Sample records for superintendent channel islands

  1. Stretched Superintendents (United States)

    Graves, Bill


    A story about superintendents hired to manage two districts finds they exercise good organizational skills--and a lot of hustle--to succeed in this unique role. They don't discount the downsides and do question the money savings involved. Superintendents doing double duty is nothing new, particularly among the hundreds of small districts scattered…

  2. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park. (United States)


    ... commercial purposes is prohibited in the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of the monument between east end of Arch Rock 119°21′-34°01′ and west end of island, 119°27′-34°01... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a...

  3. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature, 1993-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  4. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels (United States)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio


    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  5. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  6. 77 FR 66073 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  7. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  8. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis (United States)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.


    Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore reached island

  9. Seafloor Backscatter Image of North of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution backscatter of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired...

  10. Seafloor Backscatter Image of South of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution backscatter of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired...

  11. Seafloor Bathymetry Image of South of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution bathymetry of the seafloor south of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired using...

  12. Seafloor Bathymetry Image of North of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (8m resolution tif) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents an 8 meter resolution bathymetry of the seafloor north of Santa Rosa Island in Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. It was acquired using...

  13. Longevity of Women Superintendents (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.


    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  14. Genesis and sedimentary record of blind channel and islands of the anabranching river: An evolution model (United States)

    Leli, Isabel T.; Stevaux, José C.; Assine, Mário L.


    Blind channel (BC) is a fluvial feature formed by attachment of a lateral sand bar to an island or riverbank. It consists of a 10- to 20-m wide and hundreds to thousands meters long channel, parallel to the island or bank, closed at its upstream end by accretion to the island. It is an important feature in anabranching rivers that plays an important role in both the island formation and river ecology. This paper discusses the formation processes, functioning, evolution, and the sedimentary record of a blind channel, related landforms, and its context on island development in the Upper Paraná River. The evolution of this morphologic feature involves (1) formation of a lateral or attachment bar beside an island with the development of a channel in between; (2) vertical accretion of mud deposits during the flood and vegetal development on the bar; (3) the upstream channel closure that generates the blind channel; and (4) annexation of the blind channel to the island. A blind channel is semilotic to lentic, that is not totally integrated to the dynamics of the main active channel and that acts as a nursery for fingerlings and macrophytes. The sedimentary facies succession of BCs are relatively simple and characterized by cross-stratified sand covered by organic muddy sediments. Based on facies analysis of 12 cores, we identified a succession of environments that contribute to the formation of islands: channel bar, blind channel, pond, and swamp. Blind channel formation and its related bar-island attachment are relevant processes associated with the growing of large island evolution in some anabranching rivers.

  15. 77 FR 27188 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary... (United States)


    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Chumash Community...

  16. 78 FR 5779 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary... (United States)


    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business Alternate...

  17. Mapping process and age of Quaternary deposits on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California (United States)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.


    Employing a geomorphic process-age classification scheme, we mapped the Quaternary surficial geology of Santa Rosa (SRI) within the Channel Islands National Park. This detailed (1:12,000 scale) map represents upland erosional transport processes and alluvial, fluvial, eolian, beach, marine terrace, mass wasting, and mixed depositional processes. Mapping was motivated through an agreement with the National Park Service and is intended to aid natural resource assessments, including post-grazing disturbance recovery and identification of mass wasting and tectonic hazards. We obtained numerous detailed geologic field observations, fossils for faunal identification as age control, and materials for numeric dating. This GPS-located field information provides ground truth for delineating map units and faults using GIS-based datasets- high-resolution (sub-meter) aerial imagery, LiDAR-based DEMs and derivative raster products. Mapped geologic units denote surface processes and Quaternary faults constrain deformation kinematics and rates, which inform models of landscape change. Significant findings include: 1) Flights of older Pleistocene (>120 ka) and possibly Pliocene marine terraces were identified beneath younger alluvial and eolian deposits at elevations as much as 275 m above modern sea level. Such elevated terraces suggest that SRI was a smaller, more submerged island in the late Neogene and (or) early Pleistocene prior to tectonic uplift. 2) Structural and geomorphic observations made along the potentially seismogenic SRI fault indicate a protracted slip history during the late Neogene and Quaternary involving early normal slip, later strike slip, and recent reverse slip. These changes in slip mode explain a marked contrast in island physiography across the fault. 3) Many of the steeper slopes are dramatically stripped of regolith, with exposed bedrock and deeply incised gullies, presumably due effects related to past grazing practices. 4) Surface water presence is

  18. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis). (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E


    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  19. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Size and Frequency, Natural Habitat, 1985-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has measurements of the size of selected animal species at selected locations in the Channel Islands National Park. Sampling is conducted annually...

  20. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Fish Transect, 1985-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of fish species. The original measurements...

  1. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Random Point Contact, 1982-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has estimates of substrate composition and percent cover of selected algal and...

  2. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, 5m Quadrat, 1996-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of selected rare, clumped, sedentary indicator...

  3. Salary, Performance, and Superintendent Turnover (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Mitani, Hajime


    Purpose: Superintendent retention is an important goal for many school districts, yet the factors contributing to superintendent turnover are poorly understood. Most prior quantitative studies of superintendent turnover have relied on small, cross-sectional samples, limiting the evidence base. Utilizing longitudinal administrative records from…

  4. Overcoming Barriers: Women in Superintendency (United States)

    Miller, Claire M.


    Women currently represent the largest number of teachers in the United States but remain underrepresented in the superintendent position. This suggests that the superintendency has been influenced by patriarchy. If women are to break through the barriers that prevent them from attaining a superintendency, we will need to understand the social…

  5. North Carolina Superintendent Turnover (United States)

    Wheeler, John J.


    In 1922, Ellwood Cubberley characterized the superintendency by stating, "No profession offers such large personal rewards for the opportunity of living one's life in molding other lives, and in helping to improve materially the intellectual tone and moral character of a community" (Public school administration: A statement of the…

  6. Seeking the Essential Superintendent. (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.


    Although typical school administration program deserves criticism, it would be impossible for a university-based preparation program to cover all topics identified in AASA's "Professional Standards for Superintendents." Universities understandably stress theory and cannot substitute for rich professional development program in school…

  7. Channel and island change in the lower Platte River, Eastern Nebraska, USA: 1855 2005 (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Henebry, G. M.


    The lower Platte River has undergone considerable change in channel and bar characteristics since the mid-1850s in four 20-25 km-long study stretches. The same net effect of historical channel shrinkage that was detected upstream from Grand Island, Nebraska, can also be detected in the lower river but differences in the behaviors of study stretches upstream and downstream from major tributaries are striking. The least relative decrease occurred downstream from the Loup River confluence, and the stretch downstream from the Elkhorn River confluence actually showed an increase in channel area during the 1940s. Bank erosion was also greater downstream of the tributaries between ca. 1860 and 1938/1941, particularly in stretch RG, which showed more lateral migration. The cumulative island area and the ratio of island area to channel area relative to the 1938/1941 baseline data showed comparatively great fluctuations in median island size in both downstream stretches. The erratic behavior of island size distributions over time indicates that large islands were accreted to the banks at different times, and that some small, newly-stabilized islands were episodically "flushed" out of the system. In the upstream stretches the stabilization of mobile bars to create new, small islands had a more consistent impact over time. Channel decrease by the abandonment of large, long-lived anabranches and by the in-place narrowing resulting from island accretion were more prominent in these upstream stretches. Across all of the study area, channel area appears to be stabilizing gradually as the rate of decrease lessens. This trend began earliest in stretch RG in the late 1950s and was accompanied by shifts in the size distributions of stabilized islands in that stretch into the 1960s. Elsewhere, even in the easternmost study stretch, stabilizing was occurring by the late 1960s, the same time frame documented by investigations of the Platte system upstream of the study area. Comprehensive

  8. The contributions of Donald Lee Johnson to understanding the Quaternary geologic and biogeographic history of the California Channel Islands (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.


    Over a span of 50 years, native Californian Donald Lee Johnson made a number of memorable contributions to our understanding of the California Channel Islands. Among these are (1) recognizing that carbonate dunes, often cemented into eolianite and derived from offshore shelf sediments during lowered sea level, are markers of glacial periods on the Channel Islands; (2) identifying beach rock on the Channel Islands as the northernmost occurrence of this feature on the Pacific Coast of North America; (3) recognizing of the role of human activities in historic landscape modification; (4) identifying both the biogenic and pedogenic origins of caliche “ghost forests” and laminar calcrete forms on the Channel Islands; (5) providing the first soil maps of several of the islands, showing diverse pathways of pedogenesis; (6) pointing out the importance of fire in Quaternary landscape history on the Channel Islands, based on detailed stratigraphic studies; and (7), perhaps his greatest contribution, clarifying the origin of Pleistocene pygmy mammoths on the Channel Islands, due not to imagined ancient land bridges, but rather the superb swimming abilities of proboscideans combined with lowered sea level, favorable paleowinds, and an attractive paleovegetation on the Channel Islands. Don was a classic natural historian in the great tradition of Charles Darwin and George Gaylord Simpson, his role models. Don’s work will remain important and useful for many years and is an inspiration to those researching the California Channel Islands today.

  9. Channel-Island Connectivity Affects Water Exposure Time Distributions in a Coastal River Delta (United States)

    Hiatt, Matthew; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Twilley, Robert; Hodges, Ben R.; Passalacqua, Paola


    The exposure time is a water transport time scale defined as the cumulative amount of time a water parcel spends in the domain of interest regardless of the number of excursions from the domain. Transport time scales are often used to characterize the nutrient removal potential of aquatic systems, but exposure time distribution estimates are scarce for deltaic systems. Here we analyze the controls on exposure time distributions using a hydrodynamic model in two domains: the Wax Lake delta in Louisiana, USA, and an idealized channel-island complex. In particular, we study the effects of river discharge, vegetation, network geometry, and tides and use a simple model for the fractional removal of nitrate. In both domains, we find that channel-island hydrological connectivity significantly affects exposure time distributions and nitrate removal. The relative contributions of the island and channel portions of the delta to the overall exposure time distribution are controlled by island vegetation roughness and network geometry. Tides have a limited effect on the system's exposure time distribution but can introduce significant spatial variability in local exposure times. The median exposure time for the WLD model is 10 h under the conditions tested and water transport within the islands contributes to 37-50% of the network-scale exposure time distribution and 52-73% of the modeled nitrate removal, indicating that islands may account for the majority of nitrate removal in river deltas.

  10. Uta stansburiana and Elgaria multicarinata on the California Channel Islands: Natural dispersal or artificial introduction? (United States)

    Mahoney, Meredith J.; Parks, Duncan S.M.; Fellers, Gary M.


    Uta stansburiana and Elgaria multicarinata occur on several California Channel Islands, and recent introduction of some populations has been suggested because of similarity in life-history traits and body size to mainland populations. We sequenced representatives of each species from mainland southern California and some of the islands on which they occur. For each species, cytochrome bsequence divergence is low across the narrow geographic area sampled. Analyses of 14 haplotypes of U. stansburiana suggest long-established residency on Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands but more recent arrival on San Nicolas and Santa Cruz Islands. Analyses of eight haplotypes of E. multicarinata suggest these lizards may have been recently transported to San Nicolas Island.

  11. Human responses to Middle Holocene climate change on California's Channel Islands (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Cannariato, Kevin G.


    High-resolution archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from California's Channel Islands provide a unique opportunity to examine potential relationships between climatically induced environmental changes and prehistoric human behavioral responses. Available climate records in western North America (7-3.8 ka) indicate a severe dry interval between 6.3 and 4.8 ka embedded within a generally warm and dry Middle Holocene. Very dry conditions in western North America between 6.3 and 4.8 ka correlate with cold to moderate sea-surface temperatures (SST) along the southern California Coast evident in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core 893A/B (Santa Barbara Basin). An episode of inferred high marine productivity between 6.3 and 5.8 ka corresponds with the coldest estimated SSTs of the Middle Holocene, otherwise marked by warm/low productivity marine conditions (7.5-3.8 ka). The impact of this severe aridity on humans was different between the northern and southern Channel Islands, apparently related to degree of island isolation, size and productivity of islands relative to population, fresh water availability, and on-going social relationships between island and continental populations. Northern Channel Islanders seem to have been largely unaffected by this severe arid phase. In contrast, cultural changes on the southern Channel Islands were likely influenced by the climatically induced environmental changes. We suggest that productive marine conditions coupled with a dry terrestrial climate between 6.3 and 5.8 ka stimulated early village development and intensified fishing on the more remote southern islands. Contact with people on the adjacent southern California Coast increased during this time with increased participation in a down-the-line trade network extending into the western Great Basin and central Oregon. Genetic similarities between Middle Holocene burial populations on the southern Channel Islands and modern California Uto-Aztecan populations suggest

  12. Wildlife use of back channels associated with islands on the Ohio River (United States)

    Zadnik, A.K.; Anderson, James T.; Wood, P.B.; Bledsoe, K.


    The back channels of islands on the Ohio River are assumed to provide habitat critical for several wildlife species. However, quantitative information on the wildlife value of back channels is needed by natural resource managers for the conservation of these forested islands and embayments in the face of increasing shoreline development and recreational boating. We compared the relative abundance of waterbirds, turtles, anurans, and riparian furbearing mammals during 2001 and 2002 in back and main channels of the Ohio River in West Virginia. Wood ducks (Aix sponsa), snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), beavers (Castor canadensis), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were more abundant in back than main channels. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and American toads (Bufo americanus) occurred more frequently on back than main channels. These results provide quantitative evidence that back channels are important for several wildlife species. The narrowness of the back channels, the protection they provide from the main current of the river, and their ability to support vegetated shorelines and woody debris, are characteristics that appear to benefit these species. As a conservation measure for important riparian wildlife habitat, we suggest limiting building of piers and development of the shoreline in back channel areas. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. A Comparison of Male and Female Assistant Superintendents and Their Descriptions of Internal Barriers, External Barriers, Motivators, Stressors, and Discriminatory Acts They Anticipate Encountering on the Route to the Superintendency (United States)

    Hunter, Tanesha N.


    The purpose of this research study was to compare male and female assistant superintendents and their descriptions of Internal Barriers, External Barriers, Internal Motivators, External Motivators, Stressors, and Discriminatory Acts they anticipated encountering on the route to the superintendency in Suffolk and Nassau Counties on Long Island, New…

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates (United States)


    ... Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G, App. A Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 922...

  15. Subglacial drainage patterns of Devon Island, Canada: detailed comparison of rivers and subglacial meltwater channels (United States)

    Grau Galofre, Anna; Jellinek, A. Mark; Osinski, Gordon R.; Zanetti, Michael; Kukko, Antero


    Subglacial meltwater channels (N-channels) are attributed to erosion by meltwater in subglacial conduits. They exert a major control on meltwater accumulation at the base of ice sheets, serving as drainage pathways and modifying ice flow rates. The study of exposed relict subglacial channels offers a unique opportunity to characterize the geomorphologic fingerprint of subglacial erosion as well as study the structure and characteristics of ice sheet drainage systems. In this study we present detailed field and remote sensing observations of exposed subglacial meltwater channels in excellent preservation state on Devon Island (Canadian Arctic Archipelago). We characterize channel cross section, longitudinal profiles, and network morphologies and establish the spatial extent and distinctive characteristics of subglacial drainage systems. We use field-based GPS measurements of subglacial channel longitudinal profiles, along with stereo imagery-derived digital surface models (DSMs), and novel kinematic portable lidar data to establish a detailed characterization of subglacial channels in our field study area, including their distinction from rivers and other meltwater drainage systems. Subglacial channels typically cluster in groups of ˜ 10 channels and are oriented perpendicular to active or former ice margins. Although their overall direction generally follows topographic gradients, channels can be oblique to topographic gradients and have undulating longitudinal profiles. We also observe that the width of first-order tributaries is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than in Devon Island river systems and approximately constant. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with theoretical expectations drawn from analyses of flow driven by gradients in effective water pressure related to variations in ice thickness. Our field and remote sensing observations represent the first high-resolution study of the subglacial geomorphology of the high Arctic, and provide

  16. Seasonal variability of the diapycnal mixing in the Canary Islands channels (United States)

    Rodríguez-Santana, Angel; Marrero-Díaz, Angeles; Machín, Francisco Jose; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Estrada-Allis, Sheila


    Trimonthly surveys of XBT and XCTD (Expandable Bathytermograph and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) crossing the whole Canary Islands channels were carried out (projects TRAMIC and PROMECA) from November 2012 until September 2013 using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). With this data set and using salinity analytical relationships (Machín et al, 2010), vertical sections of temperature and potential density were obtained for each channel and season. In order to estimate the intensity of the diapycnal mixing in the first 500 m of the pycnocline, vertical sections of Thorpe length scale, Turner angle and gradient Richardson number (from the geostrophic vertical shear) were calculated for all the cases. The first results show how the diapycnal mixing due to the vertical shear instabilities is more intense close to the islands and in summer when the seasonal pycnocline is present. Mixing due to double diffusion processes (salt fingers) was found without sizable changes in the permanent pycnocline. Net turbulence diffusivities and diapycnal diffusive fluxes with their variability spatial and temporal will be estimate for each channel taking into account that processes of double diffusion and turbulence induced by vertical shear are present at the same time. Additionally the results obtained from hydrographic data from the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) (October 2013) around Canary Islands will be used to compare them with the channels results. This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092), European Union (FEDER) and Spanish Government (PROMECA: CTM2008-04057/MAR and CTM2009-06993-E/MAR)

  17. Development and characterization of 12 microsatellite markers for the Island Night Lizard (Xantusia riversiana), a threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands, California, USA (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.


    The Island Night Lizard is a federally threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands of California. Twelve microsatellite loci were developed for use in this species and screened in 197 individuals from across San Nicolas Island, California. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 21. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.520 to 0.843. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population structure, effective population size, and gene flow across the island, to inform protection and management of this species.

  18. Drowned reefs and antecedent karst topography, Au'au channel, S.E. Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    Grigg, R.W.; Grossman, E.E.; Earle, S.A.; Gittings, S.R.; Lott, D.; McDonough, J.


    During the last glacial maximum (LGM), about 21,000 years ago, the Hawaiian Islands of Maui, Lanai, and Molokai were interconnected by limestone bridges, creating a super-island known as Maui-Nui. Approximately 120 m of sea-level rise during the Holocene Transgression flooded, and then drowned, these bridges separating the islands by inter-island channels. A new multibeam high-resolution bathymetric survey of the channels between the islands, coupled with observations and video-transects utilizing DeepWorker-2000 submersibles, has revealed the existence of numerous drowned reef features including concentric solution basins, solution ridges (rims), sand and sediment plains, and conical-shaped reef pinnacles. The concentric basins contain flat lagoon-like bottoms that are rimmed by steep-sided limestone walls. Undercut notches rim the basins at several depths, marking either sea-level still stands or paleo-lake levels. All of the solution basins shallower than 120 m were subaerial at the LGM, and at one stage or another may have been shallow shoreline lakes. Today, about 70 drowned reef pinnacles are scattered across the Maui-Lanai underwater bridge and all are situated in wave-sheltered positions. Most drowned during the interval between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago when sea-level rise averaged 15 mm/year. Virtually all of the surficial topography in the Au'au Channel today is a product of karst processes accentuated by marginal reef growth during the Holocene. Both the submerged basins and the drowned reefs represent an archive of sea-level and climate history in Hawaii during the late Quaternary.

  19. Phylogeography and genetic structure of endemic Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus (Fabaceae) across the California Channel Islands. (United States)

    Wallace, Lisa E; Wheeler, Gregory L; McGlaughlin, Mitchell E; Bresowar, Gerald; Helenurm, Kaius


    Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago. We studied phylogeography of insular Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus to determine whether infraspecific taxa are genetically divergent and to elucidate patterns of diversification across these islands. DNA sequences were collected from nuclear (ADH) and plastid genomes ( rpL16 , ndhA , psbD-trnT ) from >450 samples on the Channel Islands and California. We estimated population genetic diversity and structure, phylogenetic patterns among populations, and migration rates, and tested for population growth. Populations of northern island A. argophyllus var. niveus are genetically distinct from conspecific populations on southern islands. On the southern islands, A. argophyllus var. argenteus populations on Santa Catalina are phylogenetically distinct from populations of var. argenteus and var. adsurgens on the other southern islands. For A. dendroideus , we found the varieties to be monophyletic. Populations of A. dendroideus var. traskiae on San Clemente are genetically differentiated from other conspecific populations, whereas populations on the northern islands and Santa Catalina show varying degrees of gene flow. Evidence of population growth was found in both species. Oceanic barriers between islands have had a strong influence on population genetic structure in both Acmispon species, although the species have differing phylogeographic patterns. This study provides a contrasting pattern of dispersal on a near island system that does not follow a strict stepping-stone model, commonly found on isolated island systems. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Does Superintendents' Leadership Styles Influence Principals' Performance? (United States)

    Davis, Theresa D.


    Educational leaders across the United States face changes affecting the educational system related to federal and state mandates. The stress of those changes may be related to superintendents' longevity. The superintendent position has a mobility rate that is quite high. Every superintendent is different and may have a different leadership style…

  1. How Superintendents Spend Their Working Time. (United States)

    Friesen, David; Duignan, Patrick


    Observations of superintendents indicate that, within the plethora of tasks and activities, the hectic variety of demands and contacts of their jobs, the superintendents cope with rather than organize their time schedules. Still, the superintendents seem to attend to the most vital activities. (Author/IRT)

  2. Power and the Role of the Superintendent (United States)

    Miller, Teresa Northern; Salsberry, Trudy A.; Devin, Mary A.


    This study of the superintendent focus group interviews from the "Voices 3" project adds to the research base with regard to the range and nature of the types of power experienced or used by superintendents. Using the French & Raven/Andrews & Baird model of seven types of power, the authors analyzed superintendents'…

  3. Outsourcing the Superintendency: Contextual Changes to the Urban School Superintendent. (United States)

    Sanders, Eugene T. W.; And Others


    Analyzes an urban Ohio school board's decision regarding potential employment of a business firm instead of a traditional superintendent, highlighting the board's selection process and the nature of board/community interactions. The study used an interview guide format with five board members. The board chose not to hire a Minnesota-based firm for…

  4. Evacuation by sedimentary processes of fluvioglaciais glacier meltwater channels in Wanda, King George Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa, K.; Vieira, R.; Velho, L.; Hammes, D.; Marquetto, L.; Lopes Simões, F.; Cardia Simões, J.


    Full text: Wanda Glacier is located on the western shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula . The glacier is characterized by the current land base and communicates with the Admiralty Bay through a proglacial lagoon, a result of the downturn in decades process. This generates glacier meltwater streams flowing through channels proglaciais falling on proglacial lagoon or directly on the bay, contributing suspended particulate matter into the bay .This paper presents preliminary results of field activities conducted in the glacier Wanda Operantar XXVIII, during the summer of 2009/10 . Investigates the influence of basal meltwater through fluvioglaciais channels and variability in suspended sediment evacuation by means of these, relating to the concentration of suspended particulate matter in the Bay, particularly in the cove Martel . Data were obtained through measurements of desgarga and the concentration of suspended material in the proglaciais defrost from the baseline flow of glacier water channels . Additionally, meteorological data such as rainfall, were associated with variations in the concentration of suspended sediment during the period . Was also made ​​in support of field mapping of meltwater channels

  5. 75 FR 30776 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary... (United States)


    ... the general public. The Council functions in an advisory capacity to the Sanctuary Superintendent. The... their particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community... increase the public knowledge and stewardship of the Sanctuary environment; and (4) assisting to develop an...

  6. Moral Rudders and Superintendent Values (United States)

    Kidder, Rushworth M.


    The core challenge is this--a difficult ethical decision, where values are in play and both sides have powerful moral arguments in their favor. One case presented in this article outlines a dilemma faced by one teacher who became a superintendent herself. The case exploded dramatically in a midsize metropolitan school district, where a principal…

  7. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.


    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  8. Examining Influence of Fog and Stratus Clouds on Bishop Pine Water Budgets, Channel Islands, CA (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.


    We present the first results from a project whose goal is to advance our basic understanding of the role that fog and persistent stratus clouds play in ecological processes in the California Channel Islands. Our work is focused on a population of Bishop Pines (Pinus muricata) on Santa Cruz Island (SCI), the largest, most topographically complex and most biologically diverse island along the California coast. This is the southernmost population (except for an outlier stand near San Vicente, Baja California), and tree growth appears to be water-limited in such a marginal habitat. We hypothesize that persistent fog and low stratus clouds enhance the water balance of these trees via direct water inputs (fog drip and foliar absorption) and reduced solar heating. To assess these possible effects, we have established weather stations and fog and rain collectors throughout the largest Bishop pine stand on SCI. Initial analysis of weather data shows dramatic differences in solar loading over short distances. We present data on the isotopic content (oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2) of water samples collected from winter 2003 to summer 2004. The samples we collected include fogwater, rainfall, water vapor, soil water, leaf and xylem water, and stream water. We also collected and analyzed leaf biomass and soil organic matter samples at periodic intervals for carbon-13 content. These latter data are evaluated in light of extensive leaf-level ecophysiological data collected in the field and as part of a parallel greenhouse study.

  9. On the importance of stratigraphic control for vertebrate fossil sites in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA: Examples from new Mammuthus finds on San Miguel Island (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Muhs, Daniel R.; McGeehin, John P.


    Quaternary vertebrate fossils, most notably mammoth remains, are relatively common on the northern Channel Islands of California. Well-preserved cranial, dental, and appendicular elements of Mammuthus exilis (pygmy mammoth) and Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth) have been recovered from hundreds of localities on the islands during the past half-century or more. Despite this paleontological wealth, the geologic context of the fossils is described in the published literature only briefly or not at all, which has hampered the interpretation of associated 14C ages and reconstruction of past environmental conditions. We recently discovered a partial tusk, several large bones, and a tooth enamel plate (all likely mammoth) at two sites on the northwest flank of San Miguel Island, California. At both localities, we documented the stratigraphic context of the fossils, described the host sediments in detail, and collected charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells for radiocarbon dating. The resulting 14C ages indicate that the mammoths were present on San Miguel Island between ∼20 and 17 ka as well as between ∼14 and 13 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), similar to other mammoth sites on San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa Islands. In addition to documenting the geologic context and ages of the fossils, we present a series of protocols for documenting and reporting geologic and stratigraphic information at fossil sites on the California Channel Islands in general, and in Channel Islands National Park in particular, so that pertinent information is collected prior to excavation of vertebrate materials, thus maximizing their scientific value.

  10. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.


    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  11. Ecological change on California's Channel Islands from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene (United States)

    Rick, Torben C.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Hofman, Courtney A.; Ralls, Katherine; Anderson, R. Scott; Boser, Christina L.; Braje, Todd J.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Chesser, R. Terry; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Faulkner, Kate R.; Fleischer, Robert; Funk, W. Chris; Galipeau, Russell; Huston, Ann; King, Julie; Laughrin, Lyndal L.; Maldonado, Jesus; McEachern, Kathryn; Muhs, Daniel R.; Newsome, Seth D.; Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Still, Christopher; Morrison, Scott A.


    Historical ecology is becoming an important focus in conservation biology and offers a promising tool to help guide ecosystem management. Here, we integrate data from multiple disciplines to illuminate the past, present, and future of biodiversity on California's Channel Islands, an archipelago that has undergone a wide range of land-use and ecological changes. Our analysis spans approximately 20,000 years, from before human occupation and through Native American hunter–gatherers, commercial ranchers and fishers, the US military, and other land managers. We demonstrate how long-term, interdisciplinary research provides insight into conservation decisions, such as setting ecosystem restoration goals, preserving rare and endemic taxa, and reducing the impacts of climate change on natural and cultural resources. We illustrate the importance of historical perspectives for understanding modern patterns and ecological change and present an approach that can be applied generally in conservation management planning.

  12. Seismic Facies of Pleistocene–Holocene Channel-fill Deposits in Bawean Island and Adjacent Waters, Southeast Java Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albab


    Full Text Available The late Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic architecture of the Bawean Island and surrounding waters, southeast Java Sea has been analyzed by using sparker seismic profiles. Geological interpretation of these seismic profiles revealed the widespread distribution of paleochannels with different shape and size in the present-day Java Sea. Two channel types can be distinguished based on its morphology: U-shaped channels in the western part and V-shaped channels in the eastern part. The stratigraphic successions were grouped into two major seismic units separated by different seismic boundaries. Characters of marine and fluvial deposits were determined based on seismic boundaries and internal reflectors. Three seismic facies can be identified within late Pleistocene – Holocene incised channel fills associated with SB2. The internal structure of incised-channels consist of chaotic reflector at the bottom, covered by parallel–sub parallel and almost reflection-free indicating the homogenous sediment deposited during the succession.

  13. Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn


    Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

  14. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona (United States)

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki


    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  15. Measuring the Performance of School Superintendent (United States)



    School superintendent has a strategic role in the effort to improve the quality of education, referred to the responsibility to give service and assistance for the teachers and headmasters which will affect the improvement of learning quality in school. Yet, the strategic role and function of superintendent, in fact, is still reflecting its ideal…

  16. Women in the Superintendency: Discarded Leadership (United States)

    Dana, Joyce A.; Bourisaw, Diana M.


    The percentage of women in the superintendency remained stagnant over 80 years of the last century and has only increased slightly, to just fewer than 14% of the public school superintendents in the U.S. today. In other words, the glass ceiling still exists. The persistent reasons for lack of change are gender prejudice and gender…

  17. Women Superintendents in Illinois: Gender Barriers and Challenges (United States)

    VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra G.


    Women face unique challenges as superintendents. This study determined barriers women face as superintendents and elicited reasons why these women would consider leaving the superintendent's position. Thirty-nine PreK-12 women superintendents in Illinois participated in a web-based survey in January 2008. Survey items included information…

  18. Hydrologic Effects and Biogeographic Impacts of Coastal Fog, Channel Islands, California (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.


    Fog has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrological cycle in many ecosystems, including coastal desert fog belts, tropical cloud forests, and montane areas worldwide. Fog drip can be a major source of water, particularly during the dry season, and there is evidence in some ecosystems of direct fogwater uptake by foliar absorption. Fog and low clouds can also increase availability of water by reducing evaporative water losses. In the California Channel Islands, fog and low stratus clouds dramatically affect the water budget of coastal vegetation, particularly during the long summer drought. This work focuses on a population of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. This is the southernmost large stand of this species, and tree growth and survival appears to be strongly limited by water availability. We have used parallel measurement and modeling approaches to quantify the importance of fogwater inputs and persistent cloud cover to Bishop pine growth. We have modeled drought stress over the last century based on local climate records, calibrated against a dense network of 12 weather stations on a 7km coastal-inland elevation gradient. Water availability is highly variable year to year, with episodic droughts that are associated with widespread tree mortality. Frequent cloud cover near the coast reduces evapotranspiration relative to the inland site (on the order of 25%), thereby delaying the onset of, and moderating the severity of the annual summer drought. Substantial summer fog drip at higher elevations provides additional water inputs that also reduce drought severity. Beyond the theoretical availability of extra water from fog drip, tree ring analysis and xylem water isotopic data suggest that significant amounts of fog water are actually taken up by these trees. Stand boundaries appear to be driven by spatial patterns of mortality related to water availability and frequency of severe drought. These results suggest that

  19. "Filling the Seat": The Pathway to the Superintendency for One African-American Woman Superintendent (United States)

    Davis-Jones, Shelly A.


    The underrepresentation of women who are school superintendents is problematic, especially given the number of women who are classroom teachers and principals. This oral history study examines and describes how one African-American female superintendent, despite the conditions of racial and gender marginalization and oppression, attained her…

  20. Selecting a Superintendent in a Tight Market: How the Current Superintendent Can Help (United States)

    Kersten, Thomas


    Selecting a new district leader is always a challenge for school board members. A poor decision can lead to difficulties for everyone associated with the school district including the newly appointed superintendent. By relying on the wisdom and experience of the current superintendent, boards of education enhance their chances of selecting the…

  1. Fire and vegetation history on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands, and long-term environmental change in southern California (United States)

    Starratt, Scott W.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, Robert S.; Jass, R.B.


    The long-term history of vegetation and fire was investigated at two locations – Soledad Pond (275 m; from ca. 12 000 cal. a BP) and Abalone Rocks Marsh (0 m; from ca. 7000 cal. a BP) – on Santa Rosa Island, situated off the coast of southern California. A coastal conifer forest covered highlands of Santa Rosa during the last glacial, but by ca. 11 800 cal. a BP Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub and grassland replaced the forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150 cal. a BP, as the pond dried frequently, and coastal sage scrub covered the nearby hillslopes. By ca. 6900 cal. a BP grasslands recovered at both sites. Pollen of wetland plants became prominent at Soledad Pond after ca. 4500 cal. a BP, and at Abalone Rocks Marsh after ca. 3465 cal. a BP. Diatoms suggest freshening of the Abalone Rocks Marsh somewhat later, probably by additional runoff from the highlands. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general increase occurs after ca. 7000 cal. a BP, and especially after ca. 4500 cal. a BP. The Holocene pattern closely resembles population levels constructed from the archaeological record, and suggests a potential influence by humans on the fire regime of the islands, particularly during the late Holocene.

  2. Internal Accountability and District Achievement: How Superintendents Affect Student Learning (United States)

    Hough, Kimberly L.


    This quantitative survey study was designed to determine whether superintendent accountability behaviors or agreement about accountability behaviors between superintendents and their subordinate central office administrators predicted district student achievement. Hierarchical multiple regression and analyses of covariance were employed,…

  3. Changes in vegetation and biological soil crust communities on sand dunes stabilizing after a century of grazing on San Miguel Island, Channel Island National Park, California (United States)

    Zellman, Kristine L.


    San Miguel Island is the westernmost of the California Channel Islands and one of the windiest areas on the west coast of North America. The majority of the island is covered by coastal sand dunes, which were stripped of vegetation and subsequently mobilized due to droughts and sheep ranching during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Since the removal of grazing animals, vegetation and biological soil crusts have once again stabilized many of the island's dunes. In this study, historical aerial photographs and field surveys were used to develop a chronosequence of the pattern of change in vegetation communities and biological soil crust levels of development (LOD) along a gradient of dune stabilization. Historical aerial photographs from 1929, 1954, 1977, and 2009 were georeferenced and used to delineate changes in vegetation canopy cover and active (unvegetated) dune extent among 5 historical periods (pre-1929, 1929–1954, 1954–1977, 1977–2009, and 2009–2011). During fieldwork, vegetation and biological soil crust communities were mapped along transects distributed throughout San Miguel Island's central dune field on land forms that had stabilized during the 5 time periods of interest. Analyses in a geographic information system (GIS) quantified the pattern of changes that vegetation and biological soil crust communities have exhibited on the San Miguel Island dunes over the past 80 years. Results revealed that a continuing increase in total vegetation cover and a complex pattern of change in vegetation communities have taken place on the San Miguel Island dunes since the removal of grazing animals. The highly specialized native vascular vegetation (sea rocket, dunedelion, beach-bur, and locoweed) are the pioneer stabilizers of the dunes. This pioneer community is replaced in later stages by communities that are dominated by native shrubs (coastal goldenbush, silver lupine, coyote-brush, and giant coreopsis), with apparently overlapping or

  4. Occupational Stressors and Job Satisfaction of Pennsylvania School District Superintendents (United States)

    Kane, Kevin T.


    Today's superintendents face increasingly non-routine and complex problems that are educational, managerial, and political in nature. This study investigated occupational stressors and job satisfaction of school superintendents in Pennsylvania. This was accomplished through self-report of superintendents and through the perspective of school board…

  5. The Superintendency: Reflections of Past and Present CEOs. (United States)

    Washington, Kenneth R.


    Summarizes in-depth interviews with six past and present Canadian superintendents from metropolitan school districts. Discusses school board expectations of superintendents, ways to build an effective working relationship with the board, the political demands of the superintendent's position, and instructional leadership and other aspects of the…

  6. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.


    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  7. Perceptions of School Conflict by Nebraska Superintendents (United States)

    DeTurk, Theodore J.


    Conflict is a natural and pervasive, but often misunderstood, force that thrives in all human societies. Conflict is an inherent part of the school environment because of the labor-intensive nature of the school setting. As district leaders, school superintendents are surrounded daily by diverse groups of people who have their own needs and…

  8. Women's Journey to the School Superintendency (United States)

    Connell, Peggy H.; Cobia, F. Jane; Hodge, Pat H.


    Eighty percent of public school teachers are females, but only 24% of school superintendents are females. This upward trend from a low of 1.3% in the early 1970s has not mirrored the increase of females in executive level positions in other professions. A mixed-methods design identified the barriers that contribute to the under-representation and…

  9. Recruiting and Selecting a New Superintendent. Revised. (United States)

    Lewis, Edmund L., Ed.

    The recruitment and selection of a new superintendent is a difficult and time-consuming task. It is the single most critical responsibility of a school board. The decision will ultimately affect the entire education program of the district. Careful and thoughtful preparation, definition of orderly and effective procedures, conformity with ethical…

  10. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.

  11. Conditions in the Channel Islands during the 1940–45 German Occupation and their impact on the health of islanders: A systematic review of published reports and first-hand accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. H. Ellison


    Full Text Available The 1940-45 German occupation of the Channel Islands culminated in a 10-month siege between the liberation of Normandy in 1944 and the fall of Berlin in May 1945. This paper systematically reviews published reports and first-hand accounts of conditions in the Channel Islands during the occupation, and assesses the impact of these conditions on the health of islanders. Vital registration data, official reports and first-hand accounts all suggest that the occupation was accompanied by widespread weight loss and an increase in mortality, particularly among the elderly and other vulnerable groups. Children, adolescents and young adults may have also suffered disproportionately as these groups (teenagers in particular were allocated rations that underestimated their full nutritional requirements. Indeed, data collected before, during and after the occupation reveal that the height and weight of school children was significantly lower during the occupation, while age at menarche was significantly delayed amongst girls entering puberty.

  12. Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands NationalPark, California, USA (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.; Schumann, R. Randall; Agenbroad, Larry D.


    Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island–mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.

  13. Quaternary sea-level history and the origin of the northernmost coastal aeolianites in the Americas: Channel Islands National Park, California, USA (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Schumann, R. Randall; Skipp, Gary L.; Porat, Naomi; DeVogel, Stephen B.


    Along most of the Pacific Coast of North America, sand dunes are dominantly silicate-rich. On the California Channel Islands, however, dunes are carbonate-rich, due to high productivity offshore and a lack of dilution by silicate minerals. Older sands on the Channel Islands contain enough carbonate to be cemented into aeolianite. Several generations of carbonate aeolianites are present on the California Channel Islands and represent the northernmost Quaternary coastal aeolianites on the Pacific Coast of North America. The oldest aeolianites on the islands may date to the early Pleistocene and thus far have only been found on Santa Cruz Island. Aeolianites with well-developed soils are found on both San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island and likely date to the middle Pleistocene. The youngest and best-dated aeolianites are located on San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island. These sediments were deposited during the late Pleistocene following the emergence of marine terraces that date to the last interglacial complex (~ 120,000 yr to ~ 80,000 yr). Based on radiocarbon and luminescence dating, the ages of these units correspond in time with marine isotope stages [MIS] 4, 3, and 2. Sea level was significantly lower than present during all three time periods. Reconstruction of insular paleogeography indicates that large areas to the north and northwest of the islands would have been exposed at these times, providing a ready source of carbonate-rich skeletal sands. These findings differ from a previously held concept that carbonate aeolianites are dominantly an interglacial phenomenon forming during high stands of sea. In contrast, our results are consistent with the findings of other investigators of the past decade who have reported evidence of glacial-age and interstadial-age aeolianites on coastlines of Australia and South Africa. They are also consistent with observations made by Darwin regarding the origin of aeolianites on the island of St. Helena, in the

  14. A Qualitative Study of Female Superintendents: Leadership Behaviors in Context


    Amedy, Lynn


    Remarkably few females hold the position of superintendent; although, there are capable women in the educational field who are qualified and interested. Researchers proposed many reasons for this disparity including the lack of studies regarding females in the superintendency. This void has made it difficult to determine a clear picture of what leadership behaviors female superintendents employ. Research questions included: (1) What leadership assumptions appear to form the basis for the lead...

  15. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  16. 2016 AASA Superintendent Salary & Benefits Study: Non-Member Version (United States)

    Finnan, Leslie A.; McCord, Robert S.


    The 2016 AASA Superintendent Salary & Benefits Study marks the fifth edition of this study. This survey tracks the demographics, salary, benefits, and other elements of the employment contracts of school superintendents throughout the country. This year's study is based on 1,392 responses (15 percent response rate). The survey was distributed…

  17. Superintendents Describe Their Leadership Styles: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang


    Superintendents from eight southeastern United States school districts self-described their leadership styles across the choices of autocratic, laissez-faire, democratic, situational, servant, or transformational. When faced with this array of choices, the superintendents chose with arguable equitableness, indicating that successful leaders can…

  18. An Examination of Pennsylvania Superintendents' Approaches to Collaborative Leadership (United States)

    Florio, Tammi L.


    This study investigated whether Pennsylvania school district superintendents acknowledge the importance of the 2008 ISLLC performance indicators that require collaboration to the same degree they practice them. Superintendents' ratings of importance and frequency were compared across demographic groups. A thirty-two question survey, derived from…

  19. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113 (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane


    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  20. Exploring the Relevant Antecedents of Superintendent Leadership Skills (United States)

    Hartley, Lloyd


    Understanding antecedents to superintendent leadership development is crucial for the continued improvement of schools. This qualitative study seeks to identify skills superintendents consider critical to their position, antecedents that developed those skills, and provide an increased understanding of the methods needed for developing current and…

  1. 48 CFR 36.506 - Superintendence by the contractor. (United States)


    ... contractor. 36.506 Section 36.506 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Superintendence by the contractor. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-6, Superintendence by the Contractor, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract or a fixed...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-6 - Superintendence by the Contractor. (United States)


    ... Contractor. 52.236-6 Section 52.236-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....236-6 Superintendence by the Contractor. As prescribed in 36.506, insert the following clause: Superintendence by the Contractor (APR 1984) At all times during performance of this contract and until the work...

  3. The Relationship of Organizational Commitment and Superintendent Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Williams, Todd


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between superintendent job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Surveys were sent electronically to superintendents (N = 470) of Texas mid-size schools to collect data to test for relationships of variables and constructs associated with job satisfaction and components of…

  4. Building Budgets and Trust through the Alchemy of Superintendent Leadership (United States)

    Bird, James J.


    Superintendents have the burden and the opportunity to exert leadership through the budget-building process. This article details a dozen tenets which can be implemented by practicing superintendents. Doing so increases the chances of building trust among the stakeholders of administrators, staff, community, and school board members. The district…

  5. Perceptions of Kentucky High School Principals and Superintendents on the Role of the Superintendent Influencing Principal Instructional Leadership (United States)

    Hamilton, Charles L., Jr.


    This exploratory study surveyed the promotion of instructional leadership of high school principals by superintendents, as perceived by self and the principals they supervise. The two-phased study included an initial questionnaire administered to both study groups and comparisons of responses analyzed. All superintendents (N = 173), except the…

  6. Spring Research Festival Features Visit from FCPS Superintendent | Poster (United States)

    One of the highlights of the 19th annual Spring Research Festival (SRF), held May 4–7, was a visit from Terry Alban, Ph.D., superintendent of Frederick County Public Schools (FCPS), and Mike Markoe, deputy superintendent, FCPS. They toured the event on May 7, talking to researchers and students about their posters. “Dr. Alban was very interested in hearing what the Werner H.

  7. Glacially-megalineated limestone terrain of Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada; onset zone of the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream (United States)

    Eyles, Nick; Putkinen, Niko


    Anticosti is a large elongate island (240 km long, 60 km wide) in eastern Canada within the northern part of a deep water trough (Gulf of St. Lawrence) that terminates at the Atlantic continental shelf edge. The island's Pleistocene glaciological significance is that its long axis lay transverse to ice from the Quebec and Labrador sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moving south from the relatively high-standing Canadian Shield. Recent glaciological reconstructions place a fast-flowing ice stream along the axis of the Gulf of St. Lawrence but supporting geologic evidence in terms of recognizing its hard-bedded onset zone and downstream streamlined soft bed is limited. Anticosti Island consists of gently southward-dipping limestone plains composed of Ordovician and Silurian limestones (Vaureal, Becscie and Jupiter formations) with north-facing escarpments transverse to regional ice flow. Glacial deposits are largely absent and limestone plains in the higher central plateau of the island retain a relict apparently ‘preglacial’ drainage system consisting of deeply-incised dendritic bedrock valleys. In contrast, the bedrock geomorphology of the lower lying western and eastern limestone plains of the island is strikingly different having been extensively modified by glacial erosion. Escarpments are glacially megalineated with a distinct ‘zig-zag’ planform reflecting northward-projecting bullet-shaped ‘noses’ (identified as rock drumlins) up to 2 km wide at their base and 4 km in length with rare megagrooved upper surfaces. Drumlins are separated by southward-closing, funnel-shaped ‘through valleys’ where former dendritic valleys have been extensively altered by the streaming of basal ice through gaps in the escarpments. Glacially-megalineated bedrock terrain such as on the western and eastern flanks of Anticosti Island is elsewhere associated with the hard-bedded onset zones of fast flowing ice streams and provides important ground truth for the

  8. The Relationship of Stress and the Physical Wellness of Illinois Superintendents (United States)

    Simonson, Curtis R.


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of stress and the physical wellness of Illinois superintendents. Studies have shown that stress has one of the most debilitating impacts on an individual's health and job performance. This study focused on the stress levels, factors influencing the superintendency, and superintendents'…

  9. Technology Leadership Is Just Good Leadership: Dispositions of Tech Savvy Superintendents (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; McLeod, Scott; Sauers, Nick


    This study describes core dispositions of school district superintendents who have been identified as technology savvy leaders by a prominent educational technology newspaper. The superintendents in this study described how they accomplished their technology initiatives and offered suggestions for other superintendents who aspire to be more…

  10. Stress for Superintendents in the Midwest Viewed through the Lens of Person-Environment Fit (United States)

    Trimble, Danielle K.


    Since its inception in 1837, the school superintendency has been the focus of significant attention from the educational research community. Superintendents face a wide spectrum of responsibilities that can challenge even the most prepared individuals. Fewer candidates are seeking the superintendency and the turnover rate for those already in the…

  11. An Examination of Self-Perceived Transformational Leadership Behaviors of Texas Superintendents (United States)

    Fenn, Walter Lloyd; Mixon, Jason


    This study examined self-perceived transformational leadership behaviors among Texas superintendents. The purpose of this study was to examine if relationships existed between superintendents' self-perceived transformational leadership style, district size, teaching, principal, and superintendent years of experience. A review of the literature…

  12. Women's Satisfaction in the Superintendency: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    Bollinger, Alisha A.; Grady, Marilyn L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female superintendents as they relate to job satisfaction and retention. State department of education websites were consulted to obtain the number of women superintendents by state for 2015. From the list, 3,364 women superintendents were identified. The women represent 25% of U.S.…

  13. The American School Superintendent: Leading in an Age of Pressure. The Jossey-Bass Education Series. (United States)

    Carter, Gene R.; Cunningham, William G.

    The superintendency is often described as an unpleasant, even impossible, job. This book examines the changing conditions that affect the superintendency, presents strategies for easing the burden, and offers guidance from practitioners. The first part defines the superintendency and places it within its contemporary context. In the six chapters…

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Ascendancy of Women to the Position of K-12 Superintendent (United States)

    Hanson, Karen M.


    Despite earning over half of the doctoral degrees in education, women are underrepresented in the position of K-12 superintendent. In 2000, although 72% of all classroom teachers were female, only 14% of all superintendents in the United States were women. Research indicates that women experience barriers in their ascendancy to superintendent.…

  15. 36 CFR 7.20 - Fire Island National Seashore. (United States)


    ... the Superintendent or by the posting of signs where appropriate: (i) Along the Atlantic Ocean on the... be operated on the waters of the Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean within the boundaries of Fire... the Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean within the boundaries of Fire Island National Seashore are...

  16. Correlating sea level rise still-stands to marine terraces and undiscovered submerged shoreline features in the Channel Islands (USA) using autonomous and remotely operated systems (United States)

    Raineault, N.; Ballard, R. D.; Fahy, J.; Mayer, L. A.; Heffron, E.; Krasnosky, K.; Roman, C.; Schmidt, V. E.; McLeod, A.; Bursek, J.; Broad, K.


    In 2017, the Ocean Exploration Trust aggregated onboard and autonomous mapping technologies to identify and explore paleo shorelines and discover previously undocumented submerged shoreline features in and around the Channel Islands offshore of California. Broad area mapping was conducted with the hull mounted multibeam echosounder aboard the E/V Nautilus. This Kongsberg EM302 provided maps at 2-10 m resolution, at depths generally greater than 50 m. From this data marine terraces were identified for higher resolution mapping via an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV). The precision data from the ASV's Kongsberg EM2040p echosounder allowed identification of the knickpoints associated with cliffs on the landward extent of each terrace. Sub-sea cave targets were identified using backscatter and slope maps from a combination of both the broad area and high resolution multibeam data. To ground-truth the targets identified through mapping, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and a highly specialized team of cave divers explored these targets. The results from the visual inspection were then fed back into the analysis fostering the rapid iteration of the onboard identification criteria and resulted in locating submerged shorelines containing numerous large caves, arches, and concretions. Caves were found at still-stands at 8, 33, 66, and 103 m depth at Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara Island platform, and Osborn Bank, along the vertical escarpment at the cliff-face and aligned with the strike of fractures in the volcanic rock. These terraces correspond to different sea level still-stands. ROV grab samples of fossiliferous marine terraces will provide ages and aid in reconstructions of sea level change and tectonic history for each location. Finally, caves were mapped in sub-cm resolution using a Kongsberg M3 sonar mounted vertically on the front of the ROV to test the capabilities of the system to provide accurate information about exterior dimensions and morphology.

  17. Basic epidemiological data on metazoan parasites of notothenioid fish off James Ross Island (Prince Gustav Channel, Weddell Sea), Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezhybová, Veronika; Mašová, Š.


    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2015), s. 44-54 ISSN 1805-0689 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Host * Notothenioid fish * Parasites * Prince Gustav Channel * Weddell Sea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. A Superintendent's Manifesto: School Wellness and Personal Health (United States)

    Carr-Lambert, Marsha L.


    As superintendent, the author works diligently to meet the demands by the West Virginia legislature, catalyzed by the aggressive role of West Virginia's First Lady Gayle Manchin, to fight child obesity. Recently, the state department of education agreed to enter the fight to curb the serious obesity and health problems among the children in the…

  19. Women Superintendents Who Leave: Stress and Health Factors (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry K.; Shakeshaft, Charol


    Previous research on stress in the workplace has demonstrated that it can have not only a current, but lasting effect on a worker's health. The superintendency is a stressful job due to all of the competing demands of running a school system, no matter the size. This exploratory study reexamined qualitative interview transcripts from Robinson's…

  20. Just Do It: Women Superintendents Speak to Aspiring Women (United States)

    Katz, Susan J.


    A mixed method study using surveys and in-depth interviews was conducted with women school superintendents in four Midwestern states during the 1999-2000 school year to understand how they perceive their leadership skills, their uses of power in their positions, and how they generally talk about the job. Results of how the women perceived their…

  1. Knocking Down Barriers: How California Superintendents Are Implementing Blended Learning (United States)

    Horn, Michael B.; Gu, Anna; Evans, Meg


    School districts across the United States are implementing blended learning to boost student achievement. The authors convened several California school district superintendents to answer the questions: "What are the barriers, real or perceived, to implementing blended learning in your district?" and "Have you found solutions to or…

  2. Collective Learning from Success as Perceived by School Superintendents (United States)

    Schechter, Chen


    School superintendents' role has shifted from the traditional emphasis on managerial aspects to one on instructional leadership (on teaching and learning issues) achieved by generating collaborative learning opportunities at the both school and district levels. Whereas collaborative learning processes in schools have generally been associated with…

  3. Revisiting the Rural Superintendency: Rethinking Guiding Theories for Contemporary Practice (United States)

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin; Budge, Kathleen


    This conceptual article challenges researchers and practitioners to reconsider the utility of current constructs used to understand the rural school superintendency. We evaluate the rural leadership literature through two waves of scholarship: insider/outsider conceptions and place-conscious/critical place-conscious constructs. We assert critical…

  4. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma (United States)

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad


    This paper will seek to analyze of the case "Superintendent's Hiring Dilemma" by Hoy and Tarter (2004) using multiple leadership perspectives. The last section of this analysis of the case study will provide the most effective leadership recommendations for the key players.

  5. The New York State Public School Superintendency: The Effects of Personal, Career and District Factors on Perceptions of Job Satisfaction for Women in Superintendent Positions (United States)

    Camasso, Eileen L.


    Women have entered the New York State public school district superintendency in increasing numbers over the past two decades. Traditionally a male dominated field, these women have successfully addressed various personal, career and district factors to obtain these positions. In this study, 121 actively employed women superintendents were surveyed…

  6. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Superintendent Personality, and Offender Gender and Race (United States)

    Adams, Michael W.


    This study focused on the perceived ethics of the decisions superintendents make in response to a situation with a teacher that was value-laden, potentially volatile, and potentially affected by the teachers' gender or ethnicity. Superintendents (N = 123) each read one of 12 versions of a vignette depicting a sexting incident between a…

  7. SeaSketch: Implementation of a Decision-Support Platform for a Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Multi-sector Working Group (United States)

    Goldberg, G.; McClintock, W.


    Effective interagency and cross-sector coordination is essential to ecosystem based management which depends on processes characterized by collaboration and science-based information. Many technological barriers that exist in the development of science-based management plans are closely tied to process challenges, such as the sharing of data and information or the inclusion of parties with varied levels of technical experience. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary has convened a diverse working group to develop recommendations for the management of marine shipping in and around the Santa Barbara Channel, as well as recommendations regarding research needs and outreach strategies. Working group members take a multi-issue approach with four distinct goals related to the reduction of ship strikes on whales, emissions and air quality, conflicting ocean uses, and issues of navigational safety. Members range from industry representatives, scientists, and multiple local and federal government entities. The recommended management plans will be based in the best-available science, and will build off of previous efforts, making this an interesting case study of adaptive management. In addition to support from the Sanctuary and professional facilitators, the group is using a decision-support platform, SeaSketch ( SeaSketch is a web-based GIS that supports collaborative science-based marine spatial planning (MSP). Each feature supports a step of the MSP process, from data gathering, identification of data needs, the design of spatial plans, evaluation of those plans with analytics, and map-based forums that facilitate data-driven discussions. Working group members are able to access these tools to explore management options and collaborate remotely, in addition to using the platform during in-person meetings and webinars. Empowering diverse audiences to engage in the design of science-based plans is of key importance to developing ecosystem

  8. Wave-induced Maintenance of Suspended Sediment Concentration during Slack in a Tidal Channel on a Sheltered Macro-tidal Flat, Gangwha Island, Korea (United States)

    Lee, Guan-hong; Kang, KiRyong


    A field campaign was conducted to better understand the influence of wave action, in terms of turbulence and bed shear stress, on sediment resuspension and transport processes on a protected tidal flat. An H-frame was deployed in a tidal channel south of Gangwha Island for 6 tidal cycles during November 2006 with instrumentation including an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, an Acoustic Backscatter System, and an Optical Backscatter Sensor. During calm conditions, the current-induced shear was dominant and responsible for suspending sediments during the accelerating phases of flood and ebb. During the high-tide slack, both bed shear stress and suspended sediment concentration were reduced. The sediment flux was directed landward due to the scour-lag effect over a tidal cycle. On the other hand, when waves were stronger, the wave-induced turbulence appeared to keep sediments in suspension even during the high-tide slack, while the current-induced shear remained dominant during the accelerating phases of flood and ebb. The sediment flux under strong waves was directed offshore due to the sustained high suspended sediment concentration during the high-tide slack. Although strong waves can induce offshore sediment flux, infrequent events with strong waves are unlikely to alter the long-term accretion of the protected southern Gangwha tidal flats.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  10. Decision-Making Quandaries that Superintendents Face in Their Work in Small School Districts Building Democratic Communities (United States)

    Touchton, Debra; Acker-Hocevar, Michele


    Superintendents of small school districts describe how they give voice, involve and listen to others, and solicit various publics to build democratic communities. Superintendents make sense of leadership through their constructed role, leadership orientation, and district size. Findings suggest the following when superintendents involve, listen,…

  11. A Content Analysis of the Congruence between the Evaluation Criteria of Superintendents and the Iowa Standards for School Leaders (United States)

    Adams, Matthew J.


    The Problem: This study was designed to analyze the evaluation criteria of the instruments used to evaluate superintendents, the job descriptions for those superintendents, and the goals written as part of their Individual Administrator Professional Development Plans (IAPDPs) to determine whether superintendents are being held accountable for…

  12. The Urban Superintendency and the Depression: The Case of Thomas Warrington Gosling, Akron, Ohio: 1928-34. (United States)

    Hinson, Gregory L.; Dye, Charles M.

    The case study of an Ohio school superintendent's experiences during the depression illustrates how political, social, and economic events can affect an educational system. Dr. Thomas Warrington Gosling was named superintendent of Akron schools in 1928, following resignation of the previous superintendent as a consequence of turmoil on the Board…

  13. Protective Factors and Resiliency: A Case Study of How African American Women Overcome Barriers en Route to the Superintendency (United States)

    Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre


    An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…

  14. Chancellors and Superintendents Employment Terms: Contracts, Policies, and Practices. Recommendations and Survey Results. (United States)

    Smith, Cindra

    This document provides recommendations to Community College chancellors and superintendents based on survey responses from 11 multi-college district chancellors and 37 single college district superintendents and/or presidents of the Community College League of California. The report provides demographic information, such as gender, ethnicity,…

  15. Effective Communication and Creating Professional Learning Communities Is a Valuable Practice for Superintendents (United States)

    Hilliard, Ann Toler; Newsome, Edward, Jr.


    As the chief executive officer, the superintendent must demonstrate high quality performance at every level in order to impact student achievement. In order to be an effective superintendent, the individual must have knowledge and skills in educational leadership and be able to articulate information clearly and precisely about the school…

  16. Lean in and Lift up: Female Superintendents Share Their Career Path Choices (United States)

    Kelsey, Cheryl; Allen, Kathy; Coke, Kelly; Ballard, Glenda


    The purpose of the research was to inform professional practice pertaining to the preparation of female administrators as future school superintendents. Twenty female superintendents in Texas were interviewed using a qualitative research approach. Strategies, career experiences and perception of barriers were identified using open-ended questions.…

  17. I Am a Chameleon in Pearls: How Three Select Female Superintendents Perceive Their Professional Lives (United States)

    Ryan, Catherine Agnes


    The public school superintendent is the least progressive position in education at integrating women and balancing the scales of equitable representation. Statistical data indicates there are far fewer females than males serving as superintendents. Current statistics show women make up: 1) over 70 percent of all public school educators; 2) nearly…

  18. Slow Path to the Superintendency: Women's Social Networks and Negotiation Skills (United States)

    Montz, Carol B.; Wanat, Carolyn L.


    Women superintendents in one Midwestern state participated in this study of their personal demographics, professional qualifications and career paths, and demographics of districts and boards of education that hired them. Participants identified characteristics, skills, and barriers to women seeking superintendencies. Thirty-one of 36 women…

  19. Five African American Male Superintendents and Their Leadership in Diverse School Districts in Texas (United States)

    Smothers, Aneil Chrisfor


    The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male superintendents that consisted of three main issues: (1) personal; (2) leadership quality/effectiveness and…

  20. A Qualitative Study of Superintendent Leadership Experiences during a Top-Down Organizational Change (United States)

    Bryant, Johane


    The purpose was to investigate common experiences of superintendents as they responded to realignment of leadership responsibilities during an organizational change initiated by mayoral control. To discover the shared essence of changes in leadership responsibilities experienced by superintendents, individuals "told their stories" to…

  1. The Superintendent's Leadership Role in School Improvement: Relationships between Authenticity and Best Practices (United States)

    Bird, James J.; Dunaway, David M.; Hancock, Dawson R.; Wang, Chuang


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between superintendent leadership and the operational processes of school improvement. School district superintendents (N = 226) from six southeastern states were surveyed concerning their leadership authenticity and school improvement practices. Descriptive statistics, analyzes of…

  2. An Examination of Ideology among Selected K12 Christian School Superintendents (United States)

    Dolson, Jimmy L.


    This research project focused on explaining the decision making process of K12 Christian school superintendents whose schools belong to the Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) organization. In spite of their similar religious and philosophical beliefs, ACSI K12 Christian school superintendents differed significantly in…

  3. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113 (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane


    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  4. Staying Power: The Relationship of Public School Superintendent Tenure to Leadership Frames (United States)

    Elliff, Doyne Scott


    The study examined the types of leadership frames ("human resource," "structural," "political," and "symbolic") (Bolman & Deal, 1997) most often used by public school superintendents in Texas, the relationship of leadership frames to the length of superintendent tenure in a single school district, and…

  5. Young Superintendents with School-Age Children: Gendered Expectations, Effectiveness, and Life Quality in Rural Communities (United States)

    Klatt, Roger


    Empirical studies indicate family concerns as a primary reasons why promising principals and central office administrators do not aspire to the superintendency (O'Connell, Brown, Guptil, Stosberg, & O'Connell, 2001; Volp & Rogers, 2004). Hesitancy to apply for superintendent positions is further complicated by the fact that the…

  6. Like the Mustard Seed: An Unfolding Leadership Role for Assistant Superintendents. (United States)

    Boland, Dr. Margaret F.; Watkins, OSF, Mary Rose


    Focuses on the leadership role of the associate/assistant superintendent and their impact on Catholic education. Writes about the scarcity of educational research on this topic, the history of this role, its areas of responsibility and organizational structure, and the need to recognize assistant superintendents for their expertise, dedication,…

  7. School Superintendents' Perceptions of Schools Assisting Students in Obtaining Public Health Insurance (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Fink, Brian N.


    Background: Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between…

  8. Heat Islands (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  9. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.


    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  10. Discussion of "Fluvial system response to late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level change on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California" (Schumann et al., 2016. Geomorphology, 268: 322-340) (United States)

    Pinter, Nicholas; Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C.; Anderson, R. Scott


    Schumann et al. (2016) presented a field assessment of late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial sediments preserved in the valleys of Santa Rosa Island, California. This is a rigorous study, based on stratigraphic descriptions of 54 sections and numerous radiocarbon ages. The paper makes important contributions that we would like to highlight, but other parts of the paper rely upon overly simplistic interpretations that lead to misleading conclusions. In one case, a conclusion of the Schumann et al. paper has important management implications for Santa Rosa Island and similar locations, compelling us to discuss and qualify this conclusion.

  11. School superintendents' perceptions of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance. (United States)

    Rickard, Megan L; Price, James H; Telljohann, Susan K; Dake, Joseph A; Fink, Brian N


    Superintendents' perceptions regarding the effect of health insurance status on academics, the role schools should play in the process of obtaining health insurance, and the benefits/barriers to assisting students in enrolling in health insurance were surveyed. Superintendents' basic knowledge of health insurance, the link between health and learning, and specific school system practices for assisting students were also examined. A 4-page questionnaire was sent to a national random sample of public school superintendents using a 4-wave postal mailing. Only 19% of school districts assessed the health insurance status of students. School districts' assistance in helping enroll students in health insurance was assessed using Stages of Change theory; 36% of superintendents' school districts were in the action or maintenance stages. The schools most often made health insurance materials available to parents (53%). The perceived benefits identified by more than 80% of superintendents were to keep students healthier, reduce the number of students with untreated health problems, reduce school absenteeism, and improvement of students' attention/concentration during school. The 2 most common perceived barriers identified by at least 50% of superintendents were not having enough staff or financial resources. Most superintendents believed schools should play a role in helping students obtain health insurance, but the specific role was unclear. Three fourths of superintendents indicated overwhelmingly positive beliefs regarding the effects of health insurance status on students' health and academic outcomes. School personnel and public policy makers can use the results to support collaboration in getting students enrolled in health insurance. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Bering Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2001-02-07 to 2001-12-03 (NODC Accession 0081015) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081015 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Bering Sea, Channel Islands National...

  13. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013 (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.


    2008, focuses on the evaluation of the M2 reach (rkm 66– 80) of the mainstem Methow River prior to restoration actions planned by Reclamation and Yakama Nation. The M2 study was designed to help understand the inter-relationships between stream habitat and the life history of various fish species to explain potential success or limitations in response to restoration actions. To help document changes derived by restoration, two reference reaches (Upper Methow between rkm 85 and 90, and Chewuch River between rkm 4 and 11) were identified based on relative lack of disturbance, proximity to the restoration reach, and relative unconfined geomorphology. A control reach (Lower Methow between rkm 57 and 64, also referred to as “Silver Reach”) was 2 identified based on its similar disturbance as the reference reach, proximity to the restoration reach, and relatively unconfined geomorphology. Products to date include Barber and others (2011), Bellmore (2011), Tibbits and others (2012), Bellmore and others (2013), Benjamin and others (2013), Romine and others (2013b), Bellmore and other (2014), Martens and others (2014), and Martens and Connolly (2014). The third phase of work has been to help with the development and to provide data for modeling efforts. Most of the planned M2 reach restoration is focused on the creation or improvement of offchannel habitat, especially side channels. The pre-restoration portion of this study has been documented by Martens and Connolly (2014). Side channel restoration actions were initiated in 2012 (Whitefish Island side channel, also referred to as SC3; rkm 76) and are planned to continue over the next several years. The Whitefish Island side channel was modified to maintain hydrological connection with the mainstem throughout the year. In addition, several log structures were installed and pools were deepened to create fish habitat. Prior to restoration, this side channel would lose hydrological connection with the mainstem Methow River

  14. Anisotropic Transport of Electrons in a Novel FET Channel with Chains of InGaAs Nano-Islands Embedded along Quasi-Periodic Multi-Atomic Steps on Vicinal (111)B GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakaki, H.


    We have studied electron transport in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction FET channels, in which chains of InGaAs nano-islands are embedded along quasi-periodic steps. By using two samples, conductance G para (V g ) parallel to the steps and G perp (V g ) perpendicular to them were measured at 80 K as functions of gate voltage V g . At sufficiently high V g , G para at 80 K is several times as high as G perp , which manifests the anisotropic two-dimensional transport of electrons. When V g is reduced to -0.7 V, G perp almost vanishes, while Gpara stays sizable unless V g is set below -0.8 V. These results indicate that 'inter-chain' barriers play stronger roles than 'intra-chain' barriers.

  15. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.


    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  16. Elements of Organizational Culture Superintendents Perceive as Important to Create and Maintain a Successful Organization in Times of Crisis (United States)

    Wilson, Marylou K.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the elements of culture public school superintendents perceive to be most important in creating and sustaining successful organizations in times of crisis. In addition, it was the purpose of this study to identify and describe the leadership strategies superintendents use to create…

  17. Feminist Theory and the Media Representation of a Woman-of-Color Superintendent: Is the World Ready for Cyborgs? (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiko


    Discusses recent feminist theory, in particular feminist theory related to "cyborg" identity and examines some media representations of a woman-of-color superintendent. Suggests that the cyborg image offers alternative ways to consider the issue of diversity and educational leadership, including the superintendency. (Author/SLD)

  18. School Superintendents' Use of Electronic Communication Technology and Its Impact on Their Efficacy as a School District Leader (United States)

    Brock, Cecilia


    As apex leaders, school superintendents are impacted by the continuous demand to be effective while utilizing electronic communication technology. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of electronic communication technology impacts a school superintendent's efficacy. Public education, in the twenty-first century, finds itself in…

  19. The Role of Increased Accountability on the Use of Instructional Leadership Time by New York State Superintendents (United States)

    Pustolka, Elizabeth Wood


    The role of the school superintendent has evolved as a result of increased accountability, specifically under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Prior to NCLB, superintendents spent time the majority of their time on the managerial and political domains of leadership; however, the NCLB accountability movement combined with research on…

  20. Canary Islands (United States)


    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  1. Should Your Board Hire Its Own Staff -- Independent of Your Superintendent? (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.


    Board members in school districts can stabilize or enhance their positions of power by acquiring types of information that can move policy and related matters along at a more efficient pace. To do this they must consider maintaining staffs that work solely for the boards, not for the superintendent. (Author/WM)

  2. Superintendents' Perceptions of the School Improvement Planning Process in the Southeastern USA (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson


    The purpose of this study of school improvement planning in the southeastern USA was to establish the current view of the process through the eyes of the district superintendents. The answers to the questions were consistently mixed. Generally, the presence of school improvement planning is prevalent in the large majority of districts. However,…

  3. Strategies Utilized by Superintendents and Mathematics District Personnel That Impact Minority Student Outcomes in Algebra (United States)

    DuPree, Jared Bernard


    This study applies the constructs from effective instruction from the literature on teacher education to understand the impact of school district strategies on algebra outcomes for minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies utilized by superintendents and district personnel and the impact of these identified…

  4. Rural School Superintendents: A National Study of Perspectives of Board Presidents. (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Barker, Bruce O.


    Results of two surveys of 59 and 47 school board presidents from 26 and 21 different states, respectively, having district enrollments of 300 or smaller, indicated the most valued capabilities considered in hiring rural superintendents were interpersonal relations/communications skills, financial/organizational management skills, and good moral…

  5. A Narrative Study on the Leadership Development of Female Superintendents in New Jersey (United States)

    Morillo, Mitzi N.


    The purpose of this study was to explore, through the lived experiences of 8 women who achieved the superintendency in New Jersey, the intersectionality of gender, social norms, and race and how these women developed as leaders. The study was designed to identify perceived barriers to career ascension in education administration and the successful…

  6. Increasing Student Attendance: A Study Comparing Superintendents' Knowledge of Best Practices to Enacted Policies (United States)

    Isom, Dena K.


    This report describes a problem-based learning project focused on the information available to superintendents related to improving student attendance. This information has the potential to assist school districts in improving the attendance of each student as is required by attendance standards such as those of the fifth version of the Missouri…

  7. Changing District Priorities for School-Business Collaboration: Superintendent Agency and Capacity for Institutionalization (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Thompson, Hugh C.


    Background: School district superintendents continue to favor collaborative relationships with their local business communities amid concerns over free-market competition, maintaining public legitimacy, and scarce financial resources. Prior research is inadequate regarding the development, implementation, and institutionalization of school and…

  8. Blind Spots: Small Rural Communities and High Turnover in the Superintendency (United States)

    Kamrath, Barry; Brunner, C. Cryss


    This article examines high superintendency turnover through rural community members' perceptions of such attrition in their districts. Findings indicate that community members perceived high turnover as negative and believed that turnover was created by financial pressures, rural community resistance to educational trends, and bias against…

  9. Superintendents' Views on Financial and Non-Financial Incentives on Teacher Recruitment and Retention (United States)

    Kelly, Paul; Tejeda-Delgado, Carmen; Slate, John R.


    In this study, the researchers investigated the perceived relationships of financial and non-financial incentives on teacher recruitment and retention among public school teachers in the State of Texas from the perspective of 98 public school superintendents. Findings revealed that school districts tended to offer teachers' salaries over the state…

  10. The Perceived Quality of Life among School District Superintendents in Illinois Public Schools (United States)

    Heffernan, Debra J.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of quality of life among Illinois male and female superintendents, and to determine demographic differences. Frisch's Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) was used, which measured perceived levels of importance, satisfaction and weighted satisfaction (importance and satisfaction) in sixteen…

  11. The Effects of Authentic Vision Statement on Challenges Experienced by First Year Superintendents (United States)

    Erdos, Monica


    A new superintendent in a new school district (NSND) can be a challenging position. The literature review asserts that many challenges faced by NSNDs are due to the absence of a shared vision. Challenges can be listed as work stoppage, personnel, financial, fighting ghosts, homecoming procession and many other aspects of running a district.…

  12. District Superintendents and the School Improvement Problem of Addressing Barriers to Learning (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011


    This report begins with conclusions drawn from a wide range of research, reports, and other sources that convey what superintendents say is driving their work. The focus first is on what they identify as the challenges and frustrations of the job and what they say are factors interfering with student progress. Then, discussion turns to the…

  13. Superintendent-Business Executive Collaboration in Intermediary Organizations: Moral Agency and Democratic Functioning (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; McKee, Tiffany; Martin, Staci


    This case study describes collaboration between business executives and superintendents to influence local/regional K-12 educational change. Specifically, we examine participant like-mindedness about the ethics and appropriate focus of K-12 intermediary collaboration, the extent of democratic functioning, and key individuals to involve. Data…

  14. Influences of Eagle Ford Shale Development on Superintendent Leadership Experiences: A Phenomenological Narrative (United States)

    Moczygemba, Jeanette Winn


    This phenomenological narrative study examined the effects of the Eagle Ford Shale development upon public school superintendent leadership experiences during the boom phase of the energy industry expansion. The four research questions investigated the shale development's influence on experiences in the areas of instruction, finance and…

  15. Factors Supporting Implementation of Executive Coaching as Embedded Professional Learning for Superintendents in New York State (United States)

    Nuciforo, Cheryl A.


    The role of school superintendent has become increasingly complex. As school district leaders deal with new curriculum standards, increased accountability, and limited financial resources, they are in need of quality professional development tailored to their needs. This qualitative study explores personal, cultural, and structural factors that…

  16. Self Perceived Leadership Styles of Male and Female Superintendents in Wisconsin Public Schools (United States)

    Rieckmann, Kelly Renée


    The number of female superintendents in Wisconsin public schools remains disproportionately low compared to males. With research supporting a connection between female leaders and transformational leadership, the question as to why more females do not enter the realm of leadership and how they see themselves as leaders remains unanswered. This…

  17. Salaries of New Superintendents: A Public Relations Concern for Many Public School Boards (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip


    Salaries for new superintendents form a highly visible factor that has direct implications for school-community public relations. To provide a means for guiding school board members and to provide a format for justifying salaries, a model is presented that serves both purposes. Within this model, attention is afforded to specifying a relevant…

  18. Power Factors that Define Gender Inequity within the Missouri Public School Superintendency (United States)

    Alexander, Kristina; Grispino, Frank D.; Messner, Phillip E.


    Although women have access to the superintendency power position, evidence has shown that women have not been able to consistently break the glass ceiling. A review of related literature failed to identify specific and practical employment factors that must be resolved or overcome if women are to reach power parity in Missouri. This study was…

  19. Machiavelli's Political Realism: Its Implications for Today's Superintendent-School Board Interactions. (United States)

    McCarty, Donald J.

    The relevance of Machiavellian theories of political leadership to school administration is examined in this paper, with a focus on the superintendent/school board relationship. As the first modern political theorist, Machiavelli used empirical observation and generalization to understand that perceptions are more real in their consequences than…

  20. Scientific Management: Professional Background in Sciences, Humanities, and the Effectiveness of School Superintendents. (United States)

    Chand, Krishan

    Administrators who have been trained in the sciences may be more effective than those who have been trained in the humanities, according to a review of the literature. This paper asserts that the effectiveness of superintendents is a function both of their specific preparation for administration and of their educational backgrounds. The…

  1. African American Women Aspiring to the Superintendency: Lived Experiences and Barriers (United States)

    Angel, Roma B.; Killacky, Jim; Johnson, Patricia R.


    Focused on the absence of a viable population of African American women in the superintendency, this study addressed barriers described by 10 credentialed, district-level Southern women who hold advanced education degrees coupled with years of leadership experience. This phenomenological study used interview methodology to uncover the lived…

  2. The Examination of Four Illinois Female Superintendents and Their Transformational Leadership Practices (United States)

    Burns-Redell, Susan M.


    The purpose of this study was to examine female school superintendents and their leadership practices. Particular attention is given to their leadership practices, professional development, mentoring, and barriers. The conceptual framework for this research study was based on the transformational leadership model. According to Bass and Avolio, the…

  3. California Women and the Strategies Utilized on the Path to the Superintendency (United States)

    Guzman, Anna-Maria


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leadership strategies utilized and the barriers encountered by females in pursuit of the role of superintendent. This study also intended to identify the strategies women used to overcome these barriers. Methodology: This study utilized descriptive research. Descriptive research involves gathering…

  4. School Communications 2.0: A Social Media Strategy for K-12 Principals and Superintendents (United States)

    Cox, Daniel Dean


    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-case study was two-fold: 1) to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals and superintendents who use multiple social media tools such as blogs, microblogs, social networking sites, podcasts, and online videos with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications…

  5. Heron Island, Australia (United States)


    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  6. A new reality: Funding formula changes and property tax caps and their effects on the role of the school superintendent in the state of Indiana


    Gentry, Patrick L


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover how school superintendents were using general fund referenda to meet their school district’s operational budgets. However, after interviews began it became clear that the superintendents wanted to tell a different story and that was how the current school funding mechanism and property tax caps has changed the job of the school superintendent. The research consisted of one-on-one guided interviews of a mixed qualitative methods framework c...

  7. The holothurian (Echinodermata) diversity of the Glorieuses Islands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glorieuses archipelago is one of the Eparses Islands, French islands scattered in the Mozambique Channel (Western Indian Ocean). ... In November 2012, a multidisciplinary team explored the reef slopes of the island by scuba diving down to 20 meters (10 sites), and the reef flats at low tide (12 sites) collecting specimens ...

  8. Marshall Islands


    World Bank


    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  9. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and other managed areas around the country. The legal boundaries of these sanctuaries are...

  10. Perceptions of Practicing Illinois Superintendents on the Relationship between Educational Leadership Administrative Preparation Programs and Their Perceived Job Performance Efficacy as Defined by the 2011 ELCC District Level Leadership Standards (United States)

    Johnson, Bert Arthur


    This research study explored the perceptions of practicing Illinois superintendents regarding the efficacy of the work they do as a superintendent related to their experience in a superintendent preparation program. Although a multitude of research studies have been completed for both teacher and principal preparation programs, very little…

  11. Perspectives about Living on the Horns of Dilemmas: An Analysis of Gender Factors Related to Superintendent Decision-Making and Problem-Solving (United States)

    Polka, Walter S.; Litchka, Peter R.; Calzi, Frank F.; Denig, Stephen J.; Mete, Rosina E.


    The major focus of this paper is a gender-based analysis of school superintendent decision-making and problem-solving as well as an investigation of contemporary leadership dilemmas. The findings are based on responses from 258 superintendents of K-12 school districts in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania collected over a…

  12. A Qualitative Multi-Case Study of the Influence of Personal and Professional Ethics on the Leadership of Public School Superintendents (United States)

    McDermott, Brian J.


    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of personal and professional ethics on the leadership of public school superintendents. A multi-case, qualitative research design was used to gather data from four practicing public school superintendents. Transformational leadership theory and the three pillars of ethics of leadership…

  13. The Mystery of Historical Channel Shoaling at Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel, TX (United States)


    channel traverses through Galveston Inlet, also called Bolivar Roads, which is bordered by Bolivar Island to the north and Galveston Island to 573 HVJ Associates, Inc. (2003). “Evaluation of Atkinson and Bolivar exhibits.” Turner Collie & Braden, Inc., and

  14. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.


    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  15. Accountability Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Superintendent, Principal, and Teacher Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A key assumption of NCLB appears to be that assessment data in and of itself can foster or promote change. Specifically, the supposition is that by requiring assessment data to be reported yearly, schools will be motivated - and will have the ability - to address those areas where student achievement is lagging. This assumption rests on the notion that educator competence in understanding and utilizing such data will result in academic success. Testing this assumption with empirical evidence is an important component of researching the efficacy of current accountability policies and practices in general. Over the past three years we have been involved in a series of empirical examinations of accountability. Each of these studies has been aimed at gathering varied perspectives on and about accountability, ranging from superintendents to principals to teachers. Our research examines education accountability at three interconnected layers: district administrators, principals, and teachers. This nested data set (superintendents were surveyed, as were their principals, and their principals’ teachers allows for not only an examination of the perceptions and reflections of the members of each group but also for an evaluation of the consistency of those beliefs across the members of the educational community. This study will present findings from research projects that speak to each of these levels, focusing on how each understands education accountability and how those meanings are consistent across groups and to what degree.

  16. Good-to-Great Superintendents: An Examination of Jim Collins' Good-to-Great Level Five Leadership Attributes as Demonstrated by the Leadership Behaviors of Superintendents of High-Performing California Public Single-School Districts (United States)

    Brown, James D.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine Collins' good-to-great Level Five leadership attributes, as demonstrated by the leadership behaviors of superintendents of high-performing California public single-school districts. Methodology: The researcher used a case study design to conduct this study. Personal interviews were conducted in…

  17. School Board Chairmen and School Superintendents: An Analysis of Perceptions Concerning Special Interest Groups and Educational Governance. (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe; Opfer, V. Darleen


    Surveyed all Virginia school board chairmen and superintendents on local governance issues. Discusses both groups' perceptions of board members' orientation to their role as elected representatives, their personal attitude toward the electoral process, their assessment of interest-group involvement in district decision making, their feelings…

  18. ". . . So Go the Days of Their Lives." A Descriptive Study of the Superintendency. OSSC Bulletin Vol. 22, No. 5. (United States)

    Pitner, N. J.

    The study reported is a replication of Henry Mintzberg's study of five executives at work to determine the scope of their job-related activities. For this study superintendents in three suburbs contiguous to a large midwestern city were observed at work for one week, including evening meetings when they were scheduled. An attempt was made to…

  19. Is It Rational or Intuitive? Factors and Processes Affecting School Superintendents' Decisions When Facing Professional Dilemmas (United States)

    Hart, Walter H.


    Given the critical impact of their decisions and of the community's perception of their performance, it is reasonable that school superintendents would seek to understand the factors that influence their decisions and the processes used to make them. The researcher in this study used a qualitative approach, interviewing 13 school superintendents…

  20. Superintendents and Principals Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014


    District superintendents or school principals need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Although public reporting in a few states is designed to serve information needs, states'…

  1. Impact of Texas Public School Board Members' Level of Training and Professional Development on Superintendent Tenure (United States)

    Flores, Alexandro Miguel


    The role of the public school superintendent, with its increasing challenges and demands, can be considered one of the most daunting roles in American public education today. Consequently, frequent turnover in the top leadership position inhibits many public schools from reaching set academic, financial, and organizational goals. As a result, any…

  2. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement (United States)

    Fossey, Richard


    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  3. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  4. Structure of a toothed cetacean community around a tropical island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cetacean community around a tropical island (Mayotte, Mozambique Channel) ... Patterns of spatial distribution underscore the existence of three main ... The outer slope of the barrier reef appears to be of primary importance in terms of ...

  5. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.


    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  6. Natural cavity characteristics and cavity bird abundance on West Virginia forested islands of the Ohio River (United States)

    James T. Anderson; Karen A. Riesz


    Wildlife habitats connected with forested islands and their back channels (areas where commercial traffic is prohibited) on the Ohio River are valuable to diverse species. However, quantitative data on the importance of these areas to cavity-nesting birds are lacking. We compared cavity-nesting bird use and habitat between back and navigational channel sides of islands...

  7. Perspectives about living on the horns of dilemmas: An analysis of gender factors related to superintendent decision-making and problem-solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S. Polka


    Full Text Available The major focus of this paper is a gender-based analysis of school superintendent decision-making and problem-solving as well as an investigation of contemporary leadership dilemmas. The findings are based on responses from 258 superintendents of K-12 school districts in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania collected over a period of three years (2009-2011. The researchers also conducted 18 comprehensive qualitative “face-to-face” interviews with self-selected superintendents who responded to the quantitative survey. The intended outcome of this article is for education policy makers, professors, and practitioners to comprehensively examine the extent and degree of various dilemmas confronting the Mid-Atlantic Region school superintendent sample and to evaluate the decision-making and problem-solving approaches used by them. The study results that are presented will serve as valuable references to not only individual superintendents but also to university administrator preparation professors and to state administrator licensure agencies because it is important for all aspiring superintendents to know the various issues associated with education leadership and the personal and professional dilemmas that they need to be prepared to face as they embark on a career to improve schooling in the United States.

  8. Shoreline dynamics of the Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    . The main reason for erosion at these islands seems to be the removal of coral reef for construction and other purposes, and to some extent the dredging of navigational channel in the lagoons. While the wave induced currents govern the sediment processes...

  9. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.


    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  10. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean (United States)


    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  11. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.


    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  12. Hazardous materials on golf courses: Experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states (United States)

    Arcury-Quandt, Alice E.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Marín, Antonio J.


    Background The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This paper examines golf course superintendents’ and Latino grounds maintenance workers’ pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Methods In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten golf course superintendents in five states and with sixteen Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. Results Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Conclusions More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary. PMID:21360723

  13. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)


    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  15. Quaternary evolution of the North Sea and the English Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbard, P.L.; Cohen, K.M.

    The island of Britain is surrounded by a ‘moat’ of water, of which the English Channel and the North Sea are two major components. This talk described some major events that occurred to shape these seaways and, in particular, the evidence preserved on the Channel seabed. Here a system of valleys

  16. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole


    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  17. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.


    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  18. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)


    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  19. Alexander Falconer Sr Seamen's missionary in New Zealand, son Alexander Falconer medical superintendent for mentally ill, grandson Murray Falconer neurosurgeon. (United States)

    Hawgood, Barbara J


    Alexander Falconer Sr (1843-1915) came from Scotland to New Zealand. A practical Christian, he set up places of relaxation for miners, sailors and soldiers; he became the Seamen's Missionary. Son, Dr Alexander Falconer (1874-1955) trained at Otago University Medical School. As medical superintendent for the mentally ill, he urged the early introduction of psychotherapy. His son, Murray Falconer (1910-1977) was the first Nuffield Dominions Clinical Fellow, training in neurosurgery in Oxford. He was the first director of the Guy's-Maudsley Neurosurgical Unit in London and was internationally known for the surgical management of temporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight (United States)


    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.


    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  2. Rhode Island unemployment


    Leonard Lardaro


    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  3. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.


    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  4. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  5. The Edmonton Public Schools Story: Internationally Renowned Superintendent Angus McBeath Chronicles His District's Successes and Failures. Policy Brief. No. S2007-13 (United States)

    McBeath, Angus


    This publication is a transcript of Superintendent Angus McBeath's presentation to legislators and media at an Issues and Ideas Forum hosted by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy in Lansing, Michigan. McBeath discusses education reform in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, including: (1) Basic Elements of Reform; (2) School Employee Union Involvement;…

  6. Alaskan Superintendent Turnover: Is There a Correlation between Anticipated Turnover and the Organizational Culture of School Boards in the State of Alaska (United States)

    Herbert, David M. Q.


    The purpose of this study is to determine if a particular type of school board culture is predictive of Alaskan public school superintendents' intention to leave their positions. Cameron and Quinn's four types of organizational culture--hierarchy, market, clan, and adhocracy--serve as the model for the study, which surveyed Alaska's public school…

  7. An Investigation of Teacher, Principal, and Superintendent Perceptions on the Ability of the National Framework for Principal Evaluations to Measure Principals' Leadership Competencies (United States)

    Lamb, Lori D.


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of effective principals' leadership competencies; determine if the perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents aligned with the proposed National Framework for Principal Evaluations initiative. This study examined the six domains of leadership outlined by the…

  8. A Better Leveled Playing Field for Assessing Satisfactory Job Performance of Superintendents on the Basis of High-Stakes Testing Outcomes (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Cox, Edward P.; Buckman, David G.


    To assess satisfactory job performance of superintendents on the basis of school districts' high-stakes testing outcomes, existing teacher models were reviewed and critiqued as potential options for retrofit. For these models, specific problems were identified relative to the choice of referent groups. An alternate referent group (statewide…

  9. The Impact of School Accountability Laws on Measures of Trust between Indiana Public School Superintendents and Teacher Union Leaders within the Forum of Mandatory Discussion (United States)

    Downs, Philip G.


    This study examines the impact of the school accountability laws "No Child Left Behind" and Indiana's Public Law 221 on Superintendents' perception of their relationship with the Teachers' Union Leader in their mandatory discussion meetings. Both school accountability laws contain provisions for the Indiana's Department of Education to…

  10. A Study of Superintendents' Power and Leadership Styles as Perceived by Local Teacher Association Representatives and Secondary School Principals in Alabama Public Schools. (United States)

    Pounders, Barbara; And Others

    The situational leadership model identifies four leadership styles--telling, selling, participating, and delegating. This paper discusses the initial findings of a study that examined the role of superintendents in Alabama. The study sought to determine if secondary school principals and local teacher-association representatives differed in their…

  11. Channel Modeling (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  12. Wave Climate and Wave Response, Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward F; Demirbilek, Zeki; Briggs, Michael J


    Present and projected commercial activities in Kawaihae Deep Draft Harbor, Island of Hawaii, HI, indicate that a deeper basin and entrance channel and better protected berthing areas will be needed. The U.S...

  13. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.


    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  14. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  15. Tule Reeds and Stone - Localized, Non-Specialized Technology in Laguna Canyon, Santa Cruz Island


    Sunell, Scott David


    This project aims to understand the ways in which the Island Chumash who were not participating in specialized bead-making activities invested their labor. Considerable research on the Northern Channel Islands focuses on the nature and distribution of specialist labor spent on beads, drills, and sewn-plank canoes. The history of small-scale production based on the resources in individual canyons on the islands has received less attention. I categorize two new types of heavy igneous tools that...

  16. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  17. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.


    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range ( and gt; 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies (( and gt;=)10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact

  18. Provisional English Translation by the IAEA of Notification Faxes Sent by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Site Superintendent to Off-Site Officials on 11 March 2011. Annex I of Technical Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This annex contains a provisional English translation of the faxes sent by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Site Superintendent to METI, the Governor of Fukushima Prefecture and the Mayors of Okuma and Futaba on 11 March 2011

  19. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian


    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  20. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.


    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  1. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.


    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  2. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan


    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  3. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Channel Islands Pinniped Census (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  4. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.


    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  5. Heat Island Compendium (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  6. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.


    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  7. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana


    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  8. Geohydrology of Enewetak Atoll islands and reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.


    Extensive tidal studies in island wells and the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have shown that island ground water dynamics are controlled by a layered aquifer system. The surface aquifer of unconsolidated Holocene material extends to a depth of approximately 15 m, and has a hydraulic conductivity K = 60 m/day. From 15 to 60 m (approximate lagoon depth) the reef structure consists of successive layers of altered Pleistocene materials, with bulk permeability substantially higher than that of the surface aquifer. Because of wave set-up over the windward reef and the limited pass area for outflow at the south end of the atoll, lagoon tides rise in phase with the ocean tides but fall later than the ocean water level. This results in a net lagoon-to-ocean head which can act as the driving force for outflow through the permeable Pleistocene aquifer. This model suggests that fresh water, nutrients or radioactive contaminants found in island ground water or reef interstitial water may be discharged primarily into the ocean rather than the lagoon. Atoll island fresh water resources are controlled by recharge, seawater dilution due to vertical tidal mixing between the surface and deeper aquifers, and by loss due to entrainment by the outflowing water in the deeper aquifers. Estimated lagoon-ot-ocean transit times through the deep aquifer are on the order of a few years, which corresponds well to the freshwater residence time estimates based on inventory and recharge. Islands in close proximity to reef channels have more fresh ground water than others, which is consistent with a locally reduced hydraulic gradient and slower flow through the Pleistocene aquifers

  9. Sea Turtles Geolocalization in the Indian Ocean: An Over Sea Radio Channel framework integrating a trilateration technique (United States)

    Guegan, Loic; Murad, Nour Mohammad; Bonhommeau, Sylvain


    This paper deals with the modeling of the over sea radio channel and aims to establish sea turtles localization off the coast of Reunion Island, and also on Europa Island in the Mozambique Channel. In order to model this radio channel, a framework measurement protocol is proposed. The over sea measured channel is integrated to the localization algorithm to estimate the turtle trajectory based on Power of Arrival (PoA) technique compared to GPS localization. Moreover, cross correlation tool is used to characterize the over sea propagation channel. First measurement of the radio channel on the Reunion Island coast combine to the POA algorithm show an error of 18 m for 45% of the approximated points.

  10. Channel Bottom Morphology in the Deltaic Reach of the Song Hau (mekong) River Channel in Vietnam (United States)

    Allison, M. A.; Weathers, H. D., III; Meselhe, E. A.


    Boat-based, channel bathymetry and bankline elevation studies were conducted in the tidal and estuarine Mekong River channel using multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR corrected for elevation by RTK satellite positioning. Two mapping campaigns, one at high discharge in October 2014 and one at low discharge in March 2015, were conducted in the lower 100 km reach of the Song Hau distributary channel to (1) examine bottom morphology and its relationship to sediment transport, and (2) to provide information to setup the grid for a multi-dimensional and reduced complexity models of channel hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics. Sand fields were identified in multibeam data by the presence of dunes that were as large as 2-4 m high and 40-80 m wavelength and by clean sands in bottom grabs. Extensive areas of sand at the head and toe of mid-channel islands displayed 10-25 m diameter circular pits that could be correlated with bucket dredge, sand mining activities observed at some of the sites. Large areas of the channel floor were relict (containing little or no modern sediment) in the high discharge campaign, identifiable by the presence of along channel erosional furrows and terraced outcrops along the channel floor and margins. Laterally extensive flat areas were also observed in the channel thalweg. Both these and the relict areas were sampled by bottom grab as stiff silty clays. Complex cross-channel combinations of these morphologies were observed in some transects, suggesting strong bottom steering of tidal and riverine currents. Relative to high discharge, transects above and below the salt penetration limit showed evidence of shallowing in the thalweg and adjacent sloping areas at low discharge in March 2015. This shallowing, combined with the reduced extent of sand fields and furrowed areas, and soft muds in grabs, suggests seasonal trapping of fine grained sediment is occurring by estuarine and tidal circulation.

  11. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.


    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  12. Dredging in the Spratly Islands: Gaining Land but Losing Reefs. (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Caldwell, Iain R; Birkeland, Charles; McManus, John W


    Coral reefs on remote islands and atolls are less exposed to direct human stressors but are becoming increasingly vulnerable because of their development for geopolitical and military purposes. Here we document dredging and filling activities by countries in the South China Sea, where building new islands and channels on atolls is leading to considerable losses of, and perhaps irreversible damages to, unique coral reef ecosystems. Preventing similar damage across other reefs in the region necessitates the urgent development of cooperative management of disputed territories in the South China Sea. We suggest using the Antarctic Treaty as a positive precedent for such international cooperation.

  13. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  14. USACE Navigation Channels 2012 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  15. Calcium channel blocker overdose (United States)

    ... this page: // Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  16. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar


    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  17. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.


    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  18. Eight channel fast scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoup, W D; Stubbs, R J [Durham Univ. (UK)


    An eight channel 64-bit scaler has been constructed with a static CMOS memory. Scaling frequencies are independently variable, at each channel, as are the number of bits/channel. The scaler, when used in conjunction with a multichannel charge to time converter results in a very flexible, gated multichannel ADC.

  19. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A


    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  20. Island of Luzon, Philippines (United States)


    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  1. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.


    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  2. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert


    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  3. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  4. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.


    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  5. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  6. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  7. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.


    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  8. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.


    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  9. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  10. Fine Channel Networks (United States)


    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  11. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.


    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  12. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C


    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  13. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.


    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  14. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  15. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.


    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  16. Ion channels in plants. (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer


    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  17. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands (United States)

    Ford, M.


    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  18. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz


    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  19. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  20. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno


    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  1. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  2. Impacts of category 5 tropical cyclone Fantala (April 2016) on Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles Islands, Indian Ocean (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Volto, Natacha; Salmon, Camille


    This paper provides new insights on the impacts of a category 5 tropical cyclone on Indian Ocean atoll reef islands. Using multi-date aerial imagery and field observations, the contribution of tropical cyclone Fantala to shoreline and island change, and to sediment production and transport, was assessed on Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles Islands. Results show that the two largest islands (> 3 km2) only suffered limited land loss (- 1.19 to - 8.35%) while small islets lost 13.17 to 28.45% of their initial land area. Islands and islets exhibited contrasting responses depending on their location, topography and vegetation type. Depending on islands, the retreat of the vegetation line occurred either along all shorelines, or along ocean shoreline only. The structure (wooded vs. grassy) and origin (native vs. introduced) of the vegetation played a major role in island response. Five days after the cyclone, beach width and beach area were multiplied by 1.5 to 10, depending on the setting, and were interpreted as resulting from both sediment reworking and the supply of large amounts of fresh sediments by the reef outer slopes to the island system. Fourth months after the cyclone, extended sheets of loose sediments were still present on the reef flat and in inter-islet channels and shallow lagoon waters, indicating continuing sediment transfer to islands. As a reminder (see Section 3.1.4), beach width uncertainty equals to 6 m for all beach sections.

  3. Multi-population comparison of resource exploitation by island foxes: Implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Cypher


    Full Text Available Imperiled island foxes are inherently resource-limited by their insular ecology. We examined food use on all 6 islands where they occur to assess resource exploitation patterns. Over 40 different food items were identified with item use varying among islands. Sixteen items occurred with ≥10% frequency in annual fox diets: deer mice, birds, lizards, beetles, beetle larvae, Jerusalem crickets, silk-spinning sand crickets, grasshoppers, earwigs, snails, and fruits of toyon, manzanita, prickly pear cactus, ice plant, Australian saltbush, and summer holly. Foxes used a diversity of food items with variations among islands attributable to island-specific availabilities. Deer mice in particular appeared to be preferred. Foxes also exhibited extensive use of non-native items, such as ice plant fruits, European snails, and earwigs, and foxes may even be dependent on these items on some islands. To increase food security and promote population stability, we recommend (1 continuing and enhancing habitat restoration efforts on all islands, (2 increasing the abundance of native items in association with any removals of non-native species used by foxes, and (3 monitoring annual trends in abundance of key food items as well as periodic monitoring of item use by foxes to determine functional responses to changes in item availability. Keywords: Channel islands, Endangered species, Food-item selection, Foraging ecology, Island fox, Urocyon littoralis

  4. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.


    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  5. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.


    Reference is made to coolant channels for pressurised water and boiling water reactors and the arrangement described aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel rods and the coolant. Baffle means extending axially within the channel are provided and disposed relative to the fuel rods so as to restrict flow oscillations occurring within the coolant from being propagated transversely to the axis of the channel. (UK)

  6. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian


    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  7. Calcium Channel Blockers (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  8. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.


    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  9. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac


    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  10. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr


    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  11. Charge Islands Through Tunneling (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.


    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  12. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina


    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić


    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  14. A linearization of quantum channels (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner


    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  15. Omni channel fashion shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; van Delft, L.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Pantano, E.


    This chapter gives insight into consumers' online and offline fashion shopping behavior, consumers' omni-channel usage during the shopping process, and consumer fashion shopper segments. Based on a literature review, omni-channel shopping behavior during the shopping process was operationalized.

  16. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee


    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  17. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.


    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  18. Channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, A.; Avrahami, Z.; Sheinfux, B.; Grinberg, J.


    A channel electron multiplier is described having a tubular wall coated with a secondary-electron emitting material and including an electric field for accelerating the electrons, the electric field comprising a plurality of low-resistive conductive rings each alternating with a high-resistive insulating ring. The thickness of the low-resistive rings is many times larger than that of the high-resistive rings, being in the order of tens of microns for the low-resistive rings and at least one order of magnitude lower for the high-resistive rings; and the diameter of the channel tubular walls is also many times larger than the thickness of the high-resistive rings. Both single-channel and multiple-channel electron multipliers are described. A very important advantage, particularly in making multiple-channel multipliers, is the simplicity of the procedure that may be used in constructing such multipliers. Other operational advantages are described

  19. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  20. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida


    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  2. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  3. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.


    be directed toward much more pressing problems, such as general habitat restoration, erosion control, and the removal of feral cats. The island night lizard (Xantusia riversiana) is endemic to three of the California Channel Islands: Nicolas, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara Islands. Due to its restricted range and apparently small population levels, both the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game have listed the island night lizard as a threatened species. Our study was conducted on San Nicolas Island, which lies offshore 120 km southwest of Los Angeles, California. The island is managed by the U.S. Navy who refers to the island as Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island. The Navy maintains radar, telemetry, and communications equipment on San Nicolas Island to support its mission of testing and evaluating weapons systems. The Navy has dual requirements for ensuring military readiness and sustainability while complying with the Federal Endangered Species Act. A comprehensive understanding of the status and stability of the species on San Nicolas Island is essential for effective island management and may aid in the eventual delisting of the species. Previous work on the San Nicolas Island (Fellers and others, 1998) demonstrated that island night lizards were distributed over the eastern half of San Nicolas Island where there is suitable shrubby habitat. On the eastern half of the island, they occur primarily in or near cactus/sage scrub habitats on the north beach terrace, in scattered patches of scrub on the central mesa, and in boulder and cactus habitats on the southern escarpment of the island. Fellers and others (1998) evaluated data from 1984-85 and 1992-95 and estimated that there were 15,300 island night lizards present on San Nicolas Island. There are two non-native lizards on San Nicolas Island, the side-blotch lizard (Uta stansburiana) and the southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata). Both of the

  4. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.


    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  5. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi


    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  6. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.


    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  7. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  8. Coherifying quantum channels (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol


    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  9. CANDU channel flow verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazalu, N.; Negut, Gh.


    The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain accurate information on each channel flow that enables us to assess precisely the level of reactor thermal power and, for reasons of safety, to establish which channel is boiling. In order to assess the channel flow parameters, computer simulations were done with the NUCIRC code and the results were checked by measurements. The complete channel flow measurements were made in the zero power cold condition. In hot conditions there were made flow measurements using the Shut Down System 1 (SDS 1) flow devices from 0.1 % F.P. up to 100 % F.P. The NUCIRC prediction for CANDU channel flows and the measurements by Ultrasonic Flow Meter at zero power cold conditions and SDS 1 flow channel measurements at different reactor power levels showed an acceptable agreement. The 100 % F.P. average errors for channel flow of R, shows that suitable NUCIRC flow assessment can be made. So, it can be done a fair prediction of the reactor power distribution. NUCIRC can predict accurately the onset of boiling and helps to warn at the possible power instabilities at high powers or it can detect the flow blockages. The thermal hydraulic analyst has in NUCIRC a suitable tool to do accurate predictions for the thermal hydraulic parameters for different steady state power levels which subsequently leads to an optimal CANDU reactor operation. (authors)

  10. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim


    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  11. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels. (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian


    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.


    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  13. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.


    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  14. Channel follower leakage restrictor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.; Smith, B.A.


    An improved means is provided to control coolant leakage between the flow channel and the lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly. The means includes an opening in the lower tie plate and a movable element adjacent thereto. The coolant pressure within the tie plate biases the movable means toward the inner surface of the surrounding flow channel to compensate for any movement of the flow channel away from the lower tie plate to thereby control the leakage of coolant flow from the fuel assemblies to the spaces among the fuel assemblies of the core. 9 figures

  15. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.


    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  16. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.


    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  17. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs


    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  18. The Flooding of Long Island Sound (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Lewis, R. S.


    the same samples (calibrated with CALIB 5.1 using the Intcal 04 data set). The carbonate ages for most samples are considerably younger than those of the bulk carbon and plant fragments: the organic matter must have resided on land, possibly stored in periglacial lake beds, for up to several millennia prior to deposition in Long Island Sound. The carbonate ages indicate that the main marine transgression occurred at 11-10 ka, at the end of the Younger Dryas (Melt Water Pulse 1B), when glacial rebound was waning and the rate of sea level rise accelerated. It is possible that earlier inundation led to deposition of estuarine clays in deeply incised channels. We estimate that the maximum crustal depression of Long Island Sound was about 40 m, and rebound started at about 15 ka (Melt Water Pulse 1A). We thus conclude that Long Island Sound became a marine estuary at the beginning of the Holocene, much later than had been assumed. The earliest native Americans reached the area during the Younger Dryas and may have witnessed the relatively rapid inundation by the sea of a large section of the Long Island Sound basin.

  19. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.


    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  20. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.


    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  1. Many channel spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najzer, M.; Glumac, B.; Pauko, M.


    The principle of the ITER unfolding code as used for the many channel spectrum unfolding is described. Its unfolding ability is tested on seven typical neutron spectra. The effect of the initial spectrum approximation upon the solution is discussed

  2. Channelized Streams in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  3. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane


    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  4. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris


    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  5. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  6. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd


    The TRP ("transient receptor potential") family of ion channels now comprises more than 30 cation channels, most of which are permeable for Ca2+, and some also for Mg2+. On the basis of sequence homology, the TRP family can be divided in seven main subfamilies: the TRPC ('Canonical') family......, the TRPV ('Vanilloid') family, the TRPM ('Melastatin') family, the TRPP ('Polycystin') family, the TRPML ('Mucolipin') family, the TRPA ('Ankyrin') family, and the TRPN ('NOMPC') family. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has exploded during recent years, leading...... to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  7. Authentication over Noisy Channels


    Lai, Lifeng; Gamal, Hesham El; Poor, H. Vincent


    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios,...

  8. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten


    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  9. Stream Channel Stability. (United States)


    Cycles of wetting and drying are also t ,v itiue swelling and shrinkage of the soil. S 11ied blocks or peds of soil fabric ,,ks. id downslope soil creep ...hydrographs of water and sediment at the point in question. By feeding the output from the hydrology-transport model into the finite element model...the banks as undercut banks fail. Channel irregularities such as seepage zones, cattle crossings, overbank drainage, buried channels, organic deposits

  10. Channeling and dynamic chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, IU L; Gonchar, V IU; Truten, V I; Shulga, N F


    It is shown that axial channeling of relativistic electrons can give rise to the effect of dynamic chaos which involves essentially chaotic motion of a particle in the channel. The conditions leading to the effect of dynamic chaos and the manifestations of this effect in physical processes associated with the passage of particles through a crystal are examined using a silicon crystal as an example. 7 references.

  11. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  12. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.


    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  13. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  14. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.


    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  15. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server


    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  16. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling


    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  17. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.


    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  18. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.


    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  19. Distribution and sediment production of large benthic foraminifers on reef flats of the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands (United States)

    Fujita, K.; Osawa, Y.; Kayanne, H.; Ide, Y.; Yamano, H.


    The distributions and population densities of large benthic foraminifers (LBFs) were investigated on reef flats of the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands. Annual sediment production by foraminifers was estimated based on population density data. Predominant LBFs were Calcarina and Amphistegina, and the population densities of these foraminifers varied with location and substratum type on reef flats. Both foraminifers primarily attached to macrophytes, particularly turf-forming algae, and were most abundant on an ocean reef flat (ORF) and in an inter-island channel near windward, sparsely populated islands. Calcarina density was higher on windward compared to leeward sides of ORFs, whereas Amphistegina density was similar on both sides of ORFs. These foraminifers were more common on the ocean side relative to the lagoon side of reef flats around a windward reef island, and both were rare or absent in nearshore zones around reef islands and on an ORF near windward, densely populated islands. Foraminiferal production rates varied with the degree to which habitats were subject to water motion and human influences. Highly productive sites (>103 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1) included an ORF and an inter-island channel near windward, sparsely populated islands, and a seaward area of a reef flat with no reef islands. Low-productivity sites (<10 g CaCO3 m-2 year-1) included generally nearshore zones of lagoonal reef flats, leeward ORFs, and a windward ORF near densely populated islands. These results suggest that the distribution and production of LBFs were largely influenced by a combination of natural environmental factors, including water motion, water depth, elevation relative to the lowest tidal level at spring tide, and the distribution of suitable substratum. The presence of reef islands may limit the distribution and production of foraminifers by altering water circulation in nearshore environments. Furthermore, increased anthropogenic factors (population and activities) may

  20. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.


    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  1. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.


    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  2. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  3. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  4. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands (United States)


    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  5. Optical Communications Channel Combiner (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy


    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  6. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.


    -control stabilization of the headlandds such as the Montauk Point headlands, and deepening of navigation channels by dredging through the tidal inlets and in the bays. Indirect impacts that have a bearing on decisions to deal with breaching are: high-risk development of the barrier islands and low-lying areas of the mainland vulnerable to flooding, and the dredging of nearshore sand shoals for beach nourishment. The NPS strives to employ a coastal management framework for decision making that is based on assessment of the physical and ecological properties of the shoreline as well as human welfare and property. In order to protect developed areas of Fire Island and the mainland from loss of life, flooding, and other economic and physical damage, the NPS will likely need to consider allowing artificial closure of some breaches within the FIIS under certain circumstances. The decision by the NPS to allow breaches to evolve naturally and possibly close or to allow artificially closing breaches is based on four criteria: 1. Volumes of sediment transported landward and exchange of water and nutrients;

  7. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (FR): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detriche, Sebastien; Rodrigues, Stephane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul [Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CNRS/INSU UMR 6113 ISTO, Universite d' Orleans Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Geologie des Environnements Aquatiques Continentaux, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Bonte, Philippe [UMR CNRS-CEA 1572, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement - LSCE, CNRS, Domaine du CNRS, Bat. 12, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Juge, Philippe [CETU-Elmis ingenieries, Antenne Universitaire en Val de Vienne, 11 quai Danton, 37500 Chinon (France)


    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (FR) was investigated using the {sup 137}Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some {sup 137}Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about {sup 137}Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited pre-incision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year{sup -1}) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment. (authors)

  8. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (FR): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detriche, Sebastien; Rodrigues, Stephane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul; Bonte, Philippe; Juge, Philippe


    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (FR) was investigated using the 137 Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some 137 Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about 137 Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited pre-incision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year -1 ) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment. (authors)

  9. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli


    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  10. Island biogeography of marine organisms (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.


    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  11. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  12. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille


    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered...

  13. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar


    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  14. Channel identification machines. (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B


    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  15. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney


    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  16. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei


    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  17. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island (United States)

    Lisa Stratton


    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  18. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.


    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  19. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)


    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  20. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management


    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna


    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  1. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.


    This report extends the work reported in document INFO-0370 on fuel channel refilling by providing analysis of the refilling tests conducted using the RD-14 and RD-14M test facilities. The analysis focuses on the general thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the facilities following various small and large inlet and outlet header breaks with emergency coolant injection. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHENA was tested against results obtained from selected experiments carried out in the two facilities. Conclusions related to the effect of break size, mode of emergency core injection, primary pump operation and parallel channels are presented. (Author) (116 figs., 17 tabs., 53 refs.)

  2. Ion channels in glioblastoma. (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J


    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with the most dismal prognosis. It is characterized by extensive invasion, migration, and angiogenesis. Median survival is only 15 months due to this behavior, rendering focal surgical resection ineffective and adequate radiotherapy impossible. At this moment, several ion channels have been implicated in glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. This paper summarizes studies on potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium channels of glioblastoma. It provides an up-to-date overview of the literature that could ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets.

  3. Fuel channel refilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Abdul-Razzak, A.


    Analysis of existing data on fuel channel refilling is presented. The analysis focuses on the data obtained using the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Test (CWIT) Facility. The two-fluid model thermal-hydraulics computer code CATHENA is also used to simulate experimental results on fuel channel refilling from both the CWIT and RD-14 facilities. Conclusions related to single and double break tests, including the effect of non-condensible gases, are presented. A set of recommendations is given for further analysis and separate effect experiments. (67 figs., 5 tabs., 24 refs.)

  4. Bar and channel evolution in meandering and braiding rivers using physics-based modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, F.


    Rivers are among the most dynamic earth surface systems. Some rivers meander, forming bends that migrate, reshape and have inner-bend bars. Other rivers form a complicated braided pattern of branches, islands and mid-channel bars. Thorough understanding of their morphodynamics is important for

  5. 78 FR 19155 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC (United States)


    ... Special Local Regulation is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the...:45 a.m., Without Limits Coaching will sponsor ``Swim the Loop'' and the ``Motts Channel Sprint'' on... around Harbor Island returning to the Dockside Marina. To provide for the safety of participants...

  6. The Three Mile Island Disaster. (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral


    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  7. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  8. Three Mile Island Accident Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  9. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  10. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.


    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  11. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.


    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  12. Potassium channels in brain mitochondria. (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Piotr


    Potassium channels are the most widely distributed class of ion channels. These channels are transmembrane proteins known to play important roles in both normal and pathophysiological functions in all cell types. Various potassium channels are recognised as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, brain/spinal cord ischaemia and sepsis. In addition to their importance as therapeutic targets, certain potassium channels are known for their beneficial roles in anaesthesia, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. Some types of potassium channels present in the plasma membrane of various cells have been found in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well. Potassium channels have been proposed to regulate mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, matrix volume and Ca(+) ion homeostasis. It has been proposed that mitochondrial potassium channels mediate ischaemic preconditioning in various tissues. However, the specificity of a pharmacological agents and the mechanisms underlying their effects on ischaemic preconditioning remain controversial. The following potassium channels from various tissues have been identified in the inner mitochondrial membrane: ATP-regulated (mitoK(ATP)) channel, large conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoBK(Ca)) channel, intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-regulated (mitoIK(Ca)) channel, voltage-gated (mitoKv1.3 type) channel, and twin-pore domain (mitoTASK-3) channel. It has been shown that increased potassium flux into brain mitochondria induced by either the mitoK(ATP) channel or mitoBK(Ca) channel affects the beneficial effects on neuronal cell survival under pathological conditions. Recently, differential distribution of mitoBK(Ca) channels has been observed in neuronal mitochondria. These findings may suggest a neuroprotective role for the mitoBK(Ca) channel in specific brain structures. This minireview summarises current data on brain mitochondrial potassium channels and the efforts to identify

  13. Archaeoastronomy and sacred places in Tenerife (Canary Islands). (United States)

    Jiménez, J. J.; Esteban, C.; Febles, J. V.; Belmonte, J. A.

    For the last few years the authors have been investigating (with work still in progress) several archaeological sites of the indigenous culture of the island of Tenerife, in search of possible astronomical connections, be these of a calendric or religious nature. Of these sites, the authors will concentrate, within their archaeological context, on those containing small channels and carved "basins" (or "hollows") and interpreted as probable cultic sites. The present work constitutes and initial approach to the contrasting of different aspects, such as location, celestial horizon, morphology, the visibility of Mount Teide and burials.

  14. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  15. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.


    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas


    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  17. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.


    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  18. Workshop on Gas Channels (United States)


    Effect of pressure on gas permeability. In Fish … Different channels or splice variants at different depth.  HRE (hypoxia-response elements): which...proteins unexpectedly have HREs . HIF-1.  Shear stress:  expression of NOS  Are different splice variants used under different conditions?  Size

  19. Alluvial cover controlling the width, slope and sinuosity of bedrock channels (United States)

    Turowski, Jens Martin


    Bedrock channel slope and width are important parameters for setting bedload transport capacity and for stream-profile inversion to obtain tectonics information. Channel width and slope development are closely related to the problem of bedrock channel sinuosity. It is therefore likely that observations on bedrock channel meandering yields insights into the development of channel width and slope. Active meandering occurs when the bedrock channel walls are eroded, which also drives channel widening. Further, for a given drop in elevation, the more sinuous a channel is, the lower is its channel bed slope in comparison to a straight channel. It can thus be expected that studies of bedrock channel meandering give insights into width and slope adjustment and vice versa. The mechanisms by which bedrock channels actively meander have been debated since the beginning of modern geomorphic research in the 19th century, but a final consensus has not been reached. It has long been argued that whether a bedrock channel meanders actively or not is determined by the availability of sediment relative to transport capacity, a notion that has also been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Here, this idea is taken up by postulating that the rate of change of both width and sinuosity over time is dependent on bed cover only. Based on the physics of erosion by bedload impacts, a scaling argument is developed to link bedrock channel width, slope and sinuosity to sediment supply, discharge and erodibility. This simple model built on sediment-flux-driven bedrock erosion concepts yields the observed scaling relationships of channel width and slope with discharge and erosion rate. Further, it explains why sinuosity evolves to a steady-state value and predicts the observed relations between sinuosity, erodibility and storm frequency, as has been observed for meandering bedrock rivers on Pacific Arc islands.

  20. Alluvial cover controlling the width, slope and sinuosity of bedrock channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Turowski


    Full Text Available Bedrock channel slope and width are important parameters for setting bedload transport capacity and for stream-profile inversion to obtain tectonics information. Channel width and slope development are closely related to the problem of bedrock channel sinuosity. It is therefore likely that observations on bedrock channel meandering yields insights into the development of channel width and slope. Active meandering occurs when the bedrock channel walls are eroded, which also drives channel widening. Further, for a given drop in elevation, the more sinuous a channel is, the lower is its channel bed slope in comparison to a straight channel. It can thus be expected that studies of bedrock channel meandering give insights into width and slope adjustment and vice versa. The mechanisms by which bedrock channels actively meander have been debated since the beginning of modern geomorphic research in the 19th century, but a final consensus has not been reached. It has long been argued that whether a bedrock channel meanders actively or not is determined by the availability of sediment relative to transport capacity, a notion that has also been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Here, this idea is taken up by postulating that the rate of change of both width and sinuosity over time is dependent on bed cover only. Based on the physics of erosion by bedload impacts, a scaling argument is developed to link bedrock channel width, slope and sinuosity to sediment supply, discharge and erodibility. This simple model built on sediment-flux-driven bedrock erosion concepts yields the observed scaling relationships of channel width and slope with discharge and erosion rate. Further, it explains why sinuosity evolves to a steady-state value and predicts the observed relations between sinuosity, erodibility and storm frequency, as has been observed for meandering bedrock rivers on Pacific Arc islands.

  1. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes (United States)

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, William F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.


    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khangaonkar, Tarang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  3. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands (United States)


    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  4. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.


    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  5. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  6. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.


    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  7. Oak habitat recovery on California's largest islands: Scenarios for the role of corvid seed dispersal (United States)

    Pesendorfer, Mario B.; Baker, Christopher M.; Stringer, Martin; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Bode, Michael; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott


    Seed dispersal by birds is central to the passive restoration of many tree communities. Reintroduction of extinct seed dispersers can therefore restore degraded forests and woodlands. To test this, we constructed a spatially explicit simulation model, parameterized with field data, to consider the effect of different seed dispersal scenarios on the extent of oak populations. We applied the model to two islands in California's Channel Islands National Park (USA), one of which has lost a key seed disperser.We used an ensemble modelling approach to simulate island scrub oak (Quercus pacifica) demography. The model was developed and trained to recreate known population changes over a 20-year period on 250-km2 Santa Cruz Island, and incorporated acorn dispersal by island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and gravity, as well as seed predation. We applied the trained model to 215-km2 Santa Rosa Island to examine how reintroducing island scrub-jays would affect the rate and pattern of oak population expansion. Oak habitat on Santa Rosa Island has been greatly reduced from its historical extent due to past grazing by introduced ungulates, the last of which were removed by 2011.Our simulation model predicts that a seed dispersal scenario including island scrub-jays would increase the extent of the island scrub oak population on Santa Rosa Island by 281% over 100 years, and by 544% over 200 years. Scenarios without jays would result in little expansion. Simulated long-distance seed dispersal by jays also facilitates establishment of discontinuous patches of oaks, and increases their elevational distribution.Synthesis and applications. Scenario planning provides powerful decision support for conservation managers. We used ensemble modelling of plant demographic and seed dispersal processes to investigate whether the reintroduction of seed dispersers could provide cost-effective means of achieving broader ecosystem restoration goals on

  8. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor


    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  9. Predictive techniques for river channel evolution and maintenance (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.


    Predicting changes in alluvial channel morphology associated with anthropogenic and natural changes in flow and/or sediment supply is a critical part of the management of riverine systems. Over the past few years, advances in the understanding of the physics of sediment transport in conjunction with rapidly increasing capabilities in computational fluid dynamics have yielded now approaches to problems in river mechanics. Techniques appropriate for length scales ranging from reaches to bars and bedforms are described here. Examples of the use of these computational approaches are discussed for three cases: (1) the design of diversion scenarios that maintain channel morphology in steep cobble-bedded channels in Colorado, (2) determination of channel maintenance flows for the preservation of channel islands in the Snake River in Idaho, and (3) prediction of the temporal evolution of deposits in lateral separation zones for future assessment of the impacts of various dam release scenarios on lateral separation deposits in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. With continued development of their scientific and technical components, the methodologies described here can provide powerful tools for the management of river environments in the future.

  10. Transient bedrock channel evolution across a precipitation gradient: A case study from Kohala, Hawaii. (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Han, J.; Johnson, J. P.; Menking, J. A.


    This study uses observations from the Kohala Peninsula, on the Big Island of Hawaii, and numerical modeling, to explore how precipitation gradients may affect fluvial bedrock incision and channel morphology. Orographic precipitation patterns result in over 4 m/yr of rainfall on the wet side of the peninsula and less than 0.5 m/yr on the dry side. These precipitation patterns likely strongly contribute to the observed channel morphology. Further, the region is subsiding, leading to prolonged transient channel evolution. We explore changes in a number of channel morphologic parameters with watershed averaged precipitation rate. We use PRISM precipitation data and data from isohyets developed from historic rain gauge data. Not surprisingly, valley depth, measured from a 10 meter DEM, increases with spatially averaged precipitation rate. We also find that channel profile form varies with precipitation rate, with drier channels exhibiting a straight to slightly concave channel form and wetter channels exhibiting a convex to concave channel form. The precipitation value at which this transition in channel profile form occurs depends on the precipitation data-set used, highlighting the need for more accurate measurements of precipitation in settings with extreme precipitation patterns similar to our study area. The downstream pattern in precipitation is likely significant in the development of the convex-concave profile form. Numerical modeling results support that precipitation patterns such as those observed on the wet-side of the Kohala Peninsula may contribute to the convex-concave profile form. However, we emphasize that while precipitation patterns may contribute to the channel form, these channel features are transient and not expected to be sustained in steady-state landscapes. We also emphasize that it is fluvial discharge, as driven by precipitation, rather than precipitation alone, that drives the processes shaping the channel form. Because fluvial discharge is

  11. VAX CAMAC channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.J.; Breidenbach, M.; Granieri, C.D.; Grund, J.E.; Patrick, J.F.; Weaver, L.J.


    A new generation CAMAC System has been developed for the Mark II Detector at SLAC's PEP storage ring. This flexible system can efficiently transfer data between a host computer and a very large set of CAMAC data acquisition and control modules. A bipolar microprocessor operates as a Channel interface by supervising the CAMAC system and minimizing the host computer's work. This programmable channel couples the host to a set of System Crates; each System Crate houses Branch Drivers that can directly control a set of crates or communicate over differential parallel highways to Branch Receivers for control of distant crates. A coherent software package integrates the high level programs, system driver level programs, and microcode control of the system

  12. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others


    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  13. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois


    A complete and detailed description of the theoretical background of an '(1D) thermal-hydraulic drift-flux based mixture-fluid' coolant channel model and its resulting module CCM will be presented. The objective of this module is to simulate as universally as possible the steady state and transient behaviour of the key characteristic parameters of a single- or two-phase fluid flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channel. Due to the possibility that different flow regimes can appear along any channel, such a 'basic (BC)' 1D channel is assumed to be subdivided into a number of corresponding sub-channels (SC-s). Each SC can belong to only two types of flow regime, an SC with just a single-phase fluid, containing exclusively either sub-cooled water or superheated steam, or an SC with a two-phase mixture flow. After an appropriate nodalisation of such a BC (and therefore also its SC-s) a 'modified finite volume method' has been applied for the spatial discretisation of the partial differential equations (PDE-s) which represent the basic conservation equations of thermal-hydraulics. Special attention had to be given to the possibility of variable SC entrance or outlet positions (which describe boiling boundaries or mixture levels) and thus the fact that an SC can even disappear or be created anew. The procedure yields for each SC type (and thus the entire BC), a set of non-linear ordinary 1st order differential equations (ODE-s). To link the resulting mean nodal with the nodal boundary function values, both of which are present in the discretised differential equations, a special quadratic polygon approximation procedure (PAX) had to be constructed. Together with the very thoroughly tested packages for drift-flux, heat transfer and single- and two-phase friction factors this procedure represents the central part of the here presented 'Separate-Region' approach, a theoretical model which provides the basis to the very effective working code package CCM

  14. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.


    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  15. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano


    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  16. Tourism distribution channels


    Camilleri, Mark Anthony


    The distribution channels link the customers with the businesses. For many years, the tourism businesses may have distributed their products and services through intermediaries. However, the latest advances in technology have brought significant changes in this regard. More individuals and corporate customers are increasingly benefiting of ubiquitous technologies, including digital media. The development of mobile devices and their applications, are offering a wide range of possibilities to t...

  17. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter (United States)

    Jones, Julia Craven


    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  18. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.


    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  19. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    Drug resistance of Influenza A against antivirals is an increasing problem. No effective Influenza A drugs targeting the crucial viral protein, the proton transporter M2 are available anymore due to widespread resistance. Thanks to research efforts elucidating M2 protein structure, function and i...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  20. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.


    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. Scope of Review: This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. Major Conclusions: As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. General Significance: The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:24291688

  1. Matching Dyadic Distributions to Channels


    Böcherer, Georg; Mathar, Rudolf


    Many communication channels with discrete input have non-uniform capacity achieving probability mass functions (PMF). By parsing a stream of independent and equiprobable bits according to a full prefix-free code, a modu-lator can generate dyadic PMFs at the channel input. In this work, we show that for discrete memoryless channels and for memoryless discrete noiseless channels, searching for good dyadic input PMFs is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler distance between a dyadic PMF ...

  2. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  3. Microstructural information from channeling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.


    Channeling is sensitive to nearly all structural changes in solids. One briefly recalls how particles are dechanneled by lattice defects and describes the main applications of channeling to materials science: detection of radiation damage, location of impurity atoms, precipitations in alloys... Channeling being a phenomenon characteristic of perfect crystals, any type of lattice imperfection (phonons, crystal defects, precipitation etc.) is expected to produce dechanneling. Consequently channeling and its opposite, dechanneling, have both been used to study structure and structural changes of materials

  4. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  5. The alpha channeling effect (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.


    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  6. TRP channels in kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.


    Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Recent studies of TRP channels indicate that they are involved in numerous fundamental cell

  7. Parallel inter channel interaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.


    Parallel channels interactions are examined. For experimental researches of nonstationary regimes flow in three parallel vertical channels results of phenomenon analysis and mechanisms of parallel channel interaction for adiabatic condition of one-phase fluid and two-phase mixture flow are shown. (author)

  8. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity. (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger


    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  9. Greece, Milos Island Geothermal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, E.E.


    On Milos island (Aegean Sea) a high enthalpy, water dominated geothermal field of high salinity exists. At 1985, a 2MW geothermoelectric pilot plant was installed on the island. This plant has been provided by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of Japan under a contract with Public Power Corporation of Greece. Due to high salinity of the geothermal fluid, unforeseen problems (scaling mainly) arisen in both steam and brine cycles. As a consequence, the operation (trial mainly) of the power plant have been interrupted several times for long periods, in order to identify the arisen, each time, problems and find the most appropriate technical solution. The above fact, as well as, some unfortunate coincidences described in this paper, led Milos people to react against geothermal development in their island. The sequence of the events, technical and non-technical, their approach and the relevant conclusions are reported in this presentation

  10. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands (United States)


    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peronaci, Marcello; Luciani, Roberto


    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land [it

  12. Review of islanding detection methods for distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Mahat, Pukar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    This paper presents an overview of power system islanding and islanding detection techniques. Islanding detection techniques, for a distribution system with distributed generation (DG), can broadly be divided into remote and local techniques. A remote islanding detection technique is associated...

  13. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Terzić


    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  16. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  17. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  18. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  19. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  20. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  1. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  2. Death age, seasonality, taphonomy and colonization of seal carcasses from Ulu Peninsula, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nývlt, D.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Barták, M.; Stachoň, Z.; Pavel, V.; Mlčoch, B.; Láska, K.


    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 3-16 ISSN 0954-1020 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : James Ross Island * preservation state * Prince Gustav Channel * sea ice * seal behaviour Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  3. Numerical modelling of channel processes and analysis of possible channel improvement measures on the Lena River near city Yakutsk (United States)

    Krylenko, Inna; Belikov, Vitaly; Zavadskii, Aleksander; Borisova, Natalya; Golovlyov, Pavel; Rumyantsev, Alexey


    variants of channel improvement measures, including different dam constructions, river bed dredging, closing of some river branches were considered and included into modelling scenarios. Analyses of results of modelling has allowed to reveal, that more expensive big dams which are partitioning off a part the main channel are not so effective, because their construction lead to significant increasing of flow velocities and corresponding increasing in sediment transport. Local channel regulations measures (small dam at Ponomarev island near Yakutsk and bed dredging) can give some effect in a few years due to formation of the new line of the depths maximum near water intake structure and Yakutsk port. For improving of the navigation conditions near Ghatay port closing of the small channel branch Ghataiskaya can be effective.

  4. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (United States)


    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  5. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René


    The small island of Tuppiap Qeqertaa, formerly known as Tobias circle divide or Tobias Island, is situated 80 km off the northeast Greenland coast. The island was discovered in 1993 and is approximately 2 km long and 1.5 km wide. Most of the island is covered by an ice cap that rises to 35 in abo...

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  7. The geology of the Falkland Islands


    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.


    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  8. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  9. Ion Channels in Leukocytes (United States)


    muscle k142), heart muscle (80), bo- are released. In recent years much has been learned vine pulmonar arter endothelial cells (251), and rat about the...b3 Zn or cytes from cystic fibrosis patients lack a Cl current that Ni (1 mM)-added to the cytoplasmic side of the mem- can be acti% ated b3 the...that at37’C hu- to be defectiv.- in cystic fibrosis (55, 277), and Chen et al. man T-cell CiL channels are active at rest, implies that (25) have shown

  10. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  11. TRPV6 channels. (United States)

    Fecher-Trost, Claudia; Weissgerber, Petra; Wissenbach, Ulrich


    TRPV6 (former synonyms ECAC2, CaT1, CaT-like) displays several specific features which makes it unique among the members of the mammalian Trp gene family (1) TRPV6 (and its closest relative, TRPV5) are the only highly Ca(2+)-selective channels of the entire TRP superfamily (Peng et al. 1999; Wissenbach et al. 2001; Voets et al. 2004). (2) Translation of Trpv6 initiates at a non-AUG codon, at ACG, located upstream of the annotated AUG, which is not used for initiation (Fecher-Trost et al. 2013). The ACG codon is nevertheless decoded by methionine. Not only a very rare event in eukaryotic biology, the full-length TRPV6 protein existing in vivo comprises an amino terminus extended by 40 amino acid residues compared to the annotated truncated TRPV6 protein which has been used in most studies on TRPV6 channel activity so far. (In the following numbering occurs according to this full-length protein, with the numbers of the so far annotated truncated protein in brackets). (3) Only in humans a coupled polymorphism of Trpv6 exists causing three amino acid exchanges and resulting in an ancestral Trpv6 haplotype and a so-called derived Trpv6 haplotype (Wissenbach et al. 2001). The ancestral allele encodes the amino acid residues C197(157), M418(378) and M721(681) and the derived alleles R197(157), V418(378) and T721(681). The ancestral haplotype is found in all species, the derived Trpv6 haplotype has only been identified in humans, and its frequency increases with the distance to the African continent. Apparently the Trpv6 gene has been a strong target for selection in humans, and its derived variant is one of the few examples showing consistently differences to the orthologues genes of other primates (Akey et al. 2004, 2006; Stajich and Hahn 2005; Hughes et al. 2008). (4) The Trpv6 gene expression is significantly upregulated in several human malignancies including the most common cancers, prostate and breast cancer (Wissenbach et al. 2001; Zhuang et al. 2002; Fixemer et al

  12. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.


    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore


    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  14. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.


    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  15. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change. (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  16. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  17. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  18. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow


    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  19. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.


    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  20. Destination: Marshall Islands. Video Guide. (United States)

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. Activities that the guide describes are for use in a 3- to 5-day unit on one of the nations of Oceania, the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The activities are designed to provide students with opportunities to: (1) compare and contrast Marshallese and U.S. culture;…

  1. New O-superfamily conotoxins from Conus striatus inhabited near Chinese Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Conotoxins are short peptide-toxins with specific targets and large diversity.They are useful in analgesia,neuroprotection,detection of some kinds of deseases,and receptor and ion channel study.In order to explore the conotoxin resourses of Chinese oceans,rapid amplification of 3' cDNA ends (RACE) method was utilized to systemically analyze the O-superfamily conotoxin content of Conus striatus inhabited near Chinese Hainan Island.Six new O-superfamily conopeptides were identified,one of which is highly homologous to MVIIA,an N-type calcium channel antagonist.

  2. Data integrity review of Three Mile Island Unit 2. Hydrogen burn data. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Nelson, R.A.; Nalezny, C.L.; Averill, R.H.


    About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 loss-of-coolant accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), a hydrogen burn occurred inside the Reactor Building. This report reviews and presents data from 16 channels of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), 2 steam generator pressure transmitters, 16 Reactor Building pressure switches, 2 channels of Reactor Building pressure measurements, and measurements of Reactor Building hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations with regard to their usefulness for determining the extent of the burn and the resulting pressure and temperature excursions inside the building

  3. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak


    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study


    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i


    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  5. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya


    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  6. Mimicking multi-channel scattering with single-channel approaches


    Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro


    The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multi-channel (MC) problem as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold 6Li and 87Rb atoms in the ground state and in the ...

  7. Seismic history of the Maltese islands and considerations on seismic risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galea


    Full Text Available A historical catalogue of felt earthquakes in the Maltese islands has been compiled dating back to 1530. Although no fatalities were officially recorded during this time as a direct consequence of earthquake effects, serious damage to buildings occurred several times. In the catalogue time period, the islands experienced EMS-98 intensity VII-VIII once (11 January 1693 and intensity VII, or VI-VII five times. The northern segment of the Hyblean-Malta plateau is the source region which appears to pose the greatest threat, although large Greek events and lower magnitude Sicily Channel events also produced damage. Estimates of return periods for intensity ?V are presented, and it is shown that expected peak ground accelerations justify the implementation of, at least, minimum anti-seismic provisions. The rapid and continual increase in the local building stock on the densely-populated islands warrants the implementation of an appropriate seismic building code to be enforced.

  8. Distributed cogeneration can have a very meaningful strategic energy conservation outcome for islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielden, D.; Jacques, J.K.


    Since the first oil shock in 1973, many small islands have not assessed the strategic implications of dependence on oil imports, and have not opted to interfere in their own energy markets. This paper considers the notion of different levels of energy service delivery (by concentrating on local suitability), based on research relating to the Channel Island of Guernsey, and shows that significant energy savings are available. For this energy service delivery approach to be put into effect this paper suggests that a move away from the present laissez-faire supply-based stance will be necessary. Distributed cogeneration is considered in a case situation (using techniques that no small island currently employs) and shows strategic energy conservation solutions to questions no one has yet seriously asked. (author)

  9. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.


    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  10. Shape and coarsening dynamics of strained islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifani, Guido; Frisch, Thomas; Argentina, Mederic


    and numerically the formation of an equilibrium island using a two-dimensional continuous model. We have found that these equilibrium island-like solutions have a maximum height h_{0} and they sit on top of a flat wetting layer with a thickness h_{w}. We then consider two islands, and we report that they undergo...... and leads to the shrinkage of the smallest island. Once its height becomes smaller than a minimal equilibrium height h_{0}^{*}, its mass spreads over the entire system. Our results pave the way for a future analysis of coarsening of an assembly of islands....

  11. A Volcanic Origin for Sinuous and Branching Channels on Mars: Evidence from Hawaiian Analogs (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; deWet, Andrew; Garry, W. Brent; Zimbelman, James R.


    Observations of sinuous and branching channels on planets have long driven a debate about their origin, fluvial or volcanic processes. In some cases planetary conditions rule out fluvial activity (e.g. the Moon, Venus, Mercury). However, the geology of Mars leads to suggestions that liquid water existed on the surface in the past. As a result, some sinuous and branching channels on Mars are cited as evidence of fluvial erosion. Evidence for a fluvial history often focuses on channel morphologies that are unique from a typical lava channel, for instance, a lack of detectable flow margins and levees, islands and terraces. Although these features are typical, they are not necessarily diagnostic of a fluvial system. We conducted field studies in Hawaii to characterize similar features in lava flows to better define which characteristics might be diagnostic of fluvial or volcanic processes. Our martian example is a channel system that originates in the Ascraeus Mons SW rift zone from a fissure. The channel extends for approx.300 km to the SE/E. The proximal channel displays multiple branches, islands, terraces, and has no detectable levees or margins. We conducted field work on the 1859 and 1907 Mauna Loa flows, and the Pohue Bay flow. The 51-km-long 1859 Flow originates from a fissure and is an example of a paired a a and pahoehoe lava flow. We collected DGPS data across a 500 m long island. Here, the channel diverted around a pre-existing obstruction in the channel, building vertical walls up to 9 m in height above the current channel floor. The complicated emplacement history along this channel section, including an initial a a stage partially covered by pahoehoe overflows, resulted in an appearance of terraced channel walls, no levees and diffuse flow margins. The 1907 Mauna Loa flow extends > 20 km from the SW rift zone. The distal flow formed an a a channel. However the proximal flow field comprises a sheet that experienced drainage and sagging of the crust

  12. Study on domestic material purchasing in MSR manufacture of conventional island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhengmao


    Combining the real case of Dongfang Electric (Guangzhou) Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. trying to purchase the domestic sealing gasket as needed in the MSR of the conventional island, this paper describes the trends and relevant experience about nuclear power equipment manufacturers purchasing materials in the domestic market, and provides a reference to broadening the procurement channels of the purchasing departments of nuclear equipment manufacturers. (author)

  13. The Atlantic Coast of Maryland, Sediment Budget Update: Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet (United States)


    111 – Rivers and Harbors Act), the navigational structures at the Ocean City Inlet, and a number of Federally authorized channels (Figure 1). Reed...Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet by Ernest R. Smith, Joseph C. Reed, and Ian L. Delwiche PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics...of the Atlantic Ocean shoreline within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District’s Area of Responsibility, which for coastal

  14. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels (United States)

    Rahaman, Mizanur


    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  15. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica


    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  16. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eGeng


    Full Text Available Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1 channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD, also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with 5 closed states on the upper tier and 5 open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states.

  17. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico


    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  18. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels. (United States)

    Xu, X Z Shawn


    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  19. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.


    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...... of radiation damage by channeled particles. As an application, one gets a necessary criterion for the occurence of super tails in channeling experiments. The theory involves some assumptions on the behaviour of Born-Mayer potentials which are verified by comparison to experimental displacement energies....

  20. 33 CFR 110.84 - Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. (United States)


    ... of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84 Section 110.84 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y. An area extending northwesterly between Black Rock... Triangulation Marker “N-5” on Bird Island Pier; thence southeasterly along the pier a distance of approximately...

  1. Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands (United States)

    Hampson, John C., Jr.


    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations. Mapping with a high degree of precision at scales as large as 1:1500 required corrections that often are not considered in marine mapping. Corrections were applied to the bathymetric data for location of the echo- sounding transducer relative to the navigation transponder on the ship and for transducer depth, speed of sound, and tidal variations. Sidescan sonar, single-channel seismic reflection, and scuba and submersible data were correlated in depth and map position with the bathymetric data to provide a precise, internally consistent data set. The multichannel and refraction surveys were conducted independently but compared well with bathymetry. Examples drawn from processing the bathymetric, sidescan sonar, and single- channel reflection data help illustrate problems and procedures in precision mapping.

  2. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.


    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RĂDULESCU


    Full Text Available The theoretical – intuitive analysis applied to the segment of monetary transmission evidences the fact that forming the traditional monetary impulses transmission channels are in a starting phase due to the long financial non – intermediary process which Romanian economy had known. In these conditions, the exchange rate channel, and also NBR currency purchases was, for a long time, an important way through which monetary authorities actions influenced macro economical behaviors. But starting with 2000, it is observed a credit channel reactivation and, especially, interest rate channel. Anyhow, the credit channel continues to be undermined by the existence of liquidity surplus within the system, by the phenomena of substitution of national currency credit with currency credits, and also moral hazardous displays. Albeit some of these phenomena also affect the interest rate channel, its role in sending monetary policy impulses is in a continuous progress. Apparently, it acts by way of nominal interest rates, their real level seeming less relevant. Once with remaking the two traditional channels, the companies and households balance is configured and consolidated, which shall potentate in the future the efficiency of the monetary policy. This paper analyses the credit channel in Romania, through an unrestricted VAR analysis.. It shows the responses of exchange rate, inflation rate, GDP, interest rate, imports and exports to a shock on non-governmental credit

  4. ZnO-channel thin-film transistors: Channel mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.


    ZnO-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) test structures are fabricated using a bottom-gate structure on thermally oxidized Si; ZnO is deposited via RF sputtering from an oxide target, with an unheated substrate. Electrical characteristics are evaluated, with particular attention given to the extraction and interpretation of transistor channel mobility. ZnO-channel TFT mobility exhibits severe deviation from that assumed by ideal TFT models; mobility extraction methodology must accordingly be recast so as to provide useful insight into device operation. Two mobility metrics, μ avg and μ inc , are developed and proposed as relevant tools in the characterization of nonideal TFTs. These mobility metrics are employed to characterize the ZnO-channel TFTs reported herein; values for μ inc as high as 25 cm2/V s are measured, comprising a substantial increase in ZnO-channel TFT mobility as compared to previously reported performance for such devices

  5. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels


    relatively simple models can describe the processes that take place. New data are presented which provide a detailed description of the last 16,000 years of climate and sea level change influence on the forces that have formed the island. This geological history can be used to provide information...... on the history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present......Fluctuations in sea level influence the condition of many coastal groundwater aquifers. A rise in sea level can result in seawater intrusion in areas where the groundwater level is near the present sea level, and it may take a long time for the boundary between salt and fresh groundwater to reach...

  6. Tsunami Forecast for Galapagos Islands (United States)

    Renteria, W.


    The objective of this study is to present a model for the short-term and long-term tsunami forecast for Galapagos Islands. For both cases the ComMIT/MOST(Titov,et al 2011) numerical model and methodology have been used. The results for the short-term model has been compared with the data from Lynett et al, 2011 surveyed from the impacts of the March/11 in the Galapagos Islands. For the case of long-term forecast, several scenarios have run along the Pacific, an extreme flooding map is obtained, the method is considered suitable for places with poor or without tsunami impact information, but under tsunami risk geographic location.

  7. Nuclear treasure island [superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Summary form only given. Soon after the experiments at Dubna, which synthesized element 114 and made the first footprints on the beach of the "island of nuclear stability", two new superheavy elements have been discovered at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Element 118 and its immediate decay product, element 116, were manufactured at Berkeley's 88 inch cyclotron by fusing targets of lead-208 with an intense beam of 449 MeV krypton-86 ions. Although both new nuclei almost instantly decay into lighter ones, the decay sequence is consistent with theories that have long predicted the island of stability for nuclei with approximately 114 protons and 184 neutrons. Theorist Robert Smolanczuk, visiting from the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Poland, had calculated that this reaction should have particularly favourable production rates. Now that this route has been signposted, similar reactions could be possible: new elements and isotopes, tests of nuclear stability and mass models, and a new under...

  8. Tidal wetland fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and sediment at Browns Island, California: initial evaluation (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Bergamaschi, B.; Schoellhamer, D.H.


    Carbon and sediment fluxes from tidal wetlands are of increasing concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta), because of drinking water issues and habitat restoration efforts. Certain forms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) react with disinfecting chemicals used to treat drinking water, to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are potential carcinogens. The contribution of DBP precursors by tidal wetlands is unknown. Sediment transport to and from tidal wetlands determines the potential for marsh accretion, thereby affecting habitat formation.Water, carbon, and sediment flux were measured in the main channel of Browns Island, a tidal wetland located at the confluence of Suisun Bay and the Delta. In-situ instrumentation were deployed between May 3 and May 21, 2002. Water flux was measured using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the index-velocity method. DOC concentrations were measured using calibrated ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence instruments. Suspended-sediment concentrations were measured using a calibrated nephelometric turbidity sensor. Tidally averaged water flux through the channel was dependent on water surface elevations in Suisun Bay. Strong westerly winds resulted in higher water surface elevations in the area east of Browns Island, causing seaward flow, while subsiding winds reversed this effect. Peak ebb flow transported 36% more water than peak flood flow, indicating an ebb-dominant system. DOC concentrations were affected strongly by porewater drainage from the banks of the channel. Peak DOC concentrations were observed during slack after ebb, when the most porewater drained into the channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations were controlled by tidal currents that mobilized sediment from the channel bed, and stronger tides mobilized more sediment than the weaker tides. Sediment was transported mainly to the island during the 2-week monitoring period, though short periods of export occurred during the spring

  9. Satisfação no serviço público: um estudo na Superintendência Regional do Trabalho e Emprego no Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac de Freitas Brandão

    Full Text Available A satisfação no trabalho é vista como um aspecto que, quando presente, motiva os empregados, e afeta positivamente a produtividade destes. Nesta perspectiva, o presente estudo buscou identificar os fatores preponderantes para satisfação no trabalho na Superintendência Regional do Trabalho e Emprego (SRTE/CE, à luz da teoria bifatorial de Herzberg (1997. Foi realizada uma survey com três grupos distintos de agentes públicos: auditores fiscais do trabalho, servidores administrativos e estagiários. Os dados foram analisados por meio de métodos quantitativos e análise de conteúdo. O questionário continha uma escala de satisfação tipo Likert de cinco pontos, versando sobre o nível de satisfação dos pesquisados, com cinco fatores motivacionais e seis fatores higiênicos, além de duas perguntas abertas sobre outros aspectos relativos à satisfação ou insatisfação dos respondentes com o trabalho. Os resultados revelaram que os fatores motivacionais que predominaram na geração da satisfação nos três grupos investigados foram a realização profissional, as atividades desempenhadas e a responsabilidade atribuída. Entre os fatores higiênicos, os servidores e estagiários do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego mostraram-se mais satisfeitos, de forma geral, com a supervisão e com os relacionamentos interpessoais. Estes resultados corroboram pesquisas anteriores realizadas em outras entidades governamentais. Adicionalmente, análises de correlação e testes não paramétricos mostraram que as características do perfil do respondente podem influenciar na satisfação com alguns fatores motivacionais e higiênicos analisados.

  10. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment (United States)


    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  11. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layfield, R.P.; Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H.


    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards

  12. The Three Mile Island crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, P.S.; Cleary, P.D.; Hu, T.W.


    Since the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, many studies have assessed its impacts. Compiled and summarized in this book are the results of five related surveys, all aimed at the scientific assessment of the psycho-socio-economic behavior of the residents around the TMI facility. These studies are based on a randomly selected, large sample of the population (with telephones) around TMI

  13. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layfield, R.P. (Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (United States))


    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  14. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky


    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  15. Tilt measurements at Vulcano Island


    B. Saraceno; G. Laudani; F. Guglielmino; A. Ferro; G. Falzone; O. Campisi; S. Gambino


    A network of tiltmeters has been operational on Vulcano Island for numerous years. At present, the network comprises five functioning borehole stations, four of which are installed at 8-10 m and allow recording very stable, high precision signals with very low noise. We report observations over the last 12 years that illustrate impulsive variations linked to seismicity and long-term (several years) trends in the signals. We suggest a relationship between tilt changes correlated to the stro...

  16. First record of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia fontinalis (Orchidaceae from Takeshima Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suetsugu


    Full Text Available We found Gastrodia fontinalis T. P. Lin in a bamboo forest from Takeshima Island, which is the northernmost island of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. This species is apparently rare and was previously considered to be an endemic Taiwanese species. Because there are a few minor differences between the original description and our specimens collected in Takeshima Island, here we report Gastrodia fontinalis from Takeshima Island as the first record outside of Taiwan, with a description of the specimens from Takeshima Island.

  17. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (United States)


    ...This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI. The Bucholz AAF geographic coordinates information was updated in the Kwajalein Island Class E airspace descriptions in 2011, but was inadvertently overlooked in the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description. This action ensures the safety of aircraft operating in the Kwajalein Island airspace area. This is an administrative action and does not affect the operating requirements of the airspace.

  18. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić


    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  19. Generalized model of island biodiversity (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.


    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  20. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell


    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  1. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai


    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  2. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter


    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  3. Numerical simulation of a low-lying barrier island's morphological response to Hurricane Katrina (United States)

    Lindemer, C.A.; Plant, N.G.; Puleo, J.A.; Thompson, D.M.; Wamsley, T.V.


    Tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Gulf of Mexico generate storm surge and large waves that impact low-lying coastlines along the Gulf Coast. The Chandeleur Islands, located 161. km east of New Orleans, Louisiana, have endured numerous hurricanes that have passed nearby. Hurricane Katrina (landfall near Waveland MS, 29 Aug 2005) caused dramatic changes to the island elevation and shape. In this paper the predictability of hurricane-induced barrier island erosion and accretion is evaluated using a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model known as XBeach. Pre- and post-storm island topography was surveyed with an airborne lidar system. Numerical simulations utilized realistic surge and wave conditions determined from larger-scale hydrodynamic models. Simulations included model sensitivity tests with varying grid size and temporal resolutions. Model-predicted bathymetry/topography and post-storm survey data both showed similar patterns of island erosion, such as increased dissection by channels. However, the model under predicted the magnitude of erosion. Potential causes for under prediction include (1) errors in the initial conditions (the initial bathymetry/topography was measured three years prior to Katrina), (2) errors in the forcing conditions (a result of our omission of storms prior to Katrina and/or errors in Katrina storm conditions), and/or (3) physical processes that were omitted from the model (e.g., inclusion of sediment variations and bio-physical processes). ?? 2010.

  4. Evaluation of habitat quality for selected wildlife species associated with back channels. (United States)

    Anderson, James T.; Zadnik, Andrew K.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Bledsoe, Kerry


    The islands and associated back channels on the Ohio River, USA, are believed to provide critical habitat features for several wildlife species. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated habitat quality in these areas. Our main objective was to evaluate the habitat quality of back and main channel areas for several species using habitat suitability index (HSI) models. To test the effectiveness of these models, we attempted to relate HSI scores and the variables measured for each model with measures of relative abundance for the model species. The mean belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) HSI was greater on the main than back channel. However, the model failed to predict kingfisher abundance. The mean reproduction component of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) HSI, total common muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) HSI, winter cover component of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) HSI, and brood-rearing component of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) HSI were all greater on the back than main channel, and were positively related with the relative abundance of each species. We found that island back channels provide characteristics not found elsewhere on the Ohio River and warrant conservation as important riparian wildlife habitat. The effectiveness of using HSI models to predict species abundance on the river was mixed. Modifications to several of the models are needed to improve their use on the Ohio River and, likely, other large rivers.

  5. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed


    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  6. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor


    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  7. Perceived quality of channel zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Ahmed, K.; Brunnström, K.


    The end user experience of service quality is critical to the success of a service provider's IPTV deployment program. A key element involved in validating IPTV quality of experience (QoE) is how quickly and reliably users can change TV channels, often referred to as channel zapping. Currently there

  8. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng


    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  9. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed


    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 1997-07-28 to 1997-11-14 (NODC Accession 0081011) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081011 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel...

  11. Decreasing vortex flux in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.


    A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow

  12. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.


    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  13. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Full Text Available Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more and more important. Accordingly, it may freely be said that the choice, i.e. the movement of marketing channels represents one of the strategic decisions which has to be made by a company management and which will subsequently very significantly influence the functioning and efficacy of not only the system of distribution, but also the entire business transactions.

  14. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.


    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  15. Methods of channeling simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.H.


    Many computer simulation programs have been used to interpret experiments almost since the first channeling measurements were made. Certain aspects of these programs are important in how accurately they simulate ions in crystals; among these are the manner in which the structure of the crystal is incorporated, how any quantity of interest is computed, what ion-atom potential is used, how deflections are computed from the potential, incorporation of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms, correlations of thermal vibrations, and form of stopping power. Other aspects of the programs are included to improve the speed; among these are table lookup, importance sampling, and the multiparameter method. It is desirable for programs to facilitate incorporation of special features of interest in special situations; examples are relaxations and enhanced vibrations of surface atoms, easy substitution of an alternate potential for comparison, change of row directions from layer to layer in strained-layer lattices, and different vibration amplitudes for substitutional solute or impurity atoms. Ways of implementing all of these aspects and features and the consequences of them will be discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs

  16. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao


    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. Observation and modeling of the evolution of an ephemeral storm-induced inlet: Pea Island Breach, North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Velasquez Montoya, Liliana; Sciaudone, Elizabeth J.; Mitasova, Helena; Overton, Margery F.


    The Outer Banks of North Carolina is a wave-dominated barrier island system that has experienced the opening and closure of numerous inlets in the last four centuries. The most recent of those inlets formed after the breaching of Pea Island during Hurricane Irene in 2011. The Pea Island Breach experienced a rapid evolution including episodic curvature of the main channel, rotation of the ebb channel, shoaling, widening by Hurricane Sandy in 2012, and finally closing before the summer of 2013. Studying the life cycle of Pea Island Breach contributes to understanding the behavior of ephemeral inlets in breaching-prone regions. This topic has gained relevance due to rising sea levels, a phenomenon that increases the chances of ephemeral inlet formation during extreme events. This study explores the spatiotemporal effects of tides, waves, and storms on flow velocities and morphology of the breach by means of remotely sensed data, geospatial metrics, and a numerical model. The combined use of observations and results from modeling experiments allowed building a conceptual model to explain the life cycle of Pea Island Breach. Wave seasonality dominated the morphological evolution of the inlet by controlling the magnitude and direction of the longshore current that continuously built transient spits at both sides of the breach. Sensitivity analysis to external forcings indicates that ocean waves can modify water levels and velocities in the back barrier. Sound-side storm surge regulates overall growth rate, duration, and decay of peak water levels entering the inlet during extreme events.

  18. Mosquito Surveys Carried out On Green Island, Orchid Island, and Penghu Island, Taiwan, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jen Teng


    Full Text Available Field surveys of mosquitoes were carried out on Green, Orchid, and Penghu Islands in 2003 to ascertain the status of mosquito vectors. Eighteen species of mosquitoes were collected, including three species of Anopheles, four species of Aedes, eight species of Culex, two species of Armigeres, and one species of Malaya. Seventeen previously recorded species were not collected in this study but 11 species collected had not previously been recorded. Ten newly recorded species, An. maculatus, An. takasagoensis, Ae. alcasidi, Ae. lineatopennis, Ae. vexans vexans, Ar. omissus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. halifaxii, Cx. hayashii, and Cx. neomimulus, were collected on Green Island and one previously unrecorded species, Ar. subalbatus, was collected on Orchid Island. Potential vectors An. maculatus and An. sinensis, malaria vectors in Korea and Mainland China, Ae. albopictus, a vector of dengue in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, Cx. vishnui and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Japanese encephalitis vectors in Taiwan, Ae. vexans vexans, an eastern equine encephalitis vector in the USA, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, a vector of filariasis in Taiwan and West Nile virus in the USA, were among the mosquito species collected.

  19. Transport of bedload sediment and channel morphology of a southeast Alaska stream. (United States)

    Margaret A. Estep; Robert L. Beschta


    During 1980-81, transport of bedload sediment and channel morphology were determined at Trap Bay Creek, a third-order stream that drains a 13.5-square kilometer watershed on Chichagof island in southeast Alaska. Bedload sediment was sampled for 10 storms: peak flows ranged from 0.6 to 19.0 cubic meters per second, and transport rates ranged from 4 to 4400 kilograms per...

  20. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali


    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  1. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  2. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  3. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  4. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  5. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (United States)


    across the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic...USACE) requires that a broad base of EWN understanding and support be built . The Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project (Deer Island AERP...Mississippi Wetlands Restoration Projects). The project received additional funding through several public laws in response to hurricane damages

  6. Variability of morphological conditions of the Vistula river channel in the section Czerwińsk-Kępa Polska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popek Zbigniew


    Full Text Available Variability of morphological conditions of the Vistula river channel in the section Czerwińsk-Kępa Polska. The paper presents an assessment of morphological changes that occurred in the Vistula river channel in selected section of about 33 km long, located in the middle of the Vistula river course between Czerwińsk and Kępa Polska (km 576–609. Based on the analysis of archival material from 1972–2009, a characteristics of river channel changes, taking primarily into account the horizontal layout (shape in the plan, was obtained. An attempt was made to estimate the trends and rate of transformation of the following parameters in the river channel: width, length, and position of the riverbanks, abundance and size of islands and fluvial deposits, as well as their percentage in the total area of the main river channel and the floodplain area between levees.

  7. Analysis of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) hydrogen burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrie, J.; Postma, A.


    As a basis for the analysis of the hydrogen burn which occurred in the Three Mile Island Containment on March 28, 1979, a study of recorded temperatures and pressures was made. Long-term temperature information was obtained from the multipoint temperature recorder which shows 12 containment atmosphere temperatures plotted every 6 min. The containment atmosphere pressure recorder provided excellent long and short-term pressure information. Short-term information was obtained from the multiplex record of 24 channels of data, recorded every 3 sec, and the alarm printer record which shows status change events and prints out temperatures, pressures, and the time of the events. The timing of these four data recording systems was correlated and pertinent data were tabulated, analyzed and plotted to show average containment temperature and pressure versus time. The data used have not been qualified and accuracy is not fully assured. Photographs and videotapes of the containment entries provided qualitative burn information

  8. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the...′ W. (Port Royal Sound Lighted Whistle Buoy “2PR”); thence to the easternmost extremity of Hilton Head...

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from latitude 31°04.1′ N. longitude 81°16.7′ W. (St. Simons Lighted Whistle Buoy “ST S”) to latitude 30...

  10. Renewable technologies for generation systems in islands and their application to Cozumel Island, Mexico


    Mendoza Vizcaino, Javier; Sumper, Andreas; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni; Ramirez, J.M.


    The electric generation systems on islands are based generally on fossil fuel. This fact and its supply make the electricity cost higher than in systems used in the continent. In this article, we present a review of the renewable energy generation systems on islands. To do it we analysed 77 islands from 45 different countries. This work will allow us to know how the implementation of renewable energy sources could help these islands in developing a renewable and sustainable energy sector, inc...

  11. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio


    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  12. Channel Simulation in Quantum Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenza Riccardo


    Full Text Available In this review we discuss how channel simulation can be used to simplify the most general protocols of quantum parameter estimation, where unlimited entanglement and adaptive joint operations may be employed. Whenever the unknown parameter encoded in a quantum channel is completely transferred in an environmental program state simulating the channel, the optimal adaptive estimation cannot beat the standard quantum limit. In this setting, we elucidate the crucial role of quantum teleportation as a primitive operation which allows one to completely reduce adaptive protocols over suitable teleportation-covariant channels and derive matching upper and lower bounds for parameter estimation. For these channels,wemay express the quantum Cramér Rao bound directly in terms of their Choi matrices. Our review considers both discrete- and continuous-variable systems, also presenting some new results for bosonic Gaussian channels using an alternative sub-optimal simulation. It is an open problem to design simulations for quantum channels that achieve the Heisenberg limit.

  13. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.


    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes

  14. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands. (United States)

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G


    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  15. Simple method for calculating island widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Hanson, J.D.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.


    A simple method for calculating magnetic island widths has been developed. This method uses only information obtained from integrating along the closed field line at the island center. Thus, this method is computationally less intensive than the usual method of producing surfaces of section of sufficient detail to locate and resolve the island separatrix. This method has been implemented numerically and used to analyze the buss work islands of ATF. In this case the method proves to be accurate to at least within 30%. 7 refs



  17. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands (United States)

    Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.


    In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 26 December 2004. We surveyed tsunami impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in tsunami height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing tsunami run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against tsunami. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by tsunami which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce tsunami impact at the eastern islands. In addition, tsunami surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the tsunami influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. tsunami run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the tsunami impact to

  18. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.


    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  19. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.


    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  20. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (United States)


    ...This action removes the reference to the Kwajalein Tactacial Air Navigation (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned. This action corrects the legal descriptions for the Class E airspace areas in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands.