WorldWideScience

Sample records for superintendent channel islands

  1. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  2. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  3. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  4. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands National Park. 7.84 Section 7.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park....

  5. Weather and Climate Monitoring Protocol, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Power, Paula; Dye, Linda; Rudolph, Rocky

    2008-01-01

    Weather and climate are strong drivers of population dynamics, plant and animal spatial distributions, community interactions, and ecosystem states. Information on local weather and climate is crucial in interpreting trends and patterns in the natural environment for resource management, research, and visitor enjoyment. This document describes the weather and climate monitoring program at the Channel Islands National Park (fig. 1), initiated in the 1990s. Manual and automated stations, which continue to evolve as technology changes, are being used for this program. The document reviews the history of weather data collection on each of the five Channel Islands National Park islands, presents program administrative structure, and provides an overview of procedures for data collection, archival, retrieval, and reporting. This program overview is accompanied by the 'Channel Islands National Park Remote Automated Weather Station Field Handbook' and the 'Channel Islands National Park Ranger Weather Station Field Handbook'. These Handbooks are maintained separately at the Channel Island National Park as 'live documents' that are updated as needed to provide a current working manual of weather and climate monitoring procedures. They are available on request from the Weather Program Manager (Channel Islands National Park, 1901 Spinnaker Dr., Ventura, CA 93001; 805.658.5700). The two Field Handbooks describe in detail protocols for managing the four remote automated weather stations (RAWS) and the seven manual Ranger Weather Stations on the islands, including standard operating procedures for equipment maintenance and calibration; manufacturer operating manuals; data retrieval and archiving; metada collection and archival; and local, agency, and vendor contracts.

  6. Effects of Mentorship on Assistant Superintendents and Their Emotional Intelligence, Challenges, and the Desire to Become a Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Latoya Y.; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Hunter, Tanesha N.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Tatum, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mentorship and its effect on assistant superintendents' emotional intelligence, challenges, and the desire to become a superintendent. The 149 participants surveyed in this study were assistant superintendents in Nassau and Suffolk Counties in Long Island, New York and Westchester County, New York. An…

  7. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Size and Frequency, Natural Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has measurements of the size of selected animal species at selected locations in the Channel Islands National Park. Sampling is conducted annually...

  8. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, 5m Quadrat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of selected rare, clumped, sedentary indicator...

  9. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Band Transect

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance and distribution of rare and clumped organisms...

  10. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, 1m Quadrat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance (density) of relatively abundant selected...

  11. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Random Point Contact

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has estimates of substrate composition and percent cover of selected algal and...

  12. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  13. The groundwater invertebrate fauna of the Channel Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R.F.D. Knight

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Channel Islands are a small archipelago of British dependencies just off the coast of Normandy at the western end of the English Channel. There were only three records for stygobitic Crustacea [Niphargus fontanus Bate, 1859 and N. kochianus Bate, 1859 from Jersey and N. aquilex Schiődte, 1855 from Guernsey] from the archipelago and no systematic survey has been carried out of the islands for their groundwater fauna till present. Recently sampling was carried out in wells, boreholes and springs on the four largest islands, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney and Sark during February 2012. Niphargus aquilex was widespread across all four islands and did not appear to be restricted to any particular geology. Niphargus ladmiraulti was present in large numbers in a single borehole on Jersey, the first record of this species from the archipelago. Niphargus kochianus was collected from two sites on Alderney and the syncarid Antrobathynella stammeri (Jakobi, 1954 from two sites on the west coast of Jersey. The records for A. stammeri are new for the Channel Islands and possibly represent the first records of this species from the French bio-geographical area. The presence of N. fontanus on the islands was not confirmed. Several species of stygophilic Cyclopoida were also recorded during the survey along with epigean freshwater invertebrate taxa, which were mostly present in springs and shallow wells close to surface streams.

  14. Why Superintendents Turn over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Andersen, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Although superintendent turnover can hinder district reform and improvement, research examining superintendent exits is scarce. This study identifies factors contributing to superintendent turnover in California by matching original superintendent and school board survey data with administrative data and information hand-collected from news…

  15. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  16. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  17. Seafloor Backscatter Image of North of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution backscatter of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired...

  18. Shallow stratigraphy and paleolandscapes offshore from the Northern Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Braje, T.; Gusick, A. E.; Ho, B.; Ball, D.

    2016-12-01

    New high-resolution Chirp and sidescan sonar data collected on the shelf offshore from the Northern Channel Islands image patterns of sediment distribution since the last glacial maximum (LGM), extensive faulting and deformation, and submerged paleolandscapes that may contain archaeological resources. During the last glacial maximum, the four Northern Channel Islands in the Southern California Bight formed an extensive landmass known as Santarosae. Sea-level transgression since the LGM has inundated over 70% of Santarosae, submerging the shelf around the modern islands. The islands are traversed by numerous faults that extend offshore and marine terraces are observed both onshore and offshore. This area is an ideal landscape to investigate the relationships between sediment supply, eustasy, and tectonics in controlling sediment distribution on continental shelves. Furthermore, the presence of Paleocoastal archaeological sites on the islands suggests that similar sites may be present on the submerged shelf. The new data reveal faulting and deformation associated with the Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz fault zones. Both faults offset acoustic horizons below a regional unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Sediment thickness is variable above the transgressive surface and bedform spatial patterns imaged in the sidescan sonar do not appear to correlate with sediment thickness or depth. In Chirp data, we interpret several filled paleochannels extending across the shelf, some of which appear fault controlled. Along with possible estuarine deposits imaged near the modern submarine canyon, these paleolandforms would have been important resources for people living on Santarosae and may contain archaeological resources. Overall, these data elucidate effects of sea level transgression and patterns of sediment distribution on islands located along an active margin.

  19. 75 FR 12726 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Tourism alternate...), Chuinash Community member and alternate, Business alternate, and Commercial Fishing alternate....

  20. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations...—Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude (N) Longitude (W) 1...

  1. Longevity of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.

    2014-01-01

    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  2. Blue whale habitat and prey in the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Reilly, Stephen B.; Hewitt, Roger P.; Demer, David; Philbrick, Valerie A.; Smith, Susan; Armstrong, Wesley; Croll, Donald A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Mate, Bruce R.

    1998-08-01

    Whale Habitat and Prey Studies were conducted off southern California during August 1995 (WHAPS95) and July 1996 (WHAPS96) to (1) study the distribution and activities of blue whales and other large whales, (2) survey the distribution of prey organisms (krill), and (3) measure physical and biological habitat variables that influence the distribution of whales and prey. A total of 1307 cetacean sightings included 460 blue whale, 78 fin whale and 101 humpback whale sightings. Most blue whales were found in cold, well-mixed and productive water that had upwelled along the coast north of Point Conception and then advected south. They were aggregated in this water near San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands, where they fed on dense, subsurface layers of euphausiids both on the shelf and extending off the shelf edge. Two species of euphausiids were consumed by blue whales, Thysanoessa spinifera and Euphausia pacifica, with evidence of preference for the former, a larger and more coastal species. These krill patches on the Channel Island feeding grounds are a resource exploited during summer-fall by the world's largest stock of blue whales.

  3. Mapping process and age of Quaternary deposits on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2016-12-01

    Employing a geomorphic process-age classification scheme, we mapped the Quaternary surficial geology of Santa Rosa (SRI) within the Channel Islands National Park. This detailed (1:12,000 scale) map represents upland erosional transport processes and alluvial, fluvial, eolian, beach, marine terrace, mass wasting, and mixed depositional processes. Mapping was motivated through an agreement with the National Park Service and is intended to aid natural resource assessments, including post-grazing disturbance recovery and identification of mass wasting and tectonic hazards. We obtained numerous detailed geologic field observations, fossils for faunal identification as age control, and materials for numeric dating. This GPS-located field information provides ground truth for delineating map units and faults using GIS-based datasets- high-resolution (sub-meter) aerial imagery, LiDAR-based DEMs and derivative raster products. Mapped geologic units denote surface processes and Quaternary faults constrain deformation kinematics and rates, which inform models of landscape change. Significant findings include: 1) Flights of older Pleistocene (>120 ka) and possibly Pliocene marine terraces were identified beneath younger alluvial and eolian deposits at elevations as much as 275 m above modern sea level. Such elevated terraces suggest that SRI was a smaller, more submerged island in the late Neogene and (or) early Pleistocene prior to tectonic uplift. 2) Structural and geomorphic observations made along the potentially seismogenic SRI fault indicate a protracted slip history during the late Neogene and Quaternary involving early normal slip, later strike slip, and recent reverse slip. These changes in slip mode explain a marked contrast in island physiography across the fault. 3) Many of the steeper slopes are dramatically stripped of regolith, with exposed bedrock and deeply incised gullies, presumably due effects related to past grazing practices. 4) Surface water presence is

  4. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A Hofman

    Full Text Available Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis, endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus. Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP, while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less. Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  5. Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Erlandson, Jon M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Rick, Torben C.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene inundated nearshore areas in many parts of the world, producing drastic changes in local ecosystems and obscuring significant portions of the archeological record. Although global forces are at play, the effects of sea-level rise are highly localized due to variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects. Interpretations of coastal paleoecology and archeology require reliable estimates of ancient shorelines that account for GIA effects. Here we build on previous models for California's Northern Channel Islands, producing more accurate late Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions adjusted for regional GIA variability. This region has contributed significantly to our understanding of early New World coastal foragers. Sea level that was about 80–85 m lower than present at the time of the first known human occupation brought about a landscape and ecology substantially different than today. During the late Pleistocene, large tracts of coastal lowlands were exposed, while a colder, wetter climate and fluctuating marine conditions interacted with rapidly evolving littoral environments. At the close of the Pleistocene and start of the Holocene, people in coastal California faced shrinking land, intertidal, and subtidal zones, with important implications for resource availability and distribution.

  6. High-resolution multibeam backscatter data - northern Channel Islands region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release presents data for 5-m resolution acoustic-backscatter data of the northern Channel Islands region, southern California. The raster data files are...

  7. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) dataset for Channel Islands National Park (chis_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Channel Islands National Park in...

  8. High-resolution multibeam backscatter data - northern Channel Islands region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release presents data for 5-m resolution acoustic-backscatter data of the northern Channel Islands region, southern California. The raster data files are...

  9. Accountability Starts with the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Kenneth E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes how Lawndale District, near Los Angeles, developed a system of accountability starting with the superintendent. Describes the subgoals and objectives developed by the superintendent in cooperation with the Board of Trustees and members of the community. (JF)

  10. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  11. Marine flora of the Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands): A longitudinal transect through the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, L.; Zubia, M.; Maneveldt, G. W.; Anderson, R. J.; Bolton, J. J.; de Gaillande, C.; De Clerck, O.; Payri, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The diversity of marine macrophytes of small islands in the South Western Indian Ocean region has been poorly documented and little or no information is available for the Iles Eparses (or Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel. We present the first species checklist for the three largest islands of the Iles Eparses: Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso. Overall, with a total of 321 marine macrophyte species recorded (incl. 56% Rhodophyta, 27% Chlorophyta, 15% Phaeophyceae and 2% Magnoliophyta; Europa: 134 spp., Juan de Nova: 157 spp. and Glorioso: 170 spp.) these islands harbour 23.5% of the total species recorded for the Mozambique Channel region. We report 36 new records for the Mozambique Channel including 29 undescribed new and cryptic species. Our results highlight a decrease in species richness southward in the Channel. Because of their longitudinal arrangement between the northern and the southern ends of the Channel and their central position, Europa, Juan de Nova and Glorioso Islands represent data points of particular biogeographical interest and could be critical 'stepping stones' for connectivity in the highly dynamic Mozambique Channel region.

  12. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington (United States)

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  13. The contributions of Donald Lee Johnson to understanding the Quaternary geologic and biogeographic history of the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Over a span of 50 years, native Californian Donald Lee Johnson made a number of memorable contributions to our understanding of the California Channel Islands. Among these are (1) recognizing that carbonate dunes, often cemented into eolianite and derived from offshore shelf sediments during lowered sea level, are markers of glacial periods on the Channel Islands; (2) identifying beach rock on the Channel Islands as the northernmost occurrence of this feature on the Pacific Coast of North America; (3) recognizing of the role of human activities in historic landscape modification; (4) identifying both the biogenic and pedogenic origins of caliche “ghost forests” and laminar calcrete forms on the Channel Islands; (5) providing the first soil maps of several of the islands, showing diverse pathways of pedogenesis; (6) pointing out the importance of fire in Quaternary landscape history on the Channel Islands, based on detailed stratigraphic studies; and (7), perhaps his greatest contribution, clarifying the origin of Pleistocene pygmy mammoths on the Channel Islands, due not to imagined ancient land bridges, but rather the superb swimming abilities of proboscideans combined with lowered sea level, favorable paleowinds, and an attractive paleovegetation on the Channel Islands. Don was a classic natural historian in the great tradition of Charles Darwin and George Gaylord Simpson, his role models. Don’s work will remain important and useful for many years and is an inspiration to those researching the California Channel Islands today.

  14. Hydrodynamic Modeling for Channel and Shoreline Stabilization at Rhodes Point, Smith Island, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    levels for Hurricane Sandy indicated a maximum water level of 5 ft (~1.5 m) along the western shore of Smith Island. 2.10 Performance of...Chesapeake Bay. Numerical results indicated Alternative 1, with a shore -connected north jetty nearly normal to the north shoreline at the channel...reducing wave energy inside the channel and along the shores . Alternative 2 with two parallel jetties provided similar wave energy reduction in the

  15. Wildlife use of back channels associated with islands on the Ohio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnik, A.K.; Anderson, James T.; Wood, P.B.; Bledsoe, K.

    2009-01-01

    The back channels of islands on the Ohio River are assumed to provide habitat critical for several wildlife species. However, quantitative information on the wildlife value of back channels is needed by natural resource managers for the conservation of these forested islands and embayments in the face of increasing shoreline development and recreational boating. We compared the relative abundance of waterbirds, turtles, anurans, and riparian furbearing mammals during 2001 and 2002 in back and main channels of the Ohio River in West Virginia. Wood ducks (Aix sponsa), snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), beavers (Castor canadensis), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were more abundant in back than main channels. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and American toads (Bufo americanus) occurred more frequently on back than main channels. These results provide quantitative evidence that back channels are important for several wildlife species. The narrowness of the back channels, the protection they provide from the main current of the river, and their ability to support vegetated shorelines and woody debris, are characteristics that appear to benefit these species. As a conservation measure for important riparian wildlife habitat, we suggest limiting building of piers and development of the shoreline in back channel areas. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. 78 FR 32274 - Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... National Park Service Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara... analysis process for the proposed replacement and potential relocation of the existing Scorpion Pier at..., Attn: Scorpion Pier Project, 1901 Spinnaker Drive, Ventura, CA 93001 or electronically to...

  17. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  18. Discoveries from La Manche: Five Years of Early Prehistoric Research in the Channel Island of Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Pope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a new field project drawn from major UK institutions including the UCL Institute of Archaeology, has focused research on the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic record of the Channel Island of Jersey. In this retrospective of five years of research the history of the project to date, its focus on the Middle Palaeolithic site of La Cotte de St Brelade and its growth into an international research team is charted. The formation of the La Manche Prehistorique research network in 2015 marks a new chapter in the development of this project. With its wider focus, but continued commitment to research in the Channel Islands, the research group are working towards a unified early prehistoric research framework for the English Channel region.

  19. A Radical Role for Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Peter J.

    2000-01-01

    To buffer education's instructional core, superintendents increasingly have been diverted from teaching and learning and pressured to become operations managers and political beings fostering confidence in schools and communities. Today's superintendents should become responsible for helping their communities develop a common language about…

  20. Seasonal variability of the diapycnal mixing in the Canary Islands channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Santana, Angel; Marrero-Díaz, Angeles; Machín, Francisco Jose; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Estrada-Allis, Sheila

    2014-05-01

    Trimonthly surveys of XBT and XCTD (Expandable Bathytermograph and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) crossing the whole Canary Islands channels were carried out (projects TRAMIC and PROMECA) from November 2012 until September 2013 using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). With this data set and using salinity analytical relationships (Machín et al, 2010), vertical sections of temperature and potential density were obtained for each channel and season. In order to estimate the intensity of the diapycnal mixing in the first 500 m of the pycnocline, vertical sections of Thorpe length scale, Turner angle and gradient Richardson number (from the geostrophic vertical shear) were calculated for all the cases. The first results show how the diapycnal mixing due to the vertical shear instabilities is more intense close to the islands and in summer when the seasonal pycnocline is present. Mixing due to double diffusion processes (salt fingers) was found without sizable changes in the permanent pycnocline. Net turbulence diffusivities and diapycnal diffusive fluxes with their variability spatial and temporal will be estimate for each channel taking into account that processes of double diffusion and turbulence induced by vertical shear are present at the same time. Additionally the results obtained from hydrographic data from the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) (October 2013) around Canary Islands will be used to compare them with the channels results. This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092), European Union (FEDER) and Spanish Government (PROMECA: CTM2008-04057/MAR and CTM2009-06993-E/MAR)

  1. Development and characterization of 12 microsatellite markers for the Island Night Lizard (Xantusia riversiana), a threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Island Night Lizard is a federally threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands of California. Twelve microsatellite loci were developed for use in this species and screened in 197 individuals from across San Nicolas Island, California. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 21. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.520 to 0.843. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population structure, effective population size, and gene flow across the island, to inform protection and management of this species.

  2. Channel Shoaling with Deepening of Houma Navigation Channel at Cat Island Pass, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    islands must be maintained as morphologic features to sustain the low-energy, lower- salinity estuarine characteristics of Timbalier Bay and the...248p. Mayor-Mora, R.; Mortensen, P., and Fredsoe, J., 1976. Sedimentation studies on the Niger River delta. Proceedings, 15th Coastal Engineering

  3. Rock Island Arsenal Power Dam: Numerical Hydraulic Model Investigation of Channel Capacity for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    behavior. The work was performed by the River Engineering Branch (CEERD-HFR) of the Flood and Storm Protection Division (CEERD-HF), U.S. Army...channels of the two powerhouse structures and define the effects increased hydropower releases might have on stages and flow distribution within the...junctions and changes in flow distribution around islands and structures induced by varying prescribed hydropower releases. The primary limitation

  4. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2004 for the northern Channel Islands region, southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release presents data for 5-m resolution multibeam-bathymetry data of the northern Channel Islands region, southern California. The raster data files are...

  5. Attracting Principals to the Superintendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Howley

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Responding to a perceived shortage of school superintendents in Ohio as well as elsewhere in the nation, this study examined the conditions of the job that make it attractive or unattractive as a career move for principals. The researchers surveyed a random sample of Ohio principals, receiving usable responses from 508 of these administrators. Analysis of the data revealed that principals perceived the ability to make a difference and the extrinsic motivators (e.g., salary and benefits associated with the superintendency as conditions salient to the decision to pursue such a job. Furthermore, they viewed the difficulties associated with the superintendency as extremely important. Among these difficulties, the most troubling were: (1 increased burden of responsibility for local, state, and federal mandates; (2 need to be accountable for outcomes that are beyond an educator’s control; (3 low levels of board support, and (4 excessive pressure to perform. The researchers also explored the personal and contextual characteristics that predisposed principals to see certain conditions of the superintendency as particularly attractive or particularly troublesome. Only two such characteristics, however, proved to be predictive: (1 principals with fewer years of teaching experience were more likely than their more experienced counterparts to rate the difficulty of the job as important to the decision to pursue a position as superintendent, and (2 principals who held cosmopolitan commitments were more likely than those who did not hold such commitments to view the salary and benefits associated with the superintendency as important. Findings from the study provided some guidance to those policy makers who are looking for ways to make the superintendency more attractive as a career move for principals. In particular, the study suggested that policy makers should work to design incentives that address school leaders’ interest in making a difference at the

  6. Fire history on the California Channel Islands spanning human arrival in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C; Pinter, Nicholas; Anderson, R Scott; Ejarque, Ana; Carter-Champion, Alice; Staff, Richard A

    2016-06-05

    Recent studies have suggested that the first arrival of humans in the Americas during the end of the last Ice Age is associated with marked anthropogenic influences on landscape; in particular, with the use of fire which, would have given even small populations the ability to have broad impacts on the landscape. Understanding the impact of these early people is complicated by the dramatic changes in climate occurring with the shift from glacial to interglacial conditions. Despite these difficulties, we here attempt to test the extent of anthropogenic influence using the California Channel Islands as a smaller, landscape-scale test bed. These islands are famous for the discovery of the 'Arlington Springs Man', which are some of the earliest human remains in the Americas. A unifying sedimentary charcoal record is presented from Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, based on over 20 detailed sedimentary sections from eight key localities. Radiocarbon dating was based on thin, fragile, long fragments of charcoal in order to avoid the 'inbuilt' age problem. Radiocarbon dating of 49 such fragments has allowed inferences regarding the fire and landscape history of the Canyon ca 19-11 ka BP. A significant period of charcoal deposition is identified approximately 14-12.5 ka BP and bears remarkable closeness to an estimated age range of the first human arrival on the islands.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  7. Benthic cyanobacterial diversity of Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubia, Mayalen; Turquet, Jean; Golubic, Stjepko

    2016-04-01

    The marine benthic cyanobacteria of the Iles Eparses, Mozambique Channel, were surveyed for the first time. A total of 39 species are reported: 29 from Europa, 17 from Glorioso and 23 from Juan de Nova Islands. The higher biodiversity in Europa is explained by greater habitat diversity on this Island with unique ecosystems (mangroves, fossil reefs, pools). Average species richness varied between the geomorphological habitat types with higher diversity in shallow environments (fossil reef pools, mangroves, reef flats), which are characterized by high temperatures and high irradiances. The most common species observed on the three islands were Hydrocoleum coccineum, Hydrocoleum glutinosum, Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum, Phormidium laysanense, Lyngbya sordida, and Symploca hydnoides; which are also the dominant species observed in the Southwest Indian Ocean region. The most frequent species was Phormidium laysanense with extensive cover observed in the northwest of Juan de Nova Island. Our study provided a comparison between the cyanobacterial flora of Iles Eparses and the recorded surveys in the Southwest Indian Ocean region. The low similarity observed between these species lists could be explained by differences in sampling strategies and efforts, as well as by different taxonomic approaches employed in past regional studies.

  8. Superintendents Say: Much Done, Much to Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Dick

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 1,200 school district superintendents concerning accomplishments and problems of technology in education. Responses from 205 superintendents reveal that administrators work hard to integrate technology into schools. (SI)

  9. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12–14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of − 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago

  10. Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is one of four east-west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the five islands in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. The island setting provides an unparalleled environment in which to record the response of fluvial systems to major changes of sea level. Many of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, leaving a relict floodplain as much as 12-14 m above the present channel. The period of falling sea level between the end of the last interglacial highstand at ~ 80 ka and the last glacial lowstand at ~ 21 ka was marked by erosion and incision in the uplands and by deposition of alluvial sediment on the exposed marine shelf. Sea level rose relatively rapidly following the last glacial lowstand of - 106 m, triggering a shift from an erosional to a depositional sedimentary regime. Accumulation of sediment occurred first through vertical and lateral accretion in broad, shallow channels on the shelf. Channel avulsion and delta sedimentation produced widespread deposition, creating lobes or wedges of sediment distributed across relatively large areas of the shelf during the latest Pleistocene. Backfilling of valleys onshore (landward of present sea level) appears to have progressed in a more orderly and predictable fashion throughout the Holocene primarily because the streams were confined to their valleys. Vertical aggradation locally reduced stream gradients, causing frequent overbank flooding and lateral channel shift by meandering and/or avulsion. Local channel gradient and morphology, short-term climate variations, and intrinsic controls also affected the timing and magnitudes of these cut, fill, and flood events, and are reflected in the thickness and spacing of the episodic alluvial sequences. Floodplain aggradation within the valleys continued until at least 500 years ago, followed by

  11. Does Superintendents' Leadership Styles Influence Principals' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    Educational leaders across the United States face changes affecting the educational system related to federal and state mandates. The stress of those changes may be related to superintendents' longevity. The superintendent position has a mobility rate that is quite high. Every superintendent is different and may have a different leadership style…

  12. On the importance of stratigraphic control for vertebrate fossil sites in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA: Examples from new Mammuthus finds on San Miguel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Muhs, Daniel R.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary vertebrate fossils, most notably mammoth remains, are relatively common on the northern Channel Islands of California. Well-preserved cranial, dental, and appendicular elements of Mammuthus exilis (pygmy mammoth) and Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth) have been recovered from hundreds of localities on the islands during the past half-century or more. Despite this paleontological wealth, the geologic context of the fossils is described in the published literature only briefly or not at all, which has hampered the interpretation of associated 14C ages and reconstruction of past environmental conditions. We recently discovered a partial tusk, several large bones, and a tooth enamel plate (all likely mammoth) at two sites on the northwest flank of San Miguel Island, California. At both localities, we documented the stratigraphic context of the fossils, described the host sediments in detail, and collected charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells for radiocarbon dating. The resulting 14C ages indicate that the mammoths were present on San Miguel Island between ∼20 and 17 ka as well as between ∼14 and 13 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), similar to other mammoth sites on San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa Islands. In addition to documenting the geologic context and ages of the fossils, we present a series of protocols for documenting and reporting geologic and stratigraphic information at fossil sites on the California Channel Islands in general, and in Channel Islands National Park in particular, so that pertinent information is collected prior to excavation of vertebrate materials, thus maximizing their scientific value.

  13. Host islands within the California Northern Channel Islands create fine-scale genetic structure in two sympatric species of the symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Rhizopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubisha, Lisa C; Bergemann, Sarah E; Bruns, Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    We have examined fine-scale genetic structure of the symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi Rhizopogon occidentalis and R. vulgaris on two of the California Channel Islands using five and six microsatellite loci, respectively. Both Rhizopogon species are sympatric on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands and are ectomycorrhizal with bishop pine (Pinus muricata) on both islands or Santa Rosa Island Torrey pine (P. torreyana ssp. insularis) on Santa Rosa. The combination of disjunct pine host distributions and geographic barriers within and among the islands have created highly structured Rhizopogon populations over very short distances (8.5 km on Santa Cruz Island; F(ST) = 0.258, F(ST) = 0.056, R. occidentalis and R. vulgaris, respectively). Both species show similar patterns of genetic differentiation as a result of limited dispersal between host populations as revealed by a significant isolation by distance relationship (r = 0.69, P analyses, and is most likely a function of the small foraging range of the few mammals that disperse Rhizopogon on these islands and the enormous spore bank characteristic of Rhizopogon species.

  14. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae in the Channel Islands, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Winston Vickers

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA--48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001-2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years foxes captured in 2007-2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis, a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH, and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes. We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor.

  15. Size Up Your Superintendent's "Style."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, James

    1984-01-01

    Describes a method used by the board of an Ohio school district for assessing a superintendent's personal style. The commercially developed Persona Matrix system enabled five evaluators to determine whether the manager was of the promoting, analyzing, controlling, or supporting type. (TE)

  16. Medium- and short-term channel and island evolution in a disturbed gravel bed river (Brenta River, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Moretto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The timing and extent of the morphological and island changes that have occurred in the last thirty years in a gravel bed river that has been heavily impacted by human activities were analysed by nine sets of aerial photographs, repeated topographical measurements and morphological- vegetation surveys. Dam operations and gravel mining activities have produced modifications in the natural sediment regime that have generated important morphological responses in the channel. Large areas of the formerly active channel were colonised by riparian forest, both as islands and as marginal woodlands. The cessation of gravel extraction in the late 1990s seems to be causing incipient reversion of this pattern, with evidence of vegetation erosion/channel widening. Alteration of sediment regime has played a major role in the medium- and short-term channel evolution. However, only relevant flood events (recurrence interval >10 years appear to determine substantial island erosion and, therefore, the proportion of islands versus channel fluctuates depending on flood history. Smaller scale analysis (sub-reach level was more effective in describing morphological responses and relationships with the sediment dynamics within the 20 km study reach.

  17. Cardiovascular disease in a cohort exposed to the 1940–45 Channel Islands occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrom Allyson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To clarify the nature of the relationship between food deprivation/undernutrition during pre- and postnatal development and cardiovascular disease (CVD in later life, this study examined the relationship between birth weight (as a marker of prenatal nutrition and the incidence of hospital admissions for CVD from 1997–2005 amongst 873 Guernsey islanders (born in 1923–1937, 225 of whom had been exposed to food deprivation as children, adolescents or young adults (i.e. postnatal undernutrition during the 1940–45 German occupation of the Channel Islands, and 648 of whom had left or been evacuated from the islands before the occupation began. Methods Three sets of Cox regression models were used to investigate (A the relationship between birth weight and CVD, (B the relationship between postnatal exposure to the occupation and CVD and (C any interaction between birth weight, postnatal exposure to the occupation and CVD. These models also tested for any interactions between birth weight and sex, and postnatal exposure to the occupation and parish of residence at birth (as a marker of parish residence during the occupation and related variation in the severity of food deprivation. Results The first set of models (A found no relationship between birth weight and CVD even after adjustment for potential confounders (hazard ratio (HR per kg increase in birth weight: 1.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.70 – 1.78, and there was no significant interaction between birth weight and sex (p = 0.60. The second set of models (B found a significant relationship between postnatal exposure to the occupation and CVD after adjustment for potential confounders (HR for exposed vs. unexposed group: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.54 – 4.13, as well as a significant interaction between postnatal exposure to the occupation and parish of residence at birth (p = 0.01, such that those born in urban parishes (where food deprivation was worst had a greater HR for

  18. Moving from Oversight to Insight: One Community's Journey with Its Superintendent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, John E.

    2000-01-01

    The superintendent of Coventry (Rhode Island) Schools explains how he converted annual town meetings from uncivil, interminable budget-slashing sessions to expressions of community support for student-centered reforms and a construction/renovation bond issue. The board grasped assessment difficulties by taking state-mandated tests for…

  19. Ecological change on California's Channel Islands from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Hofman, Courtney A.; Ralls, Katherine; Anderson, R. Scott; Boser, Christina L.; Braje, Todd J.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Chesser, R. Terry; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Faulkner, Kate R.; Fleischer, Robert; Funk, W. Chris; Galipeau, Russell; Huston, Ann; King, Julie; Laughrin, Lyndal L.; Maldonado, Jesus; McEachern, Kathryn; Muhs, Daniel R.; Newsome, Seth D.; Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Still, Christopher; Morrison, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Historical ecology is becoming an important focus in conservation biology and offers a promising tool to help guide ecosystem management. Here, we integrate data from multiple disciplines to illuminate the past, present, and future of biodiversity on California's Channel Islands, an archipelago that has undergone a wide range of land-use and ecological changes. Our analysis spans approximately 20,000 years, from before human occupation and through Native American hunter–gatherers, commercial ranchers and fishers, the US military, and other land managers. We demonstrate how long-term, interdisciplinary research provides insight into conservation decisions, such as setting ecosystem restoration goals, preserving rare and endemic taxa, and reducing the impacts of climate change on natural and cultural resources. We illustrate the importance of historical perspectives for understanding modern patterns and ecological change and present an approach that can be applied generally in conservation management planning.

  20. p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

    2002-05-01

    An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely

  1. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  2. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  3. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  4. Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

  5. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  6. Measuring the Performance of School Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar

    2015-01-01

    School superintendent has a strategic role in the effort to improve the quality of education, referred to the responsibility to give service and assistance for the teachers and headmasters which will affect the improvement of learning quality in school. Yet, the strategic role and function of superintendent, in fact, is still reflecting its ideal…

  7. Life history, larval dispersal, and connectivity in coral reef fish among the Scattered Islands of the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, James L.; Beldade, Ricardo; Mills, Suzanne C.; Williams, Hannah E.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2017-03-01

    The Western Indian Ocean harbors one of the world's most diverse marine biota yet is threatened by exploitation with few conservation measures in place. Primary candidates for conservation in the region are the Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses), a group of relatively pristine and uninhabited islands in the Mozambique Channel. However, while optimal conservation strategies depend on the degree of population connectivity among spatially isolated habitats, very few studies have been conducted in the area. Here, we use highly variable microsatellite markers from two damselfishes ( Amphiprion akallopisos and Dascyllus trimaculatus) with differing life history traits [pelagic larval duration (PLD), adult habitat] to compare genetic structure and connectivity among these islands using classic population structure indices as well as Bayesian clustering methods. All classical fixation indexes F ST, R ST, G'ST, and Jost's D show stronger genetic differentiation among islands for A. akallopisos compared to D. trimaculatus, consistent with the former species' shorter PLD and stronger adult site attachment, which may restrict larval dispersal potential. In agreement with these results, the Bayesian analysis revealed clear genetic differentiation among the islands in A. akallopisos, separating the southern group (Bassas da India and Europa) from the center (Juan de Nova) and northern (Îles Glorieuses) islands, but not for D. trimaculatus. Local oceanographic patterns such as eddies that occur along the Mozambique Channel appear to parallel the results reported for A. akallopisos, but such features seem to have little effect on the genetic differentiation of D. trimaculatus. The contrasting patterns of genetic differentiation between species within the same family highlight the importance of accounting for diverse life history traits when assessing community-wide connectivity, an increasingly common consideration in conservation planning.

  8. Examination of Illinois Superintendents' Perceptions of the Illinois School Superintendent Content-Area Standards and Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines Illinois school superintendents' perceived importance of the Illinois school superintendent content area standards and performance indicators. This study is significant because it provides an opportunity for rigorous reflection in identifying Illinois school superintendents' perceived importance of superintendent behaviors that…

  9. ArcInfo GRID format of the 2004 Multibeam Backscatter Data in the Northeastern Channel Islands Region, Southern California [mos.zip

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ArcInfo GRID format data generated from the 2004 multibeam sonar survey of the Northeastern Channel Islands, CA Region. The data include high-resolution, acoustic,...

  10. CNTR10M - 10 meter bathymetric contours of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and Santa Barbara Bay. (UTM 10N, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data layer containing 10 meter bathymetric contours for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and Santa Barbara Bay. Data are derived from 1:250,000-scale...

  11. Perceptions of School Superintendents and Board Presidents on Improved Pupil Performance and Superintendent Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the demands on school superintendents have not only become more taxing but have also changed in recent years. The superintendent needs to possess a high degree of knowledge and skills in a diverse number of areas, including psychology, finances, personnel, and general education while functioning at a very high level in…

  12. Internal Accountability and District Achievement: How Superintendents Affect Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Kimberly L.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative survey study was designed to determine whether superintendent accountability behaviors or agreement about accountability behaviors between superintendents and their subordinate central office administrators predicted district student achievement. Hierarchical multiple regression and analyses of covariance were employed,…

  13. Review of "Yearning to Break Free: Ohio Superintendents Speak out"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Catherine; Dworkin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The report, Yearning to Break Free: Ohio Superintendents Speak Out, describes findings of a survey of 246 Ohio school superintendents about critical issues facing the state's educational system. In particular, the intent of the study was to examine how superintendents might do more with fewer resources. The authors conclude that Ohio districts…

  14. Perceptions of Mentoring: Examining the Experiences of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Scarlett M.; Calhoun, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive mixed methods study gathered both quantitative and qualitative data on the mentoring experiences of women superintendents in a Southeastern state. The quantitative participants included 39 women superintendents from this state and the qualitative portion of the study was comprised of eight female superintendents purposefully…

  15. 78 FR 25577 - Safety Zone, Figure Eight Causeway Channel; Figure Eight Island, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... marine information broadcasts, local notice to mariners, commercial radio stations, and area newspapers... announced via Marine Safety Radio Broadcast on VHF Marine Band Radio channel 22 (157.1 MHz) that this... at telephone number (910) 343-3882 or by radio on VHF Marine Band Radio, channels 13 and 16....

  16. The Functional Allocation of the Superintendent's Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Albert C.; And Others

    1967-01-01

    The amount of time a school superintendent spends in the various functions of his job is studied. The data used were those collected by Robert Utter and Gordon Anderson in 76 school districts in the Metropolitan School Study Council and the Associated Public School Systems during 1964-65. Included were school systems ranging in size from 975 to…

  17. Classroom Assessment: Some Propositions for Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylone, Nelson J.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers superintendents five assessment propositions for their consideration, each of which would likely provoke spirited and productive discussions at district administrative councils or at school staff meetings. These propositions are: (1) Teachers should anchor lessons and activities to specific outcomes (e.g., expectations,…

  18. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  19. Peer Visits and Revisits in the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Deep, thoughtful conversations about how superintendents can improve their leadership practice are rare. Those that are anchored in classroom observation data, guided by structured protocols and common understandings of what matters in instruction, and that take place in a collegial atmosphere with high levels of trust and vulnerability are even…

  20. A Superintendent in Cultural Transition: An Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, David

    2013-01-01

    This research illustrates a personalized account of the unique transition from a third grade classroom directly to a superintendency in a public school located on the Nez Perce Indian Reservation. This self-study is about me as the subject as well as the researcher in the cultural context of a school district with an 89% Native American student…

  1. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  2. Public School Superintendent Philosophies and Their Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, John

    2012-01-01

    Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today's existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by…

  3. Myth of the Revolving-Door Superintendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natkin, Gerald; Cooper, Bruce; Fusarelli, Lance; Alborano, James; Padilla, Arthur; Ghosh, Sujit

    2002-01-01

    Review of research on superintendent turnover finds that median tenure between 1990 and 1994 was 6.5 years; turnover has not increased significantly since 1975; turnover is related to the school-district enrollment size; turnover is not related to a district's location, that is rural, small town, suburban, urban. Concludes that the superintendency…

  4. Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands NationalPark, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.; Schumann, R. Randall; Agenbroad, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island–mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.

  5. Outreach channels for polar science:an expedition to Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo Dopico; Eva Garcia-Vazquez

    2016-01-01

    Polar science outreach is strongly needed, because besides promoting the utility of polar studies for society as a whole, it can generate public demand for new projects and expeditions. The dissemination of polar discoveries should be reinforced in countries without polar territories and for which polar science might not be a priority. In this pilot study (N=182 participants) we have contrasted the opinions of polar scientists (French, Belgian, British, Canadian, Australian, German, Italian and Spanish researchers) with those of a potentially interested public (graduate students of pedagogy and biology), in order to assess if the communication channels employed by polar researchers to make their results public align with those used by non-polar experts for learning about polar discoveries. The results revealed that scientiifc publications and presentations were considered a priority by the researchers, and these scientiifc communication channels were preferentially employed. Only a minority of researchers thought that non-scientiifc publications might be a good communication resource. In contrast, both groups of students, which considered polar research important but not a top priority, employed the Internet as their main channel for information about polar discoveries. Students assessed the use of polar discoveries as positive for educational purposes at both Primary and Secondary levels. The information presently received by students was perceived as being too generalist and the main suggestions to improve outreach in this ifeld, in addition to the use of Internet, were more rapid dissemination of new discoveries.

  6. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  7. Marine reserve design for conservation and fisheries management: a case study from the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airame, S.J.; Dugan, E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.M.; McArdle, D.A.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  8. Hispanic Superintendents in Illinois: Current Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The trends and challenges faced by Hispanic superintendents in Illinois are stated and analyzed throughout the study in both literature and practice. The examined items centered on the issues of hiring experiences and other barriers associated with the acquisition and longevity of the superintendency in Illinois. Data for the study were collected…

  9. How to Make Waves without Capsizing Your Superintendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stuart

    1989-01-01

    Recounts one superintendent's reorganization of his top-management team to comprise fewer members and achieve better racial and gender balance. Presents administrator selection principles, such as choosing only people sharing the superintendent's educational values, looking for competence in different packages, and selecting a majority of team…

  10. Superintendents Describe Their Leadership Styles: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Superintendents from eight southeastern United States school districts self-described their leadership styles across the choices of autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic, situational, servant, or transformational. When faced with this array of choices, the superintendents chose with arguable equitableness, indicating that successful leaders can…

  11. Stress and Burnout among Superintendents of Public Residential Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Gary V.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated burnout levels and coping strategies of 162 superintendents of public residential facilities for mentally retarded persons. Results indicated that mean overall burnout scores tended to be lower than those reported for other human service employees. Superintendents tended to favor direct/active strategies for coping with stressors.…

  12. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  13. The Relationship of Organizational Commitment and Superintendent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between superintendent job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Surveys were sent electronically to superintendents (N = 470) of Texas mid-size schools to collect data to test for relationships of variables and constructs associated with job satisfaction and components of…

  14. Superintendents as Sensemakers in the Design of Sustainable Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the superintendent in the design decision-making process of sustainable school buildings was examined in this study to determine whether superintendents who have more knowledge and commitment to sustainability have a greater influence on green building practices within their school districts than those who do not. Utilizing a…

  15. Perceptions of Innovations: An Examination of South Carolina Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of South Carolina public school superintendents regarding individual and organizational attitudes toward innovation. Specific characteristics of South Carolina public school superintendents and public school districts, including enrollment, poverty level, school report card grades, age,…

  16. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  17. The Relationship of Organizational Commitment and Superintendent Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between superintendent job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Surveys were sent electronically to superintendents (N = 470) of Texas mid-size schools to collect data to test for relationships of variables and constructs associated with job satisfaction and components of…

  18. Identifying the Professional Development Needs of School Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneut, Gene; Tobin, James; Ayers, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Superintendents of schools face increased leadership demands from diverse constituents, challenges due to current conditions, and opportunities posed by evolving trends and reforms. Superintendents are in the key position to make systemic school improvements a major priority, to allocate resources to promote their progress and importance, and to…

  19. In Superintendent Searches, Discretion Is the Better Part of Valor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Raj K.

    1989-01-01

    Confidentiality during a superintendent search is essential in order to attract the best candidates. Board members should use confidentiality as a selling tool; use discretion during onsite visits; and make their decision quickly. (MLF)

  20. 76 FR 47529 - Port Access Route Study: In the Waters of Montauk Channel and Block Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ..., Long Island Sound, New York. This recommended route was subsequently incorporated on nautical charts by.... A navigation chart with the proposed recommendations plotted is included in the docket at...

  1. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 30340 Data Kauai Channel, Main Hawaiian Islands, 200210-200409 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 30340 was deployed in the region of Main Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  2. Impact on the Ecological Environment of the Ocean Islands Through the Economic Evolution:A Case Study of the U.S. Channel Islands%经济形态演变对海洋海岛生态环境的影响——以美国海峡群岛为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 刘小宇; 张佳琛; 王亮

    2016-01-01

    海洋海岛生态环境脆弱,一旦遭受破坏难以修复.人类社会历经原始经济时代、农业经济时代、工业经济时代和知识经济时代,经济形态的演变影响着人类生存的生态环境.以美国海峡群岛为例,以时间和事件两个维度对海岛生态环境破坏、生态修复和环境保护进行梳理,侧重于知识经济时代在国家公园管理局管理下的生态修复和环境保护.其中信息知识、生态文明、高新技术是海峡群岛实现生态回归的重要因素.海峡群岛的发展历程和后期的生态修复与管理为其他国家海洋海岛经济发展提供借鉴.%Island is an important part of marine ecosystem. The society experienced the evolution of the original human society economy era, agricultural economy era, industrial economy era and knowledge economy era which affects the ecological environment for human survival. We chose U.S. Channel Islands as an example to straighten out the destruction of ecological environment, ecological restoration and environment protection of the islands, in time and events dimensions, especially focused on the era of knowledge economy in the Nation-al Park Service. Selected U.S. Channel Islands as the research object for the following reasons. Firstly, there are original residents on the islands, and the islands not only has cultural and historical integrity, but also the relative independence of the island's original inhabitants of the geographical unit. The Islands have a relatively simple and economic form of continuous change, and the spatial and temporal evolution of context are clear. So we can also be easy to describe the problem of it. Secondly, we had repeatedly visited the Channel Islands museum, local museum, maritime museum, the Channel Islands National Park Visitor Center, and collected a lot of data and information;And attended local colleges and universities graduate programs of the Channel Is-lands as well. Thirdly, we had experienced

  3. Wildfire and abrupt ecosystem disruption on California's Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary (13.0-12.9 ka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Kennett, J. P.; West, G. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Hendy, I. L.; West, A.; Culleton, B. J.; Jones, T. L.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Sedimentary records from California's Northern Channel Islands and the adjacent Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) indicate intense regional biomass burning (wildfire) at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary (˜13.0-12.9 ka) (All age ranges in this paper are expressed in thousands of calendar years before present [ka]. Radiocarbon ages will be identified and clearly marked " 14C years".). Multiproxy records in SBB Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 893 indicate that these wildfires coincided with the onset of regional cooling and an abrupt vegetational shift from closed montane forest to more open habitats. Abrupt ecosystem disruption is evident on the Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary with the onset of biomass burning and resulting mass sediment wasting of the landscape. These wildfires coincide with the extinction of Mammuthus exilis [pygmy mammoth]. The earliest evidence for human presence on these islands at 13.1-12.9 ka (˜11,000-10,900 14C years) is followed by an apparent 600-800 year gap in the archaeological record, which is followed by indications of a larger-scale colonization after 12.2 ka. Although a number of processes could have contributed to a post 18 ka decline in M. exilis populations (e.g., reduction of habitat due to sea-level rise and human exploitation of limited insular populations), we argue that the ultimate demise of M. exilis was more likely a result of continental scale ecosystem disruption that registered across North America at the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode, contemporaneous with the extinction of other megafaunal taxa. Evidence for ecosystem disruption at 13-12.9 ka on these offshore islands is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary cosmic impact hypothesis [Firestone, R.B., West, A., Kennett, J.P., Becker, L., Bunch, T.E., Revay, Z.S., Schultz, P.H., Belgya, T., Kennett, D.J., Erlandson, J.M., Dickenson, O.J., Goodyear, A.A., Harris, R.S., Howard, G.A., Kloosterman, J.B., Lechler, P

  4. An Examination of Self-Perceived Transformational Leadership Behaviors of Texas Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Walter Lloyd; Mixon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This study examined self-perceived transformational leadership behaviors among Texas superintendents. The purpose of this study was to examine if relationships existed between superintendents' self-perceived transformational leadership style, district size, teaching, principal, and superintendent years of experience. A review of the literature…

  5. Women in the Superintendency: Barking up the Wrong Chain of Command?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Mimi; Macdonald, R. Timothy

    The U.S. may be experiencing a shortage of qualified applicants for the superintendency. Highly qualified candidates often do not want the job. Underrepresentation of women in the superintendency confounds the problem. This study was conducted to determine the most commonly exercised path to the superintendency in the Northwest. Career…

  6. Superintendents' Beliefs about Barriers That Can Influence Their District Technology Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of superintendents' beliefs about technology leadership barriers and about how superintendents actually engage in technology leadership practices. There is currently limited research available on the topic from a district superintendent's perspective. Qualitative data from focus group…

  7. Attitudes of Superintendents of Ohio Comprehensive High Schools toward Adult Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.; Krill, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the knowledge of superintendents of Ohio comprehensive high schools toward adult vocational agricultural education. A summary of the demographic data revealed that 63 percent of the superintendents administered programs of adult vocational agriculture. Concepts on the survey with which superintendents agreed and…

  8. New York State Superintendent Job Satisfaction in an Era of Reduced Resources and Increased Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate New York State school superintendent job satisfaction and the potential contributing factors to their job satisfaction in an era of reduced resources and increased accountability. This survey was sent to 684 superintendents throughout New York State and completed by 280 superintendents. Sharp, Malone…

  9. Technology Leadership Is Just Good Leadership: Dispositions of Tech Savvy Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Sauers, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This study describes core dispositions of school district superintendents who have been identified as technology savvy leaders by a prominent educational technology newspaper. The superintendents in this study described how they accomplished their technology initiatives and offered suggestions for other superintendents who aspire to be more…

  10. A Study of the Mentoring Program for First Year School Superintendents in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Mentoring first-year superintendents in Missouri began as an informal process with the pairing of a veteran superintendent (mentor) with a first-year superintendent (protege) by the Missouri Association of School Administrators (MASA). The adoption of the Career Continuous Professional Certification by the Missouri State Board of Education…

  11. Laying the Groundwork for a Reconception of the Superintendency from Feminist Postmodern Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Reviews 50 years of superintendency literature. Offers a possible reconciliation of the superintendency by juxtaposing the traditional with ideas from feminist and postmodern literature. Recognizing postmodern paradoxes allows questioning of the traditional superintendency and leads to more caring, socially committed leadership strategies.…

  12. Technology Leadership Is Just Good Leadership: Dispositions of Tech Savvy Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Sauers, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This study describes core dispositions of school district superintendents who have been identified as technology savvy leaders by a prominent educational technology newspaper. The superintendents in this study described how they accomplished their technology initiatives and offered suggestions for other superintendents who aspire to be more…

  13. Effective Strategies That Urban Superintendents Use That Improve the Academic Achievement for African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Cardenas

    2013-01-01

    The roles of urban superintendents are crucial to improving the educational outlook for the neediest students, specifically the African-American males. The roles and responsibilities of the urban school superintendent today are more numerous, complex, and demanding than in the past. The expectations of today's urban superintendents are to be…

  14. New York State Superintendent Job Satisfaction in an Era of Reduced Resources and Increased Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate New York State school superintendent job satisfaction and the potential contributing factors to their job satisfaction in an era of reduced resources and increased accountability. This survey was sent to 684 superintendents throughout New York State and completed by 280 superintendents. Sharp, Malone…

  15. Sexual Politics in the California Public K-12 Superintendency and District Office Personnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Jennifer W.

    2012-01-01

    A review of literature suggests women superintendents face several disadvantages gaining access to positions as public school district superintendents. This study focused on (1) which characteristics applied to the prediction of women superintendents in California public K-12 system; (2) if the predecessor's sex predicted for the successor's sex;…

  16. Incorporation of island-arc rocks into a Caribbean subduction channel: Geochemical constraints from eclogite boulders and greenschist rocks, Guajira region, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Altenberger, U.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Valencia, V.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.

    2009-12-01

    Characterization of the protoliths of a subduction-accretion complex can provide major insights into the dynamics of the subduction channel. Geochemistry of eclogites found as boulders in a Tertiary conglomerate from the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia, indicate that these rocks are mainly metamorphosed basalts. A negative Nb-anomaly and flat to enriched REE patterns suggest that the eclogite protoliths evolved in a subduction related tectonic setting, with island arc affinities. The geochemical characteristics are similar to low-grade greenschists from the nearby Etpana Formation, which is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. This further supports evidence that the deposition and metamorphism of these units record the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin beneath the advancing Caribbean arc. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates. Arc-rocks were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge, either though influx of tectonically eroded arc material (subduction erosion) or incorporation into the accretionary wedge during arc-continent collision.

  17. How Rural School Superintendents in Illinois Impact Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonSchnase, Kyle T.

    2010-01-01

    Since the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a superintendent's role has been redefined and more focus has been placed on student achievement. Research demonstrates that rural public schools are faced with an educational crisis. Rural districts are faced with an epidemic of declining enrollments/budgets, increased drop-out rates, low…

  18. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  19. Follow This Map into the New World of Superintendent Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    School boards desiring to attract top-flight superintendent candidates need to create an appropriate executive compensation package, including salary, benefits, perquisites, and symbols of professional status. This article provides package guidelines from insurance and leave allowance to mortgages and moving expenses. An inset touts Chicago's…

  20. Finnish Superintendents: Leading in a Changing Education Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Mika; Kanervio, Pekka; Björk, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Finland's education system is regarded as one of the most effective in the world. Shared values of the Finnish welfare society continue to influence national education policies that determine how education is organized, governed, and led. Findings from a national study of the superintendency, however, suggest recent demographic and financial…

  1. Strategies Used by Superintendents in Developing Leadership Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the strategies public school superintendents across the nation use to develop executive leadership teams. Extensive research has been conducted in private for profit and medical settings, however relatively little research on leading teams has been conducted in the public education sector. Research based…

  2. Just Do It: Women Superintendents Speak to Aspiring Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method study using surveys and in-depth interviews was conducted with women school superintendents in four Midwestern states during the 1999-2000 school year to understand how they perceive their leadership skills, their uses of power in their positions, and how they generally talk about the job. Results of how the women perceived their…

  3. An Examination of Superintendent Salaries and Compensation Packages in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The salaries and compensation packages of women in the United States fall short of those to men holding similar employment positions. This study will look specifically at the salaries and compensation packages of current Kentucky school superintendents and investigate whether or not there exists discrepencies among them along gender lines. The…

  4. School Board Presidents' Perceptions of the Superintendent Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    School districts face enormous challenges with recent reductions in fiscal resources due to cuts in California's state budget and an average tenure for a school superintendent of only 3 years. School boards are challenged to find a leader who can address the needs of the school district during these difficult times. As numerous school…

  5. Managing Change: The Superintendent as Line Director of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan; Shulman, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of a superintendent and his district instructional staff in managing change in a New York City school district. An individual case study was used to examine leadership and instructional improvement in a context with administrative and teaching staff limitations and an unprecedented influx of newly…

  6. Superintendent: Here's How I Stay Friends with the Board President.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Sidney A.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests ways that the superintendent and the board president can work cooperatively, including communicating regularly, planning the agenda together, conducting "postgame analysis" with the president, letting the president run meetings and handle arguments or difficult board members, praising the president publicly, and maintaining open…

  7. An Examination of Superintendent Salaries and Compensation Packages in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The salaries and compensation packages of women in the United States fall short of those to men holding similar employment positions. This study will look specifically at the salaries and compensation packages of current Kentucky school superintendents and investigate whether or not there exists discrepencies among them along gender lines. The…

  8. Student Assessment: What Do Superintendents Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Dexter, Robin R.; Berube, William G.; Beck, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    Moore reviewed the literature on accountability and assessment in order to design a questionnaire to survey superintendents across Wyoming on their existing and needed knowledge about student assessment. Results on the presence or absence of gaps in knowledge that is deemed important by respondents and/or the literature can be used by colleges and…

  9. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad

    2016-01-01

    This paper will seek to analyze of the case "Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma" by Hoy and Tarter (2004) using multiple leadership perspectives. The last section of this analysis of the case study will provide the most effective leadership recommendations for the key players.

  10. A Superintendent's Manifesto: School Wellness and Personal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Lambert, Marsha L.

    2010-01-01

    As superintendent, the author works diligently to meet the demands by the West Virginia legislature, catalyzed by the aggressive role of West Virginia's First Lady Gayle Manchin, to fight child obesity. Recently, the state department of education agreed to enter the fight to curb the serious obesity and health problems among the children in the…

  11. The Brave New World of the Interim Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vital role the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and well-being of any school district, the filling of the top leadership post with a permanent appointment never should be done in haste. The process of advertising, reviewing applications, conducting background checks, interviewing candidates, negotiating contracts,…

  12. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Superintendent Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived ethics of the decisions superintendents make in response to a situation with a teacher that was value-laden, potentially volatile, and potentially affected by the teachers' gender or ethnicity. Superintendents (N = 123) each read one of 12 versions of a vignette depicting a sexting incident between a…

  13. SeaSketch: Implementation of a Decision-Support Platform for a Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Multi-sector Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, G.; McClintock, W.

    2016-12-01

    Effective interagency and cross-sector coordination is essential to ecosystem based management which depends on processes characterized by collaboration and science-based information. Many technological barriers that exist in the development of science-based management plans are closely tied to process challenges, such as the sharing of data and information or the inclusion of parties with varied levels of technical experience. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary has convened a diverse working group to develop recommendations for the management of marine shipping in and around the Santa Barbara Channel, as well as recommendations regarding research needs and outreach strategies. Working group members take a multi-issue approach with four distinct goals related to the reduction of ship strikes on whales, emissions and air quality, conflicting ocean uses, and issues of navigational safety. Members range from industry representatives, scientists, and multiple local and federal government entities. The recommended management plans will be based in the best-available science, and will build off of previous efforts, making this an interesting case study of adaptive management. In addition to support from the Sanctuary and professional facilitators, the group is using a decision-support platform, SeaSketch (safepassage.seasketch.org). SeaSketch is a web-based GIS that supports collaborative science-based marine spatial planning (MSP). Each feature supports a step of the MSP process, from data gathering, identification of data needs, the design of spatial plans, evaluation of those plans with analytics, and map-based forums that facilitate data-driven discussions. Working group members are able to access these tools to explore management options and collaborate remotely, in addition to using the platform during in-person meetings and webinars. Empowering diverse audiences to engage in the design of science-based plans is of key importance to developing ecosystem

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  15. Time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc segment: U Pb age constraints from syn-tectonic plutons, Sark, Channel Islands, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brent V.; Samson, Scott D.; D'Lemos, Richard S.

    1999-10-01

    New U-Pb zircon and titanite dates from syn-tectonic plutons on the British Channel Island of Sark constrain the time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in this part of the Neoproterozoic Cadomian magmatic arc. The Tintageu leucogneiss is a mylonitic unit that was dated previously at 615.6 +4.2-2.3 Ma. The Port du Moulin quartz diorite, which intruded the Tintageu unit, contains a high-strain solid-state deformation fabric that is less intense than, but parallel to, fabrics in the leucogneiss and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 613.5 +2.3-1.5 Ma. The Little Sark quartz diorite also displays solid-state deformation fabrics in addition to relict magmatic textures, and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 611.4 +2.1-1.3 Ma. The North Sark granodiorite is largely penetratively undeformed, exhibits mainly magmatic fabrics and textures and has a U-Pb zircon date of 608.7 +1.1-1.0 Ma. Two fractions of titanite from each intrusion are essentially concordant and are identical within error, with mean dates of 606.5±0.4 Ma (Port du Moulin quartz diorite), 606.2±0.6 Ma (Little Sark quartz diorite), 606.4±0.6 Ma (North Sark granodiorite). The new U-Pb data, in combination with previous U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar data and previous field studies, confirm the syn-tectonic nature of the Sark plutons and quantify the time span (ca. 7 m.y.) required for intrusion and sufficient crystallization of each body to record incremental strain during waning deformation. Titanite U-Pb and hornblende 40Ar/ 39Ar dates mark final cooling about 2 m.y. after intrusion of the last pluton.

  16. A Survey of the Perceptions of Texas Superintendents and School Board Members Attending the Fall 2008 TASA/TASB Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jerry Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions and the difference between perceptions of Texas school superintendents and school board members. In addition the study provided research to identify skills for superintendent preparation programs at the university level that are essential for strong superintendent and board relations. The study revealed ways to…

  17. Perceptions of Superintendents and Board Chairpersons in South Dakota and Wyoming Regarding Gender-Based Differences in Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton Hughes, Paige

    2010-01-01

    Women have traditionally been underrepresented as school district superintendents. Male superintendents are often thought to have skill in managing facilities and budgets while women have often been viewed as better instructional leaders. This study used surveys to research whether or not superintendents themselves perceive their skills…

  18. To Test or Not to Test? Drug Testing Teachers: The View of the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMitchell, Todd A.; Kossakoski, Stephen; Baldasaro, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: School superintendents are charged with maintaining the safety and security of the schools in their district. One major recognized threat to the security and safety of students and staff is the use of illegal drugs. Superintendents are responding to the constitutionality of student drug-testing policies by implementing drug-testing…

  19. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…

  20. An Examination of Ideology among Selected K12 Christian School Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, Jimmy L.

    2013-01-01

    This research project focused on explaining the decision making process of K12 Christian school superintendents whose schools belong to the Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) organization. In spite of their similar religious and philosophical beliefs, ACSI K12 Christian school superintendents differed significantly in…

  1. Effective Communication and Creating Professional Learning Communities Is a Valuable Practice for Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Ann Toler; Newsome, Edward, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    As the chief executive officer, the superintendent must demonstrate high quality performance at every level in order to impact student achievement. In order to be an effective superintendent, the individual must have knowledge and skills in educational leadership and be able to articulate information clearly and precisely about the school…

  2. An Examination of the Decision-Making Processes Used by Superintendents in Reducing School District Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of importance of Harvey et al.'s (1997) 13 problem-solving strategies for making retrenchment decisions on school district budgets as perceived by California superintendents of medium-sized school districts. Methodology: The subjects in the present study were 86 superintendents of…

  3. 28 CFR 6.1 - Consent of warden or superintendent required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PENAL AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS § 6.1 Consent of warden or superintendent required. The introduction or attempt to introduce into or upon the grounds of any Federal penal or correctional institution... consent of the warden or superintendent of such Federal penal or correctional institution is...

  4. A Qualitative Study of Superintendent Leadership Experiences during a Top-Down Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Johane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate common experiences of superintendents as they responded to realignment of leadership responsibilities during an organizational change initiated by mayoral control. To discover the shared essence of changes in leadership responsibilities experienced by superintendents, individuals "told their stories" to…

  5. A Study of Female Central Office Administrators and Their Aspirations to the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ava J.; Pankake, Anita; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami; Mills, Shirley; Simonsson, Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivations of females aspiring to school superintendency positions in Texas. We report on a reanalysis of data from two previous studies and how the findings build an understanding of previously documented obstacles and barriers female candidates encounter in their journey toward the superintendency.…

  6. Managing More than the Money: Superintendents' Perceptions of Their Leadership during Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi-Lewis, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Research on the process and effects of school budget development by superintendents during the current economic crisis is limited. This study sought to determine the job satisfaction, efficacy, and longevity of school superintendents during economic crises. Using data from an original survey instrument TRIPLEM (Managing More than the Money…

  7. Stories of Social Justice from Superintendents of Color: Intersections of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosilez, Anthony John

    2011-01-01

    Current literature on public school superintendents of color emphasize how these leaders leverage personal characteristics of resiliency, networking, and a commitment to equity to overcome obstacles to entry and retention in the superintendency. However, this literature fails to address with detail the nature of the resistance these administrators…

  8. An Investigation of Ethical Leadership Perspectives among Ohio School District Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver J.; Johnson, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ethical leadership perspectives of Ohio public school superintendents. Secondly, this study examined to what extent ethical leadership perspectives of Ohio public school superintendents vary according to school district characteristics. Furthermore, the study examined to what extent do ethical…

  9. The Glass Cliff: An Examination of the Female Superintendency in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Blanche Boyd

    2013-01-01

    South Carolina public school districts are confronted with a series of difficult circumstances and rely more on female superintendents than the national average. The investigation of female South Carolina superintendents was guided by the glass cliff conceptual framework. The glass cliff represents situations where females are promoted over males…

  10. The Superintendent's Leadership Role in School Improvement: Relationships between Authenticity and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Dunaway, David M.; Hancock, Dawson R.; Wang, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between superintendent leadership and the operational processes of school improvement. School district superintendents (N = 226) from six southeastern states were surveyed concerning their leadership authenticity and school improvement practices. Descriptive statistics, analyzes of…

  11. Washington Superintendents' Perceptions of the Knowing-Doing Gap and Implications for Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceived barriers which prevent school superintendents in the state of Washington from closing the gap between knowing core leadership practices that increase student academic performance and the superintendent's ability to act on this knowledge by implementing them. The theoretical frames established were…

  12. If You Ax the Superintendent, Don't Chop Off Your Vital Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1984-01-01

    The employment contract is the key item in superintendent firing, and thus, it should include provisions for termination. Terminations can misfire if the board does not carry out contractual obligations. Eight points of advice are included for boards that are contemplating firing a superintendent. (MD)

  13. The Role of the Superintendent in Closing the Achievement Gap in Diverse Small School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Howell, Jr.; Harris, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, narrative study was to investigate the role of the superintendent in leading the district to be more culturally proficient, resulting in the narrowing of the achievement gap in culturally diverse small districts. Eight superintendents of small school districts were purposefully selected based on their district size…

  14. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  15. Stage of Ego Development and Leadership Capacity: A Study of Twelve Illinois School District Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christina Kay

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods research study investigated stage of ego development and "leadership capacity" in a purposeful, stratified sample of 12 Illinois school district superintendents. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: 1) are postconventional stages of ego development evidenced in school superintendents; 2) do the…

  16. A Qualitative Study of Superintendent Leadership Experiences during a Top-Down Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Johane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate common experiences of superintendents as they responded to realignment of leadership responsibilities during an organizational change initiated by mayoral control. To discover the shared essence of changes in leadership responsibilities experienced by superintendents, individuals "told their stories" to…

  17. The Short Tenure of A Woman Superintendent: A Clash of Gender and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the two-year tenure of a woman superintendent in a small southern city. Placed against the background of local community politics and school district politics it shows that women in the superintendency still face issues of gender stereotyping that influence the way they are perceived as leaders of school systems. A feminist…

  18. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  19. Conference preview: Interview with Detective Chief Superintendent John Carnochan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This year's UNICEF Baby Friendly Conference in November will be as diverse as ever, with speakers touching on all aspects of infant feeding and care for new mothers and their babies. One speaker will be Detective Chief Superintendent John Carnochan, Head of the Scottish Violence Reduction Unit. Nearly four decades in the police force have taught John that early years intervention and support for vulnerable mothers, in particular, are at the heart of violence reduction, and that to reduce homicide rates we must invest resources in health professionals to support the early years.

  20. Tracking fluid action in Little Sark Pluton (Channel Islands, UK): a UV laserprobe Ar/Ar study of excess 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Schwanethal, J.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Sherlock, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Little Sark pluton (Channel Islands, UK) is a weakly to moderately deformed pluton of quartz diorite composition. Zircon from Little Sark has been dated as 611.4(+2.1/-1.3) Ma [Miller et al. 1991, Tectonophysics, 312], whereas titanite has an age of 606.2±0.6 Ma. Hornblende yields an Ar-Ar age of 606.4±3.4 Ma [Dallmeyer et al., 1991, J. Geol. Soc. London 148]. The rocks show evidence for post-magmatic hydrous alteration including chloritisation of biotite, and sericite formation in feldspar. We investigated the alteration in order to understand its influence on the Ar-Ar system. Detailed petrographic investigations of two samples indicate different deformation levels - S1, (less deformed), and S2 (more deformed). The feldspar is andesine to oligoclase in composition, but contains K-rich areas with patchy and sometimes cleavage guided sericitization. Mafic minerals include hornblende and biotite (the latter partially chloritized). Ar-Ar investigations were carried out using high spatial resolution UV laser ablation gas release in combination with a Nu instruments Noblesse gas mass spectrometer using spots of 80 to 140 μm diameter. Mafic minerals in S1 have highly variable 38Ar/39Ar and 37Ar/39Ar ratios and unusually high atmospheric contents for such old samples, possibly reflecting the presence of fluid inclusions associated with the sericite, particularly in the feldspar. The apparent ages in their entirety range from 429 to 668 Ma. Hornblende yields homogeneous apparent ages, whereas the younger and older ages are measured in both micas and feldspars, whose apparent ages range from 245-670 Ma. The modal age for feldspar is around 400-450 Ma, but this may not have geological meaning. Sample S2 shows many of the same features as S1. Mafic minerals span a slightly smaller age range and feldspars display apparent ages of ~245-645 Ma with a mode around 480 Ma. The alteration of both samples appears to have been accompanied by the introduction of 40Ar-rich fluids

  1. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  2. 设置导流岛的信号交叉口右转通行能力模型%Capacity Model of the Right-turn Lane at Signalized Intersection With Channelized Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖元文; 荣建; 刘小明

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the capacity of right-turn lane at signalized intersections with channelized islands. Based on the gap acceptance model, this paper proposes a new approach to calculating the capacity of right-turn lane at signalized intersections with channelized islands. This model takes into account the interference of non-motorized traffic enter channelized islands. The non-motorized traffic is treated as the traffic on the major road-a crosswalk, which has great impacts on right-turn vehicles on the minor road-an exclusive right-turn lane. The basic model is modified by introducing the red light effect adjustment coefficient. The new model is calibrated and tested using the field data collected at 6 signalized intersections with ehannelized islands in 4 cities. The average relative error between the calculated value and the observed is 9.28% , which means the proposed method in this paper can better estimate the capacity of an exclusive free right-turn lane under the interference of non-motorized traffic.%为了计算在信号交叉口设置导流岛后右转车道的通行能力,以接受间隙理论模型为基础,给出了针对设置导流岛的信号交叉口右转车道通行能力计算方法.考虑到非机动车进入导流岛对右转车辆产生较大影响,确定以非机动车流为主路,提出红灯效应修正系数,对基础模型进行修正.通过4个城市6个设置导流岛的信号交叉口实测数据进行模型标定和检验.比较模型计算值与实际观测值发现,平均相对误差为9.28%,表明本文所提计算方法能较好地反映非机动车对右转车道通行能力影响的实际情况.

  3. Spatial evaluation of Ar-systematics in rocks from the British Channel Islands: a UV laserprobe Ar/Ar study of excess 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Ar-Ar method is a powerful tool for constraining thermal histories of metamorphic and plutonic rocks, most commonly undertaken on potassium rich mineral separates rather than whole rocks. While this approach usually yields reasonable thermal histories, it is rarely as precise as dating volcanics, and such rocks are also frequently contaminated by excess argon, artificially elevating the Ar-Ar ages. Understanding the evolution of excess argon represents a challenge; whilst it is possible to discern the ‘sink’ as the host mineral now contaminated by excess argon, examining the ‘source’ and ‘transport’ mechanism is more challenging. The approach we have taken here is to combine measurements of potassium rich and potassium poor minerals to understand the argon reservoirs and argon transfer between minerals, grain boundaries and fluids. Considering the system as a whole provides a method for understanding the complete history of the rock and thus assessing any interactions which may impact on the interpretation of ages and thermal history [Kelley, 2002, Chem. Geol. 188]. Here we have studied a series of plutonic and metamorphic basement samples from the British Channel Islands with different ages and post-emplacement histories, namely Icart Gneiss, Perelle Quartz Diorite, L’Ancresse Granodiorite, and Bordeaux Diorite. The formation age of Icart Gneiss is ~2000 Ma [D’Lemos et al., 1990, Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub. 51]. Ar-Ar ages of hornblendes and biotites from quartz diorites on Guernsey and Sark range between 606 and 596 Ma [Dallmeyer et al. 1991, J. Geol. Soc. London 148], whilst U-Pb zircon ages are in the range 710 to 613 Ma [Dallmeyer et al. 1991; Samson & D’Lemos 1998, J. Geol. Soc. London 155; Miller et al. 1999, Tectonophysics 132]. Detailed petrograpic (microscope, electron microprobe) investigations established the crystallization and deformation history of the samples, and revealed that post-magmatic alteration is unevenly distributed. This

  4. Search Consultants: Boon or Bane to Non-Traditional Candidates for the Superintendency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chion-Kenney, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Women and minorities are still underrepresented in the superintendency. Search consultants can tackle discrimination by helping a school board consider desirable administrator competencies and personality traits and by advancing outstanding "nontraditional" candidates. Candidates should take consultants' advice about networking, resume…

  5. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  6. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Rice Island Gull Colony Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rice Island is a dredge placement island that was artificially created by years of channel dredging. Situated in the lower Columbia River, the island is surrounded...

  7. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    2008, focuses on the evaluation of the M2 reach (rkm 66– 80) of the mainstem Methow River prior to restoration actions planned by Reclamation and Yakama Nation. The M2 study was designed to help understand the inter-relationships between stream habitat and the life history of various fish species to explain potential success or limitations in response to restoration actions. To help document changes derived by restoration, two reference reaches (Upper Methow between rkm 85 and 90, and Chewuch River between rkm 4 and 11) were identified based on relative lack of disturbance, proximity to the restoration reach, and relative unconfined geomorphology. A control reach (Lower Methow between rkm 57 and 64, also referred to as “Silver Reach”) was 2 identified based on its similar disturbance as the reference reach, proximity to the restoration reach, and relatively unconfined geomorphology. Products to date include Barber and others (2011), Bellmore (2011), Tibbits and others (2012), Bellmore and others (2013), Benjamin and others (2013), Romine and others (2013b), Bellmore and other (2014), Martens and others (2014), and Martens and Connolly (2014). The third phase of work has been to help with the development and to provide data for modeling efforts. Most of the planned M2 reach restoration is focused on the creation or improvement of offchannel habitat, especially side channels. The pre-restoration portion of this study has been documented by Martens and Connolly (2014). Side channel restoration actions were initiated in 2012 (Whitefish Island side channel, also referred to as SC3; rkm 76) and are planned to continue over the next several years. The Whitefish Island side channel was modified to maintain hydrological connection with the mainstem throughout the year. In addition, several log structures were installed and pools were deepened to create fish habitat. Prior to restoration, this side channel would lose hydrological connection with the mainstem Methow River

  8. Examining the African American K-12 Public Superintendency from a Critical Race Theory Perspective: Counter-Stories about Hiring and Retention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Anthony Gene

    2012-01-01

    For the last decade, research has shown concern about the pool of African American candidates for the superintendency. Nationally, African American candidates make up two percent of superintendents and fourteen percent of the teaching force, the pool from which superintendents are traditionally chosen. Increasing demands to meet the needs of…

  9. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  10. Job Satisfaction of Female and Male Superintendents: The Influence of Job Facets and Contextual Variables as Potential Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Kowalski, Theodore J.; McCord, Robert S.; Petersen, George J.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive multiple regression approach was used to assess the job satisfaction of female and male public school superintendents taking part in a decennial survey conducted by AASA. Self-reported job satisfaction of public school superintendents was regressed on their affective reactions to specific job facets (supervision, co-workers, and…

  11. Looking beyond School Walls: Examining the Impact of Superintendent Longevity on Teachers' Perceptions of Their Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Derrick D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if superintendent longevity significantly impacted teachers' perceptions of their working conditions. In addition, the study sought to determine if there were differences in perceptions among teachers whose superintendent was beginning (1 or fewer years in current position), emerging (between 2 to 6 years…

  12. Elements of Organizational Culture Superintendents Perceive as Important to Create and Maintain a Successful Organization in Times of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marylou K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the elements of culture public school superintendents perceive to be most important in creating and sustaining successful organizations in times of crisis. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify and describe the leadership strategies superintendents use to create…

  13. Superintendent Perceptions of the Success and Failure of School Construction Referendums from 2008-2010 in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Walter Albert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of superintendents who have conducted both successful and unsuccessful school construction referendums in the state of Indiana from 2008-2010. This research will serve as a guide for superintendents who will undergo a school construction referendum, especially in Indiana. This study will…

  14. Elements of Organizational Culture Superintendents Perceive as Important to Create and Maintain a Successful Organization in Times of Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marylou K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the elements of culture public school superintendents perceive to be most important in creating and sustaining successful organizations in times of crisis. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify and describe the leadership strategies superintendents use to create…

  15. Feminist Theory and the Media Representation of a Woman-of-Color Superintendent: Is the World Ready for Cyborgs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses recent feminist theory, in particular feminist theory related to "cyborg" identity and examines some media representations of a woman-of-color superintendent. Suggests that the cyborg image offers alternative ways to consider the issue of diversity and educational leadership, including the superintendency. (Author/SLD)

  16. Comparison of Latino and Non-Latino Superintendents' Positive Psychological Functioning and Resilience in School Districts within North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present research study was to investigate and compare the positive psychological functioning between Latino and non-Latino superintendents currently in schools within North America. The primary focus of the research was to determine if the psychological capital and resilience measures of Latino superintendents were significantly…

  17. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    2008, focuses on the evaluation of the M2 reach (rkm 66– 80) of the mainstem Methow River prior to restoration actions planned by Reclamation and Yakama Nation. The M2 study was designed to help understand the inter-relationships between stream habitat and the life history of various fish species to explain potential success or limitations in response to restoration actions. To help document changes derived by restoration, two reference reaches (Upper Methow between rkm 85 and 90, and Chewuch River between rkm 4 and 11) were identified based on relative lack of disturbance, proximity to the restoration reach, and relative unconfined geomorphology. A control reach (Lower Methow between rkm 57 and 64, also referred to as “Silver Reach”) was 2 identified based on its similar disturbance as the reference reach, proximity to the restoration reach, and relatively unconfined geomorphology. Products to date include Barber and others (2011), Bellmore (2011), Tibbits and others (2012), Bellmore and others (2013), Benjamin and others (2013), Romine and others (2013b), Bellmore and other (2014), Martens and others (2014), and Martens and Connolly (2014). The third phase of work has been to help with the development and to provide data for modeling efforts. Most of the planned M2 reach restoration is focused on the creation or improvement of offchannel habitat, especially side channels. The pre-restoration portion of this study has been documented by Martens and Connolly (2014). Side channel restoration actions were initiated in 2012 (Whitefish Island side channel, also referred to as SC3; rkm 76) and are planned to continue over the next several years. The Whitefish Island side channel was modified to maintain hydrological connection with the mainstem throughout the year. In addition, several log structures were installed and pools were deepened to create fish habitat. Prior to restoration, this side channel would lose hydrological connection with the mainstem Methow River

  18. The Role of Logistics Service Providers in the Distribution Channel of Imported Perishable and Processed Food Product to Java Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuputri, Megita Ryanjani; Chaveesuk, Ravipim; Guritno, Adi Djoko

    2017-01-01

    Today fierce competition has highly enforced the company to focus more on their core competency and has encouraged them to strengthen competitive advantage. This condition reinforces the role of logistics service providers (LSP) to help company run their supporting activities. This research aims to identify the characteristics of LSP and to analyze their role in the distribution channel of imported perishable and processed food products in Indonesia. Convenience sampling was employed as sampl...

  19. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  1. Superintendents' Perceptions of the School Improvement Planning Process in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study of school improvement planning in the southeastern USA was to establish the current view of the process through the eyes of the district superintendents. The answers to the questions were consistently mixed. Generally, the presence of school improvement planning is prevalent in the large majority of districts. However,…

  2. Examination of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Profiles of Illinois Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ty

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the transformational leadership and emotional intelligence profiles of current Illinois superintendents. Demographic characteristics related to age, gender, degree, experience, and district size, type, and location were also examined. As schools are asked to "do more with less," the impact of leaders who demonstrate…

  3. Superintendent Leadership and Community Engagement: A Study of Convergence as Perceived by Community Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Salvatore P.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the community in public education is rooted in the earliest beginnings of the American educational system. This exploratory and quantitative study examined what the superintendent does to lead the school district regarding community engagement, and also examined community member perceptions of that engagement. This was based on…

  4. The Examination of Four Illinois Female Superintendents and Their Transformational Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Redell, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine female school superintendents and their leadership practices. Particular attention is given to their leadership practices, professional development, mentoring, and barriers. The conceptual framework for this research study was based on the transformational leadership model. According to Bass and Avolio, the…

  5. Superintendents' Perceptions of the School Improvement Planning Process in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study of school improvement planning in the southeastern USA was to establish the current view of the process through the eyes of the district superintendents. The answers to the questions were consistently mixed. Generally, the presence of school improvement planning is prevalent in the large majority of districts. However,…

  6. Politics First: Examining the Practice of the Multi-District Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniella; McHenry-Sorber, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, multiple states have implemented a form of regional school district consolidation referred to as multi-district unions. Their organizational structure enables districts to retain individual school boards within regional local education agencies, all of which are overseen by a superintendent and a central board. However, no…

  7. The Effects of Authentic Vision Statement on Challenges Experienced by First Year Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdos, Monica

    2011-01-01

    A new superintendent in a new school district (NSND) can be a challenging position. The literature review asserts that many challenges faced by NSNDs are due to the absence of a shared vision. Challenges can be listed as work stoppage, personnel, financial, fighting ghosts, homecoming procession and many other aspects of running a district.…

  8. School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy for K-12 Principals and Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel Dean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications…

  9. Strategies Utilized by Superintendents and Mathematics District Personnel That Impact Minority Student Outcomes in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPree, Jared Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the constructs from effective instruction from the literature on teacher education to understand the impact of school district strategies on algebra outcomes for minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies utilized by superintendents and district personnel and the impact of these identified…

  10. Superintendents & District Senior Leadership Teams: A Multi-Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevak, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to understand how superintendents create and lead their senior leadership teams. Research on senior teams in the private sector suggests that studying top teams, rather than CEOs alone, provides better predictions of organizational outcomes (Finkelstein, Hambrick, and Cannella, Jr., 2009). While many…

  11. Salaries of New Superintendents: A Public Relations Concern for Many Public School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Salaries for new superintendents form a highly visible factor that has direct implications for school-community public relations. To provide a means for guiding school board members and to provide a format for justifying salaries, a model is presented that serves both purposes. Within this model, attention is afforded to specifying a relevant…

  12. Of Horses and Men: Superintendent Asbury's Deadly Assault on the Crow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Carrie Moran

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Superintendent Calvin Asbury's campaign to convert members of the Crow Tribe to Christianity. Presents Joe Medicine Crow, who was a child during the campaign that began in 1919, as he describes the historical and continuing effects on the Tribe. Explains that federal policy included selling tribal lands to non-Indians, prohibiting…

  13. Superintendent-Business Executive Collaboration in Intermediary Organizations: Moral Agency and Democratic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; McKee, Tiffany; Martin, Staci

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes collaboration between business executives and superintendents to influence local/regional K-12 educational change. Specifically, we examine participant like-mindedness about the ethics and appropriate focus of K-12 intermediary collaboration, the extent of democratic functioning, and key individuals to involve. Data…

  14. Factors Supporting Implementation of Executive Coaching as Embedded Professional Learning for Superintendents in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuciforo, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of school superintendent has become increasingly complex. As school district leaders deal with new curriculum standards, increased accountability, and limited financial resources, they are in need of quality professional development tailored to their needs. This qualitative study explores personal, cultural, and structural factors that…

  15. Working Through the "Riddle of the Heart": Perspectives of Women Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, C. Cryss

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a qualitative study focused on specific success strategies gathered in interviews with women superintendents. Interpretations that cut across the narratives are expressed through the metaphoric framework provided by Carlos Castaneda's principles of power that govern the "riddle of the heart," or caring ethic. Successful women…

  16. The Examination of Four Illinois Female Superintendents and Their Transformational Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Redell, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine female school superintendents and their leadership practices. Particular attention is given to their leadership practices, professional development, mentoring, and barriers. The conceptual framework for this research study was based on the transformational leadership model. According to Bass and Avolio, the…

  17. Performance Standards for School Superintendents. ERIC Digest Series Number EA34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of performance standards for school superintendents. School districts are discovering that developing performance standards for administrators can be cost effective, reduce crisis management, set and maintain direction, and give the community a standard for measuring school success. Several aspects of the issue on…

  18. Superintendent-Business Executive Collaboration in Intermediary Organizations: Moral Agency and Democratic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; McKee, Tiffany; Martin, Staci

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes collaboration between business executives and superintendents to influence local/regional K-12 educational change. Specifically, we examine participant like-mindedness about the ethics and appropriate focus of K-12 intermediary collaboration, the extent of democratic functioning, and key individuals to involve. Data…

  19. Superintendents' Perceptions of the School Improvement Planning Process in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study of school improvement planning in the southeastern USA was to establish the current view of the process through the eyes of the district superintendents. The answers to the questions were consistently mixed. Generally, the presence of school improvement planning is prevalent in the large majority of districts. However,…

  20. Violence Prevention in Georgia's Rural Public School Systems: Perceptions of School Superintendents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Chet

    1998-01-01

    Survey responses by superintendents in 81 of Georgia's 114 rural school districts covered violence prevention policies; use of searches, videocamera surveillance, metal detectors, security alarm systems, dress codes, and law enforcement officers on campus; incidence of removal of weapons and various forms of violence; student discipline programs;…

  1. Minnesota Superintendents' Perceptions of Their Role and Influence in School Board Agenda Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, DeeDee Currier

    This study of the school board agenda-setting role among 30 Minnesota superintendents interprets their perceptions in relation to environmental contexts, group demands, issues control, and district enrollment size. A microperspective of David Easton's political systems model provided the guiding conceptual framework. Respondents were interviewed…

  2. California Women and the Strategies Utilized on the Path to the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leadership strategies utilized and the barriers encountered by females in pursuit of the role of superintendent. This study also intended to identify the strategies women used to overcome these barriers. Methodology: This study utilized descriptive research. Descriptive research involves gathering…

  3. Border Crossing: A Black Woman Superintendent Builds Democratic Community in Unfamiliar Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the earlier research on women in leadership has told the stories of White women. Since there are very low numbers of superintendents of color both male and female nationwide, there have been very few stories reported of women leaders of color (Brunner & Grogan, 2007). This article describes the leadership issues involved when one Black…

  4. 8 CFR 299.3 - Forms available from Superintendent of Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Documents, who is authorized to print these forms for sale to the public. Prices are set by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, and are subject to change without notice. A small supply.... Form No. GPO Stock No. (S/N) Price per 100/pad G-28 027-002-00218-1 14.00 G-325A 027-002-00277-6...

  5. The Outsiders: Can a New Breed of Noneducator Superintendents Transform Urban School Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sol

    2001-01-01

    The urban school systems of four nontraditional superintendents (Harold Levy, Roy Romer, Paul Vallas, and Alan Bersin) include the nation's three largest (New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago) districts and San Diego. Some of these chief executives are managing more successfully than others; all four are facing difficult obstacles. (MLH)

  6. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  7. The Perceived Quality of Life among School District Superintendents in Illinois Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Debra J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of quality of life among Illinois male and female superintendents, and to determine demographic differences. Frisch's Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) was used, which measured perceived levels of importance, satisfaction and weighted satisfaction (importance and satisfaction) in sixteen…

  8. A Comparative Character Analysis of Dagny Taggard in Ayn Rand's "Atlas Shrugged" and the Woman Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Queinnise; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    Over the years women have played crucial roles in societal leadership. Within the past decade more women have emerged in taking positions of leadership in many areas concerning U.S. education in particularly the highest public position in education, Superintendent. Obtaining, sustaining, and maintaining high positions of power for any career woman…

  9. The Perceived Quality of Life among School District Superintendents in Illinois Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Debra J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of quality of life among Illinois male and female superintendents, and to determine demographic differences. Frisch's Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) was used, which measured perceived levels of importance, satisfaction and weighted satisfaction (importance and satisfaction) in…

  10. Accountability Narratives of Rural School Superintendents and Administrators: Moving from Two- to Three-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, David; Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the broader political sphere as it affects superintendents and other constituents of rural districts. The current landscape of education reform focuses on accountability--particularly at the policy level of both state and federal education agencies. This article draws on the literature and an empirical study that examined…

  11. California Women and the Strategies Utilized on the Path to the Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leadership strategies utilized and the barriers encountered by females in pursuit of the role of superintendent. This study also intended to identify the strategies women used to overcome these barriers. Methodology: This study utilized descriptive research. Descriptive research involves gathering…

  12. Strategies Utilized by Superintendents and Mathematics District Personnel That Impact Minority Student Outcomes in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPree, Jared Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the constructs from effective instruction from the literature on teacher education to understand the impact of school district strategies on algebra outcomes for minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies utilized by superintendents and district personnel and the impact of these identified…

  13. Multi-stage accretion of high pressure rocks and thermal changes in a subduction channel: evidence from Diego de Almagro Island (Chilean Patagonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppolito, Thais; Angiboust, Samuel; Juliani, Caetano; Glodny, Johannes; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Calderon, Mauricio; Chopin, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The remote Diego de Almagro Island, Chile (51° 30' S) exposes one of the rare vestiges of the Cretaceous paleo-subduction system of western South America. It is constituted by two main tectonic units formed by mafic rocks and metasediments: the high temperature/middle pressure Lázaro unit to the East and the high pressure-low temperature Almagro Complex to the West. We herein focus on the Almagro Complex, a pluri-kilometer thick subducted sequence comprising dominantly metatuffs, but also Grt-micaschists, meta-pillow lavas (showing MORB and OIB signatures) and metacherts (transformed to quartz+garnet-rich layers). Despite its apparent homogeneity, the Almagro Complex is actually composed of two distinct units (Willner et al., 2004) with distinct pressure-temperature-time paths. The Garnet Amphibolite unit (GA) shows three chemically and microstructurally distinct garnet generations that grew and (re)-equilibrated between 1.1 GPa and 1.7 GPa (35-55 km) and between 500°C and 600°C. We report for the first time in Chilean Patagonia the presence of rare relicts of omphacite in equilibrium with garnet in mafic layers together with the finding of chloritoid inclusions in garnet from metasediments, and omphacite and glaucophane inclusions in metatuffs. Our P-T estimates, based on pseudosection modeling, single/multi-equilibrium estimates and Raman spectroscopy of organic matter, demonstrate that rocks from the GA unit reached eclogite facies at around 1.7 to 1.8 GPa. Rb-Sr mineral data for Grt-amphibolites indicates that the amphibolitization overprint - which varies in intensity throughout the GA unit - took place at c. 120 Ma. The Blueschist unit, structurally below the GA unit, comprises lithologies similar to the GA unit but finer grained than the former. On other hand, the Blueschist unit (i) does not show garnet with multiple overgrowths and omphacite crystals as seen in the in GA unit; (ii) exhibits slightly lower peak metamorphic conditions than the GA unit (c

  14. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  15. The professional learning community as perceived by Israeli school superintendents, principals and teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Chen

    2012-12-01

    A professional learning community (PLC) facilitates collaborative learning among colleagues at all levels in their common working environment. PLCs are particularly useful in schools, with teachers and principals meeting regularly to solve problems relating to teaching and learning. Being a means of improving student achievement, PLCs have received growing support from researchers and practitioners alike, yet some professionals are still exploring ways to develop learning networks focusing on teaching and learning issues. The purpose of this study was to examine Israeli teachers', principals', and superintendents' perceptions of inhibiting and fostering factors of the PLC. In this qualitative, topic-oriented study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 teachers from elementary, middle and secondary schools and their respective principals (15) and superintendents (15). Generating themes was inductive, grounded in the perspectives articulated by participants. The principals and the teachers indicated that overload, a lack of resources and top-down commands were PLC-inhibiting factors. The superintendents saw the principal's leadership style as a main PLC-fostering factor. Understanding how these three echelons in the school system perceive the inhibiting and fostering factors of a PLC could indicate whether and how this collaborative learning process can be nurtured and sustained in schools.

  16. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of these sanctuaries are...

  17. Mentoring Programs for Newly Appointed Public School Superintendents: An Analysis of the Need for Ethical Decision-Making as a Critical Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This research study examines the various decision-making processes that superintendents may encounter within the field. The degree to which public school superintendents and public school systems are being held accountable has increased in recent years. The recent unethical decisions made within the last decade in both the public and private…

  18. Fringe Benefits for Superintendents in Public Schools, 1981-82. Part 1 of National Survey of Fringe Benefits in Public Schools. ERS Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    To help school boards and superintendents assess fringe benefit packages in their districts, this fourth biennial survey presents data on nonsalary compensation for public school superintendents in a national stratified sample of 1,036 of the nation's 11,313 public school systems. Arrayed in 38 tables, the data are classified by district…

  19. A Qualitative Multi-Case Study of the Influence of Personal and Professional Ethics on the Leadership of Public School Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of personal and professional ethics on the leadership of public school superintendents. A multi-case, qualitative research design was used to gather data from four practicing public school superintendents. Transformational leadership theory and the three pillars of ethics of leadership…

  20. Application of Q-Methodology and Relational Leadership to Understanding Superintendent and Board Members' Relations Using Emotional and Multiple Intelligences Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martha A.

    2010-01-01

    Media reports and scholarly literature identify conflicts between superintendents and school board members as a crisis in local school governance. Reformers advocate for more training of superintendents and board members, but little research has been conducted on how the diversity in board makeup may contribute to this crisis. The purpose of this…

  1. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Bay and propagate waves into the entrance channel and boat canal . The numerical modeling results indicated that maximum wave energy re- duction inside...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal . CENAO is considering the construction of...primary goal of the study was to develop a quantitative esti- mate of waves and wave reduction in the canal for a relative comparison of alternatives

  2. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  3. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  4. Accountability Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Superintendent, Principal, and Teacher Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KERRYENGLERT,PH.D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A key assumption of NCLB appears to be that assessment data in and of itself can foster or promote change. Specifically, the supposition is that by requiring assessment data to be reported yearly, schools will be motivated - and will have the ability - to address those areas where student achievement is lagging. This assumption rests on the notion that educator competence in understanding and utilizing such data will result in academic success. Testing this assumption with empirical evidence is an important component of researching the efficacy of current accountability policies and practices in general. Over the past three years we have been involved in a series of empirical examinations of accountability. Each of these studies has been aimed at gathering varied perspectives on and about accountability, ranging from superintendents to principals to teachers. Our research examines education accountability at three interconnected layers: district administrators, principals, and teachers. This nested data set (superintendents were surveyed, as were their principals, and their principals’ teachers allows for not only an examination of the perceptions and reflections of the members of each group but also for an evaluation of the consistency of those beliefs across the members of the educational community. This study will present findings from research projects that speak to each of these levels, focusing on how each understands education accountability and how those meanings are consistent across groups and to what degree.

  5. Why Don't You Run the Schools More Like a Business?: Lessons for Students in Superintendent Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    It would exacerbate the tragedy of the current economic situation if no lessons were learned from it which would contribute to future growth and prosperity. That applies equally to the business sector and to the education sector. This is not to imply that many current, effective superintendents do not ask the very questions posed in this essay;…

  6. ". . . So Go the Days of Their Lives." A Descriptive Study of the Superintendency. OSSC Bulletin Vol. 22, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, N. J.

    The study reported is a replication of Henry Mintzberg's study of five executives at work to determine the scope of their job-related activities. For this study superintendents in three suburbs contiguous to a large midwestern city were observed at work for one week, including evening meetings when they were scheduled. An attempt was made to…

  7. Righting Past Wrongs: A Superintendent's Social Justice Leadership for Dual Language Education along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David; Izquierdo, Elena; Knight, David S.

    2017-01-01

    The role of superintendents in adopting and developing dual language education and other equity-oriented reforms that support the unique needs of Latina/o emergent bilinguals is a relatively unexplored area in educational leadership and policy research. Drawing upon theories of social justice leadership, this article examines how one…

  8. Resurrecting Pragmatism as a Philosophical Frame for Understanding, Researching, and Developing Performance in the Small District Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Gary; McClellan, Rhonda; Hyle, Adrienne E.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose that pragmatism is a perspective with great promise for understanding and researching the work of small district superintendents and developing the abilities of both pre-service students and in-service practitioners to do that work. They maintain, based on their reading of focus group interviews with small…

  9. TOWARDS EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING, REPORT TO THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS BY THE SCHOOL-COMMUNITY COMMITTEE FOR EDUCATIONAL EXCELLENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JACOBSON, NATHAN; AND OTHERS

    TO IMPROVE EDUCATION IN NEW YORK CITY, THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF A GROUP OF EDUCATORS AND COMMUNITY LEADERS INCLUDED (1) GIVING NEW TEACHERS BETTER ORIENTATION, EASIER-TO TEACH CLASSES, AND REDUCED CLERICAL WORK, (2) WEEKLY JOINT PLANNING BY ALL TEACHERS ON A GRADE LEVEL, (3) CLOSER SUPERVISION OF PRINCIPALS BY ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENTS, (4) THE…

  10. An Autoethnography of a First-Time School District Superintendent: Complicated by Issues of Race, Gender, and Persistent Fiscal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Ardella Jones

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry used autoethnography methodology in a self-narrative format that places the self within the position of a first time Superintendent as an African American woman. The design of this research will allow the reader to travel with me through my experiences to obtain information about the challenges and obstacles of the superintendent…

  11. The Considerations of the Superintendent in the Development of the School Budget during Times of Fiscal Constraint: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    John Smith is the superintendent of Green Hill Public Schools. This case study follows John through the whole budget process from July 2011 to July 2012. An interpretative perspective was used to tell his story. Ten interviews were given from October 2011 to July 2012. Newspaper articles and the minutes from meetings were analyzed and used as…

  12. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  13. Landscape Terms and Place Names in the Trobriand Islands--The Kaile'una Subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senft, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the topic the paper first gives an overview of Kilivila landscape terms and then presents the inventory of names for villages, wells, island points, reef-channels and gardens on Kaile'una Island, one of the Trobriand Islands in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The data on the meaning of the place names…

  14. Shoreline dynamics of the Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    . The main reason for erosion at these islands seems to be the removal of coral reef for construction and other purposes, and to some extent the dredging of navigational channel in the lagoons. While the wave induced currents govern the sediment processes...

  15. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  16. 78 FR 19155 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville... Channel Sprint'' swim event, to be held on the waters adjacent to and surrounding Harbor Island in... Channel Sprint'' on the waters adjacent to and surrounding Harbor Island in Wrightsville Beach,...

  17. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  18. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  19. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  20. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  1. X-ray investigation of buried SiGe islands for devices with strain-enhanced mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrauda, N.; Zhang, J.J.; Stangl, J.; Rehman-Khan, A.; Bauer, G.; Stoffel, M.; Schmidt, O.G.; Jovanovich, V.; Nanver, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this work self-organized SiGe islands are used as stressors for Si capping layers, which later act as carrier channels in field effect transistors. To be able to address individual islands and to obtain a sufficiently narrow distribution of their properties, the SiGe islands are grown by molecula

  2. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  4. Characterizing barrier-island response to storm and human impact: a century of observations from Breton Island, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, J. G.; Terrano, J.; Dalyander, S.

    2016-12-01

    Breton Island, a barrier-island located adjacent to the Mississippi River Delta in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, is recognized as a globally important bird habitat, hosting one of largest pelican nesting colonies in Louisiana. Over the past century extensive loss of island acreage has been documented, but the history of change has not been linked to physical drivers. In this study, high-resolution topo-bathymetric lidar and acoustic bathymetry are combined to create digital elevation models (DEMs) that are compared to historical datasets extending to the late 1800s. This analysis reveals shoreline and seafloor change patterns, most notably that island area has decreased by 85% since the early 1900s. This loss is attributed to a decrease in littoral sediment delivery across a shipping channel dredged adjacent to the island in the 1950s and an increase in storm frequency and intensity since the 1990s. In contrast to this long-term decline, island area has doubled in size since 2005, corresponding to a reduction in both storm and dredging activity. The study links island change to erosional processes and demonstrates the influence of short-term change events, both natural and man-made, on long-term barrier-island evolution. Because Breton Island itself has not been altered appreciably by restoration activities, these observations can be applied to natural barrier island systems elsewhere where sufficient monitoring data is not available.

  5. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  6. Mechanosensitive Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  7. Quaternary evolution of the North Sea and the English Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbard, P.L.; Cohen, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    The island of Britain is surrounded by a ‘moat’ of water, of which the English Channel and the North Sea are two major components. This talk described some major events that occurred to shape these seaways and, in particular, the evidence preserved on the Channel seabed. Here a system of valleys occ

  8. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  9. The sputter cross section of a surface-vacancy island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosandi, Yudi, E-mail: rosandi@physik.uni-kl.de [Department of Physics, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363 (Indonesia); Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation we investigate the effect of surface-vacancy islands on ion-induced sputtering. As an exemplary case, the sputtering of a Pt(1 1 1) surface by 5 keV Ar{sup +} ions incident at 83{sup o} towards the surface normal is investigated. We find that only the ascending step of the island induces sputtering. Wide vacancy islands exhibit the direct-hit, indirect-hit and channeling zones previously identified for surface steps and adatom islands. A special role is played by the descending step edge. Even though it is not sputtered itself, it deflects ion trajectories and may direct them to the ascending step edge thus enhancing sputtering. We derive a simple criterion based on the shadow cone of the descending step to decide whether a vacancy island contributes to sputtering or not.

  10. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  11. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  12. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  13. Views and experiences of community pharmacists and superintendent pharmacists regarding the New Medicine Service in England prior to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Katharine M; Thornley, Tracey; Boyd, Matthew J; Boardman, Helen F

    2014-01-01

    The New Medicine Service (NMS) was introduced to community pharmacies in England in October 2011. The NMS aims to improve adherence to new medicines in patients with selected long term conditions. The service consists of two follow-up consultations within 1 month in addition to usual care. This study explored community pharmacist and superintendent pharmacist views and experiences of the NMS in the 5 weeks prior to its implementation to identify potential facilitators and barriers to its success. The study also investigated participant experiences of the introduction and provision of existing pharmacy services in order to contrast with the implementation of the NMS. This study consisted of four focus groups with a total of 15 community pharmacists representing locums and employees of small, medium and large chain pharmacies. In addition, 5 semi-structured interviews were conducted with superintendent pharmacists representing independent, small chain, supermarket and large multiple pharmacies. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Both pharmacists and superintendent pharmacists were positive about the NMS and identified potential benefits for patients and the pharmacy profession. Awareness of the service was high, however, some confusion between the NMS and changes to Medicine Use Reviews was evident in all focus groups due to their similarity and coincidental implementation. This confusion was not observed in the interviews with superintendent pharmacists. Participants identified pharmacists' positive attitude, the similarity to current practice and the self-accreditation procedure as potential facilitators to service implementation. Potential barriers identified included a perceived lack of interest and awareness by GPs of the service, and the payment structure. Participants were concerned about the speed of implementation, and the absence of some materials needed prior to the start of the service. Participants were enthusiastic

  14. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  15. Positron Channeling

    CERN Document Server

    Badikyan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of channeling the low-energy relativistic positrons around separate crystallographic axes with coaxial symmetry of negative ions in some types of crystals is shown. The process of annihilation of positrons with electrons of medium was studied in detail.

  16. Brands & Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ "Brands" and "Channels" are the two most important things in Ku-Hai Chen's eyes when doing business with Main-land China. Ku-Hai Chen, Executive Director of the International Trade Institute of Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA), flies frequently between Chinese Taipei and Mainland China, and was in Beijing earlier this month for his seminar.

  17. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  18. 75 FR 52969 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa Cruz Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa... coastal wetland on Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. The requisite no-action ``wait period... restoration of palustrine wetlands and deepwater habitat at Prisoners Harbor, as well as remove a...

  19. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key compon

  20. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  1. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  2. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  3. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  4. The Impact of School Accountability Laws on Measures of Trust between Indiana Public School Superintendents and Teacher Union Leaders within the Forum of Mandatory Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the school accountability laws "No Child Left Behind" and Indiana's Public Law 221 on Superintendents' perception of their relationship with the Teachers' Union Leader in their mandatory discussion meetings. Both school accountability laws contain provisions for the Indiana's Department of Education to…

  5. A Better Leveled Playing Field for Assessing Satisfactory Job Performance of Superintendents on the Basis of High-Stakes Testing Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Cox, Edward P.; Buckman, David G.

    2014-01-01

    To assess satisfactory job performance of superintendents on the basis of school districts' high-stakes testing outcomes, existing teacher models were reviewed and critiqued as potential options for retrofit. For these models, specific problems were identified relative to the choice of referent groups. An alternate referent group (statewide…

  6. Fringe Benefits for Superintendents in Public Schools, 1979-80. Part 1 of National Survey of Fringe Benefits in Public Schools. ERS Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    Displayed in 38 tables, the data in this third biennial survey of public school superintendents' fringe benefits are designed to help school boards and administrators assess their non-cash compensation packages. A national sample of 797 school districts--stratified by district enrollment size, expenditure per pupil, and geographic region--supplied…

  7. Making the Case for the Outlier: Researcher Reflections of an African-American Female Deputy Superintendent Who Decided to Close the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Karen Stansberry

    2012-01-01

    This article presents researcher reflections of a case study of a Black female deputy superintendent who made the value-driven decision to close the achievement gap in her district. I posit that she is an outlier because she is Black and female in a predominantly white male field of practice, she effectively closed the achievement gap through her…

  8. Alaskan Superintendent Turnover: Is There a Correlation between Anticipated Turnover and the Organizational Culture of School Boards in the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, David M. Q.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a particular type of school board culture is predictive of Alaskan public school superintendents' intention to leave their positions. Cameron and Quinn's four types of organizational culture--hierarchy, market, clan, and adhocracy--serve as the model for the study, which surveyed Alaska's…

  9. Perception of the Use of Leadership Frames by Male and Female Superintendents in Texas by Subordinate Top-Ranking School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. Steven

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to broadly examine and analyze gender differences in the leadership styles of Texas public school superintendents by analyzing their subordinates' responses on Bolman and Deal's (1991) Leadership Orientations (Other) survey. Approximately 25% (n = 484) of the high-ranking administrators within the 198 selected school…

  10. The Edmonton Public Schools Story: Internationally Renowned Superintendent Angus McBeath Chronicles His District's Successes and Failures. Policy Brief. No. S2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Angus

    2007-01-01

    This publication is a transcript of Superintendent Angus McBeath's presentation to legislators and media at an Issues and Ideas Forum hosted by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy in Lansing, Michigan. McBeath discusses education reform in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, including: (1) Basic Elements of Reform; (2) School Employee Union Involvement;…

  11. River channel patterns: Braided, meandering, and straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna B.; Wolman, M. Gordon

    1957-01-01

    Channel pattern is used to describe the plan view of a reach of river as seen from an airplane, and includes meandering, braiding, or relatively straight channels. Natural channels characteristically exhibit alternating pools or deep reaches and riffles or shallow reaches, regardless of the type of pattern. The length of the pool or distance between riffles in a straight channel equals the straight line distance between successive points of inflection in the wave pattern of a meandering river of the same width. The points of inflection are also shallow points and correspond to riffles in the straight channel. This distance, which is half the wavelength of the meander, varies approximately as a linear function of channel width. In the data we analysed the meander wavelength, or twice the distance between successive riffles, is from 7 to 12 times the channel width. It is concluded that the mechanics which may lead to meandering operate in straight channels. River braiding is characterized by channel division around alluvial islands. The growth of an island begins as the deposition of a central bar which results from sorting and deposition of the coarser fractions of the load which locally cannot be transported. The bar grows downstream and in height by continued deposition on its surface, forcing the water into the flanking channels, which, to carry the flow, deepen and cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening locally lowers the water surface and the central bar emerges as an island which becomes stabilized by vegetation. Braiding was observed in a small river in a laboratory. Measurements of the adjustments of velocity, depth, width, and slope associated with island development lead to the conclusion that braiding is one of the many patterns which can maintain quasi-equilibrium among discharge, load, and transporting ability. Braiding does not necessarily indicate an excess of total load. Channel cross section and pattern are ultimately controlled by

  12. Sand Resources and Geological Character of Long Island Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Ashraf (1973a, 1973b), Coch (1974), and Williams (1976) identified deeply buried stream channels which are pre-Pleistocene but acted as conduits for...Migration of Sand Waves in a Large Estuary, Long Island Sound," Marine Geology, Vol. 24, 1977, pp. 185-199. COCH , N., "Morphology and Sediment

  13. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  14. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  15. Control of barrier island shape by inlet sediment bypassing: East Frisian Islands, West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, D.M.; Penland, S.; Nummedal, D.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the East Frisian Islands has shown that the plan form of these islands can be explained by processes of inlet sediment bypassing. This island chain is located on a high wave energy, high tide range shoreline where the average deep-water significant wave height exceeds 1.0 m and the spring tidal range varies from 2.7 m at Juist to 2.9 m at Wangerooge. An abundant sediment supply and a strong eastward component of wave power (4.4 ?? 103 W m-1) have caused a persistent eastward growth of the barrier islands. The eastward extension of the barriers has been accommodated more by inlet narrowing, than by inlet migration. It is estimated from morphological evidence that a minimum of 2.7 ?? 105 m3 of sand is delivered to the inlets each year via the easterly longshore transport system. Much of this sand ultimately bypasses the inlets in the form of large, migrating swash bars. The location where the swash bars attach to the beach is controlled by the amount of overlap of the ebb-tidal delta along the downdrift inlet shoreline. The configuration of the ebbtidal delta, in turn, is a function of inlet size and position of the main ebb channel. The swash bar welding process has caused preferential beach nourishment and historical shoreline progradation. Along the East Frisian Islands this process has produced barrier islands with humpbacked, bulbous updrift and bulbous downdrift shapes. The model of barrier island development presented in this paper not only explains well the configuration of the German barriers but also the morphology of barriers along many other mixed energy coasts. ?? 1984.

  16. Systemic approach to energy rationalisation in island communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielden, D. [Commonwealth Development Corporation, London (United Kingdom). Business Development; Jacques, J.K. [University of Stirling (United Kingdom). Energy Projects

    1998-02-01

    It has long been contended by people working in the oil industry that there can be no such thing as a `national` energy policy; that energy policy can only be an international affair. This paper shows that small (densely populated) islands can provide some isolation for themselves from the vagaries of such international oil markets. It provides a systemic insight into the small island energy problem, and takes the case of the Channel Island of Guernsey as an example. It discusses various approaches to the island energy problem and uses a Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The work is overlaid onto a `quality, quantity and timing template` approach to energy planning and indicates that distributed cogeneration would significantly lessen dependence on oil imports; but the focus needs to be on energy service needs rather than the present `prepared` energy fuels. (author)

  17. Distribución espacial de larvas de crustáceos decápodos planctónicos en canales orientales de la isla Chiloé, Chile Vertical distribution of planktonic decapods crustacean larvae in oriental channels of the Chiloé Island, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución vertical y abundancia de larvas de crustáceos decápodos planctónicos en canales orientales de la isla Chiloé. Se relaciona la distribución de larvas con la hora de captura y marea, que interferirían con las migraciones verticales u ontogénicas descritas para el meroplancton. De las especies identificadas, las larvas de Neotrypaea uncinata fueron las más abundantes. Su distribución vertical, fue inversa a la descrita para la migración circadiaria de zooplancton, sin que se encontraran diferencias significativas en la abundancia en los dos estratos de profundidad. Las abundancias de larvas de Cancridae y Pinnotheridae, fueron las únicas que tuvieron diferencias significativas en ambos estratos, aunque inversas al patrón de distribución vertical circadiaria. La amplitud de marea y dinámica oceanográfica descrita para los canales del área de estudio, serían determinantes en la distribución de las larvas en el sector, sobreponiéndose el transporte de ellas al comportamiento migratorio descrito para el zooplancton en general.The vertical distribution and abundance of planktonic decapods larvae in channels from the inside part of Chiloé Island is analyzed. The larvae distribution is related with the capture daytime and the tide conditions and which could interfere with the vertical or ontogenic migrations described for the meroplankton. From the identified species, the Neotrypaea uncinata larvae were the most abundant. Their vertical distribution was inverse to the one described by the circadian migration of the zooplankton, without detecting significant differences among the abundances in both sampled strata. The abundance of Cancridae and Pinnotheridae larvae were the only ones that had significant differences in the two strata, although they were inverse to the pattern of circadian vertical distribution. The tide height and the oceanographic dynamic described for the channels of the area under study

  18. Editorial : islands : objects of representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  19. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  20. Seafloor character from air-photo data-Santa Barbara Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Seafloor character was derived from interpretations of aerial photograph-derived kelp-distribution data available for Santa Cruz Island in the Santa Barbara Channel,...

  1. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  2. Modes of Overwash and Depositional Patterns on Assateague Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maike, C. A.; Banaszak, J. F.; Krantz, D.

    2013-12-01

    In November 2009, Nor'Ida, a Mid-Atlantic nor'easter that evolved from Hurricane Ida, impacted the Assateague Island shoreline. Overwash processes during strong storms such as Nor'Ida largely control the morphodynamics and retrogradational nature of Assateague Island. Within five days after the storm, we observed and documented the impacts on the island. Four primary categories of overwash were identified: (1) Complete overwash was seen primarily on the northern 10 km of the island. This included fans stretching back into the lagoon. (2) Channelized active overwash was displayed as new deposition of sand as thick as 0.5m in the low areas of former inlets. (3) Ridge-controlled overwash was deposition that occurred as water flowed laterally around existing storm ridges that bracket the former inlets. (4) Ponding of substantial volumes of seawater occurred in swales between storm ridges and within the secondary dune field. The four modes of overwash are digitized from a set of aerial photos taken 3 days after the storm to document the spatial distribution on the island. Infiltration following overwash is a primary mechanism for introducing saline water into the fresh groundwater lens of the island. With accelerating sea-level rise, this process will become more frequent and of greater magnitude. These observations provide further knowledge on the processes and impacts of storm-surge overwash on Assateague Island.

  3. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  4. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  5. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  6. The potential for sea-level-rise-induced barrier island loss: Insights from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura J.; Patsch, Kiki; List, Jeffrey H.; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2014-01-01

    As sea level rises and hurricanes become more intense, barrier islands around the world become increasingly vulnerable to conversion from self-sustaining migrating landforms to submerging or subaqueous sand bodies. To explore the mechanism by which such state changes occur and to assess the factors leading to island disintegration, we develop a suite of numerical simulations for the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana, U.S.A., which appear to be on the verge of this transition. Our results suggest that the Chandeleurs are likely poised to change state, leading to their demise, within decades depending on future storm history. Contributing factors include high rates of relative sea level rise, limited sediment supply, muddy substrate, current island position relative to former Mississippi River distributary channels, and the effects of changes in island morphology on sediment transport pathways. Although deltaic barrier islands are most sensitive to disintegration because of their muddy substrate, the importance of relative sea level rise rate in determining the timing of threshold crossing suggests that the conceptual models for deltaic barrier island formation and disintegration may apply more broadly in the future.

  7. Environmental Impact of Artificial Harbors in Tropic Pacific Oceanic Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chunting; Russell Howorth; HE Chaoxiong

    2004-01-01

    For loading and unloading of boats or ships round the clock, the access channel and its expanded part-a port are excavated on the lagoon and ocean reef flats in the tropic Pacific oceanic islands. Without moles, the access channel-port traps sediment and further transports it to the ocean or lagoon, resulting in coastal erosion. The wide uneven reef flat with a large catchment area tends to cause the formation of tide currents in the channel-port, while strong waves on the narrow even reef flat can give rise to rip currents. An access channel-port with a mole on one side or two moles on both sides results in less erosion. A model is recommended as an artificial harbor on the ocean coast, which is an excavated port surrounded by a mole, connected with the ocean by an access channel and with the shore by a bridge-shaped pier.

  8. Fish community monitoring in Lisbon Bottom and Jameson Island, restoration units of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Numerous braided channels, islands, backwaters, sloughs, wetlands, and sandbars historically characterized the Missouri River. Human modifications such as the...

  9. Effects of anisotropic diffusion and finite island sizes in homoepitaxial growth Pt on Pt(100)-hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Linderoth, T.R.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1998-01-01

    size is i=1 and that the mobility of dimers is negligible. Furthermore, an early onset of island coalescence is revealed. From the scaling of the measured saturation island density, N-x similar to(R/h)(chi), where h = v exp(-E-d/k(B)T) is the adatom hopping rate, an effective barrier for diffusion of E......The diffusion, nucleation, and growth of Pt on the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100)-hex surface are investigated. By means of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), the positions, sizes, and number densities of monoatomically high, rectangular. reconstructed Pt islands, formed in the submonolayer...... of the determined island positions, it is revealed that the islands are distributed with long/short correlation lengths along, perpendicular to the reconstruction channels. The autocorrelation analysis allows us to quantify the degree of anisotropy in adatom diffusion. Island size distributions obtained...

  10. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  11. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  12. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  13. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  14. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R.; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation. PMID:27031949

  15. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  16. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  17. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Channel Islands Pinniped Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  18. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  19. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  20. Teacher Dispute Resolution Procedures in Virginia: Demographic Characteristics and Opinions of Neutral Chairpersons, School Division Superintendents, Attorneys, and Teacher Association Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Bunch, Ardene D. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the opinions of respondents regarding dispute resolution procedures utilized by public school teachers as described in sections 22.1- 312 of the Code of Virginia. In this study, demographic and opinion data were collected from individuals selected to serve as neutral chairpersons of fact-finding panels, school division superintendents or designees, local teacher association presidents, Virginia Education Association UniServ directors, and attorneys....

  1. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  2. Takarajima: A Treasured Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology’s interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific ‘treasure hunting’.

  3. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  4. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  5. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  6. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  7. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  8. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  9. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  10. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Fire History of the California Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. C.; Hardiman, M.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, R.

    2013-12-01

    Charcoal has been recovered from a range of late Pleistocene and Holocene sites on Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island, both islands part of California's Northern Channel Islands, U.S.A. Sediments have been dated using radiocarbon measurements based on wood charcoal, fungal sclerotia, glassy carbon and fecal pellets and are given as calendar years BP. This charcoal has been used to interpret the fire history of the Islands. Charcoal assemblages from samples dating from 24,690 to 12,900 years are dominated by coniferous wood charcoal. Little angiosperm charcoal was recovered in any of the samples. Fungal sclerotia are frequent in a number of samples from a range of ages both on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. Fecal pellets are common in most samples and abundant in others. Some of the fecal pellets have hexagonal sides and are likely to represent termite frass. The sediments are fluvial in origin and the distribution of charcoal is irregular making interpretation of fire return intervals and fire frequency difficult. The charcoal indicates a significant record of fire before the earliest documented human arrival on the islands. Charcoal reflectance data shows the occurrence of predominantly low temperature charcoals suggesting common surface fires in the coniferous forest. Soledad Pond sediments from Santa Rosa Island (Anderson et al., 2010) dating from 11,800 cal years BP show a distinctively different vegetation dominated by angiosperms and showing a very different fire history. Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub dominated by Baccharis sp. and grassland replaced the conifer forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150 cal yr BP. By ca. 6900 cal yr BP grasslands recovered. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the Soledad Pond record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general

  11. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.

    1998-08-01

    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  12. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson County Central Library, Lopez Island Public Library, North Olympic Public Library, Oak Harbor Public...

  13. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  14. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  15. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Steven

    1971-01-01

    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  16. The Flores Island tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  17. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  18. Channel nut tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  19. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  20. Shoaling Analysis at Brazos Island, Harbor Inlet, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Channel Shoaling Project, waves, currents, water levels, bathymetry, and sediment samples are being collected in and around BIH. These data will be... Texas by Ernest R. Smith, Tahirih C. Lackey, David B. King, and Richard Styles PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note...compared to recent events. INTRODUCTION: Brazos Island Harbor (also called Brazos Santiago Pass) is located on the lower Gulf of Mexico Texas coast

  1. NANAHAB -- Habitat polygons for the nearshore North Anacapa Island, Channel Islands NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  2. SMIGHAB -- Habitat polygons for the nearshore San Miguel Island, Channel Islands NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  3. NANAHAB -- Habitat polygons for the nearshore North Anacapa Island, Channel Islands NMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Benthic habitat polygon coverages have been created for marine reserve locations surrounding the Santa Barbara Basin. Diver, ROV and submersible video transects,...

  4. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...... production via SSDG. Furthermore, the paper gives an update on the implementation in Mauritius of the proposed incentives.......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...

  5. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  6. Multi-Channel Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morschett, Dr.,

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel retailing entails the parallel use by retailing enterprises of several sales channels. The results of an online buyer survey which has been conducted to investigate the impact of multi-channel retailing (i.e. the use of several retail channels by one retail company on consumer behaviour show that the frequently expressed concern that the application of multi-channel systems in retailing would be associated with cannibalization effects, has proven unfounded. Indeed, the appropriate degree of similarity, consistency, integration and agreement achieves the exact opposite. Different channels create different advantages for consumers. Therefore the total benefit an enterprise which has a multi-channel system can offer to its consumers is larger, the greater the number of available channels. The use of multi-channel systems is associated with additional purchases in the different channels. Such systems are thus superior to those offering only one sales channel to their customers. Furthermore, multi-channel systems with integrated channels are superior to those in which the channels are essentially autonomous and independent of one another. In integrated systems, consumers can achieve synergy effects in the use of sales-channel systems. Accordingly, when appropriately formulated, multi-channel systems in retailing impact positively on consumers. They use the channels more frequently, buy more from them and there is a positive customer-loyalty impact. Multi-channel systems are strategic options for achieving customer loyalty, exploiting customer potential and for winning new customers. They are thus well suited for approaching differing and varied target groups.

  7. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  8. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  9. Cushion plants as islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepedino, V J; Stanton, N L

    1976-09-01

    The acarine fauna of two abundant species of cushion plant on the high, short-grass prairie of S.E. Wyoming were used to test The MacArthur-Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography. Multiple regression analysis using area, distance and percent moisture as independent variables and number of mite species and number of mite individuals were run for the two sampling dates. Results showed area alone to be consistently and highly correlated (r=0.84-0.94) with both species and individuals for one cushion species. The slopes of the species-area and individuals-area curves are among the highest recorded and were significantly higher on the second sampling date. Selective seasonal changes in the fauna were shown by increases both in numbers of species and individuals, mainly on larger cushions, for the later sampling period. It is hypothesized that seasonal changes are due to an increase in the number of predator species in response to an increase in the number of prey items. The slopes of the species-area curves are compared with those in the literature and it is argued that slope values are more dependent upon the taxonomic group being studied than on whether the island is insular or oceanic. Finally, we suggest that The MacArthur-Wilson Theory is not applicable to islands which 1) exhibit continuous growth, 2) lack a discrete species source, and 3) are relatively transitory.

  10. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  11. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  12. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  13. Single-Beam Bathymetry of the Hurricane Sandy Breach at Fire Island, New York, June 2013 (1-Meter Digital Elevation Model)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset, 20130626_bathy_DEM.zip, contains a 1-meter (m) grid of June 2013 bathymetry of the breach channel, ebb shoal, and adjacent coast of the Fire Island...

  14. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  15. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    . Within this channel were smaller erosional structures (hardgrounds, and locally have a basal fill of granular phosphorite. The entire channel system was progressively infilled by chalk, as demonstrated by the expanded succession...

  16. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  17. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  18. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  19. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    be directed toward much more pressing problems, such as general habitat restoration, erosion control, and the removal of feral cats. The island night lizard (Xantusia riversiana) is endemic to three of the California Channel Islands: Nicolas, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara Islands. Due to its restricted range and apparently small population levels, both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game have listed the island night lizard as a threatened species. Our study was conducted on San Nicolas Island, which lies offshore 120 km southwest of Los Angeles, California. The island is managed by the U.S. Navy who refers to the island as Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island. The Navy maintains radar, telemetry, and communications equipment on San Nicolas Island to support its mission of testing and evaluating weapons systems. The Navy has dual requirements for ensuring military readiness and sustainability while complying with the Federal Endangered Species Act. A comprehensive understanding of the status and stability of the species on San Nicolas Island is essential for effective island management and may aid in the eventual delisting of the species. Previous work on the San Nicolas Island (Fellers and others, 1998) demonstrated that island night lizards were distributed over the eastern half of San Nicolas Island where there is suitable shrubby habitat. On the eastern half of the island, they occur primarily in or near cactus/sage scrub habitats on the north beach terrace, in scattered patches of scrub on the central mesa, and in boulder and cactus habitats on the southern escarpment of the island. Fellers and others (1998) evaluated data from 1984-85 and 1992-95 and estimated that there were 15,300 island night lizards present on San Nicolas Island. There are two non-native lizards on San Nicolas Island, the side-blotch lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata). Both of the

  20. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  1. Quantum Multiple Access Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯广; 黄民信; 张永德

    2002-01-01

    We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel by many senders, which is a generalization of the two-sender case. The channel capacity region is shown to be a convex hull bound by the yon Neumann entropy and the conditional yon Neumann entropies. The result allows a reasonable distribution of channel capacity over the senders.

  2. Gaillard Island Bio-degradable Geotube Test Project, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    western shore of Mobile Bay (Figure 1). The site is accessible to the Mobile Bay channel reach of the Theodore Ship Channel. The depth of water in...configuration was designed to make the shoreline parallel to the rest of that part of the island, allowing waves from all directions to roll along the shore ...Hay bale weir. CONCLUSIONS: The test project resulted in successfully testing several bio-degradable containment options for managing sandy and

  3. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  4. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  5. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  6. The submental island flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  7. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  9. Ion channels in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742

  10. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  11. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  12. Rain on small tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  13. Protocol channels as a new design alternative of covert channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wendzel, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Covert channel techniques are used by attackers to transfer hidden data. There are two main categories of covert channels: timing channels and storage channels. This paper introduces a third category called protocol channels. A protocol channel switches one of at least two protocols to send a bit combination to a destination while sent packets include no hidden information themselves.

  14. Surface vacancy channels through ion channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Damage patterns of single ion impacts on Pt(111) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Low temperature experiments, where surface diffusion is absent, have been performed for argon and xenon ions with energies between 1 keV and 15 keV at an angle of incidence of 86 {sup circle} measured with respect to the surface normal. Ions hitting preexisting illuminated step edges penetrate into the crystal and are guided in open crystallographic directions, one or more layers underneath the surface (subsurface channeling). In the case of argon channeling the resulting surface damage consists of adatom and vacancy pairs aligned in ion beam direction. After xenon channeling thin surface vacancy trenches along the ion trajectories - surface vacancy channels - are observed. They result from very efficient sputtering and adatom production along the ion trajectory. This phenomena is well reproduced in molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts at 0 K. The damage patterns of Argon and Xenon impacts can be traced back to the different energy losses of the particles in the channel. Channeling distances exceeding 1000 A for 15 keV xenon impacts are observed.

  15. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  16. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  17. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  18. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock Channel and Bird Island Pier opposite the foot of Porter Avenue, bounded as follows: Beginning at...

  19. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  20. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  1. The Dogs of CA-SRI-2: Osteometry of Canis familiaris from Santa Rosa Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hofman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris are an important human companion around the world and have long been a focus of archaeological research. Osteometric analysis of six dogs from a Late Holocene Chumash village on Santa Rosa Island, California indicates that adults, juvenile/young adults, and a puppy were present. Similar to dogs on other Channel Islands, these dogs fall into the large Indian dog category, standing some 43-54 cm tall, with mesaticephalic or mild brachycephalic facial characteristics. No cutmarks were found on the bones, but one of the mandibles was burned. The CA-SRI-2 dogs appear to have eaten high trophic marine foods similar to what humans consumed, documenting the close bond between dogs and humans on the Channel Islands and broader North American Pacific Coast.

  2. Quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J; Devetak, I; Yard, Jon; Hayden, Patrick; Devetak, Igor

    2006-01-01

    We analyze quantum broadcast channels, which are quantum channels with a single sender and many receivers. Focusing on channels with two receivers for simplicity, we generalize a number of results from the network Shannon theory literature which give the rates at which two senders can receive a common message, while a personalized one is sent to one of them. Our first collection of results applies to channels with a classical input and quantum outputs. The second class of theorems we prove concern sending a common classical message over a quantum broadcast channel, while sending quantum information to one of the receivers. The third group of results we obtain concern communication over an isometry, giving the rates at quantum information can be sent to one receiver, while common quantum information is sent to both, in the sense that tripartite GHZ entanglement is established. For each scenario, we provide an additivity proof for an appropriate class of channels, yielding single-letter characterizations of the...

  3. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  4. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  5. Volunteer service and mechanism in the U.S. national parks: A case study of Channel Islands National Park%美国国家公园志愿者服务及机制——以海峡群岛国家公园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 刘小宇; 郭建科; 孙才志

    2016-01-01

    Volunteer service of the United States national parks has a history of more than one hundred years.It has become an important part of the national parks management.Volunteer service effectively realizes the management idea of the American public for the national parks.Through on-the-spot investigation and interview in order,the authord made a deep thinking and analysis of the related concept of national parks volunteer service,service motivation,service decision,service contents,service support and service mechanism.From three aspects,namely,huge but orderly service system,the management and operation,and function realization,we analyzed the volunteer service mechanism of national parks,and pointed out four supports for the U.S.national parks volunteer service:propaganda support,technical support,learning support and legislative support,with the Channel Islands National Park as an example.Finally this paper pointed out that in-depth studies should be conducted on the national parks volunteer service as well as the national parks volunteer service of China.Firstly,from the perspective of volunteers,we should make an in-depth study for the volunteer behavior space.Secondly,from the perspective of national parks,different types of volunteers-in-parks programs for national parks are different,so the task for natural and human resources and environmental protection how to implement the operational level to the public is a question;Thirdly,the project for the national park service can be realized by the volunteer tourism.In recent years,volunteer tourism has become more and more popular among the public.Its theory is worth studying and we should make it clear.What's more,the national park volunteer service is a part of the U.S.national park service management system.So how can we put these managements into our country in the future,and what are the enlightenment and reference are? These questions also need us to solve.At the same time,we should appeal to the academics

  6. Postglacial vegetation history of Orcas Island, northwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Estella B.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Whitlock, Cathy; Nickmann, Rudy; Watts, William A.

    2016-05-01

    The revegetation of islands following retreat of Pleistocene glaciers is of great biogeographical interest. The San Juan Islands, Washington, feature regionally distinctive xerophytic plant communities, yet their vegetation history, as it relates to past climate and sea level, is poorly known. We describe a 13,700-year-old pollen record from Killebrew Lake Fen and compare the vegetation reconstruction with others from the region. The data suggest that the narrow channels surrounding Orcas Island were not a barrier to early postglacial immigration of plants. Between 13,700 and 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus, Tsuga, Picea, Alnus viridis, and possibly Juniperus maritima were present in a mosaic that supported Bison antiquus and Megalonyx. The rise of Alnus rubra-type pollen and Pteridium spores at ca. 12,000 cal yr BP suggests a warming trend and probably more fires. Temperate conifer taxa, including Cupressaceae, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga heterophylla, and Abies, increased after 11,000 cal yr BP and especially in the last 7000 cal yr BP. After 6000 cal yr BP, Pseudotsuga and Cupressaceae dominated the vegetation. The last 1500 yr were the wettest period of the record. Due to its rain shadow location, Orcas Island experienced drier conditions than on the mainland during most of the postglacial period.

  7. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    -control stabilization of the headlandds such as the Montauk Point headlands, and deepening of navigation channels by dredging through the tidal inlets and in the bays. Indirect impacts that have a bearing on decisions to deal with breaching are: high-risk development of the barrier islands and low-lying areas of the mainland vulnerable to flooding, and the dredging of nearshore sand shoals for beach nourishment. The NPS strives to employ a coastal management framework for decision making that is based on assessment of the physical and ecological properties of the shoreline as well as human welfare and property. In order to protect developed areas of Fire Island and the mainland from loss of life, flooding, and other economic and physical damage, the NPS will likely need to consider allowing artificial closure of some breaches within the FIIS under certain circumstances. The decision by the NPS to allow breaches to evolve naturally and possibly close or to allow artificially closing breaches is based on four criteria: 1. Volumes of sediment transported landward and exchange of water and nutrients;

  8. Ion channels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  9. Quantum feedback channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G

    2002-01-01

    In classical information theory the capacity of a noisy communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback. In quantum information theory the no-cloning theorem means that noiseless copying and feedback of quantum information cannot be achieved. In this paper, quantum feedback is defined as the unlimited use of a noiseless quantum channel from receiver to sender. Given such quantum feedback, it is shown to provide no increase in the entanglement-assisted capacities of a noisy quantum channel, in direct analogy to the classical case. It is also shown that in various cases of non-assisted capacities, feedback can increase the capacity of many quantum channels.

  10. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  11. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    identified as being crucial mediators of this process in a variety of smooth muscle. Recently, KV7 channels have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, as well as being implicated in other smooth muscle disorders, providing a new and inviting target for smooth muscle disorders.......Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  12. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  13. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  14. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  15. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (FR): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detriche, Sebastien; Rodrigues, Stephane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul [Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CNRS/INSU UMR 6113 ISTO, Universite d' Orleans Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Geologie des Environnements Aquatiques Continentaux, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Bonte, Philippe [UMR CNRS-CEA 1572, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement - LSCE, CNRS, Domaine du CNRS, Bat. 12, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Juge, Philippe [CETU-Elmis ingenieries, Antenne Universitaire en Val de Vienne, 11 quai Danton, 37500 Chinon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (FR) was investigated using the {sup 137}Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some {sup 137}Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about {sup 137}Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited pre-incision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year{sup -1}) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment. (authors)

  16. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  17. Ion channels in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  18. Biochemical and hematologic reference intervals for the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiromi; Clifford, Deana L; Vickers, T Winston; Coonan, Timothy J; Garcelon, David K; Borjesson, Dori L

    2012-07-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemical data collected must be interpreted by comparison with normal reference intervals generated from healthy animals, within a similar population, because many blood parameters are influenced by diet, environment, and stress. Species-specific reference intervals for the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis) are not available. We reviewed hematology and serum biochemistry panels from 280 island foxes sampled from 1999-2008 and established normal reference intervals from clinically healthy foxes using a nonparametric approach. Blood parameters were analyzed for differences in age, sex, island of origin, and captivity status. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, as well as calcium and phosphorus concentrations, were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults, but total protein and globulin concentration was lower for juveniles than for adults. Lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, in foxes from the northern Channel islands of California, USA (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel) were higher when compared with foxes from Santa Catalina Island to the south. Higher lymphocyte and eosinophil numbers in the northern island foxes may be associated with increased levels of parasitism on the northern islands. Differences in BUN concentration in both free-ranging and captive foxes may reflect dietary differences among islands. Although aggressive conservation programs have been enacted, island foxes are still susceptible to infectious and neoplastic diseases and, potentially, to toxins. Island fox species-specific reference intervals will enable managers and veterinarians to better care for sick and injured foxes and will contribute to future population health monitoring.

  19. Long-Term Morphological Modeling of Barrier Island Tidal Inlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Styles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this study is to apply a two-dimensional (2-D coupled flow-wave-sediment modeling system to simulate the development and growth of idealized barrier island tidal inlets. The idealized systems are drawn from nine U.S. coastal inlets representing Pacific Coast, Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast geographical and climatological environments. A morphological factor is used to effectively model 100 years of inlet evolution and the resulting morphological state is gauged in terms of the driving hydrodynamic processes. Overall, the model performs within the range of established theoretically predicted inlet cross-sectional area. The model compares favorably to theoretical models of maximum inlet currents, which serve as a measure of inlet stability. Major morphological differences are linked to inlet geometry and tidal forcing. Narrower inlets develop channels that are more aligned with the inlet axis while wider inlets develop channels that appear as immature braided channel networks similar to tidal flats in regions with abundant sediment supply. Ebb shoals with strong tidal forcing extend further from shore and spread laterally, promoting multi-lobe development bisected by ebb shoal channels. Ebb shoals with moderate tidal forcing form crescent bars bracketing a single shore-normal channel. Longshore transport contributes to ebb shoal asymmetry and provides bed material to help maintain the sediment balance in the bay.

  20. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  1. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  2. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  3. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  4. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  5. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  6. Generalized channeled polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenin, Andrey S; Tyo, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Channeled polarimeters measure polarization by modulating the measured intensity in order to create polarization-dependent channels that can be demodulated to reveal the desired polarization information. A number of channeled systems have been described in the past, but their proposed designs often unintentionally sacrifice optimality for ease of algebraic reconstruction. To obtain more optimal systems, a generalized treatment of channeled polarimeters is required. This paper describes methods that enable handling of multi-domain modulations and reconstruction of polarization information using linear algebra. We make practical choices regarding use of either Fourier or direct channels to make these methods more immediately useful. Employing the introduced concepts to optimize existing systems often results in superficial system changes, like changing the order, orientation, thickness, or spacing of polarization elements. For the two examples we consider, we were able to reduce noise in the reconstruction to 34.1% and 57.9% of the original design values.

  7. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  8. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...

  9. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... from biogeography, community ecology and evolution to global change, this horizon scan may help to foster the formation of interdisciplinary research networks, enhancing joint efforts to better understand the past, present and future of island biotas....... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores....... Results: Questions were structured around four broad and partially overlapping island topics, including: (Macro)Ecology and Biogeography, (Macro)Evolution, Community Ecology, and Conservation and Management. These topics were then subdivided according to the following subject areas: global diversity...

  10. Análise faciológica e estratigráfica da planície costeira de Soure (margem leste da ilha de Marajó-PA, no trecho compreendido entre o canal do Cajuúna e o estuário Paracauari Faciological and stratigraphical analysis of Soure's coastal plain (eastern Marajó island-Pará, between Cajuúna channel and Paracauari estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmena Ferreira de França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A planície costeira de Soure, na margem leste da ilha de Marajó (Pará, é constituída por áreas de acumulação lamosa e arenosa, de baixo gradiente, sujeitas a processos gerados por marés e ondas. Suas feições morfológicas são caracterizadas por planícies de maré, estuários, canais de maré e praias-barreiras. A análise faciológica e estratigráfica de seis testemunhos a vibração, com profundidade média de 4 m, e de afloramentos de campo permitiu a caracterização dos ambientes deposicionais, sua sucessão temporal e sua correlação lateral, a elaboração de seções estratigráficas e a definição de uma coluna estratigráfica. Foram identificadas cinco associações de facies: (1 facies de planície de maré, (2 facies de manguezal, (3 facies de barra de canal de maré, (4 facies de praia e (5 facies de duna. A história sedimentar da planície costeira de Soure é representada por duas sucessões estratigráficas: (1 a sucessão progradacional, constituída pelas associações de facies de planície de maré, manguezal e barra de canal de maré; e (2 a sucessão retrogradacional, formada pelas associações de facies de praia e de duna. Essas sucessões retratam uma fase de expansão das planícies de maré e manguezais, com progradação da linha de costa (Holoceno médio a superior, e uma posterior fase de retrogradação, com migração dos ambientes de praias e dunas sobre depósitos lamosos de manguezal e planície de maré, no Holoceno atual. A história deposicional da planície costeira de Soure é condizente com o modelo de evolução holocênica das planícies costeiras do nordeste paraense.Soures's coastal plain, eastern Marajó island (Pará, is formed by muddy and sandy deposits, low gradient areas submitted to tidal and wave processes. The morphological features are tidal flats, estuaries, tidal channels and barrier-beach ridges . The faciological and stratigraphical analysis of six vibra-core with medium

  11. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  12. Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, John C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations.

  13. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  14. Computation over Mismatched Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Karamchandani, Nikhil; Diggavi, Suhas

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributed computation of a target function over a multiple-access channel. If the target and channel functions are matched (i.e., compute the same function), significant performance gains can be obtained by jointly designing the computation and communication tasks. However, in most situations there is mismatch between these two functions. In this work, we analyze the impact of this mismatch on the performance gains achievable with joint computation and communication designs over separation-based designs. We show that for most pairs of target and channel functions there is no such gain, and separation of computation and communication is optimal.

  15. Channel Access in Erlang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  16. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  17. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  18. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khangaonkar, Tarang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  19. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic.

  20. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  1. An Insight to Covert Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Salwan, Nitish; Singh, Sandeep; Arora, Suket; Singh, Amarpreet

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of different concepts regarding covert channels. It discusses the various classifications and the detailing of various fields used to manipulate for the covert channel execution.Different evaluation criterias are presented for measuring the strength of covert channels. The defenses and prevention schemes for this covert channel will also be discussed. This paper also discuss about an advanced timing channel i.e.Temperature Based Covert Channel.

  2. Army Strong, Superintendent Savvy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Brigadier General Anthony "Tony" Tata of the U.S. Army had one of those "ah-ha" moments in April 2006 when, on the eve of an operation he was heading in Afghanistan, an Al Qaeda rocket shattered a nearby school. The attack killed a teacher and seven students and wounded dozens more. The rocket incident eventually nudged Tata toward a new mission:…

  3. Army Strong, Superintendent Savvy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Brigadier General Anthony "Tony" Tata of the U.S. Army had one of those "ah-ha" moments in April 2006 when, on the eve of an operation he was heading in Afghanistan, an Al Qaeda rocket shattered a nearby school. The attack killed a teacher and seven students and wounded dozens more. The rocket incident eventually nudged Tata…

  4. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  5. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  6. Characterization of fluvial islands along three different gravel-bed rivers of North-Eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Picco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available River islands are defined as discrete areas of woodland vegetation located in the riverbed and surrounded by either water-filled channels or exposed gravels, exhibiting some stability and remaining exposed during bank-full flows. Islands are very important from both morphological and ecological points of view, representing the most natural condition of a fluvial system and are strongly influenced by human impacts. This study aims at analyzing the morphological and vegetation characteristics of three different typologies of islands (pioneer, young and stable in three distinct rivers in the NE of Italy, affected by different intensities of human pressure. The study was conducted on several sub-reaches of the Piave, Brenta and Tagliamento rivers. The first is a gravel-bed river, which suffered intense and multiple human impacts, especially due to dam building and in-channel gravel mining. The same alterations can also be observed in the Brenta river, which also presents bank protections, hydropower schemes and water diversions. On the other hand, the Tagliamento river is a gravel-bed river characterized by a high level of naturality and very low human pressures. The analyses were conducted using aerial photographs and LiDAR data acquired in 2010 in order to define and distinguish the three different island typologies and to obtain a characterization of ground and vegetation features. The results suggest that the fluvial islands lie at different elevations and this fact implies a different resistance capacity during flood events. Pioneer islands and young islands lie at lower elevations than stable islands causing a lower capacity to survive during considerable flood events, in fact in most cases those islands typologies were removed by ordinary floods. Stable islands lie at higher elevations and only intense and infrequent flood events (RI > 10-15 years are able to determine considerable erosions. Regarding the characteristics of vegetation, we can

  7. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  8. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  9. Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

  10. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  11. Covert Channels within IRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Communications ....................................... 2 1.3 Steganography and Covert Channels .......................................................... 3...Internet Relay Chat ..................................................................................... 7 2.2 Steganography ...13 2.2.2 Encrypted Steganographic Systems .............................................. 15 2.2.3 Text-Based Steganography

  12. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  13. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  14. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  15. Authentication over Noisy Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios, lower and upper bounds are shown to match, and hence the fundamental limit of message authentication over noisy channels is fully characterized. The opponent's success probability is further shown to be smaller than that derived in the classic authentication model in which the channel is assumed to be noiseless. These results rely on a proposed novel authentication scheme in which key information is used to provide simultaneous protection again both types of attacks.

  16. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  17. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    , and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...... by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling....

  18. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  19. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  20. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  1. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  2. Fracture channel waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  3. Interpretation of Paleo-Channel Based on Shallow Seismic Reflection Record in Banten Bay, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Noviadi

    2017-02-01

    This layer was the system that occur during the process of an interglacial on the Sunda Shelf when it was still a part of land that connects the Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan Islands. Paleo-channel deposits are characterized by subparalel - chaotic reflection character with a thickness between 5-35 meters.

  4. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  5. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  6. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  7. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  8. CRED 10m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Maug Island(s), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Maug Island(s), CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 4 and 3275 meters. This 10-m grid also...

  9. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  10. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report...

  11. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  12. Channel response to a new hydrological regime in southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, J. N.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2007-02-01

    The Kent River flows from semi-arid headwaters in the agricultural (wheatbelt) region of Western Australia to a wetter and forested lower-catchment. It is set in an atypical fluvial environment, with rainfall decreasing inland towards a low-relief upper catchment. Replacement of native deep-rooted perennial vegetation with shallow-rooted seasonal crops has altered the hydrology of the upper catchment. Clearing for agriculture has also increased recharge of regional groundwater systems causing groundwater to rise and mobilise salt stores. This has increased stream salinity which has degradation riparian vegetation and decreased flow resistance. Elevated groundwater has also affected streamflow, increasing flow duration and annual discharge. The altered hydrological regime has affected geomorphic stability, resulting in channel responses that include incision and removal of uncohesive material. Channel response is variable, showing a high dependence on channel morphotype, channel boundary material and severity of salinity (degree of vegetation degradation). Response in confined reaches bounded by sandy material has been characterised by minor lateral bank erosion. In the fine-grained, wider, low-gradient reaches, mid-channel islands have been stripped of sandy sediment where vegetation has degraded. Following an initial period of high erosion rates in these reaches, the channel is now slowly adjusting to a new set of boundary conditions. The variable response has significant implications for management of salt affected rivers in southwestern Australia.

  13. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  14. A Volcanic Origin for Sinuous and Branching Channels on Mars: Evidence from Hawaiian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; deWet, Andrew; Garry, W. Brent; Zimbelman, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of sinuous and branching channels on planets have long driven a debate about their origin, fluvial or volcanic processes. In some cases planetary conditions rule out fluvial activity (e.g. the Moon, Venus, Mercury). However, the geology of Mars leads to suggestions that liquid water existed on the surface in the past. As a result, some sinuous and branching channels on Mars are cited as evidence of fluvial erosion. Evidence for a fluvial history often focuses on channel morphologies that are unique from a typical lava channel, for instance, a lack of detectable flow margins and levees, islands and terraces. Although these features are typical, they are not necessarily diagnostic of a fluvial system. We conducted field studies in Hawaii to characterize similar features in lava flows to better define which characteristics might be diagnostic of fluvial or volcanic processes. Our martian example is a channel system that originates in the Ascraeus Mons SW rift zone from a fissure. The channel extends for approx.300 km to the SE/E. The proximal channel displays multiple branches, islands, terraces, and has no detectable levees or margins. We conducted field work on the 1859 and 1907 Mauna Loa flows, and the Pohue Bay flow. The 51-km-long 1859 Flow originates from a fissure and is an example of a paired a a and pahoehoe lava flow. We collected DGPS data across a 500 m long island. Here, the channel diverted around a pre-existing obstruction in the channel, building vertical walls up to 9 m in height above the current channel floor. The complicated emplacement history along this channel section, including an initial a a stage partially covered by pahoehoe overflows, resulted in an appearance of terraced channel walls, no levees and diffuse flow margins. The 1907 Mauna Loa flow extends > 20 km from the SW rift zone. The distal flow formed an a a channel. However the proximal flow field comprises a sheet that experienced drainage and sagging of the crust

  15. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  16. "Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    "NODA, Shinichi"

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  17. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  18. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  19. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  20. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  1. Thin metal island plasmon sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Downey, Todd R.; Passian, A.; Oden, Patrick I.; Wig, A. G.; Crilly, P. B.; Mangeant, S.; Ferrell, Trinidad L.

    1998-12-01

    The effects of the local dielectric environment on the surface-plasmon resonances of annealed gold-island films are studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. Gold- island films were annealed at 600 degree(s)C to produce spheroidal shape particles which exhibit well-resolved resonances in polarized, angle-resolved, absorption spectra. These resonances are shifted in different amounts by the depolarization effect of the surrounding medium (liquids with various refraction indices). Cross-section calculations based upon non-retarded, single-particle, dielectric interaction for these various configurations are presented and found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  3. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  4. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  5. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  6. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  7. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  8. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  10. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to main content Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum HOME TAKE ACTION CONTACT US DONATE Facebook Twitter ... latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, Suite #850, ...

  11. Pool spacing in forest channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington; Richard D. Smith; Kevin M. Schmidt; George Pess

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys of stream channels in forested mountain drainage basins in southeast Alaska and Washington reveal that pool spacing depends on large woody debris (LWD) loading and channel type, slope, and width. Mean pool spacing in pool-riffle, plane-bed, and forced pool-riffle channels systematically decreases from greater than 13 channel widths per pool to less than 1...

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  13. Calcium channels and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  15. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  16. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species. Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There has been an increase in new records over the past six years but no systematic studies have been developed. The need for further research that focuses on ecological aspects and anthropogenic impacts is critical in order to develop adequate conservation strategies.

  17. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Lakshadweep Islands lie on the sea route between South Asia, Far East and African countries. Being on the trade route, boats and ships used the islands of Lakshadweep as a stopover to take on fresh water. Lakshadweep Islands played an important role...

  18. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31 Li

  19. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  20. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  1. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large- m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  2. Chaos in quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hosur, Pavan; Roberts, Daniel A; Yoshida, Beni

    2015-01-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  3. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  4. TRP channels and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, David

    2013-01-01

    Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.

  5. BLIND CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN DELAY DIVERSITY FOR FREQUENCY SELECTIVE CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zheng; Jia Ying; Yin Qinye

    2003-01-01

    Delay diversity is an effective transmit diversity technique to combat adverse ef-fects of fading. Thus far, previous work in delay diversity assumed that perfect estimates ofcurrent channel fading conditions are available at the receiver and training symbols are requiredto estimate the channel from the transmitter to the receiver. However, increasing the number ofthe antennas increases the required training interval and reduces the available time within whichdata may be transmitted. Learning the channel coefficients becomes increasingly difficult for thefrequency selective channels. In this paper, with the subspace method and the delay character ofdelay diversity, a channel estimation method is proposed, which does not use training symbols. Itaddresses the transmit diversity for a frequency selective channel from a single carrier perspectivein the form of a simple equivalent fiat fading model. Monte Carlo simulations give the perfor-mance of channel estimation and the performance comparison of our channel-estimation-baseddetector with decision feedback equalization, which uses the perfect channel information.

  6. K(v)7 channels: function, pharmacology and channel modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby-Brown, William; Hansen, Henrik H; Korsgaard, Mads P G; Mirza, Naheed; Olesen, Søren-P

    2006-01-01

    K(v)7 channels are unique among K(+) channels, since four out of the five channel subtypes have well-documented roles in the development of human diseases. They have distinct physiological functions in the heart and in the nervous system, which can be ascribed to their voltage-gating properties. The K(v)7 channels also lend themselves to pharmacological modulation, and synthetic openers as well as blockers of the channels, regulating neuronal excitability, have existed even before the K(v)7 channels were identified by cloning. In the present review we give an account on the focused efforts to develop selective modulators, openers as well as blockers, of the K(v)7 channel subtypes, which have been undertaken during recent years, along with a discussion of the K(v)7 ion channel physiology and therapeutic indications for modulators of the neuronal K(v)7 channels.

  7. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  8. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (Elsevier B.V.

  9. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, K.A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, R.J.;

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  10. 1946 Unimak Island, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 1, 1946, at 12:29 [local time] a rather strong magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred with source to the south of Unimak Island, causing one of the most...

  11. Rhode Island's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Rhode Island based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  12. Date with the Green Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Qingdao,also spelled Tsingtao,iS one of the most beautiful and clean cities in China and with a population of around 2.5 million(7 million regional)is the largest city after Jinan(the capital)in Shandong Province.The name"Qingdao"means "The Green Island".

  13. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  14. Chaos in easter island ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, J C

    2011-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems.

  15. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  16. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  17. In-Situ Measurements of Surface Elevations in Tail Water Channel for SSG Pilot Plant at Kvitsøy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Margheritini, Lucia

    This report presents the measurements from the installation of a pressure transducer in the tail water channel at the second proposed position of the SSG pilot plant at the island of Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The measured data are compared to tide data from other source, and among the concl......This report presents the measurements from the installation of a pressure transducer in the tail water channel at the second proposed position of the SSG pilot plant at the island of Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The measured data are compared to tide data from other source, and among...

  18. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  19. Communicating Under Channel Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, Naqueeb; Shah, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    For a single transmit and receive antenna system, a new constellation design is proposed to combat errors in the phase estimate of the channel coefficient. The proposed constellation is a combination of PSK and PAM constellations, where PSK is used to provide protection against phase errors, while PAM is used to increase the transmission rate using the knowledge of the magnitude of the channel coefficient. The performance of the proposed constellation is shown to be significantly better than the widely used QAM in terms of probability of error. The proposed strategy can also be extended to systems using multiple transmit and receive antennas.

  20. Sedimentary processes and development of the Zenisu deep-sea channel, Philippine Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShiguo; SakamotoIzumi

    2003-01-01

    Zenisu deep-sea channel originated from a volcanic arc region, Izu-Ogasawara Island Arc, and vanished in the Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea. According to the swath bathymetry, the deep-sea channel can be divided into three segments. They are Zenisu canyon, E-W fan channel and trough-axis channel. A lot of volcanic detritus were deposited in the Zenisu Trough via the deep-sea channel because it originated from volcanic arc settings. On the basis of the swath bathymetry, submersible and seismic reflection data, the deposits are characterized by turbidite and debrite deposits as those in the other major deep-sea channels. Erosion or few sediments were observed in the Zenisu canyon,whereas a lot of turbidites and debrites occurred in the E-W channel and trough axis channel. Cold seep communities,active fault and fluid flow were discovered along the lower slope of the Zenisu Ridge. Vertical sedimentary sequences in the Zenisu Trough consist of the four post-rift sequence units of the Shikoku Basin, among which Units A and B are two turbidite units. The development of Zenisu canyon is controlled by the N-S shear fault, the E-W fan channel is related to the E-W shear fault, and the trough-axis channel is related to the subsidence of central basin.

  1. Sedimentary processes and development of the Zenisu deep-sea channel, Philippine Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Zenisu deep-sea channel originated from a volcanic arc region, Izu-Ogasawara Island Arc, and vanished in the Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea. According to the swath bathymetry, the deep-sea channel can be divided into three segments. They are Zenisu canyon, E-W fan channel and trough-axis channel. A lot of volcanic detritus were deposited in the Zenisu Trough via the deep-sea channel because it originated from volcanic arc settings. On the basis of the swath bathymetry, submersible and seismic reflection data, the deposits are characterized by turbidite and debrite deposits as those in the other major deep-sea channels. Erosion or few sediments were observed in the Zenisu canyon, whereas a lot of turbidites and debrites occurred in the E-W channel and trough axis channel. Cold seep communities, active fault and fluid flow were discovered along the lower slope of the Zenisu Ridge. Vertical sedimentary sequences in the Zenisu Trough consist of the four post-rift sequence units of the Shikoku Basin, among which Units A and B are two turbidite units. The development of Zenisu canyon is controlled by the N-S shear fault, the E-W fan channel is related to the E-W shear fault, and the trough-axis channel is related to the subsidence of central basin.

  2. Seismic history of the Maltese islands and considerations on seismic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galea

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A historical catalogue of felt earthquakes in the Maltese islands has been compiled dating back to 1530. Although no fatalities were officially recorded during this time as a direct consequence of earthquake effects, serious damage to buildings occurred several times. In the catalogue time period, the islands experienced EMS-98 intensity VII-VIII once (11 January 1693 and intensity VII, or VI-VII five times. The northern segment of the Hyblean-Malta plateau is the source region which appears to pose the greatest threat, although large Greek events and lower magnitude Sicily Channel events also produced damage. Estimates of return periods for intensity ?V are presented, and it is shown that expected peak ground accelerations justify the implementation of, at least, minimum anti-seismic provisions. The rapid and continual increase in the local building stock on the densely-populated islands warrants the implementation of an appropriate seismic building code to be enforced.

  3. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  4. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  5. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin

    2015-02-01

    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  6. Aggravation of north channels' shrinkage and south channels' development in the Yangtze Estuary under dam-induced runoff discharge flattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-yuan; Li, Yi-tian; Yue, Yao; Yang, Yun-ping

    2017-03-01

    Construction of dams on rivers has progressively affected the seasonal variability of runoff discharge, which has consequently produced remarkable impacts on the morphology of estuarine channels. This paper considers four-typical-order bifurcations of the Yangtze Estuary and adopts an ebb partition ratio (defined as the diversion ratio of ebb flow in a given branch divided by the total ebb tidal discharge immediately upstream of the river node where the bifurcation occurs) as a measure of water excavating force in the bifurcation channels. Results show that the seasonal variability of runoff discharge at Datong Hydrological Station (Datong) is flattened, being mainly driven by upstream runoff flattening observed at Yichang Hydrological Station (Yichang) and the tributary rivers. Yearly ebb partition ratios of the channels located to the north and south of the islands present decreasing and increasing trends respectively, and as also do the yearly north and south channel volume of the bifurcations. Yearly ebb partition ratio is proved to be an effective index to represent the water excavating force considering the stability of yearly ebb tidal discharge and its relationship with the channel erosion-deposition. River dams are the driving factors behind the runoff flattening at Datong because of their flattening effects on its main contributors (Yichang and tributary rivers). This flattening significantly helps reduce and enlarge the yearly ebb partition ratios of the north and south channels respectively, and then aggravates the shrinkage and development of the north and south channels separately. Yearly ebb partition ratio of the North Passage (NP) must be enlarged in order for the NP to maintain its function as a shipping channel.

  7. Developments in relativistic channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy accelerator applications and particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used for accelerator extraction and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but have not yet been tried. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  9. Ion channels in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  10. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  11. Intermittency and exotic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A

    1994-01-01

    It is pointed out that accurate measurements of short-range two-particle correlations in like-charge K\\pi and in \\pi^ 0\\pi^ 0 channels should be very helpful in determining the origin of the \\lq\\lq intermittency\\rq\\rq\\ phenomenon observed recently for the like-charge pion pairs.

  12. All channels open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Alle kanalen staan open. The rapid changes taking place in the media landscape in the Netherlands - characterised by digitisation and convergence of media technologies - raise the question of how the Dutch are dealing with the many new opportunities that have opened up. All channels

  13. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  14. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  15. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  16. Predictive techniques for river channel evolution and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting changes in alluvial channel morphology associated with anthropogenic and natural changes in flow and/or sediment supply is a critical part of the management of riverine systems. Over the past few years, advances in the understanding of the physics of sediment transport in conjunction with rapidly increasing capabilities in computational fluid dynamics have yielded now approaches to problems in river mechanics. Techniques appropriate for length scales ranging from reaches to bars and bedforms are described here. Examples of the use of these computational approaches are discussed for three cases: (1) the design of diversion scenarios that maintain channel morphology in steep cobble-bedded channels in Colorado, (2) determination of channel maintenance flows for the preservation of channel islands in the Snake River in Idaho, and (3) prediction of the temporal evolution of deposits in lateral separation zones for future assessment of the impacts of various dam release scenarios on lateral separation deposits in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. With continued development of their scientific and technical components, the methodologies described here can provide powerful tools for the management of river environments in the future.

  17. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  18. A New Covert Channel over Cellular Voice Channel in Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Aloraini, Bushra; Johnson, Daryl; Stackpole, Bill; Mishra, Sumita

    2015-01-01

    Investigating network covert channels in smartphones has become increasingly important as smartphones have recently replaced the role of traditional computers. Smartphones are subject to traditional computer network covert channel techniques. Smartphones also introduce new sets of covert channel techniques as they add more capabilities and multiple network connections. This work presents a new network covert channel in smartphones. The research studies the ability to leak information from the...

  19. Sedimentological and Geophysical Signatures of a Relict Tidal Inlet along a Wave-Dominated Barrier, Assateague Island, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminack, C. T.; Buynevich, I. V.; Grimes, Z. T.; Griffis, N.; Goble, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Assateague Island is a classic example of a retrograding barrier island, with its recent geological history punctuated by episodes of overwash and breaching. However, in addition to a number of historical inlets, parts of the island may owe their origin to relict (pre-historic) channels. The present study was conducted north of the Virginia-Maryland border, focusing on a narrow segment of the island fronting the Green Run Bay. The site lies north of the historical Green Run Inlet that was active until 1880, however, there is no geological evidence that it migrated southward from the Green Run Bay. More than 4 km of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) images, complemented with sediment cores and multi-dating techniques, were used to reconstruct the geological legacy of this older barrier segment. Our findings suggest that a backbarrier paleo-channel still visible within the Green Run Bay corresponds to a large (>380 m wide, 3.0-3.5 m thick) channel cut-and-fill structure revealed in GPR images. The channel fill consists of tangential- to sigmoidal-oblique, southward-dipping reflections downlapping onto channel lag facies, which overlie subhorizontal bay-fill strata. Hummocky reflections in a shore-normal channel transect suggest partial preservation of inlet-related bedforms, believed to be associated with the channel closure. Radiocarbon samples of Mollusk shells from the bay fill yield radiocarbon ages of 4630-2400 cal BP (calibrated years before 1950). The paleo-channel facies overlying the bay deposits exhibits a fining-upward sequence, with a mean grain size range of 0.44-2.43 φ. The first set of optical dates indicates that the inlet fill is 660±70 cal BP (AD 1220-1360). The paleo-channel fill does not extend to the south and therefore is a separate relict feature that predates the historical Green Run Inlet. Based on geophysical and core data, the paleo-tidal prism of the relict channel is 17x106 m3. Following the closure of the inlet, a series

  20. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.