-time energy and reserve markets are modelled as oligopoly markets, in contrast with previous works that utilised perfectly competitive ones. Furthermore, several uncertainties and constraints are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach, which have not been addressed in previous works. The numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model

  9. Advances in three-dimensional field analysis and evaluation of performance parameters of electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba

    This thesis makes advances in three dimensional finite element analysis of electrical machines and the quantification of their parameters and performance. The principal objectives of the thesis are: (1)the development of a stable and accurate method of nonlinear three-dimensional field computation and application to electrical machinery and devices; and (2)improvement in the accuracy of determination of performance parameters, particularly forces and torque computed from finite elements. Contributions are made in two general areas: a more efficient formulation for three dimensional finite element analysis which saves time and improves accuracy, and new post-processing techniques to calculate flux density values from a given finite element solution. A novel three-dimensional magnetostatic solution based on a modified scalar potential method is implemented. This method has significant advantages over the traditional total scalar, reduced scalar or vector potential methods. The new method is applied to a 3D geometry of an iron core inductor and a permanent magnet motor. The results obtained are compared with those obtained from traditional methods, in terms of accuracy and speed of computation. A technique which has been observed to improve force computation in two dimensional analysis using a local solution of Laplace's equation in the airgap of machines is investigated and a similar method is implemented in the three dimensional analysis of electromagnetic devices. A new integral formulation to improve force calculation from a smoother flux-density profile is also explored and implemented. Comparisons are made and conclusions drawn as to how much improvement is obtained and at what cost. This thesis also demonstrates the use of finite element analysis to analyze torque ripples due to rotor eccentricity in permanent magnet BLDC motors. A new method for analyzing torque harmonics based on data obtained from a time stepping finite element analysis of the machine is

  10. Electricity consumers under the state and the private sector: comparing the price performance of the French and UK electricity industries 1990-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, Jacques; Wright, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Particularly because a preoccupation with process has tended to dominate the debate about electricity privatisation and liberalisation, this paper focuses on price outcomes by comparing the relative price performance of the French and UK electricity industries between 1990 and 2000. The main conclusion is that in 1990 the state-owned French electricity industry was performing better for most consumers than the state-owned UK industry, and a decade later it was still doing so with respect to the privately-owned UK industry. While this conclusion could be qualified by saying that, heavily prompted or assisted by the Regulator, the UK privately-owned industry has shown itself capable of achieving faster reductions in prices to close the gap between itself and the French, this achievement has been concentrated in the industrial market and even there the very significant gains were mainly restricted to the very largest consumers. In the context of the European Union the UK is shown to have performed relatively poorly for the smallest domestic consumers and, while both countries did much better in the rankings of industrial prices, they were still a long way behind the top performers. (Author)

  11. Practical implementation of the concept of converted electric vehicle with advanced traction and dynamic performance and environmental safety indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.; Grishchenko, A. G.; Golubchik, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is to describe the implementation of the technical solutions have been developed, with regard to structure, composition, and characteristics, for an experimental prototype of an electric vehicle which has been converted from a conventional vehicle. The methodology of the study results is based on the practical implementation of the developed concept of the conversion of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles. The main components of electric propulsion system of the experimental prototype of electric vehicle are developed and manufactured on the basis of computational researches, taking into account the criteria and principles of conversion within the framework of presented work. The article describes a schematic and a design of power conversion and commutation electrical equipment, traction battery, electromechanical transmission. These results can serve as guidance material in the design and implementation of electric propulsion system (EPS) components of electric vehicles, facilitate the development of optimal technical solutions in the development and manufacture of vehicles, including those aimed at autonomy of operation and the use of perspective driver assistance systems. As part of this work, was suggested a rational structure for an electric vehicle experimental prototype, including technical performance characteristics of the components of EPS.

  12. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  13. Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays under natural or simulated sunlight using a calibrated reference cell. 1.1.1 These test methods allow a reference module to be used instead of a reference cell provided the reference module has been calibrated using these test methods against a calibrated reference cell. 1.2 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of reporting conditions (RC) to facilitate comparison of results. 1.3 These test methods apply only to nonconcentrator terrestrial modules and arrays. 1.4 The performance parameters determined by these test methods apply only at the time of the test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 These test methods apply to photovoltaic modules and arrays that do not contain series-connected photovoltaic multijunction devices; such module and arrays should be tested according to Test Methods E 2236. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  14. Electrical Performance of Distribution Insulators with Chlorella vulgaris Growth on its Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Enrique Rojas Cubides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about electrical performance of ceramic and polymeric insulators bio-contaminated with alga Chlorella vulgaris. The performed tests involve ANSI 55-2 and ANSI 52-1 ceramic insulators and ANSI DS-15 polymeric insulators, all of them used in distribution systems of Colombia. Biological contamination of insulators is realized using a controlled environment chamber that adjusts the temperature, humidity and light radiation. The laboratory tests include measurements of flashover voltages and leakage currents and they were performed to determine how insulators are affected by biological contamination. After a series of laboratory tests, it was concluded that the presence of Chlorella vulgaris on the contaminated ceramic insulators reduces the wet flashover voltage up to 12% and increases their leakage currents up to 80%. On the other hand, for polymeric insulators the effect of algae growth on flashover voltages was not to strong, although the leakage currents increase up to 60%.

  15. Electrical performance of phase change memory cells with Ge3Sb2Te6 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschker, Jos E.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella; Boniardi, Mattia; Redaelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on the electrical characterization of phase change memory cells containing a Ge 3 Sb 2 Te 6 (GST) alloy grown in its crystalline form by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). It is found that the high temperature growth on the amorphous substrate results in a polycrystalline film exhibiting a rough surface with a grain size of approximately 80–150 nm. A detailed electrical characterization has been performed, including I-V characteristic curves, programming curves, set operation performance, crystallization activation at low temperature, and resistance drift, in order to determine the material related parameters. The results indicate very good alignment of the electrical parameters with the current state-of-the-art GST, deposited by physical vapor deposition. Such alignment enables a possible employment of the MBE deposition technique for chalcogenide materials in the phase change memory technology, thus leading to future studies of as-deposited crystalline chalcogenides as integrated in electrical vehicles

  16. Seasonal performance evaluation of electric air-to-water heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongellini, Matteo; Naldi, Claudia; Morini, Gian Luca

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model for the calculation of the seasonal performance of different kinds of electric air-to-water heat pumps is presented. The model is based on the procedure suggested by the European standard EN 14825 and the Italian standard UNI/TS 11300-4, which specify the guidelines for calculation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps during the heating season (SCOP), the cooling season (SEER) and for the production of domestic hot water. In order to consider the variation of outdoor conditions the developed model employs the bin-method. Different procedures are proposed in the paper for the analysis of the seasonal performance of mono-compressor, multi-compressor and variable speed compressor air-to-water heat pumps. The numerical results show the influence of the effective operating mode of the heat pumps on the SCOP value and put in evidence the impact of the design rules on the seasonal energy consumption of these devices. The study also highlights the importance of the correct sizing of the heat pump in order to obtain high seasonal efficiency and it shows that, for a fixed thermal load, inverter-driven and multi-compressor heat pumps have to be slightly oversized with respect to mono-compressor ones in order to obtain for the same building the highest SCOP values. - Highlights: • A model for the prediction of seasonal performance of HPs has been developed. • The model considers mono-compressor, multi-compressor and inverter-driven HPs. • The procedure takes into account HPs performances at partial load. • Optimization of heat pump sizing depending on its control system.

  17. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  18. Improving the engineering-and-economical performance of ore-thermal electric furnaces in the smelting of silicomanganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, V. P.; Pogrebisskiy, M. Ya; Lykov, A. G.; Rabinovich, V. L.; Bulgakov, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Ways of increase of ore-heating electric furnaces, used for production of silicomanganese, engineering-and-economical performance are analyzed. Questions of data of the electric, thermal and technological modes of the furnace functioning collecting and processing for use in operation of an advanced control system of the furnace providing increase in technical and economic efficiency of technological process and an adaptability to quality of burden stock are considered.

  19. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    You, Ilhwan; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Kim, Soonho; Kim, Min-Jae; Zi, Goangseup

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher ...

  20. The Evaluation of Energy Conservation Performance on Electricity: A Case Study of the TFT-LCD Optronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ven-Shing Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the performance evaluation of an energy management system, based on electricity consumption, for a Gen 6 Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD panel plant. Of the various production lines and facility systems, the array system and the compressed dry air consumed the most electricity of 21.8% and 19.8%, respectively, while the public utility used only 1.6% of the total electricity. The baseline electricity consumptions were correlated well (R2 ≥ 0.77 to the monthly average wet-bulb temperatures of ambient air and the panel yield rates, which were determined by the product yield over the equipment available time index. After implementing the energy saving projects, the energy conservation performance was determined using a three-parameter change-point regression model incorporated with the panel yield rates. The post-retrofit monthly savings of the total electricity consumption for the panel manufacture were 5.35%–10.36%, with the efficiency of the electricity performance revealing an upswing trend following the implementation of the energy management system.

  1. Tailoring Highly N-Doped Carbon Materials from Hexamine-Based MOFs: Superior Performance and New Insight into the Roles of N Configurations in Na-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sitong; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe

    2018-03-01

    To prepare highly N-doped carbon materials (HNCs) as well as to determine the influence of N dopants on Na-ion storage performance, hexamine-based metal-organic frameworks are employed as new and efficient precursors in the preparation of HNCs. The HNCs possess reversible capacities as high as 160 and 142 mA h g -1 at 2 A g -1 (≈8 C) and 5 A g -1 (≈20 C), respectively, and maintain values of 145 and 123 mA h g -1 after 500 cycles, thus exhibiting excellent rate and long-term cyclic performance. Based on systematic analysis, a new insight into the roles of the different N configurations in Na-ion storage is proposed. The adsorption of Na ions on pyridinic-N (N-6) and pyrrolic-N (N-5) is fully irreversible, whereas the adsorption on graphitic-N (N-Q) is partially reversible and the adsorption on N-oxide (N-O) is fully reversible. More importantly, the N-6/N-Q ratio is an intrinsic parameter that reflects the relationship between the N configurations and carbon textures for N-doped carbons prepared from in situ pyrolysis of organic precursors. The cyclic stability and rate-performance improve with decreasing N-6/N-Q ratio. Therefore, this work is of great significance for the design of N-doped carbon electrodes with high performance for sodium ion batteries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Superior Disembedding Performance in Childhood Predicts Adolescent Severity of Repetitive Behaviors: A Seven Years Follow-Up of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Mart L J M; Van Gool, Arthur R; Louwerse, Anneke; Verhulst, Frank C; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-02-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a detail-focused cognitive style. The aim of the current longitudinal study was to investigate whether this detail-focused cognitive style in childhood predicted a higher symptom severity of repetitive and restrictive behaviors and interests (RRBI) in adolescence. The Childhood Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) were administered in 87 children with ASD at the age of 6-12 years old (T1), and the ADOS was readministered 7 years later when the participants were 12-19 years old (T2). Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate whether accuracy and reaction time in the complex versus simple CEFT condition and performance in the complex condition predicted T2 ADOS RRBI calibrated severity scores (CSS), while taking into consideration relevant covariates and ADOS RRBI CSS at T1. The CEFT performance (accuracy in the complex condition divided by the time needed) significantly predicted higher ADOS RRBI CSS at T2 (ΔR(2)  = 15%). This finding further supports the detail-focused cognitive style in individuals with ASD, and shows that it is also predictive of future RRBI symptoms over time. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Information Superiority through Data Warehousing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warner, Neil

    2001-01-01

    .... A precursor to a knowledge edge is Information Superiority. Within most current Command Support Systems minimal integration and fusion of data is undertaken to provide the basis of information superiority...

  4. Electrochemical modeling and performance evaluation of a new ammonia-based battery thermal management system for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    The operating temperatures of lithium ion battery packs in electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles need to be maintained in an optimum range for better performance and longer battery life. This paper proposes a new battery pack cooling system that utilizes the low saturation temperature of the fuel in ammonia based future hybrid electric vehicles. In the proposed cooling system, the batteries are partially submerged in to the liquid ammonia, and the liquid ammonia cools the battery by absorbing the heat and evaporating and the ammonia vapor cools the part of the battery not covered by liquid ammonia. The relationships between the performance of the battery cooling system and the maximum temperature (and the temperature distribution) in the battery are investigated for practical applications. The effect of the length of the battery that is submerged in to the liquid ammonia on the thermal performance of battery is studied and evaluated. The present results show that the proposed ammonia based cooling system offers a unique opportunity to maintain the operating temperature of the battery in an optimum range for consecutive charging and discharging phases at a high rate of 7.5C.

  5. Performance analysis of electricity generation by the medium temperature geothermal resources: Velika Ciglena case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rašković, Predrag; Guzović, Zvonimir; Cvetković, Svetislav

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, a design of an energy efficient and cost effective geothermal plant represents a significant and on-going technical challenge in all the Western Balkan countries. In the Republic of Croatia, the geothermal field Velika Ciglena is identified as one of the most valuable geothermal heat sources and probably the location where the first geothermal plant in the Western Balkan area will be built. The purpose of this work is the conceptual design and performance analysis of the binary plants–the one which operates under the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the other under Kalina (KLN) cycle–which can be used for geothermal energy utilization in Velika Ciglena. A conceptual plant design is performed by the equation-oriented modelling approach and supported by the two steady-state spreadsheet simulators. The performance analysis of all design solutions is conducted through energy and exergy analysis, and by the estimated total cost of operating units in the plant. The results of the analysis indicate that the plant design based on the ORC cycle has a higher thermodynamic efficiency and lower cost of equipment, and consequently, it is more suitable for the future geothermal plant in Velika Ciglena. - Highlights: ► Paper presents the analysis of binary geothermal plant for the utilization of recourses in Velika Ciglena field (Croatia). ► Thermodynamic and economical parameters of both cycles are calculated by the spreadsheet simulation software. ► The results of performance analysis indicate the advantage of electricity production based on ORC cycle

  6. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  7. Performance Characteristics of PTC Elements for an Electric Vehicle Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage positive temperature coefficient (PTC heater has a simple structure and a swift response. Therefore, for cabin heating in electric vehicles (EVs, such heaters are used either on their own or with a heat pump system. In this study, the sintering process in the manufacturing of PTC elements for an EV heating system was improved to enhance surface uniformity. The electrode production process entailing thin-film sputtering deposition was applied to ensure the high heating performance of PTC elements and reduce the electrode thickness. The allowable voltage and surface heat temperature of the high-voltage PTC elements with thin-film electrodes were 800 V and 172 °C, respectively. The electrode layer thickness was uniform at approximately 3.8 μm or less, approximately 69% less electrode materials were required compared to that before process improvement. Furthermore, a heater for the EV heating system was manufactured using the developed high-voltage PTC elements to verify performance and reliability.

  8. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  9. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a ;base; load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  10. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  11. The effect of the optical system on the electrical performance of III–V concentrator triple junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: S206029578@nmmu.ac.za; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    High Concentrated Photovoltaic (H-CPV) technologies utilize relatively inexpensive reflective and refractive optical components for concentration to achieve high energy yield. The electrical performance of H-CPV systems is, however, dependent on the properties and configuration of the optical components. The focus of this paper is to summarize the effect of the properties of the optical system on the electrical performance of a Concentrator Triple Junction (CTJ) InGaP/InGaAs/Ge cell. Utilizing carefully designed experiments that include spectral measurements and intensity profiles in the optical plane of the CTJ cell, the influence of photon absorption, Fresnel lens properties and chromatic aberration created by the optical system on the electrical performance of a CTJ cell is shown. From the results obtained, it is concluded that good characterization and understanding of the optical system’s properties may add to improved design of future multi-junction devices.

  12. Fundos de Investimento Brasileiros: a influência dos momentos superiores na avaliação de desempenhoBrazilian Investments Funds: the influence of higher moments in performance evaluationFondos de Inversión Brasileños: la influencia de los momentos superiores en la evaluación de la rentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBA, Fernanda Galvão

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA indústria de fundos de investimento desempenha importante papel na captação e alocação de recursos no mercado brasileiro. Sua importância aumentou consideravelmente após a abertura econômica do país, bem como o número de fundos e o montante de recursos por eles administrado. Os principais modelos de mensuração de performance de portfólios estão atrelados ao pressuposto da normalidade das distribuições de retornos e à relação entre o primeiro e o segundo momento, como é o caso do tradicional modelo CAPM. Contudo, a normalidade nem sempre é verificada e a inclusão de momentos superiores no modelo de precificação pode ser interessante para captar os efeitos da assimetria e curtose sistemáticas. No presente artigo, as variáveis co-assimetria e co-curtose são adicionadas ao modelo CAPM. Por meio do método de mínimos quadrados ordinários, são estimadas diversas regressões, aplicadas ao contexto do mercado brasileiro de fundos de investimento. Os resultados apontam que a inclusão dos momentos superiores, no contexto nacional, não é de grande relevância para a melhoria do modelo. Para validar o estudo, duas sub-amostras alternativas foram formadas, nas quais os resultados mantêm-se os mesmos.ABSTRACTThe mutual fund industry plays an important role in picking up and allocating resources in the Brazilian market. Its importance increased significantly after the country’s economic opening, as well as the number of funds an it’s amount of resources under management. The main models of portfolio’s performance evaluation are conditioned to the assumption of normality of returns distribution and the relation between the first and the second moment, like the traditional CAPM model. But, the normality is not always observed and the inclusion of superior moments in the model may be interesting to catch the systematic skewness and kurtosis effect. In the present article, the co-skewness and co-kurtosis variables

  13. Electric power supply I. AC systems, performance, economics. 3. rev. ed.; Elektrische Energieversorgung I. Drehstromsysteme, Leistungen, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, Gerhard [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Since the beginning of its large-scale use, the electrical energy holds a key position in the process of sustainable energy development. The engineer now works with computers to the greatest possible extent. However, the results using powerful hardware and software are of little value when the specialist cannot interpret these results and implement these results in decisions. From this perspective, the author of the book under consideration reports on the fundamental aspects of the electrical energy supply. Thus, the main topics of this book are: (1) Construction of electric power supply systems; (2) Fundamentals of alternating current technology; (3) Transformations for three-phase systems; (4) Performance in electric power systems; (5) Economic power supply.

  14. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  15. Spray-Drying-Induced Assembly of Skeleton-Structured SnO2/Graphene Composite Spheres as Superior Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; Kong, Zhen; Liu, Xuehua; Fu, Aiping; Wang, Yiqian; Guo, Yu-Guo; Guo, Peizhi; Li, Hongliang; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2018-01-24

    Three-dimensional skeleton-structured assemblies of graphene sheets decorated with SnO 2 nanocrystals are fabricated via a facile and large-scalable spray-drying-induced assembly process with commercial graphene oxide and SnO 2 sol as precursors. The influences of different parameters on the morphology, composition, structure, and electrochemical performances of the skeleton-structured SnO 2 /graphene composite spheres are studied by XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Electrochemical properties of the composite spheres as the anode electrode for lithium-ion batteries are evaluated. After 120 cycles under a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the skeleton-structured SnO 2 /graphene spheres still display a specific discharge capacity of 1140 mAh g -1 . It is roughly 9.5 times larger than that of bare SnO 2 clusters. It could still retain a stable specific capacity of 775 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles under a high current density of 2000 mA g -1 , exhibiting extraordinary rate ability. The superconductivity of the graphene skeleton provides the pathway for electron transportation. The large pore volume deduced from the skeleton structure of the SnO 2 /graphene composite spheres increases the penetration of electrolyte and the diffusion of lithium ions and also significantly enhances the structural integrity by acting as a mechanical buffer.

  16. Superior performance of LiFePO{sub 4}/C with porous structure synthesized by an in situ polymerization restriction method for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian, E-mail: chemcj@126.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Zhao, Na [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Li, Guo-Dong, E-mail: lgd@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Guo, Fei-Fan [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Xiaofeng; Jia, Tiekun; Zhao, Junwei; Zhao, Yinggang; Wang, Xiaolin; Wan, Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China)

    2016-09-01

    A porous LiFePO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ polymerization restriction method. The obtained product possessed higher surface area and abundant pore structure. The physical and electrochemical properties of the LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical test indicated that the discharge capacity of LiFePO{sub 4}/C was as high as 156.1 mAh g{sup −1} in the first cycle at 0.5C and 145.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. The initial discharge capacities of the electrodes exhibited 126.3 mAh g{sup −1}, 108.6 mAh g{sup −1}, 82.5 mAh g{sup −1} and 62.8 mAh g{sup −1} at the high rates of 5C, 10C, 20C and 50C. The discharge capacity retentions after 500 cycles were 94.4%, 90.6%, 87.8% and 90.9% of the initial discharge capacity at rates of 5C, 10C, 20C and 50C, respectively. - Highlights: • The LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite was prepared by an in situ polymerization restriction method. • The crystallite growth of LiFePO{sub 4} can be effectively restricted and conductivity can be improved. • The LiFePO{sub 4}/C electrode shows excellent rate capability and cyclic performance.

  17. A three-dimensional LiFePO4/carbon nanotubes/graphene composite as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries with superior high-rate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Xingling; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Yiming; Wang, Wenguang; Ye, Yipeng; Zheng, Chuchun; Deng, Peng; Shi, Zhicong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The excellent electrochemical performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of CNTs and graphene. - Highlights: • The LFP–CNT–G composite was successfully prepared by solid station method. • The interlaced CNTs reduced the crumple of graphene and improved tap density of the composite. • The LFP–CNT–G electrode exhibited superior electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A three-dimensional lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 )/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/graphene composite was successfully synthesized via solid-state reaction. The LiFePO 4 /carbon nanotubes/graphene (LFP–CNT–G) composite used as Li-ions battery cathode material exhibits superior high-rate capability and favorable charge–discharge cycle performance under relative high current density compared with that of LiFePO 4 /carbon nanotubes (LFP–CNT) composite and LiFePO 4 /graphene (LFP–G) composite. Graphene nanosheets and CNTs construct 3D conducting networks are favor for faster electron transfer, higher Li-ions diffusion coefficient and lower resistance during the Li-ions reversible reaction. The synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CNTs improves the rate capability and cycling stability of LiFePO 4 -based cathodes. The LFP–CNT–G electrode shows reversible capacity of 168.9 mA h g −1 at 0.2 C and 115.8 mA h g −1 at 20 C. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrate that the LFP–CNT–G electrode has the smallest charge-transfer resistance, indicating that the fast electron transfer from the electrolyte to the LFP–CNT–G active materials in the Li-ions intercalation/deintercalation reactions owing to the three-dimensional networks of graphene and carbon nanotubes

  18. Asymmetrical Supercapacitor Composed of Thin Co(OH)2 Nanoflakes on Three-Dimensional Ni/Si Microchannel Plates with Superior Electrochemical Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mai; Xu, Shaohui; Cherry, Christopher; Zhu, Yiping; Huang, Rong; Qi, Ruijuan; Yang, Pingxiong; Wang, Lianwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The paper studied the formation mechanism and growth process of nanostructured Co(OH) 2 . The first step of Co(OH) 2 growth involves nucleation of nanorods and tiny nanowires and the second is interconnection growth based on those nanostructures. By using the Co(OH) 2 /Ni/Si-MCPs electrode as the positive electrode and CNTs/nickel foam (CNTs/NF) as the negative electrode, the device assembled with CR2025 batteries exhibits high energy density (38.39 Wh kg −1 ), high power density (5400 W kg −1 at 9.67 Wh kg −1 ), and stable power characteristic (2000 times with 80.63% retention). After charging each supercapacitor for 10 s, the device can power a 5 mm diameter light-emitting diode (LED) with different colors efficiently, for example, a blue LED for 20 min. - Abstract: Nanoscale cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH) 2 ) particles are fabricated by electrodeposition on three-dimensional nickel/silicon microchannel plates (Ni/Si-MCPs) as the active electrode materials on the surface and sidewall of the Ni/Si-MCPs for miniature supercapacitors. The relationship among the electrodeposition time, morphology, formation mechanism of Co(OH) 2 nanostructure, and capacitor performance is studied. Using an optimal electrodeposition time of 6 min, the Co(OH) 2 supercapacitor has a capacitance of 697.56 F g −1 (5.72 F cm −2 ) at 2 mA cm −2 and the retention ratio is 91.20% after 2500 cycles. The large areal capacitance and excellent rate capability can be attributed to the unique 3D ordered porous architecture which facilitates electron and ion transport, enlarges the liquid-solid interfacial area, and enhances the utilization efficiency of the active materials. Meanwhile, the weight and size of the device are reduced. By using the Co(OH) 2 /Ni/Si-MCPs electrode as the positive electrode and CNTs/nickel foam (CNTs/NF) as the negative electrode, the device assembled with CR2025 batteries exhibits high energy density (38.39 Wh kg −1 ), high power density (5400

  19. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Lipson, Ronit; Wolf, Alon; Laufer, Yocheved

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years) with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis) demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (P hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone. PMID:23097635

  20. Rapid restoration of electric vehicle battery performance while driving at cold temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun; Marple, Dan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-12-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) driven in cold weather experience two major drawbacks of Li-ion batteries: drastic power loss (up to 10-fold at -30 °C) and restriction of regenerative braking at temperatures below 5-10 °C. Both factors greatly reduce cruise range, exacerbating drivers' range anxiety in winter. While preheating the battery before driving is a practice widely adopted to maintain battery power and EV drivability, it is time-consuming (on the order of 40 min) and prohibits instantaneous mobility. Here we reveal a control strategy that can rapidly restore EV battery power and permit full regeneration while driving at temperatures as low as -40 °C. The strategy involves heating the battery internally during regenerative braking and rest periods of driving. We show that this technique fully restores room-temperature battery power and regeneration in 13, 33, 46, 56 and 112 s into uninterrupted driving in 0, -10, -20, -30 and -40 °C environments, respectively. Correspondingly, the strategy significantly increases cruise range of a vehicle operated at cold temperatures, e.g. 49% at -40 °C in simulated US06 driving cycle tests. The present work suggests that smart batteries with embedded sensing/actuation can leapfrog in performance.

  1. Electrical performance of conducting polymer (SPAN) grown on GaAs with different substrate orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, D. A.; Aziz, M.; Felix, J. F.; Al Saqri, N.; Taylor, D.; Albalawi, H.; Alghamdi, H.; Al Mashary, F.; Henini, M.

    2016-11-01

    This article reports the effect of n-type GaAs substrate orientation, namely (100), (311)A and (311)B, on the electrical properties of sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)/GaAs heterojunction devices. In addition, the inhomogeneity of the interface between various GaAs substrates and SPAN is investigated in terms of barrier height and ideality factor by performing I-V measurements at different temperatures (20-420 K). The I-V results indicate that the value of the rectification ratio (IF/IR) at 0.5 V is higher for SPAN/(311)B GaAs samples than for SPAN/(100) GaAs and SPAN/(311)A GaAs samples. Moreover, the barrier height decreases and the ideality factor increases with decreasing temperature for all three heterostructure devices. The high value of mean barrier Φbarb of SPAN/(311)B (calculated from the plots of Φb 0 as a function of 1/2kT) confirms that the GaAs substrate orientation results in an increase of barrier homogeneities. Furthermore, the C-V characteristics were obtained at room temperature. The C-V measurements showed that the carrier distributions at the interface and away from the interface in high index (311) GaAs orientations are more uniform and have better barrier homogeneity than those grown on the conventional (100) GaAs substrates.

  2. Electrical performance of GaN diode as betavoltaic isotope battery energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanquan; Yang Yuqing; Liu Yebing; Hu Rui; Li Hao; Zhong Zhengkun; Luo Shunzhong

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of GaN PiN diodes were prepared to be the energy converters of betavoltaic batteries, and irradiated by 63 Ni and 3 H radioactive sources. The I sc was 5.4 nA and V oc was 771 mV for 63 Ni source; the I sc was 10.8 nA and V oc was 839 mV for 3 H source. These results show that their V oc are far better than silicon diodes', but their I sc are poor. And there are some differences between the theory values and experiment results. There would be greatly improving space in electrical performance of beta voltaic isotope batteries with GaN diodes as the energy converters, if the dislocation could be reduced in GaN material producing process, the Ohmic contact could be prepared very well and the diodes configuration could be designed more optimizedly in the future. (authors)

  3. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  4. Design optimization of electric vehicle battery cooling plates for thermal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Anthony; Kim, Il Yong

    The performance of high-energy battery cells utilized in electric vehicles (EVs) is greatly improved by adequate temperature control. An efficient thermal management system is also desirable to avoid diverting excessive power from the primary vehicle functions. In a battery cell stack, cooling can be provided by including cooling plates: thin metal fabrications which include one or more internal channels through which a coolant is pumped. Heat is conducted from the battery cells into the cooling plate, and transported away by the coolant. The operating characteristics of the cooling plate are determined in part by the geometry of the channel; its route, width, length, etc. In this study, a serpentine-channel cooling plate is modeled parametrically and its characteristics assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Objective functions of pressure drop, average temperature, and temperature uniformity are defined and numerical optimization is carried out by allowing the channel width and position to vary. The optimization results indicate that a single design can satisfy both pressure and average temperature objectives, but at the expense of temperature uniformity.

  5. Contribution to performing gas solutions and the complementarity of energies to address electric peak consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at outlining the contribution that gas-based solutions may have for the reduction of the seasonal electricity peak consumption. After having recalled the principles related to electricity peak consumption (daily peak in summer and in winter due to the use of various equipment which lasts few hours, seasonal peak in winter due to the use of electric heating which may last several weeks) and the associated evolution of electricity consumptions over the last years, this article describes the main challenges related to the electric peak consumption: how to maintain the balance in real time between production and consumption. In France, the network manager must use, beside nuclear power stations, thermal productions (gas or coal-based) which result in higher CO 2 emissions. Electricity imports from Germany also degrade the French carbon footprint. Thus, the management of daily and seasonal peaks can be based on three levers of action: to act on supply by developing capacities to face the residual peak, to act on demand by smoothing the load curve by controlling the load of electric equipment, or to act on demand by a global reduction of the thermo-sensitive consumption of electricity

  6. The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter : Electrical performance of a high voltage prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djairam, D.

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is converted to electrical energy by letting the wind move charged particles against the direction of an electric field. The advantage of this type of conversion is that no rotational movement, which occurs in conventional wind turbines, is required. An electrostatic wind energy

  7. Enhancing performance of a motor imagery based brain-computer interface by incorporating electrical stimulation-induced SSSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weibo; Qiu, Shuang; Wang, Kun; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Jiajia; Ming, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We proposed a novel simultaneous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) by incorporating electrical stimulation into a motor imagery (MI) based BCI system. The goal of this study was to enhance the overall performance of an MI-based BCI. In addition, the brain oscillatory pattern in the hybrid task was also investigated. Approach. 64-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded during MI, selective attention (SA) and hybrid tasks in fourteen healthy subjects. In the hybrid task, subjects performed MI with electrical stimulation which was applied to bilateral median nerve on wrists simultaneously. Main results. The hybrid task clearly presented additional steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) induced by electrical stimulation with MI-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD). By combining ERD and SSSEP features, the performance in the hybrid task was significantly better than in both MI and SA tasks, achieving a ~14% improvement in total relative to the MI task alone and reaching ~89% in mean classification accuracy. On the contrary, there was no significant enhancement obtained in performance while separate ERD feature was utilized in the hybrid task. In terms of the hybrid task, the performance using combined feature was significantly better than using separate ERD or SSSEP feature. Significance. The results in this work validate the feasibility of our proposed approach to form a novel MI-SSSEP hybrid BCI outperforming a conventional MI-based BCI through combing MI with electrical stimulation.

  8. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results: A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2% of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%. In 10 (47.6% of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum. In the remaining 11 (52.4%, surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion: A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven and 4.8% (projected. However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra.

  10. Effect of different atmospheres on the electrical contact performance of electronic components under fretting wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Long; Cai, Zhen-Bing; Cui, Ye; Liu, Shan-Bang; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Min-Hao

    2018-04-01

    The effects of oxide etch on the surface morphology of metals for industrial application is a common cause of electrical contacts failure, and it has becomes a more severe problem with the miniaturization of modern electronic devices. This study investigated the effects of electrical contact resistance on the contactor under three different atmospheres (oxygen, air, and nitrogen) based on 99.9% copper/pogo pins contacts through fretting experiments. The results showed the minimum and stable electrical contact resistance value when shrouded in the nitrogen environment and with high friction coefficient. The rich oxygen environment promotes the formation of cuprous oxide, thereby the electrical contact resistance increases. Scanning electron microscope microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to analyze the morphology and distribution of elements of the wear area, respectively. The surface product between contacts was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis to explain the different electrical contact properties of the three tested samples during fretting.

  11. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  12. A numerical study on the flow and performance characteristics of a piezoelectric micropump with electromagnetic resistance for electrically conducting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yong Jun; Choi, Chung Ryul; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2008-01-01

    A numerical analysis has been conducted for flow characteristics and performance of a micropump with piezodisk and MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamics) fluid. Various micro systems which could not be considered in the past have been recently growing with the development of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) and micro machining technology. Especially, micropumps, essential part of micro fluidic devices, are being lively studied by many researchers. In the present study, the piezo electric micropump with electromagnetic resistance for electrically conducting fluids is considered. The prescribed grid deformation method is used for the displacement of the membrane. The change of the performance of the micropump and flow characteristics of the electrically conducting fluid with the magnitude of the magnetic fields, duct size, the position of the inlet and outlet duct are investigated in the present study

  13. Performance of the electrical generator cell by the ferrous alloys of printed circuit board scrap and Iron Metal 1020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Y.; Sudarsono, S.; Silviana, E.; Chairul; Wisrayetti

    2018-04-01

    Galvani cell is one of thealternative energy. This cell can be used as an electric resources. In this research, the generator cell was designed and builds to generate the electric. The generator cell consisted of the iron metal 1020 were used as anode, the ferrous alloys of printed circuit board scrapwas then used as chatode, and NaCl solution as an electrolyte. The aim of this research is to estimate the performance of this generator cell by using variation of NaCl concentration (i.e. 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9%) with the electrodes pair ( 1 and 8 pairs). The performance of the cell was measured with a multi tester equipment and a LED bulb (5-watt 3Volt). The Results shown that the generator cell can produce the electric power of 3.679 Volt maximally by using NaCl 9% and 8 electrode pairs applied for this condition.

  14. Implications of driving patterns on well-to-wheel performance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Leon; MacLean, Heather L; Roorda, Matthew J

    2012-06-05

    This study examines how driving patterns (distance and conditions) and the electricity generation supply interact to impact well-to-wheel (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW performance of a PHEV is compared with that of a similar (nonplug-in) gasoline hybrid electric vehicle and internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Driving PHEVs for short distances between recharging generally results in lower WTW total and fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kilometer compared to driving long distances, but the extent of the reductions depends on the electricity supply. For example, the shortest driving pattern in this study with hydroelectricity uses 81% less fossil energy than the longest driving pattern. However, the shortest driving pattern with coal-based electricity uses only 28% less fossil energy. Similar trends are observed in reductions relative to the nonplug-in vehicles. Irrespective of the electricity supply, PHEVs result in greater reductions in WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for city than highway driving conditions. PHEVs charging from coal facilities only reduce WTW energy use and GHG emissions relative to ICEVs for certain favorable driving conditions. The study results have implications for environmentally beneficial PHEV adoption and usage patterns.

  15. Estudio sobre el desempeño del baloncesto femenino camagüeyano en el Torneo de ascenso de la Liga Superior de Baloncesto / Study on the performance of Camagüey women's basketball in the Promotion Tournament of the Superior Basketball League.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Mapolón Arcendor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos esenciales para la preparación de los atletas del baloncesto es la realización del balance defensa-ofensiva. Por tanto, se determinó estudiar el comportamiento de este componente en el equipo de baloncesto femenino primera categoría de la provincia Camagüey; se tuvo en cuenta la preparación con vistas al Torneo nacional de ascenso y la Liga Superior de Baloncesto durante el año 2013. Se trazó como objetivo contribuir en el accionar del equipo de baloncesto femenino de Camagüey primera categoría. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se aplicaron métodos del nivel teórico como el histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético, inductivo-deductivo y el enfoque de sistema. Se utilizaron métodos del nivel empírico tales como encuestas, análisis de documentos y métodos de conformación estadística, específicamente el cálculo porcentual. También se emplearon métodos prácticos propios de la actividad física. El análisis de los resultados permitió determinar problemas que inciden negativamente en el desempeño del equipo, entre ellos la concentración de la jugadoras, y ofrecer recomendaciones precisas que contribuyen a mejorar su accionar técnico-táctico / One of the essential aspects for the preparation of basketball athletes is the realization of the defense-offensive balance. Therefore, it was determined to study the behavior of this component in the first category women's basketball team in Camagüey province; the preparation was considered in view of the National Tournament of promotion and the Superior Basketball League during 2013. The goal was to contribute to the action of the women's basketball team of Camagüey first category. For the development of the research, theoretical-level methods were applied, such as the historical-logical, analytic-synthetic, inductive-deductive, and system approach. Empirical level methods such as surveys, document analysis and statistical conformation methods were used

  16. Superior operation performance of ATMEA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yasuhiko; Kanagawa, Takashi; Lauret, Philippe; Castello, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    ATMEA, a Joint Venture Company of AREVA and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) offers an innovative and reliable mid-sized Generation III + Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) - ATMEA1 - based on its parent companies' experience and technology in order to meet the market's needs and requirements. (author)

  17. New TA Index-Based Rollover Prevention System for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Liu; Min Xu; Mian Li

    2015-01-01

    In addition to clean transportation and energy savings, electric vehicles can inherently offer better performance in the field of active safety and dynamic stability control, thanks to the superior fast and accurate control characteristics of electric motors. With the novel wheel status parameter TA for electric vehicles proposed by the authors in an earlier publication, a new TA index (TAI)-based rollover prevention method is presented in this paper to improve the driving performance of EV...

  18. Impact of Physical Deformation on Electrical Performance of Paper-Based Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    functionality and reliability of paper electronics under various physical (mechanical) deformations. Here, we show the general mechanical properties of the cellulose paper used and its electrical behavior under applied strain, tackling the main effects that need

  19. Performances of the PCA method in electrical machines diagnosis using Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Ramahaleomiarantsoa , J.F.; Sambatra , Eric Jean Roy; Heraud , Nicolas; Razafimahenina , Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, faults diagnosis is almost an inevitable step to be maintained in the optimal safety operating of every physical system. Electrical machines, main elements of every electromechanical system, are among the research topics of many academic and industrial laboratories because of the importance of their roles in the industrial process. Lots of technologies of these machines are old and well controlled. However, they remain the seat of several electrical and mechanical faults [1-4]. Thus...

  20. Performance evaluation of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistor by a distributed-element circuit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Tanabe, Akihito; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    The performance of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), in which band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) was initiated in-line to the gate electric field was evaluated. The TFET was fabricated by inserting an epitaxially-grown parallel-plate tunnel capacitor between heavily doped source wells and gate insulators. Analysis using a distributed-element circuit model indicated there should be a limit of the drain current caused by the self-voltage-drop effect in the ultrathin channel layer.

  1. Mode of operation and performance of a simulation model for the electricity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weible, H.

    1981-01-01

    In the first two main parts of this report the structure of a simulation model to define the consequences of decisions in the electricity supply sector is explained, based on a careful revision of relevant problems. By means of the system analysis the model represents an attempt to describe all essential relations between the electricity demand on the one hand and the consequences of the generation of electricity (indluding transport) for consumers, state, environment, market of capital and fuel on the other hand. The multifarious ways of operation and application of the model are demonstrated taking the public electricity management of Baden-Wuerttemberg as an example. Besides a validation of the model for 1970 to 1977, possible trends until the year 2000 are shown. As an essential result of the analyses it can be shown, that a renunciation on the further extension of nuclear energy turns out to be unrealistic by a supposed average increase of the electricity demand of 4% p.a.. A comparison of different model conceptions shows, that the information loss, which proceeds from the approximation of year-load-curves, leads to important deviations in the model results. According to the sensitivity analyses the increase of the electricity consumption turns out to be the most essential influence on the time dependent results. (orig./UA) [de

  2. A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham M. Bahaidarah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of a PV system while reducing of the cost of energy generation. Concentration photovoltaics was employed in the present case as it uses low cost reflectors to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduces the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose a V-trough integrated with the PV system was employed for low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV. Since the electrical output of the concentrating PV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells, the motivation of the research also included studying the ability to actively cool PV cells to achieve the maximum benefit. The optical, thermal and electrical performance of the V-trough PV system was theoretically modeled and validated with experimental results. Optical modeling of V-trough was carried out to estimate the amount of enhanced absorbed radiation. Due to increase in the absorbed radiation the module temperature was also increased which was predicted by thermal model. Active cooling techniques were studied and the effect of cooling was analyzed on the performance of V-trough PV system. With absorbed radiation and module temperature as input parameters, electrical modeling was carried out and the maximum power was estimated. For the V-trough PV system, experiments were performed for validating the numerical models and very good agreement was found between the two.

  3. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Wang, Xianghao; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 104 J/m3 and 10 × 104 J/m3, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between -330 Oe and 330 Oe to between -650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2-20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  4. Distributed electric power systems of the future: Institutional and technological drivers for near-optimal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Marija; Prica, Marija; Black, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Viewing electric power distribution systems as complex engineering systems whose states and inputs are defined by both technical and non-technical components of the system could help us understand challenges and lead to possible innovative solutions. In this setup, regulatory incentives, pricing, demand, and technological innovation are all endogenous feed-forward and/or feedback signals to the existing physical network and shape its evolution in both the short and long terms. We suggest that it is, indeed, possible to design technical, economic, and regulatory feed-forward and feedback signals keeping in mind the desired performance of the system. A particularly unique challenge is to enhance and operate the existing systems by incorporating distributed technologies (distributed generation or DG, active demand response, controllable wires) whose added value comes from just-in-time and right-location adjustments to the changing conditions. One way of interpreting the value of technologies of this type is to understand that they provide flexible and efficient responses by the end-user (DG and demand), therefore reducing the need for capacity reserve at the system level. Technical implementations and regulatory rules are not in place today to support systematic penetration of these technologies into the existing distribution systems. In this paper we stress the critical role of future load serving entities (LSEs) as aggregators and catalysts of customer choice at the value as one possible way forward. The LSEs would, through systematic protocols between themselves and the wholesale markets, on one side, and the customers whom they serve, on the other side, effectively implement incentives to induce near-optimal distribution system performance over long time horizons by investing in near-optimal technologies. These incentives must capture and compare both cumulative effects of real time decisions and the effects of longer-term investment decisions on near

  5. Nitrogen-doping effects on the growth, structure and electrical performance of carbon nanotubes obtained by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Zhang Yong; Li Ruying [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9 (Canada); Abou-Rachid, Hakima [Defense Research and Development Canada - Valcartier, 2459 Boulevard PieXI Nord, Quebec, QC G3J 1X5 (Canada); Sun Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with modulated nitrogen content have been synthesized in a large scale by using spray pyrolysis chemical vapor deposition technique. The effects of nitrogen doping on the growth, structure and electrical performance of carbon nanotubes have been systematically examined. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman techniques have been employed to characterize the morphology, composition, and vibrational properties of nanotubes. The results indicate that the nitrogen incorporation significantly influences the growth rate, morphology, size and structure of nanotubes. Electrical measurement investigation of the nanotubes indicates that the change in electrical resistance increases with temperature and pressure as the nitrogen concentration increases inside the tubes. This work presents a versatile, safe, and easy way to scale up route of growing carbon nanotubes with controlled nitrogen content and modulated structure, and may provide an insight in developing various nitrogen-doped carbon-based nanodevices.

  6. Effect of O2 plasma immersion on electrical properties and transistor performance of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Chen, T.P.; Liu, Z.; Tan, C.S.; Leong, K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of electrical properties and thin-film transistor characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films synthesized by RF sputtering with O 2 plasma immersion has been examined. O 2 plasma immersion results in an enhancement in the Hall mobility and a decrease in the electron concentration; and the transistor performance can be greatly improved by the O 2 plasma immersion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the effect of O 2 plasma immersion on the electrical properties and the transistor performance can be attributed to the reduction of the oxygen-related defects in the IGZO thin films. - Highlights: • Oxygen plasma immersion effect on indium gallium zinc oxide thin film properties • Oxygen-related defect reduces in the InGaZnO thin film with oxygen plasma immersion. • Increasing oxygen plasma immersion duration on device will decrease the off current. • Oxygen plasma immersion enhances the performance of device

  7. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan You

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs. For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher steel fiber content, better fiber orientation, and higher amount of pore water led to higher electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. The effects of fiber orientation and drying condition on the electrical conductivity became minor as sufficiently high amount of steel fibers, 3% by volume, was added. Including only steel fibers did not impart UHPFRC with piezoresistive properties. Addition of CNTs substantially improved the electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. Under compression, UHPFRC with a CNT content of 0.3% or greater had a self-sensing ability that was activated by the formation of cracks, and better sensing capacity was achieved by including greater amount of CNTs. Furthermore, the pre-peak flexural behavior of UHPFRC was precisely simulated with a fractional change in resistivity when 0.3% CNTs were incorporated. The pre-cracking self-sensing capacity of UHPFRC with CNTs was more effective under tensile stress state than under compressive stress state.

  8. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Performance of a Solar Powered Organic Rankine Cycle with Electric Energy Storage in Different Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis to determine the economic, energetic, and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-power organic Rankine cycle (ORC with electric energy storage (EES to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufficient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time. Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES is also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large office, the small office and the restaurant, respectively.

  9. Electrical and Self-Sensing Properties of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilhwan; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Kim, Sooho; Kim, Min-Jae; Zi, Goangseup

    2017-10-29

    This study examined the electrical and self-sensing capacities of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs). For this, the effects of steel fiber content, orientation, and pore water content on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of UHPFRC without CNTs were first evaluated. Then, the effect of CNT content on the self-sensing capacities of UHPFRC under compression and flexure was investigated. Test results indicated that higher steel fiber content, better fiber orientation, and higher amount of pore water led to higher electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. The effects of fiber orientation and drying condition on the electrical conductivity became minor as sufficiently high amount of steel fibers, 3% by volume, was added. Including only steel fibers did not impart UHPFRC with piezoresistive properties. Addition of CNTs substantially improved the electrical conductivity of UHPFRC. Under compression, UHPFRC with a CNT content of 0.3% or greater had a self-sensing ability that was activated by the formation of cracks, and better sensing capacity was achieved by including greater amount of CNTs. Furthermore, the pre-peak flexural behavior of UHPFRC was precisely simulated with a fractional change in resistivity when 0.3% CNTs were incorporated. The pre-cracking self-sensing capacity of UHPFRC with CNTs was more effective under tensile stress state than under compressive stress state.

  10. Thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid design of a solar-thermoelectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, K.S.; Naghavi, M.S.; Lim, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar-thermoelectric system studied under outdoor conditions. • Electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30. • Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h. - Abstract: An evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector was fitted with four thermoelectric modules and four water cooling jackets on the condenser side to produce electricity and hot water simultaneously. Each cooling jacket had six mini water-flow channels inside it. Solar heat was absorbed and collected by the evaporator section. Experiments were conducted under outdoor environment with various water coolant flow rates. Once-through coolant water flow was adopted as a first step. Further investigations would be conducted to incorporate an insulated hot water storage tank to evaluate the system economic viability as a power producer and hot water generator. Temperatures were recorded along the evaporator and condenser sections of the heat pipe, thermoelectric junction temperatures and inlet/outlet water channels. This paper presents the experimental results obtained. Typical daily experimental results showed that electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30 before decreasing towards the evening. Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h.

  11. Optimal pricing of default customers in electrical distribution systems: Effect behavior performance of demand response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; Khodr, H.M.; Urdaneta, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The response of a non-linear mathematical model is analyzed for the calculation of the optimal prices for electricity assuming default customers under different scenarios and using five different mathematical functions for the consumer response: linear, hyperbolic, potential, logarithmic and exponential. The mathematical functions are defined to simulate the hourly changes in the consumer response according to the load level, the price of electricity, and also depending on the elasticity at every hour. The behavior of the optimization model is evaluated separately under two different objective functions: the profit of the electric utility and the social welfare. The optimal prices as well as the served load are calculated for two different operation schemes: in an hourly basis and also assuming a single constant price for the 24 h of the day. Results obtained by the optimization model are presented and compared for the five different consumer load functions. (author)

  12. Effect of the application of an electric field on the performance of a two-phase loop device: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creatini, F; Di Marco, P; Filippeschi, S; Fioriti, D; Mameli, M

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the continuous development of electronics has pointed out the need for a change in mind with regard to thermal management. In the present scenario, Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs) are novel promising two-phase passive heat transport devices that seem to meet all present and future thermal requirements. Nevertheless, PHPs governing phenomena are quite unique and not completely understood. In particular, single closed loop PHPs manifest several drawbacks, mostly related to the reduction of device thermal performance and reliability, i.e. the occurrence of multiple operational quasi-steady states. The present research work proposes the application of an electric field as a technique to promote the circulation of the working fluid in a preferential direction and stabilize the device operation. The tested single closed loop PHP is made of a copper tube with an inner tube diameter equal to 2.00 mm and filled with pure ethanol (60% filling ratio). The electric field is generated by a couple of wire-shaped electrodes powered with DC voltage up to 20 kV and laid parallel to the longitudinal axis of the glass tube constituting the adiabatic section. Although the electric field intensity in the working fluid region is weakened both by the polarization phenomenon of the working fluid and by the interposition of the glass tube, the experimental results highlight the influence of the electric field on the device thermal performance and encourage the continuation of the research in this direction. (paper)

  13. Electricity system performance: options and opportunities for developing countries. Synthesis report of the cooperative programme on energy and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on the crisis in the performance of the Electricity Supply Industries (ESI) of Africa, Asia and Latin America, and is based on the research of the Network Centres during 1990-91. It provides a review of the performance of the ESI that ranges widely from the issues of technical efficiency, through the more controversial aspects of financial and economic efficiency, to the more diffuse aspects of the social and environmental measures of performance.47 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appendices

  14. Design and performance of General Electric boiling water reactor main steam line isolation valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, D.A.; van Zylstra, E.H.

    1976-08-01

    An extensive test program has been completed by the General Electric Company in cooperation with the Commonwealth Edison Company on the basic design type of large main steam line isolation valves used on General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. Based on a total of 40 tests under simulated accident conditions covering a wide range of mass flows, mixture qualities, and closing times, it was concluded that the commercially available valves of this basic type will close completely and reliably as required. Analytical methods to predict transient effects in the steam line and valve after postulated breaks were refined and confirmed by the test program

  15. Performance of a 100-kV, 78-kJ electric-gun system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.; Dittbenner, G.; Mikkelsen, K.; Weingart, R.; Froeschner, K.; Lee, R.

    1981-01-01

    A new electric gun system was constructed for use in high-pressure EOS studies. The system is powered by a 100 kV, 15.6 μF capacitor bank. At 100 kV charging voltage the system inductance is 23 nH. This system has driven 0.3 mm-thick Kapton projectiles to > 20 km/s and 0.3 mm Kapton/30 μm Ta projectiles to approx. 10 km/s. Projectile velocity is modeled phenomenlogically by an electrical Gurney model

  16. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  17. Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report is the first in a series of Electrification Futures Study (EFS) publications. The EFS is a multiyear research project to explore widespread electrification in the future energy system of the United States. More specifically, the EFS is designed to examine electric technology advancement and adoption for end uses in all major economic sectors as well as electricity consumption growth and load profiles, future power system infrastructure development and operations, and the economic and environmental implications of widespread electrification. Because of the expansive scope and the multiyear duration of the study, research findings and supporting data will be published as a series of reports, with each report released on its own timeframe.

  18. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  19. Evaluation on current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin-film wire considering electric coupling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.-I.; Han, B.-S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Song, S.-S.; Han, T.-H.; Han, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The basic way to improve the performance of a superconducting current limiter is to apply and evaluate a superconducting device that is appropriate to the superconducting current limiter. Among the many types of superconducting devices, the YBCO thin film wire has excellent current-limiting performance that is appropriate for actual system application. For the application of the YBCO thin film wire to superconducting current limiters, its current-limiting performance as a unit device must be accurately evaluated, and measures to improve its current-limiting performance must be sought. Accordingly, to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire, this study was conducted to evaluate its resistance-increasing trend, V max , T r , I max , I qt , and current-limiting rate as a unit device, after which the electric coupling condition that consists of a core and windings was used to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire.

  20. Fabrication of a vertical channel field effect transistor and a study of its electrical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A vertical channel field effect transistor on silicon was fabricated by diffusion technique and its electrical characteristics were studied as a function of voltage and temperature. It was found that this transistor has relatively high breakdown voltage of 65 volts for drain source and of 7.5 volts for gate source terminals. (author)

  1. High Performance Electrical Modeling and Simulation Software Normal Environment Verification and Validation Plan, Version 1.0; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WIX, STEVEN D.; BOGDAN, CAROLYN W.; MARCHIONDO JR., JULIO P.; DEVENEY, MICHAEL F.; NUNEZ, ALBERT V.

    2002-01-01

    The requirements in modeling and simulation are driven by two fundamental changes in the nuclear weapons landscape: (1) The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and (2) The Stockpile Life Extension Program which extends weapon lifetimes well beyond their originally anticipated field lifetimes. The move from confidence based on nuclear testing to confidence based on predictive simulation forces a profound change in the performance asked of codes. The scope of this document is to improve the confidence in the computational results by demonstration and documentation of the predictive capability of electrical circuit codes and the underlying conceptual, mathematical and numerical models as applied to a specific stockpile driver. This document describes the High Performance Electrical Modeling and Simulation software normal environment Verification and Validation Plan

  2. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Remeš, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility ofholes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugatedpolymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazolebased conjugated copolymer (PBDTTHD − DTBTff......) was studied and benchmarkedagainst the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT).We employed,respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work functionmeasurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage(CELIV) measurements and diffusion length...

  3. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  4. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hill, L.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains summaries of the electric utilities performance-based rate plans for the following companies: Alabama Power Company; Central Maine Power Company; Consolidated Edison of New York; Mississippi Power Company; New York State Electric and Gas Corporation; Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; PacifiCorp; Pacific Gas and Electric; Southern California Edison; San Diego Gas & Electric; and Tucson Electric Power. In addition, this document also contains information about LBNL`s Power Index and Incentive Properties of a Hybrid Cap and Long-Run Demand Elasticity.

  5. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  6. Integrated DEA models and grey system theory to evaluate past-to-future performance: a case of Indian electricity industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Nguyen, Nhu-Ty; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better "past-present-future" insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry.

  7. Orthogonal Test Analysis on Conditions Affecting Electricity Generation Performance of an Enhanced Geothermal System at Yangbajing Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main conditions affecting electricity generation performance of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS include reservoir porosity, reservoir permeability, rock heat conductivity, water production rate and injection temperature. Presently there is lack of systematic research the relative importance of the five aforementioned conditions. The orthogonal test method is a statistical approach to analyze multi-factor and multi-level influence on system performance. In this work, based on the geological data at Yangbajing geothermal field, we analyzed the five conditions affecting the electricity generation performance of EGS, and ranked the relative importance of the five factors. The results show that the order of the relative importance of the conditions on electric power is water production rate > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity > reservoir permeability; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on reservoir impedance is reservoir permeability > injection temperature > water production rate > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on pump power is water production rate > reservoir permeability > injection temperature > reservoir porosity > rock heat conductivity, and; the order of the relative importance of the conditions on energy efficiency is water production rate > reservoir permeability > reservoir porosity > injection temperature > rock heat conductivity. The construction of an EGS reservoir should be located at a formation with higher reservoir porosity or rock heat conductivity, while the determination of reservoir permeability, water production rate and injection temperature should be based on the comprehensive target.

  8. Integrated DEA Models and Grey System Theory to Evaluate Past-to-Future Performance: A Case of Indian Electricity Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better “past-present-future” insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry. PMID:25821854

  9. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  10. Investigation of practical use situation and performance for electric transient analysis programs in the U.S. nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are firstly to investigate the status of practical use of electric transient analysis programs used in U.S. nuclear power plants, which has been extracted as good examples from the information analysis of overseas troubles, and secondly to select a program to be recommended for use in implementing electric transient analysis in domestic nuclear power plants. In addition, to promote its practical use, a selected electric transient analysis program was tested by simulating the transient response during a load sequence test of an emergency diesel generator (EDG) in a domestic representative nuclear plant to evaluate its simulation accuracy by comparing its result with the measured plant data. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In U.S. nuclear power plants, simulations using electric transient analysis programs, such as ETAP, EMPT, etc., are widely performed, which contributed to improve the plant safety. (2) A selected transient analysis program EMTP was verified in its accuracy in terms of transient response of active power, current, voltage and frequency of the EDG during the load sequence test in a domestic representative nuclear power plant. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) is advantageous because of zero emission, but their market penetration is limited by one disadvantage, i.e., energy storage. Battery EVs (BEVs) have a limited range, and their batteries take a long time to charge, compared with the time it takes to refuel the tank...... of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...... in start/stop city cycles. Simulations with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) showed that efficiency fell by at least 15% for the FC hybrid EV (FCHEV) when compared with BEVs....

  12. Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell for Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yavari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy will have an important role as a resource of energy in the future. Microbial fuel cell (MFC is a promising method to obtain electricity from organic matter andwastewater treatment simultaneously. In a pilot study, use of microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment and electricity generation investigated. The bacteria of ruminant used as inoculums. Synthetic wastewater used at different organic loading rate. Hydraulic retention time was aneffective factor in removal of soluble COD and more than 49% removed. Optimized HRT to achieve the maximum removal efficiency and sustainable operation could be regarded 1.5 and 2.5 hours. Columbic efficiency (CE affected by organic loading rate (OLR and by increasing OLR, CE reduced from 71% to 8%. Maximum voltage was 700mV. Since the microbial fuel cell reactor considered as an anaerobic process, it may be an appropriate alternative for wastewater treatment

  13. Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M.

    2012-02-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 108 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed.

  14. Piezoelectric and dielectric performance of poled lead zirconate titanate subjected to electric cyclic fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Lin, Hua-Tay; Mottern, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material as a single-layer plate was tested using a piezodilatometer under electric cyclic loading in both unipolar and bipolar modes. Its responses were evaluated using unipolar and bipolar measurements on the same setup. The mechanical strain and charge density loops exhibited various variations when the material was cycled for more than 10 8 cycles. The various quantities including loop amplitude, hysteresis, switchable polarization, and coercive field were characterized accordingly under the corresponding measurement conditions. At the same time, the offset polarization and bias electric field of the material were observed to be changed and the trend was found to be related to the measurement conditions also. Finally, the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were analyzed and their implications for the application of interest have been discussed. (paper)

  15. The performance simulation of single cylinder electric power confined piston engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yanan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of power plant. i.e, Electric Power Confined Piston Engine, is invented by combining the free piston engine and the crank connecting rod mechanism of the traditional internal combustion engine. Directly using the reciprocating movement of the piston, this new engine converts the heat energy produced by fuel to electrical energy and output it. The paper expounds the working mechanism of ECPE and establishes the kinematics and dynamics equations. Furthermore, by using the analytic method, the ECPE electromagnetic force is solved at load cases. Finally, in the simulation environment of MARLAB, the universal characteristic curve is obtained in the condition of rotational speed n between 1000 r/min and 2400 r/min, throttle opening α between 30% and 100%.

  16. Electrical properties and flux performance of composite ceramic hydrogen separation membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fish, J.S.; Ricote, Sandrine; O'Hayre, R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical properties and hydrogen permeation flux behavior of the all-ceramic protonic/electronic conductor composite BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3-δ/Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (BCZY27/STN95: BS27) are evaluated. Conductivity and hydrogen permeability are examined as a function of phase volume ratios. Total ...

  17. Power and performance. Y2K challenges for electricity grids in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossilov, A.; Gueorguiev, B.; Ianev, I.; Purvis, E.

    1999-01-01

    The Year 2000 problem can directly affect the safety of nuclear power plants through interfaces with electric power and telecommunication systems. Recently, probabilistic safety assessments have made it clear that a 'station blackout' at a nuclear power plant is a major contributor to the sequence of events that could cause severe accidents. Within the IAEA actions concerned with Y2K problem, particular focus was on countries in eastern Europe, where here were delays in taking Y2K corrective actions

  18. Plasma sprayed manganeseecobalt spinel coatings: Process sensitivity on phase, electrical and protective performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Han Jung, S.; Pala, Zdeněk; Sampath, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, February (2016), s. 234-243 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Interconnect protection * Cr-poisoning * Manganese cobalt spinel * Electrical conductivity * Plasma spray Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 6.395, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775315305383

  19. Fabry-Perot Interferometer Performance as Temperature Sensor for Use in Electrical Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Mandal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Transfer function model of the loss less Fabry-Perot cavity (FPI, developed in Z-domain is presented in this paper. Frequency response analysis of the model was carried out in MATLAB environment to explain the behavior of the interferometer and its potential as temperature sensor was studied. Analysis reveals a highly sensitive temperature sensor that can be used in electrical engineering power system applications.

  20. An experimental evaluation of joint electrical resistance on power lead thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datskov, V.I.; Demko, J.A.; Augustynowicz, S.D.; Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of electrical resistance in braze joints is not known for certain. In addition the annealing processes that occurs during a braze or solder operation can change the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of the copper. The change in the electrical resistivity of samples of copper because of exposure to conditions that a high current lead would see during a brazing operation were experimentally investigated. A sample was taken from a manufacturing and brazing trial of the high current power leads for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), and from oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC) 101 rod similar to that used in the trial. The samples were heated under conditions that a current lead would undergo during the brazing process. Measurements were made of the electrical resistance of the copper specimens and across a braze joint in the manufacturing trial sample for temperatures ranging from liquid helium to room temperature. A prototype of the SSC high current lead is shown. This lead was fabricated from 5 sections that were brazed together. Some results for the measured residual resistivity ratio (RRR) along this lead are given

  1. A β-cyclodextrin based binary dopant for polyaniline: Structural, thermal, electrical, and sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanushree; Mishra, Satyendra [University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India); Shimpi, Navinchandra G., E-mail: navin_shimpi@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098, Maharashtra (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A binary dopant based on β-cyclodextrin has been proposed for PANI. • The binary dopant provided long term stability to electrically conducting PANI. • The β-cyclodextrin based binary dopant rendered PANI sensitive towards CO at RT. - Abstract: The effect of hydrochloric acid/β-cyclodextrin (HCl/β-CD) binary dopant on the morphological, thermal, electrical, and sensing properties of PANI was investigated and compared with those of the conventionally doped PANI. The PANI samples were characterized using FTIR, UV–Vis, {sup 1}H NMR, and FESEM. Significant changes were observed in the structural, thermal, and electrical character of PANI doped with the HCl/β-CD binary dopant. A higher doping level was obtained for the PANI-binary dopant system, as observed from its {sup 1}H NMR spectra. Moreover, the binary dopant imparted long-term stability to the sensor in its conductive form. In addition, the PANI-binary dopant system exhibited a significantly high gas response towards carbon monoxide gas at room temperature.

  2. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  3. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Liu, Wei; Xing, Feng

    2014-07-24

    An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  4. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei, E-mail: hust-yangxiaofei@163.com [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xianghao [School of Information Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-01-28

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3} and 10 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3}, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  5. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10 4  J/m 3 and 10 × 10 4  J/m 3 , the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance

  6. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  7. The effects of rate of return and environmental regulations on the productivity performance in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durongkaveroj, P.

    1991-01-01

    Productivity growth in the US electric power industry has been declining since the late 1960's. Rate of return regulation and environmental regulations are hypothesized to adversely affect the productivity performance. Employing a Divisa index of the total factor productivity (TEP) an electric utility's performance is measured based on a profit maximization framework subject to both regulatory constraints. The empirical analysis attempts to analyze the effects of these regulations on the productivity growth employing data from privately-owned, fossil-fueled electric utilities. Results show a consistent decline in productivity growth over time averaging at 2% annually during 1977 and 1982, as well as the existence of regional differences in TFP growth among utilities. It shows positive and significant relationships between TFP growth and the rate of return, regulatory lag, the use of future test year, and deferred tax credit in the rate-making process. In the environmental case, results show that a stringent emission standard, using scrubbers for sulfur reduction and the utilization of aging power plants all contribute to the decline in productivity growth

  8. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  9. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  10. Controlling the ripple density and heights: a new way to improve the electrical performance of CVD-grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Hwa; Jo, Insu; Hong, Byung Hee; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2016-05-14

    We report a new way to enhance the electrical performances of large area CVD-grown graphene through controlling the ripple density and heights after transfer onto SiO2/Si substrates by employing different cooling rates during fabrication. We find that graphene films prepared with a high cooling rate have reduced ripple density and heights and improved electrical characteristics such as higher electron/hole mobilities as well as reduced sheet resistance. The corresponding Raman analysis also shows a significant decrease of the defects when a higher cooling rate is employed. We suggest a model that explains the improved morphology of the graphene film obtained with higher cooling rates. From these points of view, we can suggest a new pathway toward a relatively lower density and heights of ripples in order to reduce the flexural phonon-electron scattering effect, leading to higher lateral carrier mobilities.

  11. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Environmental control and electrical power system performance models requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Software design specifications for developing environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and electrical power system (EPS) programs into interactive computer programs are presented. Specifications for the ECLSS program are at the detail design level with respect to modification of an existing batch mode program. The FORTRAN environmental analysis routines (FEAR) are the subject batch mode program. The characteristics of the FEAR program are included for use in modifying batch mode programs to form interactive programs. The EPS program specifications are at the preliminary design level. Emphasis is on top-down structuring in the development of an interactive program.

  12. High performance electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices enabled by three dimensionally ordered nanodots and nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit , Kang; Sukill, [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  13. Visual search performance is predicted by both prestimulus and poststimulus electrical brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Berry; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Clark, Kait; Lorist, Monicque M.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2016-01-01

    An individual's performance on cognitive and perceptual tasks varies considerably across time and circumstances. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying such performance variability using regression-based analyses to examine trial-by-trial relationships between response times (RTs) and

  14. On the electrification of road transportation – A review of the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers

    OpenAIRE

    WEISS MARTIN; DEKKER Peter; MORO ALBERTO; SCHOLZ Harald; MARTIN Patel

    2015-01-01

    Electrification is widely considered as a viable strategy for reducing the oil dependency and environmental impacts of road transportation. In pursuit of this strategy, most attention has been paid to electric cars. However, substantial, yet untapped, potentials could be realized in urban areas through the large-scale introduction of electric two-wheelers. Here, we review the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers, demonstrating that these are generally more ...

  15. Influence of O2 or H2O in a plasma jet and its environment on plasma electrical and biochemical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ek R.; Samara, Vladimir; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2018-05-01

    Because environmental conditions, such as room temperature and humidity, fluctuate arbitrarily, effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) used in medical applications operating at various places and time might vary. Therefore, understanding the possible effects of air components in and outside APPJs is essential for clinical use, which requires reproducibility of plasma performance. These air components can influence the formation of reactive species in the APPJ, and the type and amount of these species formed depend on the feed gas inside the APPJ and the plasma jet environment. In this study, we monitored changes in plasma current and power, as well as in the level of DNA damage attributable to plasma irradiation, by adjusting the fraction of oxygen and water vapor in the plasma jet environment and feed gas. Here, DNA was used as a molecular probe to identify chemical changes that occurred in the plasma jet under these various environmental conditions. The damaged and undamaged fractions of DNA were quantified using agarose gel electrophoresis. We obtained an optimal amount of oxygen or water vapor in the plasma jet environment, as well as in the feed gas, which increased the level of DNA damage significantly. This increase can be attributed primarily to the formation of reactive species caused by water and oxygen decomposition in the APPJ detected with mass spectrometry. Moreover, we observed that the plasma power remained the same or decreased when gas was added to the jet environment or the feed gas, respectively, but in both cases, DNA damage increased. This indicates the superiority of plasma chemistry over the electrical power applied for APPJ ignition of the plasma sources used in medical applications.

  16. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-06-01

    The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV) could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT) where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work.

  17. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  18. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  19. Um indicador para a avaliação do desempenho docente em instituições de ensino superior Un Indicador para la evaluación del desempeño docente en instituciones de enseñanza superior An indicator for the evaluation of the teaching performance in teaching institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Embiruçu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe a criação de um indicador de avaliação docente (IAD, objetivo e quantitativo, para ser utilizado como um instrumento da avaliação do desempenho de docentes em Instituições de Ensino Superior. Este indicador é aderente aos indicadores institucionais estabelecidos pelo Programa de Apoio a Planos de Reestruturação e Expansão das Universidades Federais (REUNI e procura também contemplar aspectos importantes para um indicador deste tipo, tais como robustez e exogenia, além de considerar ainda aspectos importantes da atuação universitária, tais como afastamentos, gestão acadêmica, atividades de extensão e produção científica qualificada, não contemplados na formulação original dos indicadores do REUNI. São incluídos também outros aspectos fundamentais, tais como a qualidade da graduação e a taxa de conclusão da pós-graduação. Assim, o índice faz uma avaliação docente bastante completa na medida em que considera todas as principais atividades docentes, quais sejam, ensino, pesquisa, extensão e gestão acadêmica, tanto na graduação quanto na pós-graduação. Os resultados apresentados mostram que o indicador é robusto e que o alcance das metas propostas é razoavelmente factível, podendo este ser utilizado como um instrumento útil para a política e a gestão acadêmica das instituições, de forma harmonizada com os programas e políticas de governo e de estado. Alguns parâmetros do indicador podem ser ajustados a fim de satisfazer metas e políticas específicas das instituições.Este trabajo propone la creación de un indicador de evaluación docente (IAD, objetivo y cuantitativo, con el objeto de utilizarlo como instrumento de evaluación del funcionamiento de profesores en instituciones de Enseñanza Superior. Este indicador se basa en Indicadores institucionales establecidos por el REUNI (Programa de Apoyo a Planes de Reestructuración y Expansión de las Universidades Federales

  20. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  1. In Situ Encapsulating α-MnS into N,S-Codoped Nanotube-Like Carbon as Advanced Anode Material: α → β Phase Transition Promoted Cycling Stability and Superior Li/Na-Storage Performance in Half/Full Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dai-Huo; Li, Wen-Hao; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Cui, Zheng; Yan, Xin; Liu, Dao-Sheng; Wang, Jiawei; Zhang, Yu; Lü, Hong-Yan; Bai, Feng-Yang; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Wu, Xing-Long

    2018-04-02

    Incorporation of N,S-codoped nanotube-like carbon (N,S-NTC) can endow electrode materials with superior electrochemical properties owing to the unique nanoarchitecture and improved kinetics. Herein, α-MnS nanoparticles (NPs) are in situ encapsulated into N,S-NTC, preparing an advanced anode material (α-MnS@N,S-NTC) for lithium-ion/sodium-ion batteries (LIBs/SIBs). It is for the first time revealed that electrochemical α → β phase transition of MnS NPs during the 1st cycle effectively promotes Li-storage properties, which is deduced by the studies of ex situ X-ray diffraction/high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrode kinetics. As a result, the optimized α-MnS@N,S-NTC electrode delivers a high Li-storage capacity (1415 mA h g -1 at 50 mA g -1 ), excellent rate capability (430 mA h g -1 at 10 A g -1 ), and long-term cycling stability (no obvious capacity decay over 5000 cycles at 1 A g -1 ) with retained morphology. In addition, the N,S-NTC-based encapsulation plays the key roles on enhancing the electrochemical properties due to its high conductivity and unique 1D nanoarchitecture with excellent protective effects to active MnS NPs. Furthermore, α-MnS@N,S-NTC also delivers high Na-storage capacity (536 mA h g -1 at 50 mA g -1 ) without the occurrence of such α → β phase transition and excellent full-cell performances as coupling with commercial LiFePO 4 and LiNi 0.6 Co 0.2 Mn 0.2 O 2 cathodes in LIBs as well as Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 2 O 2 F cathode in SIBs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Avaliação do desempenho ambiental de uma instituição pública de ensino técnico e superior Environmental performance assessment of a public institution of technical and undergraduate education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Sessegolo Marques de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar um estudo de caso baseado em indicadores ambientais categóricos no qual foi avaliado o desempenho ambiental de uma instituição pública de ensino técnico e superior. A revisão incluiu a série de normas ISO 14000, o Prêmio Nacional de Qualidade em Saneamento (PNQS e o Ecoblock. O método usado foi adaptado do SBP, um conjunto de procedimentos para a mensuração do desempenho ambiental de uma atividade antrópica, que se vale de construtos latentes e indicadores categóricos que expliquem o desempenho. Os indicadores foram organizados em sete construtos. Segundo os avaliadores e o modelo, a instituição faz 56,7% do máximo possível em gestão ambiental. Os construtos mais carentes foram gestão de resíduos sólidos e poluição sonora. O resultado da avaliação pode ser usado para reformulação da política ambiental da instituição.This article reports a case study in which the environmental performance of a public institution of higher and technical education was evaluated, based on environmental indicators in spades. The following standards series were reviewed: ISO 14000, National Quality Award in Sanitation (PNQS and Ecoblock. The method was adapted from SBP, a set of procedures for measuring the environmental performance of an anthropic activity, composed by latent constructs and categorical indicators that explain the performance. The indicators were organized in seven constructs. According to the assessed respondents and the model, the institution reached 56.7% of the maximum possible in environmental management. Lower constructs were management of solid waste and noise pollution. The evaluation can be used for reshaping the environmental policy of the institution.

  3. Performance of electrical double layer capacitors fabricated with gel polymer electrolytes containing Li+ and K+-salts: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative performance of the solid-state electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and poly (vinaylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropyline) (PVdF-HFP) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) containing potassium and lithium salts have been studied. The room temperature ionic conductivity of the GPEs have been found to be ∼3.8×10 −3 and 5.9×10 −3 S cm −1 for lithium and potassium based systems. The performance of EDLC cells studied by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge-discharge techniques, indicate that the EDLC with potassium salt containing GPE shows excellent performance almost equivalent to the EDLC with Li-salt-based GPE

  4. Performance of the Electric power companies of Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, Mali and Senegal, and their organizational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, J.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the technical, economic, and financial performances of these four countries' power companies over the past two decades is recounted, and then interpreted as the result of the existing organizational models. The changes that have occurred can be understood in long-term perspective by comparing the performance of these companies to the characteristics, rules, and objectives used to define the models, which also helps explain the history of performance indicator variations. Two models are defined: one for the physical plant and one for the management. These correspond to two successive phases in the organization and operation of the electrical sector. Rural electrification and regional interconnection will be important factors in any new model or models developed for the future, because the forms they take is likely to modify the characteristics of these national power companies. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy analysis were all adopted to illustrate the performance of SPV/T system. The results showed that the PV efficiency and the thermal efficiency were about 11.5% and 39.5%, respectively, on the typical sunny day. Furthermore, the PV and thermal efficiencies fit curves were made to demonstrate the SPV/T performance more comprehensively. The performance analysis indicated that the SPV/T system has a good application prospect for building.

  6. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  7. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  8. Comparison of the performance, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power generation compared to other clean sources of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Jônatas F.C. da; Neto, Rieder O.; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increase in the demand for electricity in emerging countries, such as India, China and Brazil. There are several alternatives to increase energy generation, and each country has followed certain strategies to achieve this goal. For a long time, developed countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, had focused their efforts on the use of thermoelectric generators through the combustion of non-renewable sources such as coal, natural gas and oil. These examples were followed, also, by the emerging countries. However, pollution levels, generated by these sources, have required the breakdown of this paradigm, and the consequent reversal of large investments in clean energy sources, such as hydraulics, solar and wind. Nucleo-electric energy is also considered a clean energy source, since it does not generate polluting gases during the processing of concentrated uranium in nuclear reactors. In addition, all radioactive waste occupying relatively small volumes and being stored in controlled deposits, in aspects of health, environment and safety. The objective of this article is to compare the performance, in economic, environmental and safety aspects, of nuclear power in relation to renewable energy sources. The results show that nuclear energy has become increasingly competitive in all these fields, justifying the growth of investments in new nuclear technologies. Therefore, the coexistence between the use of clean sources of electricity and the thermonuclear matrix will bring, for humanity, truly sustainable systems of energy generation. (author)

  9. Effect of electric field on the performance of soil electro-bioremediation with a periodic polarity reversal strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, E; Villaseñor, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this work, it is studied the effect of the electric fields (within the range 0.0-1.5 V cm(-1)) on the performance of electrobioremediation with polarity reversal, using a bench scale plant with diesel-spiked kaolinite with 14-d long tests. Results obtained show that the periodic changes in the polarity of the electric field results in a more efficient treatment as compared with the single electro-bioremediation process, and it does not require the addition of a buffer to keep the pH within a suitable range. The soil heating was not very important and it did not cause a change in the temperature of the soil up to values incompatible with the life of microorganisms. Low values of water transported by the electro-osmosis process were attained with this strategy. After only 14 d of treatment, by using the highest electric field studied in this work (1.5 V cm(-1)), up to 35.40% of the diesel added at the beginning of the test was removed, value much higher than the 10.5% obtained by the single bioremediation technology in the same period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the performance, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power generation compared to other clean sources of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jônatas F.C. da; Neto, Rieder O., E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rieder.neto@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais (UEMG), João Monlevade, MG (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, there is an increase in the demand for electricity in emerging countries, such as India, China and Brazil. There are several alternatives to increase energy generation, and each country has followed certain strategies to achieve this goal. For a long time, developed countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, had focused their efforts on the use of thermoelectric generators through the combustion of non-renewable sources such as coal, natural gas and oil. These examples were followed, also, by the emerging countries. However, pollution levels, generated by these sources, have required the breakdown of this paradigm, and the consequent reversal of large investments in clean energy sources, such as hydraulics, solar and wind. Nucleo-electric energy is also considered a clean energy source, since it does not generate polluting gases during the processing of concentrated uranium in nuclear reactors. In addition, all radioactive waste occupying relatively small volumes and being stored in controlled deposits, in aspects of health, environment and safety. The objective of this article is to compare the performance, in economic, environmental and safety aspects, of nuclear power in relation to renewable energy sources. The results show that nuclear energy has become increasingly competitive in all these fields, justifying the growth of investments in new nuclear technologies. Therefore, the coexistence between the use of clean sources of electricity and the thermonuclear matrix will bring, for humanity, truly sustainable systems of energy generation. (author)

  11. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  12. Performance Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining (Die Sinker for Al-6061 via Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qaiser Saleem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper parametrically optimizes the EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining process in die sinking mode for material removal rate, surface roughness and edge quality of aluminum alloy Al-6061. The effect of eight parameters namely discharge current, pulse on-time, pulse off-time, auxiliary current, working time, jump time distance, servo speed and work piece hardness are investigated. Taguchi's orthogonal array L18 is employed herein for experimentation. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance with F-ratio criterion at 95% confidence level is used for identification of significant parameters whereas SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio is used for determination of optimum levels. Optimization obtained for Al-6061 with parametric combination investigated herein is validated by the confirmation run.

  13. Electrical parameters of silicon on sapphire; influence on aluminium gate MOS devices performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suat, J.P.; Borel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The question is the quality level of the substrate obtained with MOS technologies on silicon on an insulating substrate. Experimental results are presented on the main electrical parameters of MOS transistors made on silicon on sapphire, e.g. mean values and spreads of: threhold voltage and surface mobilities of transistors, breakdown voltages, and leakage currents of diodes. These devices have been made in three different technologies: enhancement P. channel technology, depletion-enhancement P. channel technology, and complementary MOS technology. These technologies are all aluminium gate processes with standard design rules and 5μm channel length. Measurements show that presently available silicon on sapphire can be considered as a very suitable substrate for many MOS digital applications (but not for dynamic circuits) [fr

  14. The electrical properties of a planar coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer and their implications for noise performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, Matthias; Challis, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the electrical properties of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) formed of a flat spiral coil coupled to steel sheet components and operating over a narrow band of frequencies around 50 kHz, well below significant resonances. The electromagnetic skin effect is a significant contributor to the terminal impedance of the EMAT and hence to signal sensitivity, Johnson noise generation and the achievable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). A transformer model is developed to simulate these effects and to assist in the optimization of the SNR. In this analysis Johnson noise in the system is compared to the unknown emf generated in the eddy current path by an incident acoustic wave to yield a fundamental SNR. The attainable SNR of the whole system is normalized to this in the form of a noise figure. (paper)

  15. Performances of nuclear power plants for combined production of electricity and hot water for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzen, S.

    The possibilities for using nuclear power plants for combined production of heat and power seem to be very good in the future. With the chosen 600 MWsub (e) BWR plant a heat output up to 1200 MW can be arranged. An alternative, consisting of steam extractions from the low-pressure turbine, offers a flexible solution for heat and power generation. With this alternative the combined plant can use components from normal condensing nuclear power plants. The flexible extraction design also offers a real possibility for using the combined plant in electric peak generation. However, urban siting requires long distance heat transmission and the pipe design for this transmission is a major problem when planning and optimizing the whole nuclear combined heat and power plant. (author)

  16. The Influence of fuel Diversification Concerning Vapour and Gas Electric Power Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiral-Aziz; Panca-Porakusuma

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays consumption of electricity in Indonesia has increased. The oil fuel as the primary fuel for power plant installation has decreased the amount of resources and makes the oil fuel prices very high. In the recent years it has been developed the Combined Cycle technology with Fuel Diversification from the oil fuel (HSD) to natural gas in power plant installation. From the investigation it could be concluded that in the Combined Cycle power plant the production cost using natural gas for the primary fuel cheaper than HSD fuel. The production cost of the combined cycle with configuration of 1-1-1 for 199 MW load is Rp. 172/kWh for natural gas fuel and Rp 941/kWh for HSD fuel. (author)

  17. Review of the human reliability analysis performed for Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, D.; Banz, I.

    1985-01-01

    The Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) commissioned Westinghouse to conduct a human reliability analysis to identify and quantify human error probabilities associated with operator actions for four specific events which may occur in light water reactors: loss of coolant accident, steam generator tube rupture, steam/feed line break, and stuck open pressurizer spray valve. Human Error Probabilities (HEPs) derived from Swain's Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) were compared to data obtained from simulator exercises. A correlation was found between the HEPs derived from Swain and the results of the simulator data. The results of this study provide a unique insight into human factors analysis. The HEPs obtained from such probabilistic studies can be used to prioritize scenarios for operator training situations, and thus improve the correlation between simulator exercises and real control room experiences

  18. Joule-Thief Circuit Performance for Electricity Energy Saving of Emergency Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto Budisusila, Eka; Arifin, Bustanul

    2017-04-01

    The alternative energy such as battery as power source is required as energy source failures. The other need is outdoor lighting. The electrical power source is expected to be a power saving, optimum and has long life operating. The Joule-Thief circuit is one of solution method for energy saving by using raised electromagnetic force on cored coil when there is back-current. This circuit has a transistor operated as a switch to cut voltage and current flowing along the coils. The present of current causing magnetic induction and generates energy. Experimental prototype was designed by using battery 1.5V to activate Light Emitting Diode or LED as load. The LED was connected in parallel or serial circuit configuration. The result show that the joule-thief circuit able to supply LED circuits up to 40 LEDs.

  19. Surface engineering of ferroelectric polymer for the enhanced electrical performance of organic transistor memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Lee, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2018-05-01

    We suggest a viable surface control method to improve the electrical properties of organic nonvolatile memory transistors. For viable surface control, the surface of the ferroelectric insulator in the memory field-effect transistors was modified using a smooth-contact-curing process. For the modification of the ferroelectric polymer, during the curing of the ferroelectric insulators, the smooth surface of a soft elastomer contacts intimately with the ferroelectric surface. This smooth-contact-curing process reduced the surface roughness of the ferroelectric insulator without degrading its ferroelectric properties. The reduced roughness of the ferroelectric insulator increases the mobility of the organic field-effect transistor by approximately eight times, which results in a high memory on–off ratio and a low-voltage reading operation.

  20. Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Isik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA, a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware.

  1. Design analysis and computer-aided performance evaluation of shuttle orbiter electrical power system. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop appropriate space shuttle electrical power distribution and control (EPDC) subsystem simulation models and to apply the computer simulations to systems analysis of the EPDC. A previously developed software program (SYSTID) was adapted for this purpose. The following objectives were attained: (1) significant enhancement of the SYSTID time domain simulation software, (2) generation of functionally useful shuttle EPDC element models, and (3) illustrative simulation results in the analysis of EPDC performance, under the conditions of fault, current pulse injection due to lightning, and circuit protection sizing and reaction times.

  2. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toušek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility of holes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer (PBDTTHD − DTBTff was studied and benchmarked against the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. We employed, respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work function measurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV measurements and diffusion length determinaton using surface photovoltage measurements.

  3. Improving the Performance Attributes of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Hot Climates through Key-Off Battery Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Shojaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambient conditions can have a significant impact on the average and maximum temperature of the battery of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Given the sensitivity of the ageing mechanisms of typical battery cells to temperature, a significant variability in battery lifetime has been reported with geographical location. In addition, high battery temperature and the associated cooling requirements can cause poor passenger thermal comfort, while extreme battery temperatures can negatively impact the power output of the battery, limiting the available electric traction torque. Avoiding such issues requires enabling battery cooling even when the vehicle is parked and not plugged in (key-off, but the associated extra energy requirements make applying key-off cooling a non-trivial decision. In this paper, a representative plug-in parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is used to simulate a typical 24-h duty cycle to quantify the impact of hot ambient conditions on three performance attributes of the vehicle: the battery lifetime, passenger thermal comfort and fuel economy. Key-off cooling is defined as an optimal control problem in view of the duty cycle of the vehicle. The problem is then solved using the dynamic programming method. Controlling key-off cooling through this method leads to significant improvements in the battery lifetime, while benefiting the fuel economy and thermal comfort attributes. To further improve the battery lifetime, partial charging of the battery is considered. An algorithm is developed that determines the optimum combination of key-off cooling and the level of battery charge. Simulation results confirm the benefits of the proposed method.

  4. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  5. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  6. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  7. Experimental investigation on heating performance of heat pump for electric vehicles at −20 °C ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Fei; Xue, Qingfeng; Albarracin Velez, Giovanny Marcelo; Zhang, Guiying; Zou, Huiming; Tian, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An ASHP system with refrigerant injection for EVs is designed, for cold regions. • The heat performances of the system are tested at −20 °C ambient temperature. • The system cycle process with refrigerant injection are analyzed on lgP-H diagrams. • The effects of refrigerant injection, dryness, and in-car inlet state are discussed. • The new system can improve heating and own better application prospect. - Abstract: Since the performance of conventional air source heat pump (ASHP) for electric vehicles (EVs) is apt to decline sharply in low ambient temperature, it will consume more electricity of the cell, and affect driving mileage in cold regions. Aiming at developing high efficiency heating system for EVs in cold regions, an ASHP system applying refrigerant injection for EVs is designed, as well as the test bench is built to investigate its performance. According to the operation condition of EVs, heating performances are tested on different in-car inlet air temperature and various fresh air ratios under −20 °C ambient temperature. The system cycle process with refrigerant injection, as well as the influences of refrigerant injection and dryness are also analyzed and discussed. The results show that the heating capacity of the ASHP with refrigerant injection can be increased up to 31%, and in comparison with the conventional heat pump system its heating performance is better when in-car inlet temperature is above −10 °C. Therefore, ASHP with refrigerant injection has great potentiality to be applied for the EVs in cold regions

  8. The Electrical and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskites Relevant to Optoelectronic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Adinolfi, Valerio; Peng, Wei; Walters, Grant; Bakr, Osman; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    ultimately affect device performance. Material attributes and techniques used to estimate them are analyzed for different perovskite materials, with a particular focus on the bandgap, mobility, diffusion length, carrier lifetime, and trap-state density.

  9. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Yang, Fuyuan; Lu, Languang; Hua, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  10. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, S.K.; Kwon, Y.K.; Kim, H.M.; Lee, J.D.; Kim, Y.C.; Park, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  11. Assessing the performance of a cold region evapotranspiration landfill cover using lysimetry and electrical resistivity tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William E; Munk, Jens; Abichou, Tarek; Barnes, David; Lee, William; Pape, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy ofa cold-region evapotranspiration (ET) landfill cover against a conventional compacted clay (CCL) landfill cover, two pilot scale covers were constructed in side-by-side basin lysimeters (20m x 10m x 2m) at a site in Anchorage, Alaska. The primary basis of comparison between the two lysimeters was the percolation of moisture from the bottom of each lysimeter. Between 30 April 2005 and 16 May 2006, 51.5 mm of water percolated from the ET lysimeter, compared to 50.6 mm for the the CCL lysimeter. This difference was not found to be significant at the 95% confidence level. As part of the project, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was utilized to measure and map soil moisture in ET lysimeter cross sections. The ERT-generated cross sections were found to accurately predict the onset and duration of lysimeter percolation. Moreover, ERT-generated soil moisture values demonstrated a strong linear relationship to lysimeter percolation rates (R-Squared = 0.92). Consequently, ERT is proposed as a reliable tool for assessing the function of field scale ET covers in the absence of drainage measurement devices.

  12. Linking optical and electrical small amplitude perturbation techniques for dynamic performance characterization of dye solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Janne

    2011-07-21

    This paper unifies the analytical models used widely but thus far mostly separately for electrical and optical small amplitude perturbation measurements of nanostructured electrochemical dye solar cells (DSC): electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS). The models are linked by expressing the kinetic boundary condition used for solving the time-dependent continuity equation of electrons in IMPS and IMVS analysis in terms of the series and parallel impedance components found in the complete equivalent circuit impedance model of DSC. As a result, analytical expressions are derived for potentiostatic IMPS and galvanostatic IMVS transfer functions of complete DSCs that are applicable at any operating point along the solar cell current-voltage (IV) curve. In agreement with the theory, impedance spectrum calculated as a ratio of IMVS and IMPS transfer functions measured near the maximum power point matches exactly with the impedance spectrum measured directly with EIS. Consequently, both IMPS-IMVS and EIS yield equal estimates for the electron diffusion length. The role of the chemical capacitance of the nanostructured semiconductor photoelectrode in the interpretation of the so-called RC attenuation of the IMPS response is clarified, as well as the capacitive frequency dispersion in IMPS and IMVS. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  13. Mechanical and Physical Performance of Concrete Including Waste Electrical Cable Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner Yildirim, Salih; Pelin Duygun, Nur

    2017-10-01

    Solid wastes are important environmental problem all over the World. Consumption of the plastic solid waste covers big portion within the total solid waste. Although a numerous plastic material is subjected to the recycling process, it is not easy to be destroyed by nature. One of the recommended way to prevent is to utilize as an aggregate in cement-based material. There are many researches on use of recycling rubber in concrete. However, studies on recycling of waste electrical cable rubber (WECR) in concrete is insufficient although there are many research on waste tyre rubbers in concrete. In this study, fine aggregate was replaced with WECR which were 5%, 10%, and 15 % of the total aggregate volume in the concrete and researched workability, unit weight, water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, modulus of elasticity, and abrasion resistance of concrete. As a result of experimental studies, increase of WECR amount in concrete increases workability due to lack of adherence between cement paste and WECR, and hydrophobic structure of WECR while it influences negatively mechanical properties of concrete. It is possible to use WECR in concrete taking into account the reduction in mechanical properties.

  14. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsal, A.; Carreras, P.; Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R.; Bertomeu, J.; Antony, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band

  15. The development of the Nuclear Electric core performance and fault transient analysis code package in support of Sizewell B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Hutt, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes Nuclear Electric's (NE) development of an integrated code package in support of all its reactors including Sizewell B, designed for the provision of fuel management design, core performance studies, operational support and fault transient analysis. The package uses the NE general purpose three-dimensional transient reactor physics code PANTHER with cross-sections derived in the PWR case from the LWRWIMS LWR lattice neutronics code. The package also includes ENIGMA a generic fuel performance code and for PWR application VIPRE-01 a subchannel thermal hydraulics code, RELAP5 the system thermal hydraulics transient code and SCORPIO an on-line surveillance system. The paper describes the capabilities and validation of the elements of this package for PWR, how they are coupled within the package and the way in which they are being applied for Sizewell B to on-line surveillance and fault transient analysis. (Author)

  16. Electrical performance analysis and economic evaluation of combined biomass cook stove thermoelectric (BITE) generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C

    2007-05-01

    The use of biomass cook stoves is widespread in the domestic sector of developing countries, but the stoves are not efficient. To advance the versatility of the cook stove, we investigated the feasibility of adding a commercial thermoelectric (TE) module made of bismuth-telluride based materials to the stove's side wall, thereby creating a thermoelectric generator system that utilizes a proportion of the stove's waste heat. The system, a biomass cook stove thermoelectric generator (BITE), consists of a commercial TE module (Taihuaxing model TEP1-1264-3.4), a metal sheet wall which acts as one side of the stove's structure and serves as the hot side of the TE module, and a rectangular fin heat sink at the cold side of the TE module. An experimental set-up was built to evaluate the conversion efficiency at various temperature ranges. The experimental set-up revealed that the electrical power output and the conversion efficiency depended on the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides of the TE module. At a temperature difference of approximately 150 degrees C, the unit achieved a power output of 2.4W. The conversion efficiency of 3.2% was enough to drive a low power incandescent light bulb or a small portable radio. A theoretical model approximated the power output at low temperature ranges. An economic analysis indicated that the payback period tends to be very short when compared with the cost of the same power supplied by batteries. Therefore, the generator design formulated here could be used in the domestic sector. The system is not intended to compete with primary power sources but serves adequately as an emergency or backup source of power.

  17. Optimization of the Mechanical and Electrical Performance of a Thermoelectric Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    Finite element (FE) simulation of a thermoelectric (TE) module was conducted to optimize its geometrical dimensions in terms of mechanical reliability and performance. The TE module consisted of bismuth telluride, nand p-type legs. The geometrical dimensions of the module, i.e. leg length and leg...

  18. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  19. Evaluating the thermal and electrical performance of several uncovered PVT collectors with a field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keizer, C.; de Jong, M.; Mendes, T.; Katiyar, M.; Folkerts, W.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Zondag, H.A.

    Recently, there has been a lot of interest in PV thermal systems, which generate both heat and power. Within the WenSDak project, several companies and research institutes work together to (further) develop several uncovered PVT collectors. The outdoor performance of prototypes of these collectors

  20. "Redstone Is Like Electricity": Children's Performative Representations in and around "Minecraft"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezuanni, Michael; O'Mara, Joanne; Beavis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates 8-and 9-year-old girls' use of the popular game "Minecraft" at home and school, particularly the ways in which they performatively "bring themselves into being" through talk and digital production in the social spaces of the classroom and within the game's multiplayer online world. We explore how the…