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Sample records for superimposed discrete fractures

  1. A Teething Problem: Artefactual X-Ray Appearances of Odontoid Fracture due to Superimposed Incisor

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    Matthew Crocker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of artefactual C2 fracture caused by a superimposed incisor tooth in a seven-year-old boy. CT refuted the diagnosis. Trauma clinicians should be aware of this entity to guide correct interpretation of trauma X-rays.

  2. Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis

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    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka (Japan); Schneider, Robert [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Bullough, Peter G. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis. (orig.)

  3. Discrete fracture network code development

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    Dershowitz, W.; Doe, T.; Shuttle, D.; Eiben, T.; Fox, A.; Emsley, S.; Ahlstrom, E. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, Washington (United States)

    1999-02-01

    This report presents the results of fracture flow model development and application performed by Golder Associates Inc. during the fiscal year 1998. The primary objective of the Golder Associates work scope was to provide theoretical and modelling support to the JNC performance assessment effort in fiscal year 2000. In addition, Golder Associates provided technical support to JNC for the Aespoe project. Major efforts for performance assessment support included extensive flow and transport simulations, analysis of pathway simplification, research on excavation damage zone effects, software verification and cross-verification, and analysis of confidence bounds on Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, a Fickian diffusion algorithm was implemented for Laplace Transform Galerkin solute transport. Support for the Aespoe project included predictive modelling of sorbing tracer transport in the TRUE-1 rock block, analysis of 1 km geochemical transport pathways for Task 5', and data analysis and experimental design for the TRUE Block Scale experiment. Technical information about Golder Associates support to JNC is provided in the appendices to this report. (author)

  4. Compartmentalization analysis using discrete fracture network models

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    La Pointe, P.R.; Eiben, T.; Dershowitz, W. [Golder Associates, Redmond, VA (United States); Wadleigh, E. [Marathon Oil Co., Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) technology can serve as a basis for the calculation of reservoir engineering parameters for the development of fractured reservoirs. It describes the development of quantitative techniques for defining the geometry and volume of structurally controlled compartments. These techniques are based on a combination of stochastic geometry, computational geometry, and graph the theory. The parameters addressed are compartment size, matrix block size and tributary drainage volume. The concept of DFN models is explained and methodologies to compute these parameters are demonstrated.

  5. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

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    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  6. Hydrofracture Modeling Using Discrete Fracture Network in Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, A.; Zoback, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has become an important source of unconventional reservoir in the united state over the past decade. Since the shale gas formations are impermeable, hydraulic fracturing from vertical and horizontal well are commonly approach to extract natural gas deposit from these unconventional sources. Hydraulic fracturing has been a successful and relatively inexpensive stimulation method for stimulation and enhances hydrocarbon recovery. Multistage hydro fracturing treatments in horizontal well creates a large stimulated reservoir volume. However, modeling hydraulic fracturing requires to prior knowledge of natural fracture network. This problem can be deal with Discrete Fracture network modeling. The objective of this study is first to model discrete fracture network and then simulate hydro-fracturing in five horizontal well of a case study in Barnett shale gas reservoir. In the case study, five horizontal wells have been drilled in Barnett shale gas reservoir in which each of them has 10 stages of hydro-fracturing stimulation. Of all five wells, just well C has a full comprehensive logging data. Fracture date detected using FMI image log of well C for building DFN model are associated with different sources of uncertainty; orientation, density and length. After building reservoir geomechanics model and detecting natural fracture form image log from well C, DFN model has built based on fracture parameters, orientation, intensity, shape size and permeability detected from image log and core data. Modeling hydrofractuing in five wells are consistent with critically stressed-fracture and micro-seismic events.

  7. An analytical thermohydraulic model for discretely fractured geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Don B.; Koch, Donald L.; Tester, Jefferson W.

    2016-09-01

    In discretely fractured reservoirs such as those found in Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS), knowledge of the fracture network is important in understanding the thermal hydraulics, i.e., how the fluid flows and the resulting temporal evolution of the subsurface temperature. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model of the fluid flow and heat transport in a discretely fractured network that can be used for a wide range of modeling applications and serve as an alternative analysis tool to more computationally intensive numerical codes. Given the connectivity and structure of a fracture network, the flow in the system was solved using a linear system of algebraic equations for the pressure at the nodes of the network. With the flow determined, the temperature in the fracture was solved by coupling convective heat transport in the fracture with one-dimensional heat conduction perpendicular to the fracture, employing the Green's function derived solution for a single discrete fracture. The predicted temperatures along the fracture surfaces from the analytical solution were compared to numerical simulations using the TOUGH2 reservoir code. Through two case studies, we showed the capabilities of the analytical model and explored the effect of uncertainty in the fracture apertures and network structure on thermal performance. While both sources of uncertainty independently produce large variations in production temperature, uncertainty in the network structure, whenever present, had a predominant influence on thermal performance.

  8. Discrete Fracture Network Modelling in a Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoir in the Jingbei Oilfield, China

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    Junling Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach of discrete fracture network modelling for a naturally fractured buried-hill carbonate reservoir in the Jingbei Oilfield by using a 3D seismic survey, conventional well logs, and core data. The ant tracking attribute, extracted from 3D seismic data, is used to detect the faults and large-scale fractures. Fracture density and dip angle are evaluated by observing drilling cores of seven wells. The fracture density distribution in spatiality was predicted in four steps; firstly, the ant tracking attribute was extracted as a geophysical log; then an artificial neural network model was built by relating the fracture density with logs, e.g., acoustic, gamma ray, compensated neutron, density, and ant tracking; then 3D distribution models of acoustic, gamma ray, compensated neutron and density were generated by using a Gaussian random function simulation; and, finally, the fracture density distribution in 3D was predicted by using the generated artificial neural network model. Then, different methods were used to build the discrete fracture network model for different types of fractures of which large-scale fractures were modelled deterministically and small-scale fractures were modelled stochastically. The results show that the workflow presented in this study is effective for building discrete fracture network models for naturally fractured reservoirs.

  9. Discrete modeling of hydraulic fracturing processes in a complex pre-existing fracture network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Nakagawa, S.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and stimulation of fracture networks are widely used by the energy industry (e.g., shale gas extraction, enhanced geothermal systems) to increase permeability of geological formations. Numerous analytical and numerical models have been developed to help understand and predict the behavior of hydraulically induced fractures. However, many existing models assume simple fracturing scenarios with highly idealized fracture geometries (e.g., propagation of a single fracture with assumed shapes in a homogeneous medium). Modeling hydraulic fracture propagation in the presence of natural fractures and homogeneities can be very challenging because of the complex interactions between fluid, rock matrix, and rock interfaces, as well as the interactions between propagating fractures and pre-existing natural fractures. In this study, the TOUGH-RBSN code for coupled hydro-mechanical modeling is utilized to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation and its interaction with pre-existing fracture networks. The simulation tool combines TOUGH2, a simulator of subsurface multiphase flow and mass transport based on the finite volume approach, with the implementation of a lattice modeling approach for geomechanical and fracture-damage behavior, named Rigid-Body-Spring Network (RBSN). The discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is facilitated in the Voronoi discretization via a fully automated modeling procedure. The numerical program is verified through a simple simulation for single fracture propagation, in which the resulting fracture geometry is compared to an analytical solution for given fracture length and aperture. Subsequently, predictive simulations are conducted for planned laboratory experiments using rock-analogue (soda-lime glass) samples containing a designed, pre-existing fracture network. The results of a preliminary simulation demonstrate selective fracturing and fluid infiltration along the pre-existing fractures, with additional fracturing in part

  10. Three-phase flow simulations in discrete fracture networks

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    Geiger, S.; Niessner, J.; Matthai, S. K.; Helmig, R.

    2006-12-01

    Fractures are often the key conduits for fluid flow in otherwise low permeability rocks. Their presence in hydrocarbon reservoirs leads to complex production histories, unpredictable coupling of wells, rapidly changing flow rates, possibly early water breakthrough, and low final recovery. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a combination of finite volume and finite element discretization is well suited to model incompressible, immiscible two-phase flow in 3D discrete fracture networks (DFN) representing complexly fractured rocks. Such an approach has been commercialized in Golder Associates' FracMan Reservoir Edition software. For realistic reservoir simulations, however, it would be desirable if a third compressible gas phase can be included which is often present at reservoir conditions. Here we present the extension of an existing node-centred finite volume - finite element (FEFV) discretization for the efficient and accurate simulations of three-component - three-phase flow in geologically realistic representations of fractured porous media. Two possible types of fracture networks can be used: In 2D, they are detailed geometrical representations of fractured rock masses mapped in field studies. In 3D, they are geologically constrained, stochastically generated discrete fracture networks. Flow and transport can be simulated for fractures only or for fractures and matrix combined. The governing equations are solved decoupled using an implicit-pressure, explicit-saturation (IMPES) approach. Flux and concentration terms can be treated with higher-order accuracy in the finite volume scheme to preserve shock fronts. The method is locally mass conservative and works on unstructured, spatially refined grids. Flash calculations are carried out by a new description of the Black-Oil model. Capillary and gravity effects are included in this formulation. The robustness and accuracy of this formulation is shown in several applications. First, grid convergence is

  11. Discrete fracture network for the Forsmark site

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    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2006-08-15

    In this report, we aim at defining a self-consistent method for analyzing the fracture patterns from boreholes, outcrops and lineaments. The objective was both to point out some variations in the fracture network parameters, and to define the global scaling fracture models that can encompass all the constraints brought by the different datasets. Although a full description of the DFN model variability is obviously fundamental for the future, we have put emphasis on the determination of mean parameters. The main parameters of the disc-shaped DFN model are the fracture size, orientations and spatial density distribution. The scaling model is defined as an extrapolation of existing i) observations at specific scales and ii) local fitting models to the whole range of scales. The range of possible models is restricted to the power-law scaling models. During the project we have put emphasize on the definition of the theory and methodology necessary to assess a sound comparison between data taken at different scales, with different techniques. Both 'local' and 'global' models have been investigated. Local models are linked exactly to the dataset they represent. Then, the global DFN models arise from the association of local models, different scales and different sample support shapes. Discrepancies between local and global model illustrate the variability associated to the DFN models. We define two possible Global Scaling Models (GSM). The first one is consistent with the scaling measured in the outcrops (Model A). Its scaling exponent is a{sub 3d}=3.5 (eq. to k{sub r}=2.5); it overestimates the fracture densities observed in the lineament maps. The second one assumes that both lineaments and outcrops belong to the same distribution model (Model B), which entails a scaling exponent a{sub 3d}=3.9 (eq. to k{sub r}=2.9). Both models have been tested by looking for the best consistency in the fracture density-dip relationships, between boreholes data at

  12. Hydraulic fracturing model based on the discrete fracture model and the generalized J integral

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    Liu, Z. Q.; Liu, Z. F.; Wang, X. H.; Zeng, B.

    2016-08-01

    The hydraulic fracturing technique is an effective stimulation for low permeability reservoirs. In fracturing models, one key point is to accurately calculate the flux across the fracture surface and the stress intensity factor. To achieve high precision, the discrete fracture model is recommended to calculate the flux. Using the generalized J integral, the present work obtains an accurate simulation of the stress intensity factor. Based on the above factors, an alternative hydraulic fracturing model is presented. Examples are included to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed model and its ability to model the fracture propagation. Subsequently, the model is used to describe the relationship between the geometry of the fracture and the fracturing equipment parameters. The numerical results indicate that the working pressure and the pump power will significantly influence the fracturing process.

  13. Discrete fracture modeling of multiphase flow and hydrocarbon production in fractured shale or low permeability reservoirs

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    Hao, Y.; Settgast, R. R.; Fu, P.; Tompson, A. F. B.; Morris, J.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has long been recognized that multiphase flow and transport in fractured porous media is very important for various subsurface applications. Hydrocarbon fluid flow and production from hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs is an important and complicated example of multiphase flow in fractured formations. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing is able to create extensive fracture networks in low permeability shale rocks, leading to increased formation permeability and enhanced hydrocarbon production. However, unconventional wells experience a much faster production decline than conventional hydrocarbon recovery. Maintaining sustainable and economically viable shale gas/oil production requires additional wells and re-fracturing. Excessive fracturing fluid loss during hydraulic fracturing operations may also drive up operation costs and raise potential environmental concerns. Understanding and modeling processes that contribute to decreasing productivity and fracturing fluid loss represent a critical component for unconventional hydrocarbon recovery analysis. Towards this effort we develop a discrete fracture model (DFM) in GEOS (LLNL multi-physics computational code) to simulate multiphase flow and transfer in hydraulically fractured reservoirs. The DFM model is able to explicitly account for both individual fractures and their surrounding rocks, therefore allowing for an accurate prediction of impacts of fracture-matrix interactions on hydrocarbon production. We apply the DFM model to simulate three-phase (water, oil, and gas) flow behaviors in fractured shale rocks as a result of different hydraulic stimulation scenarios. Numerical results show that multiphase flow behaviors at the fracture-matrix interface play a major role in controlling both hydrocarbon production and fracturing fluid recovery rates. The DFM model developed in this study will be coupled with the existing hydro-fracture model to provide a fully integrated

  14. Towards effective flow simulations in realistic discrete fracture networks

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    Berrone, Stefano; Pieraccini, Sandra; Scialò, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We focus on the simulation of underground flow in fractured media, modeled by means of Discrete Fracture Networks. Focusing on a new recent numerical approach proposed by the authors for tackling the problem avoiding mesh generation problems, we further improve the new family of methods making a step further towards effective simulations of large, multi-scale, heterogeneous networks. Namely, we tackle the imposition of Dirichlet boundary conditions in weak form, in such a way that geometrical complexity of the DFN is not an issue; we effectively solve DFN problems with fracture transmissivities spanning many orders of magnitude and approaching zero; furthermore, we address several numerical issues for improving the numerical solution also in quite challenging networks.

  15. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Final report, March 7, 1996 to September 30, 1998

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    Dershowitz, William S.; Einstein, Herbert H.; LaPoint, Paul R.; Eiben, Thorsten; Wadleigh, Eugene; Ivanova, Violeta

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes research conducted for the Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies Project. The five areas studied are development of hierarchical fracture models; fractured reservoir compartmentalization, block size, and tributary volume analysis; development and demonstration of fractured reservoir discrete feature data analysis tools; development of tools for data integration and reservoir simulation through application of discrete feature network technologies for tertiary oil production; quantitative evaluation of the economic value of this analysis approach.

  16. Use of an Integrated Discrete Fracture Network Code for Stochastic Stability Analyses of Fractured Rock Masses

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    Merrien-Soukatchoff, V.; Korini, T.; Thoraval, A.

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the Discrete Fracture Network code RESOBLOK, which couples geometrical block system construction and a quick iterative stability analysis in the same package. The deterministic or stochastic geometry of a fractured rock mass can be represented and interactively displayed in 3D using two different fracture generators: one mainly used for hydraulic purposes and another designed to allow block stability evaluation. RESOBLOK has downstream modules that can quickly compute stability (based on limit equilibrium or energy-based analysis), display geometric information and create links to other discrete software. The advantage of the code is that it couples stochastic geometrical representation and a quick iterative stability analysis to allow risk-analysis with or without reinforcement and, for the worst cases, more accurate analysis using stress-strain analysis computer codes. These different aspects are detailed for embankment and underground works.

  17. A Multiscale Time-Splitting Discrete Fracture Model of Nanoparticles Transport in Fractured Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed F.

    2017-06-06

    Recently, applications of nanoparticles have been considered in many branches of petroleum engineering, especially, enhanced oil recovery. The current paper is devoted to investigate the problem of nanoparticles transport in fractured porous media, numerically. We employed the discrete-fracture model (DFM) to represent the flow and transport in the fractured formations. The system of the governing equations consists of the mass conservation law, Darcy\\'s law, nanoparticles concentration in water, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-wall, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore-throat. The variation of porosity and permeability due to the nanoparticles deposition/entrapment on/in the pores is also considered. We employ the multiscale time-splitting strategy to control different time-step sizes for different physics, such as pressure and concentration. The cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method is used for the spatial discretization. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed multiscale time splitting approach.

  18. Application of Discrete Fracture Modeling and Upscaling Techniques to Complex Fractured Reservoirs

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    Karimi-Fard, M.; Lapene, A.; Pauget, L.

    2012-12-01

    During the last decade, an important effort has been made to improve data acquisition (seismic and borehole imaging) and workflow for reservoir characterization which has greatly benefited the description of fractured reservoirs. However, the geological models resulting from the interpretations need to be validated or calibrated against dynamic data. Flow modeling in fractured reservoirs remains a challenge due to the difficulty of representing mass transfers at different heterogeneity scales. The majority of the existing approaches are based on dual continuum representation where the fracture network and the matrix are represented separately and their interactions are modeled using transfer functions. These models are usually based on idealized representation of the fracture distribution which makes the integration of real data difficult. In recent years, due to increases in computer power, discrete fracture modeling techniques (DFM) are becoming popular. In these techniques the fractures are represented explicitly allowing the direct use of data. In this work we consider the DFM technique developed by Karimi-Fard et al. [1] which is based on an unstructured finite-volume discretization. The mass flux between two adjacent control-volumes is evaluated using an optimized two-point flux approximation. The result of the discretization is a list of control-volumes with the associated pore-volumes and positions, and a list of connections with the associated transmissibilities. Fracture intersections are simplified using a connectivity transformation which contributes considerably to the efficiency of the methodology. In addition, the method is designed for general purpose simulators and any connectivity based simulator can be used for flow simulations. The DFM technique is either used standalone or as part of an upscaling technique. The upscaling techniques are required for large reservoirs where the explicit representation of all fractures and faults is not possible

  19. Characterization of fracture processes by continuum and discrete modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliske, M.; Dal, H.; Fleischhauer, R.; Jenkel, C.; Netzker, C.

    2012-09-01

    A large number of methods to describe fracture mechanical features of structures on basis of computational algorithms have been developed in the past due to the importance of the topic. In this paper, current and promising numerical approaches for the characterization of fracture processes are presented. A fracture phenomenon can either be depicted by a continuum formulation or a discrete notch. Thus, starting point of the description is a micromechanically motivated formulation for the development of a local failure situation. A current, generalized method without any restriction to material modelling and loading situation in order to describe an existing crack in a structure is available through the material force approach. One possible strategy to simulate arbitrary crack growth is based on an adaptive implementation of cohesive elements in combination with the standard discretization of the body. In this case, crack growth criteria and the determination of the crack propagation direction in combination with the modification of the finite element mesh are required. The nonlinear structural behaviour of a fibre reinforced composite material is based on the heterogeneous microstructure. A two-scale simulation is therefore an appropriate and effective way to take into account the scale differences of macroscopic structures with microscopic elements. In addition, fracture mechanical structural properties are far from being sharp and deterministic. Moreover, a wide range of uncertainties influence the ultimate load bearing behaviour. Therefore, it is evident that the deterministic modelling has to be expanded by a characterization of the uncertainty in order to achieve a reliable and realistic simulation result. The employed methods are illustrated by numerical examples.

  20. Discrete Fracture Networks Groundwater Modelling at Bedding Control Fractured Sedimentary Rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Yeh; Yuan-Chieh, Wu

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater flow modelling in fractured rock mass is an important challenging work in predicting the transport of contamination. So far as we know about the numerical analysis method was consider for crystalline rock, which means discontinuous are treated as stochastic distribution in homogeneous rock mass. Based on the understanding of geology in Taiwan in past few decades, we know that the hydraulic conductivities of Quaternary and Tertiary system rock mass are strongly controlled by development of sedimentary structures (bedding plane). The main purpose of this study is to understand how Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) affects numerical results in terms of hydraulic behavior using different DFN generation methods. Base on surface geology investigation and core drilling work (3 boreholes with a total length of 120m), small scale fracture properties with in Cho-lan formation (muddy sandstone) are defined, including gently dip of bedding and 2 sub-vertical joint sets. Two FracMan/MAFIC numerical modellings are conducted, using ECPM approach (Equivalent Continuum Porous Media); case A considered all fracture were Power law distribution with Poisson fracture center; case B considered all bedding plans penetrate into modelling region, and remove the bedding count to recalculate joint fracture parameters. Modelling results show that Case B gives stronger groundwater pathways than Case A and have impact on flow field. This preliminary modelling result implicates the groundwater flow modelling work in some fractured sedimentary rock mass, might be considerate to rock sedimentary structure development itself, discontinuous maybe not follow the same stochastic DFN parameter.

  1. Optimization of flow modeling in fractured media with discrete fracture network via percolation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Pardo, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fractured media are very heterogeneous systems where occur complex physical and chemical processes to model. One of the possible approaches to conceptualize this type of massifs is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN). Donado et al., modeled flow and transport in a granitic batholith based on this approach and found good fitting with hydraulic and tracer tests, but the computational cost was excessive due to a gigantic amount of elements to model. We present in this work a methodology based on percolation theory for reducing the number of elements and in consequence, to reduce the bandwidth of the conductance matrix and the execution time of each network. DFN poses as an excellent representation of all the set of fractures of the media, but not all the fractures of the media are part of the conductive network. Percolation theory is used to identify which nodes or fractures are not conductive, based on the occupation probability or percolation threshold. In a fractured system, connectivity determines the flow pattern in the fractured rock mass. This volume of fluid is driven through connection paths formed by the fractures, when the permeability of the rock is negligible compared to the fractures. In a population of distributed fractures, each of this that has no intersection with any connected fracture do not contribute to generate a flow field. This algorithm also permits us to erase these elements however they are water conducting and hence, refine even more the backbone of the network. We used 100 different generations of DFN that were optimized in this study using percolation theory. In each of the networks calibrate hydrodynamic parameters as hydraulic conductivity and specific storage coefficient, for each of the five families of fractures, yielding a total of 10 parameters to estimate, at each generation. Since the effects of the distribution of fault orientation changes the value of the percolation threshold, but not the universal laws of classical

  2. Numerical simulation on ferrofluid flow in fractured porous media based on discrete-fracture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yao, Jun; Huang, Zhaoqin; Yin, Xiaolong; Xie, Haojun; Zhang, Jianguang

    2017-06-01

    Water flooding is an efficient approach to maintain reservoir pressure and has been widely used to enhance oil recovery. However, preferential water pathways such as fractures can significantly decrease the sweep efficiency. Therefore, the utilization ratio of injected water is seriously affected. How to develop new flooding technology to further improve the oil recovery in this situation is a pressing problem. For the past few years, controllable ferrofluid has caused the extensive concern in oil industry as a new functional material. In the presence of a gradient in the magnetic field strength, a magnetic body force is produced on the ferrofluid so that the attractive magnetic forces allow the ferrofluid to be manipulated to flow in any desired direction through the control of the external magnetic field. In view of these properties, the potential application of using the ferrofluid as a new kind of displacing fluid for flooding in fractured porous media is been studied in this paper for the first time. Considering the physical process of the mobilization of ferrofluid through porous media by arrangement of strong external magnetic fields, the magnetic body force was introduced into the Darcy equation and deals with fractures based on the discrete-fracture model. The fully implicit finite volume method is used to solve mathematical model and the validity and accuracy of numerical simulation, which is demonstrated through an experiment with ferrofluid flowing in a single fractured oil-saturated sand in a 2-D horizontal cell. At last, the water flooding and ferrofluid flooding in a complex fractured porous media have been studied. The results showed that the ferrofluid can be manipulated to flow in desired direction through control of the external magnetic field, so that using ferrofluid for flooding can raise the scope of the whole displacement. As a consequence, the oil recovery has been greatly improved in comparison to water flooding. Thus, the ferrofluid

  3. Hydraulic Fracture Growth in a Layered Formation based on Fracturing Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Tong, Zhou; Ning, Li; Ming, Chen; Sihai, Li; Yinuo, Zhang; Han, Li

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) height containment tends to occur in layered formations, and it significantly influences the entire HF geometry or the stimulated reservoir volume. This study aims to explore the influence of preexisting bedding planes (BPs) on the HF height growth in layered formations. Laboratory fracturing experiments were performed to confirm the occurrence of HF height containment in natural shale that contains multiple weak and high-permeability BPs under triaxial stresses. Numerical simulations were then conducted to further illustrate the manner in which vertical stress, BP permeability, BP density(or spacing), pump rate, and fluid viscosity control HF height growth using a 3D discrete element method-based fracturing model. In this model, the rock matrix was considered transversely isotropic and multiple BPs can be explicitly represented. Experimental and numerical results show that the vertically growing HF tends to be limited by multi-high-permeability BPs, even under higher vertical stress. When the vertically growing HF intersects with the multi-high-permeability BPs, the injection pressure will be sharply reduced. If a low pumping rate or a low-viscosity fluid is used, the excess fracturing fluid leak-off into the BPs obviously decreases the rate of pressure build up, which will then limit the growth of HF. Otherwise, a higher pumping rate and/or a higher viscosity will reduce the leak-off time and fluid volume, but increase the injection pressure to drive the HF to grow and to penetrate through the BPs.

  4. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  5. Discrete fracture in quasi-brittle materials under compressive and tensile stress states

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klerck, PA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for modelling discrete fracture in geomaterials under tensile and compressive stress fields has been developed based on a Mohr-Coulomb failure surface in compression and three independent anisotropic rotating crack models in tension...

  6. On adaptive refinements in discrete probabilistic fracture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eliáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to adaptively change discretization density is a well acknowledged and used feature of many continuum models. It is employed to save computational time and increase solution accuracy. Recently, adaptivity has been introduced also for discrete particle models. This contribution applies adaptive technique in probabilistic discrete modelling where material properties are varying in space according to a random field. The random field discretization is adaptively refined hand in hand with the model geometry.

  7. An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, Jobie M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-12-01

    A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some

  8. Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Solid Coupling in Fractured Porous Media with Discrete Fracture Model and Extended Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingdong Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-solid coupling is ubiquitous in the process of fluid flow underground and has a significant influence on the development of oil and gas reservoirs. To investigate these phenomena, the coupled mathematical model of solid deformation and fluid flow in fractured porous media is established. In this study, the discrete fracture model (DFM is applied to capture fluid flow in the fractured porous media, which represents fractures explicitly and avoids calculating shape factor for cross flow. In addition, the extended finite element method (XFEM is applied to capture solid deformation due to the discontinuity caused by fractures. More importantly, this model captures the change of fractures aperture during the simulation, and then adjusts fluid flow in the fractures. The final linear equation set is derived and solved for a 2D plane strain problem. Results show that the combination of discrete fracture model and extended finite element method is suited for simulating coupled deformation and fluid flow in fractured porous media.

  9. Carbonate fracture stratigraphy: An integrated outcrop and 2D discrete element modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Guy; Finch, Emma

    2013-04-01

    Constraining fracture stratigraphy is important as natural fractures control primary fluid flow in low matrix permeability naturally fractured carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. Away from the influence of folds and faults, stratigraphic controls are known to be the major control on fracture networks. The fracture stratigraphy of carbonate nodular-chert rhythmite successions are investigated using a Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) technique and validated against observations from outcrops. Comparisons are made to the naturally fractured carbonates of the Eocene Thebes Formation exposed in the west central Sinai of Egypt, which form reservoir rocks in the nearby East Ras Budran Field. DEM allows mechanical stratigraphy to be defined as the starting conditions from which forward numerical modelling can generate fracture stratigraphy. DEM can incorporate both stratigraphic and lateral heterogeneity, and enable mechanical and fracture stratigraphy to be characterised separately. Stratally bound stratified chert nodules below bedding surfaces generate closely spaced lateral heterogeneity in physical properties at stratigraphic mechanical interfaces. This generates extra complexity in natural fracture networks in addition to that caused by bed thickness and lithological physical properties. A series of representative geologically appropriate synthetic mechanical stratigraphic models were tested. Fracture networks generated in 15 DEM experiments designed to isolate and constrain the effects of nodular chert rhythmites on carbonate fracture stratigraphy are presented. The discrete element media used to model the elastic strengths of rocks contain 72,866 individual elements. Mechanical stratigraphies and the fracture networks generated are placed in a sequence stratigraphic framework. Nodular chert rhythmite successions are shown to be a distinct type of naturally fractured carbonate reservoir. Qualitative stratigraphic rules for predicting the distribution, lengths, spacing

  10. Comparing discrete fracture and continuum models to predict contaminant transport in fractured porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessent, Daniela; Jørgensen, Peter R; Therrien, René

    2014-01-01

    We used the FRAC3Dvs numerical model (Therrien and Sudicky 1996) to compare the dual-porosity (DP), equivalent porous medium (EPM), and discrete fracture matrix diffusion (DFMD) conceptual models to predict field-scale contaminant transport in a fractured clayey till aquitard. The simulations show that the DP, EPM, and DFMD models could be equally well calibrated to reproduce contaminant breakthrough in the till aquitard for a base case. In contrast, when groundwater velocity and degradation rates are modified with respect to the base case, the DP method simulated contaminant concentrations up to three orders of magnitude different from those calculated by the DFMD model. In previous simulations of well-characterized column experiments, the DFMD method reproduced observed changes in solute transport for a range of flow and transport conditions comparable to those of the field-scale simulations, while the DP and EPM models required extensive recalibration to avoid high magnitude errors in predicted mass transport. The lack of robustness with respect to variable flow and transport conditions suggests that DP models and effective porosity EPM models have limitations for predicting cause-effect relationships in environmental planning. The study underlines the importance of obtaining well-characterized experimental data for further studies and evaluation of model key process descriptions and model suitability. © 2013, National Groundwater Association.

  11. Discrete fracture network modeling of hydraulic stimulation coupling flow and geomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation describes the development and testing of a model that couples fluid-flow, deformation, friction weakening, and permeability evolution in large, complex two-dimensional discrete fracture networks.  The model can be used to explore the behavior of hydraulic stimulation in settings where matrix permeability is low and preexisting fractures play an important role, such as Enhanced Geothermal Systems and gas shale.  Used also to describe pure shear stimulation, mixed-mechanism stimulation, or pure opening-mode stimulation. A variety of nov

  12. Evaluating the effect of internal aperture variability on transport in kilometer scale discrete fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Painter, Scott L.; Gable, Carl W.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-08-01

    The apertures of natural fractures in fractured rock are highly heterogeneous. However, in-fracture aperture variability is often neglected in flow and transport modeling and individual fractures are assumed to have uniform aperture distribution. The relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within kilometer-scale field-scale fracture networks has been under a matter of debate for a long time because the flow in each single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. Computational limitations have previously prohibited researchers from investigating the relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within large-scale fracture networks. We address this question by incorporating internal heterogeneity of individual fractures into flow simulations within kilometer scale three-dimensional fracture networks, where fracture intensity, P32 (ratio between total fracture area and domain volume) is between 0.027 and 0.031 [1/m]. A recently developed discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate DFNs that include in-fracture aperture variability represented by a stationary log-normal stochastic field with various correlation lengths and variances. The Lagrangian transport parameters, non-reacting travel time and cumulative retention, are calculated along particles streamlines. It is observed that due to local flow channeling early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture variability than the tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the in-fracture transmissivity variations and spatial correlation length is observed.

  13. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  14. A review of discrete modeling techniques for fracturing processes in discontinuous rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Lisjak; G.Grasselli

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review paper is to provide a summary of selected discrete element and hybrid finitee discrete element modeling techniques that have emerged in the field of rock mechanics as simulation tools for fracturing processes in rocks and rock masses. The fundamental principles of each computer code are illustrated with particular emphasis on the approach specifically adopted to simulate fracture nucleation and propagation and to account for the presence of rock mass discontinuities. This description is accom-panied by a brief review of application studies focusing on laboratory-scale models of rock failure processes and on the simulation of damage development around underground excavations.

  15. A review of discrete modeling techniques for fracturing processes in discontinuous rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lisjak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review paper is to provide a summary of selected discrete element and hybrid finite–discrete element modeling techniques that have emerged in the field of rock mechanics as simulation tools for fracturing processes in rocks and rock masses. The fundamental principles of each computer code are illustrated with particular emphasis on the approach specifically adopted to simulate fracture nucleation and propagation and to account for the presence of rock mass discontinuities. This description is accompanied by a brief review of application studies focusing on laboratory-scale models of rock failure processes and on the simulation of damage development around underground excavations.

  16. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Annual report, March 7, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, W.S.; La Pointe, P.R.; Einstein, H.H.; Ivanova, V.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes progress on the project, {open_quotes}Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies{close_quotes} during the period March 7, 1996 to February 28, 1997. The report presents summaries of technology development for the following research areas: (1) development of hierarchical fracture models, (2) fractured reservoir compartmentalization and tributary volume, (3) fractured reservoir data analysis, and (4) integration of fractured reservoir data and production technologies. In addition, the report provides information on project status, publications submitted, data collection activities, and technology transfer through the world wide web (WWW). Research on hierarchical fracture models included geological, mathematical, and computer code development. The project built a foundation of quantitative, geological and geometrical information about the regional geology of the Permian Basin, including detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and fracturing of Permian rocks in the project study area (Tracts 17 and 49 in the Yates field). Based on the accumulated knowledge of regional and local geology, project team members started the interpretation of fracture genesis mechanisms and the conceptual modeling of the fracture system in the study area. Research on fractured reservoir compartmentalization included basic research, technology development, and application of compartmentalized reservoir analyses for the project study site. Procedures were developed to analyze compartmentalization, tributary drainage volume, and reservoir matrix block size. These algorithms were implemented as a Windows 95 compartmentalization code, FraCluster.

  17. Effect of Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure on Bendability of Sheet Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. X.; Wu, P. D.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on fracture under three-point bending is studied numerically using the finite element method based on the Gurson damage model. It is demonstrated that superimposed hydrostatic pressure significantly increases the bendability and bending fracture strain due to the fact that a superimposed pressure delays or completely eliminates the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids or microcracks. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  18. A hybrid mortar virtual element method for discrete fracture network simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Matías Fernando; Berrone, Stefano; Borio, Andrea; Pieraccini, Sandra; Scialò, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The most challenging issue in performing underground flow simulations in Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) is to effectively tackle the geometrical difficulties of the problem. In this work we put forward a new application of the Virtual Element Method combined with the Mortar method for domain decomposition: we exploit the flexibility of the VEM in handling polygonal meshes in order to easily construct meshes conforming to the traces on each fracture, and we resort to the mortar approach in order to "weakly" impose continuity of the solution on intersecting fractures. The resulting method replaces the need for matching grids between fractures, so that the meshing process can be performed independently for each fracture. Numerical results show optimal convergence and robustness in handling very complex geometries.

  19. SR 97 - Alternative models project. Discrete fracture network modelling for performance assessment of Aberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, B.; Eiben, T. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle (United States); Follin, S.; Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik KB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-08-01

    As part of studies into the siting of a deep repository for nuclear waste, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has commissioned the Alternative Models Project (AMP). The AMP is a comparison of three alternative modeling approaches for geosphere performance assessment for a single hypothetical site. The hypothetical site, arbitrarily named Aberg is based on parameters from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The Aberg model domain, boundary conditions and canister locations are defined as a common reference case to facilitate comparisons between approaches. This report presents the results of a discrete fracture pathways analysis of the Aberg site, within the context of the SR 97 performance assessment exercise. The Aberg discrete fracture network (DFN) site model is based on consensus Aberg parameters related to the Aespoe HRL site. Discrete fracture pathways are identified from canister locations in a prototype repository design to the surface of the island or to the sea bottom. The discrete fracture pathways analysis presented in this report is used to provide the following parameters for SKB's performance assessment transport codes FARF31 and COMP23: * F-factor: Flow wetted surface normalized with regards to flow rate (yields an appreciation of the contact area available for diffusion and sorption processes) [TL{sup -1}]. * Travel Time: Advective transport time from a canister location to the environmental discharge [T]. * Canister Flux: Darcy flux (flow rate per unit area) past a representative canister location [LT{sup -1}]. In addition to the above, the discrete fracture pathways analysis in this report also provides information about: additional pathway parameters such as pathway length, pathway width, transport aperture, reactive surface area and transmissivity, percentage of canister locations with pathways to the surface discharge, spatial pattern of pathways and pathway discharges, visualization of pathways, and

  20. Certain Discrete Element Methods in Problems of Fracture Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Procházka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two discrete element methods (DEM are discussed. The free hexagon element method is considered a powerful discrete element method, which is broadly used in mechanics of granular media. It substitutes the methods for solving continuum problems. The great disadvantage of classical DEM, such as the particle flow code (material properties are characterized by spring stiffness, is that they have to be fed with material properties provided from laboratory tests (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, etc.. The problem consists in the fact that the material properties of continuum methods (FEM, BEM are not mutually consistent with DEM. This is why we utilize the principal idea of DEM, but cover the continuum by hexagonal elastic, or elastic-plastic, elements. In order to complete the study, another one DEM is discussed. The second method starts with the classical particle flow code (PFC - which uses dynamic equilibrium, but applies static equilibrium. The second method is called the static particle flow code (SPFC. The numerical experience and comparison numerical with experimental results from scaled models are discussed in forthcoming paper by both authors.

  1. A Comprehensive Flow, Heat and Mass Transport Uncertainty Quantification in Discrete Fracture Network Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fractures and fracture networks are the principle pathways for migration of water, heat and mass in enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas reservoirs, CO2 leakage from saline aquifers, and radioactive and toxic industrial wastes from underground storage repositories. A major issue to overcome when characterizing a fractured reservoir is that of data limitation due to accessibility and affordability. Moreover, the ability to map discontinuities in the rock with available geological and geophysical tools tends to decrease particularly as the scale of the discontinuity goes down. Geological characterization data include measurements of fracture density, orientation, extent, and aperture, and are based on analysis of outcrops, borehole optical and acoustic televiewer logs, aerial photographs, and core samples among others. All of these measurements are taken at the field scale through a very sparse limited number of deep boreholes. These types of data are often reduced to probability distributions function for predictive modeling and simulation in a stochastic framework such as stochastic discrete fracture network. Stochastic discrete fracture network models enable, through Monte Carlo realizations and simulations, for probabilistic assessment of flow and transport phenomena that are not adequately captured using continuum models. Despite the fundamental uncertainties inherited within the probabilistic reduction of the sparse data collected, very little work has been conducted on quantifying uncertainty on the reduced probabilistic distribution functions. In the current study, using nested Monte Carlo simulations, we present the impact of parameter uncertainties of the distribution functions that characterize discrete fracture networks on the flow, heat and mass transport. Numerical results of first, second and third moments, normalized to a base case scenario, are presented and compared to theoretical results extended from percolation theory.

  2. Discrete fracture modeling of hydro-mechanical damage processes in geological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a modeling approach for investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior, including fracture development, within geomaterials and structures. In the model, the coupling procedure consists of an effective linkage between two codes: TOUGH2, a simulator of subsurface multiphase flow and mass transport based on the finite volume approach; and an implementation of the rigid-body-spring network (RBSN) method, a discrete (lattice) modeling approach to represent geomechanical behavior. One main advantage of linking these two codes is that they share the same geometrical mesh structure based on the Voronoi discretization, so that a straightforward representation of discrete fracture networks (DFN) is available for fluid flow processes. The capabilities of the TOUGH-RBSN model are demonstrated through simulations of hydraulic fracturing, where fluid pressure-induced fracturing and damage-assisted flow are well represented. The TOUGH-RBSN modeling methodology has been extended to enable treatment of geomaterials exhibiting anisotropic characteristics. In the RBSN approach, elastic spring coefficients and strength parameters are systematically formulated based on the principal bedding direction, which facilitate a straightforward representation of anisotropy. Uniaxial compression tests are simulated for a transversely isotropic material to validate the new modeling scheme. The model is also used to simulate excavation fracture damage for the HG-A microtunnel in the Opalinus Clay rock, located at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL) near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Opalinus Clay has transversely isotropic material properties caused by natural features such as bedding, foliation, and flow structures. Preferential fracturing and tunnel breakouts were observed following excavation, which are believed to be strongly influenced by the mechanical anisotropy of the rock material. The simulation results are qualitatively

  3. Bernstein copula approach to model direction-length dependency for 2D discrete fracture network simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Torres, F.; Diaz-Viera, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In many natural fractured porous media, such as aquifers, soils, oil and geothermal reservoirs, fractures play a crucial role in their flow and transport properties. An approach that has recently gained popularity for modeling fracture systems is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. This approach consists in applying a stochastic boolean simulation method, also known as object simulation method, where fractures are represented as simplified geometric objects (line segments in 2D and polygons in 3D). One of the shortcomings of this approach is that it usually does not consider the dependency relationships that may exist between the geometric properties of fractures (direction, length, aperture, etc), that is, each property is simulated independently. In this work a method for modeling such dependencies by copula theory is introduced. In particular, a nonparametric model using Bernstein copulas for direction-length fracture dependency in 2D is presented. The application of this method is illustrated in a case study for a fractured rock sample from a carbonate reservoir outcrop.

  4. Colloid facilitated transport of lanthanides through discrete fractures in chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Emily; Klein Ben-David, Ofra; Teutsch, Nadya; Weisbrod, Noam

    2015-04-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the internationally agreed-upon, long term solution for the disposal of long lived radionuclides and spent fuel. Eventually, corrosion of the waste canisters may lead to leakage of their hazardous contents, and the radionuclides can ultimately make their way into groundwater and pose a threat to the biosphere. Engineered bentonite barriers placed around nuclear waste repositories are generally considered sufficient to impede the transport of radionuclides from their storage location to the groundwater. However, colloidal-sized mobile bentonite particles eroding from these barriers have come under investigation as a potential transport vector for radionuclides sorbed to them. In addition, the presence of organic matter in groundwater has been shown to additionally facilitate the uptake of radionuclides by the clay colloids. This study aims to evaluate the transport behaviors of radionuclides in colloid-facilitated transport through a fractured chalk matrix and under geochemical conditions representative of the Negev desert, Israel. Lanthanides are considered an acceptable substitute to actinides for research on radionuclide transportation due to their similar chemical behavior. In this study, the migration of Ce both with and without colloidal particles was explored and compared to the migration of a conservative tracer (bromide). Tracer solutions containing known concentrations of Ce, bentonite colloids, humic acid and bromide were prepared in a matrix solution containing salt concentrations representative of that of the average rain water found in the Negev. These solutions were then injected into a flow system constructed around a naturally fractured chalk core. Samples were analyzed for Ce and Br using ICP-MS, and colloid concentrations were determined using spectrophotographic analysis. Breakthrough curves comparing the rates of transportation of each tracer were obtained, allowing for comparison of

  5. Impact of Geological Characterization Uncertainties on Subsurface Flow & Transport Using a Stochastic Discrete Fracture Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Fractures and fracture networks are the principal pathways for transport of water and contaminants in groundwater systems, enhanced geothermal system fluids, migration of oil and gas, carbon dioxide leakage from carbon sequestration sites, and of radioactive and toxic industrial wastes from underground storage repositories. A major issue to overcome when characterizing a fractured reservoir is that of data limitation due to accessibility and affordability. Moreover, the ability to map discontinuities in the rock with available geological and geophysical tools tends to decrease particularly as the scale of the discontinuity goes down. Geological characterization data include measurements of fracture density, orientation, extent, and aperture, and are based on analysis of outcrops, borehole optical and acoustic televiewer logs, aerial photographs, and core samples, among other techniques. All of these measurements are taken at the field scale through a very sparse limited number of deep boreholes. These types of data are often reduced to probability distribution functions for predictive modeling and simulation in a stochastic framework such as a stochastic discrete fracture network. Stochastic discrete fracture network models enable, through Monte Carlo realizations and simulations, probabilistic assessment of flow and transport phenomena that are not adequately captured using continuum models. Despite the fundamental uncertainties inherited within the probabilistic reduction of the sparse data collected, very little work has been conducted on quantifying uncertainty on the reduced probabilistic distribution functions. In the current study, using nested Monte Carlo simulations, we present the impact of parameter uncertainties of the distribution functions of fracture density, orientation, aperture and size on the flow and transport using topological measures such as fracture connectivity, physical characteristics such as effective hydraulic conductivity tensors, and

  6. Discrete Fracture Modeling of 3D Heterogeneous Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery with Prismatic Meshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 3D multicomponent multiphase simulator with a new fracture characterization technique is developed to simulate the enhanced recovery of coalbed methane. In this new model, the diffusion source from the matrix is calculated using the traditional dual-continuum approach, while in the Darcy flow scale, the Discrete Fracture Model (DFM is introduced to explicitly represent the flow interaction between cleats and large-scale fractures. For this purpose, a general formulation is proposed to model the multicomponent multiphase flow through the fractured coal media. The S&D model and a revised P&M model are incorporated to represent the geomechanical effects. Then a finite volume based discretization and solution strategies are constructed to solve the general ECBM equations. The prismatic meshing algorism is used to construct the grids for 3D reservoirs with complex fracture geometry. The simulator is validated with a benchmark case in which the results show close agreement with GEM. Finally, simulation of a synthetic heterogeneous 3D coal reservoir modified from a published literature is performed to evaluate the production performance and the effects of injected gas composition, well pattern and gas buoyancy.

  7. Modeling the Interaction Between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures Using Dual-Lattice Discrete Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing [Universiyt of Utah; Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deo, Milind

    2015-10-01

    The interaction between hydraulic fractures (HF) and natural fractures (NF) will lead to complex fracture networks due to the branching and merging of natural and hydraulic fractures in unconventional reservoirs. In this paper, a newly developed hydraulic fracturing simulator based on discrete element method is used to predict the generation of complex fracture network in the presence of pre-existing natural fractures. By coupling geomechanics and reservoir flow within a dual lattice system, this simulator can effectively capture the poro-elastic effects and fluid leakoff into the formation. When HFs are intercepting single or multiple NFs, complex mechanisms such as direct crossing, arresting, dilating and branching can be simulated. Based on the model, the effects of injected fluid rate and viscosity, the orientation and permeability of NFs and stress anisotropy on the HF-NF interaction process are investigated. Combined impacts from multiple parameters are also examined in the paper. The numerical results show that large values of stress anisotropy, intercepting angle, injection rate and viscosity will impede the opening of NFs.

  8. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  9. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  10. Numerical modeling of rock fracture and fragmentation under impact loading using discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enan Chi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fracture and fragmentation of rock materials are basic and important problem in geomechanics and blasting engineering. An approach, which can simulate the process of fracture and fragmentation of rock materials, is introduced in this work. A beam–particle model is first introduced in the frame of the discrete element method. In the beam–particle model, the neighboring elements are connected by beams. Consequently, a beam network is formed in the particle system. The strength characteristics of rock materials are reflected by the beam network. The strength criterion was then built to verify whether a beam exists or not. The process of rock fracture and fragmentation is described by the gradual disappearance of beams. Finally, two cases were presented to indicate the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  11. Discrete Modeling of Early-Life Thermal Fracture in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dolbow, John E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Hales, Jason D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Fracturing of ceramic fuel pellets heavily influences performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Early in the life of fuel, starting with the initial power ramp, large thermal gradients cause high tensile hoop and axial stresses in the outer region of the fuel pellets, resulting in the formation of radial and axial cracks. Circumferential cracks form due to thermal gradients that occur when the power is ramped down. These thermal cracks cause the fuel to expand radially, closing the pellet/cladding gap and enhancing the thermal conductance across that gap, while decreasing the effective conductivity of the fuel in directions normal to the cracking. At lower length scales, formation of microcracks is an important contributor to the decrease in bulk thermal conductivity that occurs over the life of the fuel as the burnup increases. Because of the important effects that fracture has on fuel performance, a realistic, physically based fracture modeling capability is essential to predict fuel behavior in a wide variety of normal and abnormal conditions. Modeling fracture within the context of the finite element method, which is based on continuous interpolations of solution variables, has always been challenging because fracture is an inherently discontinuous phenomenon. Work is underway at Idaho National Laboratory to apply two modeling techniques model fracture as a discrete displacement discontinuity to nuclear fuel: The extended finite element method (XFEM), and discrete element method (DEM). XFEM is based on the standard finite element method, but with enhancements to represent discontinuous behavior. DEM represents a solid as a network of particles connected by bonds, which can arbitrarily fail if a fracture criterion is reached. This paper presents initial results applying the aforementioned techniques to model fuel fracturing. This work has initially focused on early life behavior of ceramic LWR fuel. A coupled thermal-mechanical XFEM method that includes

  12. A numerical manifold method model for analyzing fully coupled hydro-mechanical processes in porous rock masses with discrete fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengsu; Rutqvist, Jonny; Wang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a numerical manifold method (NMM) model was developed for fully coupled analysis of hydro-mechanical (HM) processes in porous rock masses with discrete fractures. Using an NMM two-cover-mesh system of mathematical and physical covers, fractures are conveniently discretized by dividing the mathematical cover along fracture traces to physical cover, resulting in a discontinuous model on a non-conforming mesh. In this model, discrete fracture deformation (e.g. open and slip) and fracture fluid flow within a permeable and deformable porous rock matrix are rigorously considered. For porous rock, direct pore-volume coupling was modeled based on an energy-work scheme. For mechanical analysis of fractures, a fracture constitutive model for mechanically open states was introduced. For fluid flow in fractures, both along-fracture and normal-to-fracture fluid flow are modeled without introducing additional degrees of freedom. When the mechanical aperture of a fracture is changing, its hydraulic aperture and hydraulic conductivity is updated. At the same time, under the effect of coupled deformation and fluid flow, the contact state may dynamically change, and the corresponding contact constraint is updated each time step. Therefore, indirect coupling is realized under stringent considerations of coupled HM effects and fracture constitutive behavior transfer dynamically. To verify the new model, examples involving deformable porous media containing a single and two sets of fractures were designed, showing good accuracy. Last, the model was applied to analyze coupled HM behavior of fractured porous rock domains with complex fracture networks under effects of loading and injection.

  13. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  14. Algebraic multiscale method for flow in heterogeneous porous media with embedded discrete fractures (F-AMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţene, Matei; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed Saad; Hajibeygi, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces an Algebraic MultiScale method for simulation of flow in heterogeneous porous media with embedded discrete Fractures (F-AMS). First, multiscale coarse grids are independently constructed for both porous matrix and fracture networks. Then, a map between coarse- and fine-scale is obtained by algebraically computing basis functions with local support. In order to extend the localization assumption to the fractured media, four types of basis functions are investigated: (1) Decoupled-AMS, in which the two media are completely decoupled, (2) Frac-AMS and (3) Rock-AMS, which take into account only one-way transmissibilities, and (4) Coupled-AMS, in which the matrix and fracture interpolators are fully coupled. In order to ensure scalability, the F-AMS framework permits full flexibility in terms of the resolution of the fracture coarse grids. Numerical results are presented for two- and three-dimensional heterogeneous test cases. During these experiments, the performance of F-AMS, paired with ILU(0) as second-stage smoother in a convergent iterative procedure, is studied by monitoring CPU times and convergence rates. Finally, in order to investigate the scalability of the method, an extensive benchmark study is conducted, where a commercial algebraic multigrid solver is used as reference. The results show that, given an appropriate coarsening strategy, F-AMS is insensitive to severe fracture and matrix conductivity contrasts, as well as the length of the fracture networks. Its unique feature is that a fine-scale mass conservative flux field can be reconstructed after any iteration, providing efficient approximate solutions in time-dependent simulations.

  15. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  16. ADFNE: Open source software for discrete fracture network engineering, two and three dimensional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadakar Alghalandis, Younes

    2017-05-01

    Rapidly growing topic, the discrete fracture network engineering (DFNE), has already attracted many talents from diverse disciplines in academia and industry around the world to challenge difficult problems related to mining, geothermal, civil, oil and gas, water and many other projects. Although, there are few commercial software capable of providing some useful functionalities fundamental for DFNE, their costs, closed code (black box) distributions and hence limited programmability and tractability encouraged us to respond to this rising demand with a new solution. This paper introduces an open source comprehensive software package for stochastic modeling of fracture networks in two- and three-dimension in discrete formulation. Functionalities included are geometric modeling (e.g., complex polygonal fracture faces, and utilizing directional statistics), simulations, characterizations (e.g., intersection, clustering and connectivity analyses) and applications (e.g., fluid flow). The package is completely written in Matlab scripting language. Significant efforts have been made to bring maximum flexibility to the functions in order to solve problems in both two- and three-dimensions in an easy and united way that is suitable for beginners, advanced and experienced users.

  17. Robust Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring (HFM) of Multiple Time Overlapping Events Using a Generalized Discrete Radon Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Ely, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel algorithm for multiple-event localization for Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring (HFM) through the exploitation of the sparsity of the observed seismic signal when represented in a basis consisting of space time propagators. We provide explicit construction of these propagators using a forward model for wave propagation which depends non-linearly on the problem parameters - the unknown source location and mechanism of fracture, time and extent of event, and the locations of the receivers. Under fairly general assumptions and an appropriate discretization of these parameters we first build an over-complete dictionary of generalized Radon propagators and assume that the data is well represented as a linear superposition of these propagators. Exploiting this structure we propose sparsity penalized algorithms and workflow for super-resolution extraction of time overlapping multiple seismic events from single well data.

  18. Rockfall Hazard Analysis From Discrete Fracture Network Modelling with Finite Persistence Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cédric; Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna; Casagrande, Davide; Sloan, Scott

    2012-09-01

    Developing an accurate representation of the rock mass fabric is a key element in rock fall hazard analysis. The orientation, persistence and density of fractures control the volume and shape of unstable blocks or compartments. In this study, the discrete fracture modelling technique and digital photogrammetry were used to accurately depict the fabric. A volume distribution of unstable blocks was derived combining polyhedral modelling and kinematic analyses. For each block size, probabilities of failure and probabilities of propagation were calculated. A complete energy distribution was obtained by considering, for each block size, its occurrence in the rock mass, its probability of falling, its probability to reach a given location, and the resulting distribution of energies at each location. This distribution was then used with an energy-frequency diagram to assess the hazard.

  19. Discrete Fracture Network Models for Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Pashin; Guohai Jin; Chunmiao Zheng; Song Chen; Marcella McIntyre

    2008-07-01

    A software package called DFNModeler has been developed to assess the potential risks associated with carbon sequestration in coal. Natural fractures provide the principal conduits for fluid flow in coal-bearing strata, and these fractures present the most tangible risks for the leakage of injected carbon dioxide. The objectives of this study were to develop discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling tools for risk assessment and to use these tools to assess risks in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, where coal-bearing strata have high potential for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. DFNModeler provides a user-friendly interface for the construction, visualization, and analysis of DFN models. DFNModeler employs an OpenGL graphics engine that enables real-time manipulation of DFN models. Analytical capabilities in DFNModeler include display of structural and hydrologic parameters, compartmentalization analysis, and fluid pathways analysis. DFN models can be exported to third-party software packages for flow modeling. DFN models were constructed to simulate fracturing in coal-bearing strata of the upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin. Outcrops and wireline cores were used to characterize fracture systems, which include joint systems, cleat systems, and fault-related shear fractures. DFN models were constructed to simulate jointing, cleating, faulting, and hydraulic fracturing. Analysis of DFN models indicates that strata-bound jointing compartmentalizes the Pottsville hydrologic system and helps protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. Analysis of fault zones, however, suggests that faulting can facilitate cross-formational flow. For this reason, faults should be avoided when siting injection wells. DFN-based flow models constructed in TOUGH2 indicate that fracture aperture and connectivity are critical variables affecting the leakage of injected CO{sub 2} from coal. Highly transmissive joints

  20. A practical model for fluid flow in discrete-fracture porous media by using the numerical manifold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengsu; Rutqvist, Jonny; Wang, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a numerical manifold method (NMM) model is developed to analyze flow in porous media with discrete fractures in a non-conforming mesh. This new model is based on a two-cover-mesh system with a uniform triangular mathematical mesh and boundary/fracture-divided physical covers, where local independent cover functions are defined. The overlapping parts of the physical covers are elements where the global approximation is defined by the weighted average of the physical cover functions. The mesh is generated by a tree-cutting algorithm. A new model that does not introduce additional degrees of freedom (DOF) for fractures was developed for fluid flow in fractures. The fracture surfaces that belong to different physical covers are used to represent fracture flow in the direction of the fractures. In the direction normal to the fractures, the fracture surfaces are regarded as Dirichlet boundaries to exchange fluxes with the rock matrix. Furthermore, fractures that intersect with Dirichlet or Neumann boundaries are considered. Simulation examples are designed to verify the efficiency of the tree-cutting algorithm, the calculation's independency from the mesh orientation, and accuracy when modeling porous media that contain fractures with multiple intersections and different orientations. The simulation results show good agreement with available analytical solutions. Finally, the model is applied to cases that involve nine intersecting fractures and a complex network of 100 fractures, both of which achieve reasonable results. The new model is very practical for modeling flow in fractured porous media, even for a geometrically complex fracture network with large hydraulic conductivity contrasts between fractures and the matrix.

  1. An Efficient Upscaling Procedure Based on Stokes-Brinkman Model and Discrete Fracture Network Method for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Guan

    2010-01-01

    Naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are characterized by various-sized solution caves that are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. These complex geologic features can not be fully resolved in reservoir simulations due to the underlying uncertainty in geologic models and the large computational resource requirement. They also bring in multiple flow physics which adds to the modeling difficulties. It is thus necessary to develop a method to accurately represent the effect of caves, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling of naturally fractured carbonate karst reservoirs.

  2. Discrete fracture network modelling of a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanyon, G.W. (Fracture Systems Ltd, St Ives (United Kingdom)); Marschall, P. (Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland))

    2008-06-15

    This report presents Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models of groundwater flow around a KBS-3H repository situated at Olkiluoto. The study was performed in support of the Safety Case for the KBS-3H Concept, being jointly studied by SKB and Posiva. As part of the preliminary assessment of long term safety of a KBS-3H repository, a Process Report and an Evolution Report (evolution of the disposal system from the emplacement of the first canister to the long term) are being produced. In the course of the task definition the project team identified the need for complementary modelling studies aimed at increasing insight into the hydrodynamic evolution of the disposal system after waste emplacement. In particular, the following issues were identified as requiring input from hydrodynamic models: Probability of high inflow points which may cause buffer erosion. Time transients of inflows after construction of deposition drifts. Interference between deposition drifts and transport tunnels. The DFN models represent the fault and fracture system in the planned repository volume at Olkiluoto. In particular, they represent the hydro geologically significant features. The types of hydrogeological features included in the models are: Major Fracture Zones (MFZs). Local Fracture Zones (LFZs) and associated water conducting features (LFZ-WCFs). Water Conducting Features in the background rock (BR-WCFs). These feature types are derived from the current geological and hydrogeological interpretations developed by Posiva. Several model variants were developed during the study and these variants were used for geometric simulations of the WCF network around the deposition drifts. A simple layout adaptation scheme has been applied to the network models to derive statistics for performance measures relating to the deposition drifts, compartments, plugs and super-containers. A single fracture transient flow model was developed to provide insight to transient flow behaviour around

  3. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing and associated microseismicity using finite-discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhao; Andrea Lisjak; Omid Mahabadi; Qinya Liu; Giovanni Grasselli

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) technique has been extensively used for the exploitation of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. HF enhances the connectivity of less permeable oil and gas-bearing rock formations by fluid injection, which creates an interconnected fracture network and increases the hydrocarbon production. Meanwhile, microseismic (MS) monitoring is one of the most effective approaches to eval-uate such stimulation process. In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) is adopted to numerically simulate HF and associated MS. Several post-processing tools, including frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value), fractal dimension (D-value), and seismic events clustering, are utilized to interpret numerical results. A non-parametric clustering algorithm designed specifically for FDEM is used to reduce the mesh dependency and extract more realistic seismic information. Simulation results indicated that at the local scale, the HF process tends to propagate following the rock mass discontinuities; while at the reservoir scale, it tends to develop in the direction parallel to the maximum in-situ stress.

  4. Analysis and Visualization of Discrete Fracture Networks Using a Flow Topology Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Garrett; Hyman, Jeffrey; Karra, Satish; Gable, Carl; Makedonska, Nataliia; Viswanathan, Hari; Woodring, Jonathan; Hamann, Bernd

    2016-06-20

    We present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph (FTG) for characterization of flow in constrained networks, with a focus on discrete fracture networks (DFN), developed collaboratively by geoscientists and visualization scientists. Our method allows users to understand and evaluate flow and transport in DFN simulations by computing statistical distributions, segment paths of interest, and cluster particles based on their paths. The new approach enables domain scientists to evaluate the accuracy of the simulations, visualize features of interest, and compare multiple realizations over a specific domain of interest. Geoscientists can simulate complex transport phenomena modeling large sites for networks consisting of several thousand fractures without compromising the geometry of the network. However, few tools exist for performing higher-level analysis and visualization of simulated DFN data. The prototype system we present addresses this need. We demonstrate its effectiveness for increasingly complex examples of DFNs, covering two distinct use cases - hydrocarbon extraction from unconventional resources and transport of dissolved contaminant from a spent nuclear fuel repository.

  5. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing and associated microseismicity using finite-discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing (HF technique has been extensively used for the exploitation of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. HF enhances the connectivity of less permeable oil and gas-bearing rock formations by fluid injection, which creates an interconnected fracture network and increases the hydrocarbon production. Meanwhile, microseismic (MS monitoring is one of the most effective approaches to evaluate such stimulation process. In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM is adopted to numerically simulate HF and associated MS. Several post-processing tools, including frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value, fractal dimension (D-value, and seismic events clustering, are utilized to interpret numerical results. A non-parametric clustering algorithm designed specifically for FDEM is used to reduce the mesh dependency and extract more realistic seismic information. Simulation results indicated that at the local scale, the HF process tends to propagate following the rock mass discontinuities; while at the reservoir scale, it tends to develop in the direction parallel to the maximum in-situ stress.

  6. Simulating the hydraulic stimulation of multiple fractures in an anisotropic stress field applying the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Conny; Frühwirt, Thomas; Konietzky, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Key to a successful exploitation of deep geothermal reservoirs in a petrothermal environment is the hydraulic stimulation of the host rock to increase permeability. The presented research investigates the fracture propagation and interaction during hydraulic stimulation of multiple fractures in a highly anisotropic stress field. The presented work was conducted within the framework of the OPTIRISS project, which is a cooperation of industry partners and universities in Thuringia and Saxony (Federal States of Germany) and was funded by the European Fond for Regional Development. One objective was the design optimization of the subsurface geothermal heat exchanger (SGHE) by means of numerical simulations. The presented simulations were conducted applying 3DEC (Itasca™), a software tool based on the discrete element method. The simulation results indicate that the main direction of fracture propagation is towards lower stresses and thus towards the biosphere. Therefore, barriers might be necessary to limit fracture propagation to the designated geological formation. Moreover, the hydraulic stimulation significantly alters the stresses in the vicinity of newly created fractures. Especially the change of the minimum stress component affects the hydraulic stimulation of subsequent fractures, which are deflected away from the previously stimulated fractures. This fracture deflection can render it impossible to connect all fractures with a second borehole for the later production. The results of continuative simulations indicate that a fracture deflection cannot be avoided completely. Therefore, the stage alignment was modified to minimize fracture deflection by varying (1) the pauses between stages, (2) the spacing's between adjacent stages, and (3) the angle between stimulation borehole and minimum stress component. An optimum SGHE design, which implies that all stimulated fractures are connected to the production borehole, can be achieved by aligning the stimulation

  7. Research on Superimposed Metallogenic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Yusheng; Wang Jianping; Deng Jun; Peng Runmin

    2004-01-01

    As located in the junction of three tectonic plates (the Eurasian plate, the Indian plate and the west Pacific plate), the China continent shows complex regional metallogenic features due to tectonic evolution of "micro-plates, polycycle tectonic movements". Well developed superimposed metallogenic systems have constituted one of the regional metallogenic features in China. Through the study on superimposed metallogenic system of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and of the Yuebei basin (northern Guangdong Province), the authors put forward some basic combination pattern of sedimentary-magmatic superimposed metallogenic system and summarize its forming conditions (controlling factors).

  8. A contribution to the modeling of metal plasticity and fracture: From continuum to discrete descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keralavarma, Shyam Mohan

    behavior of a large number of nano and micro scale defects such as dislocations, vacancies and grain boundaries. Continuum models relate macroscopically observable quantities such as stress and strain by coarse graining the discrete defect microstructure. While continuum models provide a good approximation for the effective behavior of bulk materials, several deviations have been observed in experiments at small scales such as an intrinsic size dependence of the material strength. Discrete dislocation dynamics (DD) is a mesoscale method for obtaining the mechanical response of a material by direct simulation of the motion and interactions of dislocations. The model incorporates an intrinsic length scale in the dislocation Burgers vector and potentially allows for size dependent mechanical behavior to emerge naturally from the dynamics of the dislocation ensemble. In the second part of this dissertation, a simplified twodimensional DD model is employed to study several phenomena of practical interest such as strain hardening under homogeneous deformation, growth of microvoids in a crystalline matrix and creep of single crystals at elevated temperatures. These studies have been enabled by several recent enhancements to the existing two-dimensional DD framework described in Chapter V. The main contributions from this research are: (i) development of a fully anisotropic continuum model of void growth for use in ductile fracture simulations and (ii) enhancing the capabilities of an existing two-dimensional DD framework for large scale simulations in complex domains and at elevated temperatures.

  9. New perspectives on the transition between discrete fracture, fragmentation, and pulverization during brittle failure of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Ghaffari, H.; Barber, T. J.; Borjas, C.

    2015-12-01

    The motions of Earth's tectonic plates are typically measured in millimeters to tens of centimeters per year, seemingly confirming the generally-held view that tectonic processes are slow, and have been throughout Earth's history. In line with this perspective, the vast majority of laboratory rock mechanics research focused on failure in the brittle regime has been limited to experiments utilizing slow loading rates. On the other hand, many natural processes that pose significant risk for humans (e.g., earthquakes and extraterrestrial impacts), as well as risks associated with human activities (blow-outs, explosions, mining and mine failures, projectile penetration), occur at rates that are hundreds to thousands of times faster than those typically simulated in the laboratory. Little experimental data exists to confirm or calibrate theoretical models explaining the connection between these dramatic events and the pulverized rocks found in fault zones, impacts, or explosions; however the experimental data that does exist is thought-provoking: At the earth's surface, the process of brittle fracture passes through a critical transition in rocks at high strain rates (101-103s-1) between regimes of discrete fracture and distributed fragmentation, accompanied by a dramatic increase in strength. Previous experimental works on this topic have focused on key thresholds (e.g., peak stress, peak strain, average strain rate) that define this transition, but more recent work suggests that this transition is more fundamentally dependent on characteristics (e.g., shape) of the loading pulse and related microcrack dynamics, perhaps explaining why for different lithologies different thresholds more effectively define the pulverization transition. In this presentation we summarize some of our work focused on this transition, including the evolution of individual defects at the microscopic, microsecond scale and the energy budget associated with the brittle fragmentation process as a

  10. Method for efficient simulation of radionuclide transport in discrete fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, S. L.; Cvetkovic, V.; Mancillas, J. W.; Selroos, J.

    2006-12-01

    Limitations of the advection-dispersion equation for predicting transport in sparsely or moderately fractured rock are well known and have prompted many to consider discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation combined with particle tracking as an alternative. Although it is relatively straightforward to track particles moving only by advection through DFN-derived flow fields, more complex processes such as matrix diffusion, longitudinal dispersion, and decay/in-growth of radionuclides are more difficult and more computationally demanding. Moreover, the DFN simulations themselves are computationally intensive and are usually limited to relatively small volumes. A new time-domain particle method has been developed to efficiently simulate radionuclide transport in pathways derived from DFN simulations. The algorithm moves particles from node to node on a segmented pathway. The time to complete each segment is sampled from residence time distributions that include the effects of advection, longitudinal dispersion, and a variety of matrix retention processes. The method has been extended to include transport of decay chains and transient flow fields. The result of the simulation is a set of arrival times that can be post-processed with a log-normal kernel method to construct mass discharge (breakthrough) versus time. The approach can be used directly on pathways extracted from DFN models, or it may be combined with pathway simulation algorithms (Painter and Cvetkovic, Water Resources Research 41, 2005) that use information extracted from DFNs to construct realistic artificial pathways. The latter variant helps recover the effects of sub-grid velocity variability in flow fields constructed from continuum flow models. Thus, when combined with flow models based on upscaled permeability tensors, the result is a type of multiscale simulation that is applicable at large scales without making continuum-type assumptions about the transport processes. Verification tests show that

  11. Implementation of an Empirical Joint Constitutive Model into Finite-Discrete Element Analysis of the Geomechanical Behaviour of Fractured Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qinghua; Latham, John-Paul; Xiang, Jiansheng

    2016-12-01

    An empirical joint constitutive model (JCM) that captures the rough wall interaction behaviour of individual fractures associated with roughness characteristics observed in laboratory experiments is combined with the solid mechanical model of the finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM). The combined JCM-FEMDEM formulation gives realistic fracture behaviour with respect to shear strength, normal closure, and shear dilatancy and includes the recognition of fracture length influence as seen in experiments. The validity of the numerical model is demonstrated by a comparison with the experimentally established empirical solutions. A 2D plane strain geomechanical simulation is conducted using an outcrop-based naturally fractured rock model with far-field stresses loaded in two consecutive phases, i.e. take-up of isotropic stresses and imposition of two deviatoric stress conditions. The modelled behaviour of natural fractures in response to various stress conditions illustrates a range of realistic behaviour including closure, opening, shearing, dilatancy, and new crack propagation. With the increase in stress ratio, significant deformation enhancement occurs in the vicinity of fracture tips, intersections, and bends, where large apertures can be generated. The JCM-FEMDEM model is also compared with conventional approaches that neglect the scale dependency of joint properties or the roughness-induced additional frictional resistance. The results of this paper have important implications for understanding the geomechanical behaviour of fractured rocks in various engineering activities.

  12. A geometrically based method for predicting stress-induced fracture aperture and flow in discrete fracture networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Nick, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    on subsurface fracture aperture, which is essential for quantifying porosity and permeability. Apertures are difficult to obtain from either outcropping or subsurface data and are therefore often based on fracture size or scaling relationships, but these do not consider the orientation and spatial distribution...

  13. Complementary hydro-mechanical coupled finite/discrete element and microseismic modelling to predict hydraulic fracture propagation in tight shale reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Matthew; Dutko, Martin; Yu, Jianguo; Cole, Sarah; Angus, Doug; Baird, Alan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to predict the propagation of hydraulic fractures in tight shale reservoirs. Many hydraulic fracture modelling schemes assume that the fracture direction is pre-seeded in the problem domain discretisation. This is a severe limitation as the reservoir often contains large numbers of pre-existing fractures that strongly influence the direction of the propagating fracture. To circumvent these shortcomings, a new fracture modelling treatment is proposed where the introduction of discrete fracture surfaces is based on new and dynamically updated geometrical entities rather than the topology of the underlying spatial discretisation. Hydraulic fracturing is an inherently coupled engineering problem with interactions between fluid flow and fracturing when the stress state of the reservoir rock attains a failure criterion. This work follows a staggered hydro-mechanical coupled finite/discrete element approach to capture the key interplay between fluid pressure and fracture growth. In field practice, the fracture growth is hidden from the design engineer and microseismicity is often used to infer hydraulic fracture lengths and directions. Microseismic output can also be computed from changes of the effective stress in the geomechanical model and compared against field microseismicity. A number of hydraulic fracture numerical examples are presented to illustrate the new technology.

  14. Cost comparison of orthopaedic fracture pathways using discrete event simulation in a Glasgow hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gillian H; Jenkins, Paul J; McDonald, David A; Van Der Meer, Robert; Morton, Alec; Nugent, Margaret; Rymaszewski, Lech A

    2017-09-07

    Healthcare faces the continual challenge of improving outcome while aiming to reduce cost. The aim of this study was to determine the micro cost differences of the Glasgow non-operative trauma virtual pathway in comparison to a traditional pathway. Discrete event simulation was used to model and analyse cost and resource utilisation with an activity-based costing approach. Data for a full comparison before the process change was unavailable so we used a modelling approach, comparing a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) with a simulated traditional fracture clinic (TFC). The orthopaedic unit VFC pathway pioneered at Glasgow Royal Infirmary has attracted significant attention and interest and is the focus of this cost study. Our study focused exclusively on patients with non-operative trauma attending emergency department or the minor injuries unit and the subsequent step in the patient pathway. Retrospective studies of patient outcomes as a result of the protocol introductions for specific injuries are presented in association with activity costs from the models. Patients are satisfied with the new pathway, the information provided and the outcome of their injuries (Evidence Level IV). There was a 65% reduction in the number of first outpatient face-to-face (f2f) attendances in orthopaedics. In the VFC pathway, the resources required per day were significantly lower for all staff groups (p≤0.001). The overall cost per patient of the VFC pathway was £22.84 (95% CI 21.74 to 23.92) per patient compared with £36.81 (95% CI 35.65 to 37.97) for the TFC pathway. Our results give a clearer picture of the cost comparison of the virtual pathway over a wholly traditional f2f clinic system. The use of simulation-based stochastic costings in healthcare economic analysis has been limited to date, but this study provides evidence for adoption of this method as a basis for its application in other healthcare settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  15. Classification of Complex Reservoirs in Superimposed Basins of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi; ZHOU Xinyuan; LIN Changsong; HUO Zhipeng; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong

    2010-01-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins in western China were formed through the superposition and compounding of at least two previously developed sedimentary basins and in general they can be termed as complex superimposed basins.The distinct differences between these basins and monotype basins are their discontinuous stratigraphic sedimentation,stratigraphic structure and stratigraphic stress-strain action over geological history.Based on the correlation of chronological age on structural sections,superimposed basins can be divided into five types in this study:(1)continuous sedimentation type superimposed basins,(2)middle and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(3)early and late stratigraphic superimposed basins,(4)early and middle stratigraphic superimposed basins,and(5)long-term exposed superimposed basins.Multiple source-reservoir-caprock assemblages have developed in such basins.In addition,multi-stage hydrocarbon generation and expulsion,multiple sources,polycyclic hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple-type hydrocarbon reservoirs adjustment,reformation and destruction have occurred in these basins.The complex reservoirs that have been discovered widely in the superimposed basins to date have remarkably different geologic features from primary reservoirs,and the root causes of this are folding,denudation and the fracture effect caused by multiphase tectonic events in the superimposed basins as well as associated seepage,diffusion,spilling,oxidation,degradation and cracking.Based on their genesis characteristics,complex reservoirs are divided into five categories:(1)primary reservoirs,(2)trap adjustment type reservoirs,(3)component variant reservoirs,(4)phase conversion type reservoirs and(5)scale-reformed reservoirs.

  16. Reservoir Characterization and Flow Simulation for CO 2-EOR in the Tensleep Formation Using Discrete Fracture Networks, Teapot Dome, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi Ghahfarokhi, Payam

    The Tensleep oil reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, USA, is a naturally fractured tight sandstone reservoir that has been considered for carbon-dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and sequestration. CO2-EOR analysis requires a thorough understanding of the Tensleep fracture network. Wireline image logs from the field suggest that the reservoir fracture network is dominated by early formed structural hinge oblique fractures with interconnectivity enhanced by hinge parallel and hinge perpendicular fracture sets. Available post stack 3D seismic data are used to generate a seismic fracture intensity attribute for the reservoir fracture network. The resulting seismic fracture intensity is qualitatively correlated to the field production history. Wells located on hinge-oblique discontinuities are more productive than other wells in the field. We use Oda's method to upscale the fracture permeabilities in the discrete fracture network for use in a dual porosity fluid flow simulator. We analytically show that Oda's method is sensitive to the grid orientation relative to fracture set strike. Results show that the calculated permeability tensors have maximum geometric mean for the non-zero permeability components (kxx,kyy,kzz,kxy) when the dominant fracture set cuts diagonally through the grid cell at 45° relative to the grid cell principal directions (i,j). The geometric mean of the permeability tensor components falls to a minimum when the dominant fracture set is parallel to either grid wall (i or j principal directions). The latter case has off-diagonal permeability terms close to zero. We oriented the Tensleep reservoir grid to N72°W to minimize the off-diagonal permeability terms. The seismic fracture intensity attribute is then used to generate a realization of the reservoir fracture network. Subsequently, fracture properties are upscaled to the reservoir grid scale for a fully compositional flow simulation. We implemented a PVT analysis using CO2 swelling test

  17. Modeling the influence of particle morphology on the fracture behavior of silica sand using a 3D discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil, Mehmet B.; Alshibli, Khalid A.

    2015-02-01

    The constitutive behavior and deformation characteristics of uncemented granular materials are to a large extent derived from the fabric or geometry of the particle structure and the interparticle friction resulting from normal forces acting on particles or groups of particles. Granular materials consist of discrete particles with a fabric (microstructure) that changes under loading. Synchrotron micro-computed tomography (SMT) has emerged as a powerful non-destructive 3D scanning technique to study geomaterials. In this paper, SMT was used to acquire in situ scans of the oedometry test of a column of three silica sand particles. The sand is known as ASTM 20-30 Ottawa sand, and has a grain size between US sieves #20 (0.841 mm) and #30 (0.595 mm). The characteristics and evolution of particle fracture in sand were examined using SMT images, and a 3D discrete element method (DEM) was used to model the fracture behavior of sand particles. It adopts the bonded particle model to generate a crushable agglomerate that consists of a large number of small spherical sub-particles. The agglomerate shape matches the 3D physical shape of the tested sand particles by mapping the particle morphology from the SMT images. The paper investigates and discusses the influence of agglomerate packing (i.e., the number and size distribution of spherical sub-particles that constitute the agglomerate) and agglomerate shape on the fracture behavior of crushable particles.

  18. Discrete element modeling of Martian pit crater formation in response to extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kevin J.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.; Ferrill, David A.

    2011-04-01

    Pit craters, circular to elliptical depressions that lack a raised rim or ejecta deposits, are common on the surface of Mars. Similar structures are also found on Earth, Venus, the Moon, and smaller planetary bodies, including some asteroids. While it is generally accepted that these pits form in response to material drainage into a subsurface void space, the primary mechanism(s) responsible for creating the void is a subject of debate. Previously proposed mechanisms include collapse into lave tubes, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. In this study, we employ two-dimensional discrete element models to assess both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting as mechanisms for forming pit craters. We also examine the effect of mechanical stratigraphy (alternating strong and weak layers) and variation in regolith thickness on pit morphology. Our simulations indicate that both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting are viable mechanisms. Both mechanisms lead to generally convex (steepening downward) slope profiles; extensional fracturing results in generally symmetric pits, whereas dilational normal faulting produces strongly asymmetric geometries. Pit width is established early, whereas pit depth increases later in the deformation history. Inclusion of mechanical stratigraphy results in wider and deeper pits, particularly for the dilational normal faulting, and the presence of strong near-surface layers leads to pits with distinct edges as observed on Mars. The modeling results suggest that a thicker regolith leads to wider but shallower pits that are less distinct and may be more difficult to detect in areas of thick regolith.

  19. An integrated workflow for stress and flow modelling using outcrop-derived discrete fracture networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Nick, Hamid; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    stresssensitive fracture permeability and matrix flow to determine the full permeability tensor. The applicability of this workflow is illustrated using an outcropping carbonate pavement in the Potiguar basin in Brazil, from which 1082 fractures are digitised. The permeability tensor for a range of matrix...

  20. Implementation of a rock-matrix diffusion model in the discrete fracture network code NAPSAC[Groundwater flow; Radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoch, A

    1998-05-01

    Groundwater flow in many low permeability rocks is believed to occur within discrete fractures. Radionuclides in solution can diffuse away from the fractures into immobile water in the rock matrix. This process (rock-matrix diffusion) is important in determining the performance of a repository situated in fractured rock because it retards the transport of radionuclides that might otherwise return more rapidly towards the biosphere. NAPSAC is a computer program used to model groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rock. This report describes the implementation of a rock-matrix diffusion model in NAPSAC. (author)

  1. Numerical Simulation of P-Wave Propagation in Rock Mass with Granular Material-Filled Fractures Using Hybrid Continuum-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Y. L.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Zhou, H. Y.; Wu, W.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a cohesive fracture model is applied to model P-wave propagation through fractured rock mass using hybrid continuum-discrete element method, i.e. Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC). First, a cohesive fracture model together with the background of UDEC is presented. The cohesive fracture model considers progressive failure of rock fracture rather than an abrupt damage through simultaneously taking into account the elastic, plastic and damage mechanisms as well as a modified failure function. Then, a series of laboratory tests from the literature on P-wave propagation through rock mass containing single fracture and two parallel fractures are introduced and the numerical models used to simulate these laboratory tests are described. After that, all the laboratory tests are simulated and presented. The results show that the proposed model, particularly the cohesive fracture model, can capture very well the wave propagation characteristics in rock mass with non-welded and welded fractures with and without filling materials. In the meantime, in order to identify the significance of fracture on wave propagation, filling materials with different particle sizes and the fracture thickness are discussed. Both factors are found to be crucial for wave attenuation. The simulations also show that the frequency of transmission wave is lowered after propagating through fractures. In addition, the developed numerical scheme is applied to two-dimensional wave propagation in the rock mass.

  2. dfnWorks: A HPC Workflow for Discrete Fracture Network Modeling with Subsurface Flow and Transport Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, C. W.; Hyman, J.; Karra, S.; Makedonska, N.; Painter, S. L.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    dfnWorks generates discrete fracture networks (DFN) of planar polygons, creates a high quality conforming Delaunay triangulation of the intersecting DFN polygons, assigns properties (aperture, permeability) using geostatistics, sets boundary and initial conditions, solves pressure/flow in single or multi-phase fluids (water, air, CO2) using the parallel PFLOTRAN or serial FEHM, and solves for transport using Lagrangian particle tracking. We outline the dfnWorks workflow and present applications from a range of fractured rock systems. dfnWorks (http://www.lanl.gov/expertise/teams/view/dfnworks) is composed of three main components, all of which are freely available. dfnGen generates a distribution of fracture polygons from site characterization data (statistics or deterministic fractures) and utilizes the FRAM (Feature Rejection Algorithm for Meshing) to guarantee the mesh generation package LaGriT (lagrit.lanl.gov) will generate a high quality conforming Delaunay triangular mesh. dfnWorks links the mesh to either PFLOTRAN (pflotran.org) or FEHM (fehm.lanl.gov) for solving flow and transport. The various physics options available in FEHM and PFLOTRAN such as single and multi-phase flow and reactive transport are all available with appropriate initial and boundary conditions and material property models. dfnTrans utilizes explicit Lagrangian particle tracking on the DFN using a velocity field reconstructed from the steady state pressure/flow field solution obtained in PFLOTRAN or FEHM. Applications are demonstrated for nuclear waste repository in fractured granite, CO2 sequestration and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources.

  3. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  4. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-mDFN approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooya Hamdi; Doug Stead; Davide Elmo

    2015-01-01

    abstract Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM) is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (mDFN) approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create mDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-mDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the me-chanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in reproducing

  5. A methodology to constrain the parameters of a hydrogeological discrete fracture network model for sparsely fractured crystalline rock, exemplified by data from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Sven; Hartley, Lee; Rhén, Ingvar; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steven; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben

    2014-03-01

    The large-scale geological structure of the crystalline rock at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, Sweden, has been classified in terms of deformation zones of elevated fracture frequency. The rock between deformation zones was divided into fracture domains according to fracture frequency. A methodology to constrain the geometric and hydraulic parameters that define a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for each fracture domain is presented. The methodology is based on flow logging and down-hole imaging in cored boreholes in combination with DFN realizations, fracture connectivity analysis and pumping test simulations. The simulations suggest that a good match could be obtained for a power law size distribution where the value of the location parameter equals the borehole radius but with different values for the shape parameter, depending on fracture domain and fracture set. Fractures around 10-100 m in size are the ones that typically form the connected network, giving inflows in the simulations. The report also addresses the issue of up-scaling of DFN properties to equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) bulk flow properties. Comparisons with double-packer injection tests provide confidence that the derived DFN formulation of detailed flows within individual fractures is also suited to simulating mean bulk flow properties and their spatial variability.

  6. The influence of loading conditions on fracture initiation, propagation, and interaction in rocks with veins: Results from a comparative Discrete Element Method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Simon; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of loading conditions on the interactions between extension fractures and veins. We model the fracture behavior of brittle discrete element materials each containing a tabular vein body of variable orientation and strength in two different loading conditions. The first is uniaxial tension, applied with servo-controlled sidewalls. The second is a boudinage boundary condition in which a tensile triaxial stress state is induced in the brittle model volume by quasi-viscous extensional deformation in the adjacent layers. Most of the fracture- vein interactions observed in uniaxial tension also exists in boudinage boundary conditions. However, the importance of each interaction mechanism for a given configuration of relative strength and misorientation of the vein may differ according to the loading mechanism. Nucleation and internal deflection is under both boundary conditions the dominating fracture-vein interaction style in weak veins. In uniaxial tension models, strong veins tend to alter the fracture path by external deflection, while under boudinage loading these veins are more likely overcome by the fracture step over mechanism. Dynamic bifurcation of fractures was observed in uniaxial tension models but never for boudinage boundary conditions. This is because the acceleration of fracture tips in these conditions is suppressed by interaction with distributed fractures as well as viscous damping by the neighboring layers.

  7. The Derivation of Fault Volumetric Properties from 3D Trace Maps Using Outcrop Constrained Discrete Fracture Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, David; Seers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    -deterministic, outcrop constrained discrete fracture network modeling code to derive volumetric fault intensity measures (fault area per unit volume / fault volume per unit volume). Producing per-vertex measures of volumetric intensity; our method captures the spatial variability in 3D fault density across a surveyed outcrop, enabling first order controls to be probed. We demonstrate our approach on pervasively faulted exposures of a Permian aged reservoir analogue from the Vale of Eden Basin, UK.

  8. Depth-discrete specific storage in fractured sedimentary rock using steady-state and transient single-hole hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for obtaining depth-discrete values of specific storage (Ss) from single-hole hydraulic tests in fractured rock boreholes using straddle packers (1.5-17 m test intervals). Low flow constant head (CH) step tests analyzed using the Thiem method provide transmissivity (T) values free from non-Darcian error. Short-term, constant-rate pumping tests (0.5-2 h) analyzed using the Cooper-Jacob approximation of the Theis method provide S from the hydraulic diffusivity using the Darcian T value from the CH step test. This synergistic use of two types of hydraulic tests avoids the common source of error when pumping tests (injection or withdrawal) are conducted at higher flow rates and thereby induce non-Darcian flow resulting in the underestimation of T. Other errors, such as well bore storage and leakage, can also substantially influence S by causing a shift in the time axis of the Cooper-Jacob semi-log plot. In this approach, the Darcian T values from the CH step tests are used in the analysis of the transient pumping test data for calculating S throughout the pumping test using the Cooper-Jacob approximation to minimize all of the aforementioned errors, resulting in more representative S values. The effect of these non-idealities on the measured drawdown is illustrated using the Theis equation with the Darcian T and S values to calculate drawdown for comparison to measured data. The Ss values for tests in sandstone obtained from this approach are more consistent with confined aquifer conditions than values derived from the traditional Cooper-Jacob method, and are within the range of field and lab values presented from a compilation of literature values for fractured sandstone. (10-7-10-5 m-1) This method for obtaining Ss values from short-interval, straddle packer tests improves the estimation of both K and Ss and provides opportunity to study their spatial distribution in fractured rock.

  9. A Digital Image-Based Discrete Fracture Network Model and Its Numerical Investigation of Direct Shear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peitao; Cai, Meifeng; Ren, Fenhua; Li, Changhong; Yang, Tianhong

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a numerical approach to determine the mechanical behavior of discrete fractures network (DFN) models based on digital image processing technique and particle flow code (PFC2D). A series of direct shear tests of jointed rocks were numerically performed to study the effect of normal stress, friction coefficient and joint bond strength on the mechanical behavior of joint rock and evaluate the influence of micro-parameters on the shear properties of jointed rocks using the proposed approach. The complete shear stress-displacement curve of the DFN model under direct shear tests was presented to evaluate the failure processes of jointed rock. The results show that the peak and residual strength are sensitive to normal stress. A higher normal stress has a greater effect on the initiation and propagation of cracks. Additionally, an increase in the bond strength ratio results in an increase in the number of both shear and normal cracks. The friction coefficient was also found to have a significant influence on the shear strength and shear cracks. Increasing in the friction coefficient resulted in the decreasing in the initiation of normal cracks. The unique contribution of this paper is the proposed modeling technique to simulate the mechanical behavior of jointed rock mass based on particle mechanics approaches.

  10. Magnesite-bearing fracture zones of the Zlatibor ultrabasic massif (Serbia as a discrete structural-morphological type of magnesite deposits in ultrabasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a discrete structural-morphological type of magnesite deposits in ultrabasites, i.e., in magnesite-bearing fracture zones, is presented. The most prominent occurrences of such zones in Serbia are in the Zlatibor ultrabasic massif and they are economically very significant because they contain large reserves of high-quality magnesite, as well as of the accompanying sepiolite.

  11. Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation at the kISMET Site Using a Fully Coupled 3D Network-Flow and Quasi- Static Discrete Element Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Herb F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Haimson, Bezalel C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doe, Thomas W. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, VA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Aimed at supporting the design of hydraulic fracturing experiments at the kISMET site, ~1500 m below ground in a deep mine, we performed pre-experimental hydraulic fracturing simulations in order to estimate the breakdown pressure, propagation pressure, fracture geometry, and the magnitude of induced seismicity using a newly developed fully coupled three-dimensional (3D) network flow and quasi-static discrete element model (DEM). The quasi-static DEM model, which is constructed by Delaunay tessellation of the rock volume, considers rock fabric heterogeneities by using the “disordered” DEM mesh and adding random perturbations to the stiffness and tensile/shear strengths of individual DEM elements and the elastic beams between them. A conjugate 3D flow network based on the DEM lattice is constructed to calculate the fluid flow in both the fracture and porous matrix. One distinctive advantage of the model is that fracturing is naturally described by the breakage of elastic beams between DEM elements. It is also extremely convenient to introduce mechanical anisotropy into the model by simply assigning orientation-dependent tensile/shear strengths to the elastic beams. In this paper, the 3D hydraulic fracturing model was verified against the analytic solution for a penny-shaped crack model. We applied the model to simulate fracture propagation from a vertical open borehole based on initial estimates of rock mechanical properties and in-situ stress conditions. The breakdown pressure and propagation pressure are directly obtained from the simulation. In addition, the released elastic strain energies of individual fracturing events were calculated and used as a conservative estimate for the magnitudes of the potential induced seismic activities associated with fracturing. The comparisons between model predictions and experimental results are still ongoing.

  12. Discrete Fracture Network Modeling and Simulation of Subsurface Transport for the Topopah Springs and Lava Flow Aquifers at Pahute Mesa, FY 15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harrod, Jeremy Ashcraft [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This progress report for fiscal year 2015 (FY15) describes the development of discrete fracture network (DFN) models for Pahute Mesa. DFN models will be used to upscale parameters for simulations of subsurface flow and transport in fractured media in Pahute Mesa. The research focuses on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport using DFNs generated according to fracture characteristics observed in the Topopah Spring Aquifer (TSA) and the Lava Flow Aquifer (LFA). This work will improve the representation of radionuclide transport processes in large-scale, regulatory-focused models with a view to reduce pessimistic bounding approximations and provide more realistic contaminant boundary calculations that can be used to describe the future extent of contaminated groundwater. Our goal is to refine a modeling approach that can translate parameters to larger-scale models that account for local-scale flow and transport processes, which tend to attenuate migration.

  13. Tight gas reservoir simulation: Modeling discrete irregular strata-bound fracture network flow, including dynamic recharge from the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoy, M.L., Sams, W.N.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, has sponsored a project to simulate the behavior of tight, fractured, strata-bound gas reservoirs that arise from irregular discontinuous, or clustered networks of fractures. New FORTRAN codes have been developed to generate fracture networks, or simulate reservoir drainage/recharge, and to plot the fracture networks and reservoirs pressures. Ancillary codes assist with raw data analysis.

  14. A comprehensive model combining Laplace-transform finite-difference and boundary-element method for the flow behavior of a two-zone system with discrete fracture network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pin; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Xu, Zhongyi; Xue, Yongchao; Cao, Renyi; Ding, Guanyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive model for the flow behavior of a two-zone system with discrete fracture network. The discrete fracture network within the inner zone is represented explicitly by fracture segments. The Laplace-transform finite-difference method is used to numerically model discrete fracture network flow, with sufficient flexibility to consider arbitrary fracture geometries and conductivity distributions. Boundary-element method and line-source functions in the Laplace domain are employed to derive a semi-analytical flow solution for the two-zone system. By imposing the continuity of flux and pressure on discrete fracture surfaces, the semi-analytical two-zone system flow model and the numerical fracture flow model are coupled dynamically. The main advantage of the approach occurring in the Laplace domain is that simulation can be done with nodes only for discrete fractures and elements for boundaries and at predetermined, discrete times. Thus, stability and convergence problems caused by time discretization are avoided and the burden of gridding and computation is decreased without loss of important fracture characteristics. The model is validated by comparison with the results from an analytical solution and a fully numerical solution. Flow regime analysis shows that a two-zone system with discrete fracture network may develop six flow regimes: fracture linear flow, bilinear flow, inner zone linear flow, inner zone pseudosteady-state flow, outer zone pseudoradial flow and outer zone boundary-dominated flow. Especially, local solutions for the inner-zone linear flow have the same form with that of a finite conductivity planar fracture and can be correlated with the total length of discrete fractures and an intercept term. In the inner zone pseudosteady-state flow period, the discrete fractures, along with the boundary of the inner zone, will act as virtual closed boundaries, due to the pressure interference caused by fracture network and the

  15. Statistical properties of superimposed stationary spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Helias, Moritz; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The Poisson process is an often employed model for the activity of neuronal populations. It is known, though, that superpositions of realistic, non- Poisson spike trains are not in general Poisson processes, not even for large numbers of superimposed processes. Here we construct superimposed spike trains from intracellular in vivo recordings from rat neocortex neurons and compare their statistics to specific point process models. The constructed superimposed spike trains reveal strong deviations from the Poisson model. We find that superpositions of model spike trains that take the effective refractoriness of the neurons into account yield a much better description. A minimal model of this kind is the Poisson process with dead-time (PPD). For this process, and for superpositions thereof, we obtain analytical expressions for some second-order statistical quantities-like the count variability, inter-spike interval (ISI) variability and ISI correlations-and demonstrate the match with the in vivo data. We conclude that effective refractoriness is the key property that shapes the statistical properties of the superposition spike trains. We present new, efficient algorithms to generate superpositions of PPDs and of gamma processes that can be used to provide more realistic background input in simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Using these generators, we show in simulations that neurons which receive superimposed spike trains as input are highly sensitive for the statistical effects induced by neuronal refractoriness.

  16. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Superimposed with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann-Ling Chen

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: The most frequent causes of PNH-related fetomaternal morbidity and mortality are hemolysis and thrombosis. The situation becomes even more complicated when PNH is superimposed with preeclampsia. Appropriate clinical surveillance, awareness of the potential risks of hemolysis and thrombosis, as well as evaluation of fetal wellbeing are essential.

  17. POWER ALLOCATION OF DATA DEPENDENT SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Yuan Weina; Fan Pingzhi

    2008-01-01

    Data Dependent Superimposed Training (DDST) scheme outperforms the traditional superimposed training by fully canceling the effects of unknown data in channel estimator. In DDST,however,the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection or channel equalization performance are affected significantly by the amount of power allocated to data and superimposed training sequence,which is the motivation of this research. In general,for DDST,there is a tradeoff between the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection reliability,i.e.,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more reliable the data detection; on the other hand,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more demanding on the power consumption of training sequence,which in turn leads to the less reliable data detection. In this paper,the relationship between the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the data detector and the training sequence power is analyzed. The optimal power allocation of the training sequence is derived based on the criterion of maximizing SNR of the detector. Analysis and simulation results show that for a fixed transmit power,the SNR and the Symbol Error Rate (SER) of detector vary nonlinearly with the increasing of training sequence power,and there exists an optimal power ratio,which accords with the derived optimal power ratio,among the data and training sequence.

  18. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  19. Coupling analysis of unsteady seepage and stress fields in discrete fractures network of rock mass in dam foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The drag force of water flow through single fracture and the coupling characteristics of seepage and stress in single fracture surface are analyzed,and a three dimensional model of coupled unsteady seepage and stress fields is proposed.This model is used to the analysis of foundation rock mass of a high dam.If the coupling effects are considered,the changes of boundary heads have less influence on the inner head of rock mass,and the strong permeability of main fractures appears.If the coupling effects are not considered,the fractures distribution affects the inner head more greatly.When the upstream water head declines,the inner head of dam foundation slightly declines and the hydraulic gradient distribution becomes smoother.A bigger upstream water level declining velocity has a stronger lag effect,meanwhile the values of stress components change more greatly.Therefore the upstream water level declining velocity directly affects the stability of rock mass in dam foundation and we should take into account the above factors to make sure the safety of the dam during reservoir level fluctuation period.

  20. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  1. A Fundamental Approach to the Simulation of Flow and Dispersion in Fractured Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.

    1983-12-15

    Fracture systems may be generalized in terms of number and orientation of sets of parallel fractures and the distribution of length, width, thickness and separation. Borehole measurements may be used to particularize these parameters for a specific site. Global flow and dispersion in an aquifer occur in the interconnected fractures and may be related to specific fracture elements. A fluid dynamics code named SALE has been used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow in these elemental geometries. A marker particle calculation has been added to characterize longitudinal dispersion due to the velocity profile across the fracture and lateral dispersion due to flow disturbances at junctions. Local flow and dispersion in the matrix occur in the finer fracture structure and are evaluated using porous media approaches. These results or models are integrated in a 2D isothermal reservoir simulator named FRACSL. Discrete fractures are superimposed on the edges or diagnoals of rectangular grid elements. Water may flow from node to node through the matrix or through the fracture. The heads are found by iterating for the distribution which conserves the appropriate local mass. Marker particles are used to monitor the tracer dispersion due to motion in the fractures, in the matrix and between the two. Results are given showing flow and dispersion in an orthogonal junction and in a sample fractured reservoir.

  2. A comparative study of discrete fracture network and equivalent continuum models for simulating flow and transport in the far field of a hypothetical nuclear waste repository in crystalline host rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Teklu; Karra, Satish; Kalinina, Elena; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Klise, Katherine; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Wang, Yifeng

    2017-10-01

    One of the major challenges of simulating flow and transport in the far field of a geologic repository in crystalline host rock is related to reproducing the properties of the fracture network over the large volume of rock with sparse fracture characterization data. Various approaches have been developed to simulate flow and transport through the fractured rock. The approaches can be broadly divided into Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and Equivalent Continuum Model (ECM). The DFN explicitly represents individual fractures, while the ECM uses fracture properties to determine equivalent continuum parameters. We compare DFN and ECM in terms of upscaled observed transport properties through generic fracture networks. The major effort was directed on making the DFN and ECM approaches similar in their conceptual representations. This allows for separating differences related to the interpretation of the test conditions and parameters from the differences between the DFN and ECM approaches. The two models are compared using a benchmark test problem that is constructed to represent the far field (1 × 1 × 1 km3) of a hypothetical repository in fractured crystalline rock. The test problem setting uses generic fracture properties that can be expected in crystalline rocks. The models are compared in terms of the: 1) effective permeability of the domain, and 2) nonreactive solute breakthrough curves through the domain. The principal differences between the models are mesh size, network connectivity, matrix diffusion and anisotropy. We demonstrate how these differences affect the flow and transport. We identify the factors that should be taken in consideration when selecting an approach most suitable for the site-specific conditions.

  3. Linearly Time-Varying Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection for OFDMA Uplink Using Superimposed Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of superimposed trainings- (STs- based linearly time-varying (LTV channel estimation and symbol detection for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA systems at the uplink receiver. The LTV channel coefficients are modeled by truncated discrete Fourier bases (DFBs. By judiciously designing the superimposed pilot symbols, we estimate the LTV channel transfer functions over the whole frequency band by using a weighted average procedure, thereby providing validity for adaptive resource allocation. We also present a performance analysis of the channel estimation approach to derive a closed-form expression for the channel estimation variances. In addition, an iterative symbol detector is presented to mitigate the superimposed training effects on information sequence recovery. By the iterative mitigation procedure, the demodulator achieves a considerable gain in signal-interference ratio and exhibits a nearly indistinguishable symbol error rate (SER performance from that of frequency-division multiplexed trainings. Compared to existing frequency-division multiplexed training schemes, the proposed algorithm does not entail any additional bandwidth while with the advantage for system adaptive resource allocation.

  4. Discrete Fracture Network Characterization and Modeling in the Swedish Program for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Crystalline Rocks Using Information Acquired by Difference Flow Logging and Borehole Wall Image Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, S.; Stigsson, M.; Levén, J.

    2006-12-01

    Difference flow logging is a relatively new hydraulic test method. It offers a superior geometrical resolution compared to the classic double-packer injection test method. Other significant features of the difference flow logging method are the long duration of the test period and the line source flow regime. These three features are vital for the characterization and the modeling of the conductive fracture frequency in crystalline rocks. Further, combining difference flow logging with core mapping and in situ borehole wall image logging (BIPS) allows for an enhanced geological cross correlation and structural interpretation. The data and analyses presented here come from the ongoing site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in Forsmark managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. First, we demonstrate the statistical properties of the fracture transmissivities acquired by difference flow logging for a number of one-kilometer-long cored boreholes. Secondly, we make a hydraulic comparison between these data and the transmissivities acquired by double-packer injection tests. Thirdly, we present a method for investigating the geometrical connectivity of open fractures in fracture network simulations and how this connectivity can be cross correlated to the fracture transmissivity distribution acquired by difference flow logging. Finally, we discuss the geometrical properties of flowing fractures as acquired by BIPS data and the correlation to the current stress situation in Forsmark. The geometrical anisotropy observed in the transmissivity data suggests that the current stress situation is very important for the flow field in Forsmark. This puts constraints on the collection and use of geological/structural data for hydrogeological discrete fracture network modeling.

  5. Angiosarcoma of the Eyelid With Superimposed Enterobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Eric B; Agrawal, Megha; Diwan, A Hafeez; Winthrop, Kevin L; Marx, Douglas P

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant endothelial neoplasm with a variable clinical presentation. The authors describe a case of angiosarcoma involving the eyelid that was complicated by a superimposed Enterobacter infection. Following positive cultures for E. aerogenes and multiple biopsies suspicious but not definitive for angiosarcoma, a final biopsy was consistent with angiosarcoma.

  6. Tools to Detect Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; McCurley, Jessica; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Fick, Donna M.; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Lee, Patricia; Jackson, James C.; Shenkin, Susan D.; Trabucchi, Marco; Schnelle, John; Inouye, Sharon K.; Ely, Wesley E.; MacLullich, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium commonly occurs in patients with dementia. Though several tools for detecting delirium exist, it is unclear which are valid in patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Objectives Identify valid tools to diagnose delirium superimposed on dementia Design We performed a systematic review of studies of delirium tools, which explicitly included patients with dementia. Setting In-hospital patients Participants Studies were included if delirium assessment tools were validated against standard criteria, and the presence of dementia was assessed according to standard criteria that used validated instruments. Measurements PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles in English published between January 1960 and January 2012. Results Nine studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Of the total of 1569 patients, 401 had dementia, and 50 had delirium superimposed on dementia. Six delirium tools were evaluated. One studyusing the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) with 85% patients with dementia showed a high specificity (96–100%) and moderate sensitivity (77%).Two intensive care unit studies that used the CAM for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) ICU reported 100% sensitivity and specificity for delirium among 23 dementia patients. One study using electroencephalography reported a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 91% among a population with 100% prevalence of dementia. No studies examined potential effects of dementia severity or subtype upon diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions The evidence base on tools for detection of delirium superimposed on dementia is limited, although some existing tools show promise. Further studies of existing or refined tools with larger samples and more detailed characterization of dementia are now required to address the identification of delirium superimposed on dementia. PMID:23039270

  7. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  8. Shear flow analyses for polymer melt extruding under superimposed vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue-jun; FAN Shu-hong; SHI Pu

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of a vibration force field has a profound influence on the polymer formation process.However, its formation mechanism has not been explored until now. With the application of experimental equipment designed by the authors named "Constant Velocity Type Dynamic Rheometer of Capillary" or (CVDRC),we were able to analyze in detail the whole extrusion process of a polymer melt. We did this after superimposing a sine vibration of small amplitude parallel to the extruding direction of the polymer melt. Then, we created a calculation model to determine the shear stress at the wall of the capillary using a superimposed vibration. We also determined the calculation steps needed to establish the afore-mentioned shear stress. Through measurement and analysis, the instantaneous entry pressure of the capillary, the pressure gradient, and the shear stress of the polymer melt within the capillary under vibration force field can be calculated.

  9. Artistic creation as stimulated by superimposed versus separated visual images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, R S; Rothenberg, A

    1980-11-01

    An experiment was performed to examine the role of homospatial thinking in visual art. Each of 43 university-level art students produced three drawing stimulated by pairs of slides. Subjects were randomly assigned to view the pairs either superimposed on one another or separated on the screen. Drawings were independently judged by two internationally noted artists. As predicted, drawings containing an element from each component image intermingled were higher in creative potential when stimulated by the superimposed presentation; however, when sketches from either condition did not clearly contain images from both slides, the separated image presentation yielded the more creative result. Although results favor the hypothesis in part, the overall ambiguity of the data illustrates some of the difficulties in studying creative thought processes under experimental conditions.

  10. One-DOF Superimposed Rigid Origami with Multiple States

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Liu; Gattas, Joseph M.; Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Origami-inspired engineering design is increasingly used in the development of self-folding structures. The majority of existing self-folding structures either use a bespoke crease pattern to form a single structure, or a universal crease pattern capable of forming numerous structures with multiple folding steps. This paper presents a new approach whereby multiple distinct, rigid-foldable crease patterns are superimposed in the same sheet such that kinematic independence and 1-DOF mobility of...

  11. Recrystallization microstructure modelling from superimposed deformed microstructure on microstructure model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prantik Mukhopadhyay

    2009-08-01

    The recovered cold rolled microstructure obtained from orientation image microstructure of Al–4%Mg–0.5%Mn alloy (AA5182 alloy) was superimposed on the grid of cellular automata based microstructure model. The Taylor factors of deformed/cold rolled orientations were considered as the driving force for recrystallization. The local development of recrystallized microstructure and texture were simulated with orientation dependent grain boundary mobility and compared with the experimental results.

  12. 高速电弧喷涂枪结构优化的有限元模拟%Analysis of Fracture Failure Mechanism of Asphalt Mixture Based on the Discrete Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永雄; 梁秀兵; 刘燕; 程江波; 徐滨士

    2011-01-01

    采用有限元法模拟了高速电弧喷涂枪二维气流场的分布.通过计算比较了收缩型和缩扩型喷管的流场差异,同时分析了不同的丝材夹角、丝交点离喷管出口距离等喷枪结构参数下喷枪气流场行为.结果显示,缩扩型喷管更有利于熔滴的雾化,丝交点离喷管出口距离减小至0、丝夹角为40°时更有利于熔滴的加速.基于以上模拟结果,优化设计了一种新型的高速电弧喷涂枪.喷涂粒子的形貌实验表明,新型喷枪的雾化粒子粒度比原始喷枪更细、分布更均匀.%In order to investigate fracture failure mechanism of asphalt mixture from micro-structure, probability method has been used to present a theoretical formula which develops to convert the aggregate weight gradation into the two-dimension (2D) quantity gradation. Two 2D digital specimens with different thicknesses of asphalt films are generated based on particle generation algorithm. Based on the discrete element method, the fracture process of asphalt mixture beam has been simulated and the effect of asphalt film thickness, cohesive strength of asphalt mastics and adhesive strength between asphalt mastic and aggregate on the fracture failure of asphalt mixture has been also investigated. The results show that the cracking has the tendency to occur in asphalt mastics for asphalt mixture with thick asphalt films and the cohesive strength of asphalt mastics has a great influence on fracture failure of this type mixture. For asphalt mixture with thin films, the early cracking often appears in asphalt mastics and propagation of cracking occurs at the interface between aggregates and mastics. Fracture initiation is dominated by the cohesive strength of asphalt mastics and propagation of cracking is controlled by adhesive strength between asphalt mastic and aggregate for mixture with thin films.

  13. Numerical Investigations on the Influence of Superimposed Double-Sided Pressure on the Formability of Biaxially Stretched AA6111-T4 Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguang; Wang, Zhongjin; Meng, Qingyuan

    2012-04-01

    Lightweight materials have been widely used in aerospace, automobile industries to meet the requirement of structural weight reduction. Due to their limited plasticity at room temperature, however, lightweight materials always exhibit distinctly poor forming capability in comparison with conventional deep drawing steels. Based on the phenomenon that the superimposed hydrostatic pressure can improve the plasticity of metal, many kinds of double-sided pressure forming processes have been proposed. In the present study, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model combined with finite element method is used to investigate the influence of double-sided pressure on the deformation behavior of biaxially stretched AA6111-T4 sheet metal, including nucleation and growth of microvoids, evaluation of stress triaxiality, and so forth. The Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) localized necking model is used to predict the right-hand side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) of sheet metal under superimposed double-sided pressure. It is found that the superimposed double-sided pressure has no obvious effect on the nucleation of microvoids. However, the superimposed double-sided pressure can suppress the growth and coalescence of microvoids. The forming limit curve (FLC) of the biaxially stretched AA6111-T4 sheet metal under the superimposed double-sided pressure is improved and the fracture locus shifts to the left. Furthermore, the formability increase value is sensitive to the strain path.

  14. Discrete Breathers

    CERN Document Server

    Flach, S

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear classical Hamiltonian lattices exhibit generic solutions in the form of discrete breathers. These solutions are time-periodic and (typically exponentially) localized in space. The lattices exhibit discrete translational symmetry. Discrete breathers are not confined to certain lattice dimensions. Necessary ingredients for their occurence are the existence of upper bounds on the phonon spectrum (of small fluctuations around the groundstate) of the system as well as the nonlinearity in the differential equations. We will present existence proofs, formulate necessary existence conditions, and discuss structural stability of discrete breathers. The following results will be also discussed: the creation of breathers through tangent bifurcation of band edge plane waves; dynamical stability; details of the spatial decay; numerical methods of obtaining breathers; interaction of breathers with phonons and electrons; movability; influence of the lattice dimension on discrete breather properties; quantum lattic...

  15. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  16. Discrete Stein characterizations and discrete information distances

    CERN Document Server

    Ley, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We construct two different Stein characterizations of discrete distributions and use these to provide a natural connection between Stein characterizations for discrete distributions and discrete information functionals.

  17. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  18. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  19. Ballistic annihilation with superimposed diffusion in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soham; Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, Francois

    2016-02-01

    We consider a one-dimensional system with particles having either positive or negative velocity, and these particles annihilate on contact. Diffusion is superimposed on the ballistic motion of the particle. The annihilation may represent a reaction in which the two particles yield an inert species. This model has been the subject of previous work, in which it was shown that the particle concentration decays faster than either the purely ballistic or the purely diffusive case. We report on previously unnoticed behavior for large times when only one of the two species remains, and we also unravel the underlying fractal structure present in the system. We also consider in detail the case in which the initial concentration of right-going particles is 1/2+ɛ, with ɛ≠0. It is shown that remarkably rich behavior arises, in which two crossover times are observed as ɛ→0.

  20. One-DOF Superimposed Rigid Origami with Multiple States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Gattas, Joseph M.; Chen, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Origami-inspired engineering design is increasingly used in the development of self-folding structures. The majority of existing self-folding structures either use a bespoke crease pattern to form a single structure, or a universal crease pattern capable of forming numerous structures with multiple folding steps. This paper presents a new approach whereby multiple distinct, rigid-foldable crease patterns are superimposed in the same sheet such that kinematic independence and 1-DOF mobility of each individual pattern is preserved. This is enabled by the cross-crease vertex, a special configuration consisting of two pairs of collinear crease lines, which is proven here by means of a kinematic analysis to contain two independent 1-DOF rigid-foldable states. This enables many new origami-inspired engineering design possibilities, with two explored in depth: the compact folding of non-flat-foldable structures and sequent folding origami that can transform between multiple states without unfolding.

  1. Electronically reconfigurable superimposed waveguide long-period gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulishov, Mykola; Daxhelet, Xavier; Gaidi, Mounir; Chaker, Mohamed

    2002-08-01

    The perturbation to the refractive index induced by a periodic electric field from two systems of interdigitated electrodes with the electrode-finger period l is analyzed for a waveguide with an electro-optically (EO) active core-cladding. It is shown that the electric field induces two superimposed transmissive refractive-index gratings with different symmetries of their cross-section distributions. One of these gratings has a constant component of an EO-induced refractive index along with its variable component with periodicity l, whereas the second grating possesses only a variable component with periodicity 2l. With the proper waveguide design, the gratings provide interaction between a guided fundamental core mode and two guided cladding modes. Through the externally applied electric potential, these gratings can be independently switched ON and OFF, or they can be activated simultaneously with electronically controlled weighting factors. Coupling coefficients of both gratings are analyzed in terms of their dependence on the electrode duty ratio and dielectric permittivities of the core and cladding. The coupled-wave equations for the superimposed gratings are written and solved. The spectral characteristics are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the spectral characteristics are described by a dual-dip transmission spectrum with individual electronic control of the dip depths and positions. Within the concept, a new external potential application scheme is described in which the symmetry of the cross-sectional distribution of the refractive index provides coupling only between the core mode and the cladding modes, preventing interaction of the cladding modes with each another. This simple concept opens opportunities for developing a number of tunable devices for integrated optics by use of the proposed design as a building block.

  2. Discrete Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Waelbroeck, H

    1999-01-01

    We propose a theory of deterministic chaos for discrete systems, based on their representations in symbolic history spaces Ømega. These are spaces of semi-infinite sequences, as the one-sided shift spaces, but endowed with a more general topology which we call a semicausal topology. We show that define metrical properties, including the correlation dimension of the attractor. Examples are considered: Asymmetric neural networks and random cellular automata are not chaotic. A neural network model with memory, on the other hand, does appear to be an example of discrete chaos.

  3. Discrete mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  4. Territorial discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hernández Vidal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen the concept of municipal autonomy, this essay proposes an extensive interpretation of administrative discretion. Discretion is the exercise of free judgment given by law to authorities for performing official acts. This legislative technique seems to be suitable whenever the legislative is intended to legislate over the essential core of municipal autonomy. This way, an eventual abuse of that autonomy could be avoided, for the disproportional restriction of the local faculty to oversee the local issues. This alternative is presented as a tool to provide with dynamism the performing of administrative activities as well, aiming to assimilate public administration new practices.

  5. Dunes morphologies and superimposed bedforms in a cellular automaton dune model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Narteau, C.; Rozier, O.; Claudin, P.

    2009-04-01

    We use a new 3D cellular automaton model for bedform dynamics in which individual physical processes such as erosion, deposition and transport are implemented by nearest neighbor interactions and a time-dependent stochastic process. Simultaneously, a lattice gas cellular automaton model is used to compute the flow and quantify the bed shear stress on the topography. Local erosion rates are taken proportional to the shear stress in such a way that there is a complete feedback mechanism between flow and bedform dynamics. In the numerical simulations of dune fields, we observe the formation and the evolution of barchan, transverse, longitudinal and star dunes. For all these types of dunes, we observe the emergence of superimposed bedforms when dunes are large enough. Then, we use the same model under different initial conditions, and we perform the linear stability analysis of a flat sand bed disturbed by a small sinusoidal perturbation. Comparing the most unstable wavelength in the model with the characteristic size of secondary bedforms in nature, we determine the length and time scales of our cellular automaton model. Thus, we establish a link between discrete and continuous approaches and open new perspectives for modeling and quantification of complex patterns in dune fields.

  6. Analysis of Fracture Failure Mechanism of Asphalt Mixture Based on the Discrete Element Method%基于离散元方法的沥青混凝土断裂机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 黄晓明

    2011-01-01

    为了从细观角度深入分析沥青混凝土的断裂机理,根据概率理论,建立了集料质量级配与二维数量级配的关系,并通过计算机随机投放技术生成了具有2种不同沥青膜厚度的沥青混合料二维数字试件;利用离散元方法,模拟了沥青混合料小梁试件的断裂过程,分析了沥青砂浆抗拉强度、砂浆与集料黏结强度和沥青膜厚度对沥青混合料断裂过程的影响.结果表明:对于沥青膜较厚的沥青混合料而言,起裂阶段和扩展阶段的裂纹主要出现在沥青砂浆中,沥青砂浆的抗拉强度是影响混合料断裂的主要因素;当沥青膜较薄时,起裂和扩展阶段的裂纹在沥青砂浆内部和砂浆与集料界面中都有发现,砂浆抗拉强度决定着混合料的破坏应力和应变,砂浆与集料的黏结强度决定着混合料裂纹扩展的速率.%In order to investigate fracture failure mechanism of asphalt mixture from micro-structure, probability method has been used to present a theoretical formula which develops to convert the aggregate weight gradation into the two-dimension (2D) quantity gradation. Two 2D digital specimens with different thicknesses of asphalt films are generated based on particle generation algorithm. Based on the discrete element method, the fracture process of asphalt mixture beam has been simulated and the effect of asphalt film thickness, cohesive strength of asphalt mastics and adhesive strength between asphalt mastic and aggregate on the fracture failure of asphalt mix ture has been also investigated. The results show that the cracking has the tendency to occur in asphalt mastics for asphalt mixture with thick asphalt films and the cohesive strength of asphalt mastics has a great influence on fracture failure of this type mixture. For asphalt mixture with thin films, the early cracking often appears in as phalt mastics and propagation of cracking occurs at the interface between aggregates and mastics

  7. Superimposed Pristine Limestone Aquifers with Marked Hydrochemical Differences Exhibit Distinct Fungal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; Purahong, Witoon; Lehmann, Robert; Herrmann, Martina; Küsel, Kirsten; Totsche, Kai U.; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are one important group of eukaryotic microorganisms in a diverse range of ecosystems, but their diversity in groundwater ecosystems is largely unknown. We used DNA-based pyro-tag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA gene to investigate the presence and community structure of fungi at different sampling sites of two superimposed limestone aquifers ranging from 8.5 to 84 m depth in the newly established Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Hainich CZE). We detected a diversity of fungal OTUs in groundwater samples of all sampling sites. The relative percentage abundance of Basidiomycota was higher in the upper aquifer assemblage, whilst Ascomycota dominated the lower one. In parallel to differences in the hydrochemistry we found distinct fungal communities at all sampling sites. Classification into functional groups revealed an overwhelming majority of saprotrophs. Finding taxa common to all analyzed groundwater sites, point to a groundwater specific fungal microbiome. The presence of different functional groups and, in particular plant and cattle pathogens that are not typical of subsurface habitats, suggests links between the surface and subsurface biogeosphere due to rapid transportation across the fracture networks typical of karstic regions during recharge episodes. However, further studies including sampling series extended in both time and space are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27242696

  8. Analyses and Measures of GPR Signal with Superimposed Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicarella, Simone; Ferrara, Vincenzo; D'Atanasio, Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara; Pavoncello, Settimio; Prontera, Santo; Tedeschi, Nicola; Zambotti, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The influence of EM noises and environmental hard conditions on the GPR surveys has been examined analytically [1]. In the case of pulse radar GPR, many unwanted signals as stationary clutter, non-stationary clutter, random noise, and time jitter, influence the measurement signal. When GPR is motionless, stationary clutter is the most dominant signal component due to the reflections of static objects different from the investigated target, and to the direct antenna coupling. Moving objects like e.g. persons and vehicles, and the swaying of tree crown, produce non-stationary clutter. Device internal noise and narrowband jamming are e.g. two potential sources of random noises. Finally, trigger instabilities generate random jitter. In order to estimate the effective influence of these noise signal components, we organized some experimental setup of measurement. At first, we evaluated for the case of a GPR basic detection, simpler image processing of radargram. In the future, we foresee experimental measurements for detection of the Doppler frequency changes induced by movements of targets (like physiological movements of survivors under debris). We obtain image processing of radargram by using of GSSI SIR® 2000 GPR system together with the UWB UHF GPR-antenna (SUB-ECHO HBD 300, a model manufactured by Radarteam company). Our work includes both characterization of GPR signal without (or almost without) a superimposed noise, and the effect of jamming originated from the coexistence of a different radio signal. For characterizing GPR signal, we organized a measurement setup that includes the following instruments: mod. FSP 30 spectrum analyser by Rohde & Schwarz which operates in the frequency range 9 KHz - 30 GHz, mod. Sucoflex 104 cable by Huber Suhner (10 MHz - 18 GHz), and HL050 antenna by Rohde & Schwarz (bandwidth: from 850 MHz to 26.5 GHz). The next analysis of superimposed jamming will examine two different signal sources: by a cellular phone and by a

  9. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-04-12

    Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

  10. Nursing care for people with delirium superimposed on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Claire; Clarke, Amanda

    2017-03-31

    Nursing and healthcare is changing in response to an ageing population. There is a renewed need for holistic nursing to provide clinically competent, appropriate and timely care for patients who may present with inextricably linked mental and physical health requirements. This article explores the dichotomy in healthcare provision for 'physical' and 'mental' health, and the unique role nurses have when caring for people with delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). Delirium is prevalent in older people and recognised as 'acute brain failure'. As an acute change in cognition, it presents a unique challenge when occurring in a person with dementia and poses a significant risk of mortality. In this article, dementia is contrasted with delirium and subtypes of delirium presentation are discussed. Nurses can recognise DSD through history gathering, implementation of appropriate care and effective communication with families and the multidisciplinary team. A simple mnemonic called PINCH ME (Pain, INfection, Constipation, deHydration, Medication, Environment) can help identify potential underlying causes of DSD and considerations for care planning. The mnemonic can easily be adapted to different clinical settings and a fictitious scenario is presented to show its application in practice.

  11. Topological impact of constrained fracture growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Mongstad Hope

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The topology of two discrete fracture network models is compared to investigate the impact of constrained fracture growth. In the Poissonian discrete fracture network model the fractures are assigned length, position and orientation independent of all other fractures, while in the mechanical discrete fracture network model the fractures grow and the growth can be limited by the presence of other fractures. The topology is found to be impacted by both the choice of model, as well as the choice of rules for the mechanical model. A significant difference is the degree mixing. In two dimensions the Poissonian model results in assortative networks, while the mechanical model results in disassortative networks. In three dimensions both models produce disassortative networks, but the disassortative mixing is strongest for the mechanical model.

  12. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    examples on regular languages. Apply these concepts to new problems. Finite state machines: Define a finite state machine as a 6-tuble; describe simple finite state machines by tables and graphs; pattern recognition by finite state machines; minimizing the number of states in a finite state machine......The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... of natural numbers. Apply these concepts to new problems. Division and factorizing: Define a prime number and apply Euclid´s algorithm for factorizing an integer. Regular languages: Define a language from the elements of a set; define a regular language; form strings from a regular language; construct...

  13. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered.

  14. Simulation of Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Interaction Using a Coupled DFN-DEM Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Zhou; H. Huang; M. Deo

    2016-03-01

    The presence of natural fractures will usually result in a complex fracture network due to the interactions between hydraulic and natural fracture. The reactivation of natural fractures can generally provide additional flow paths from formation to wellbore which play a crucial role in improving the hydrocarbon recovery in these ultra-low permeability reservoir. Thus, accurate description of the geometry of discrete fractures and bedding is highly desired for accurate flow and production predictions. Compared to conventional continuum models that implicitly represent the discrete feature, Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models could realistically model the connectivity of discontinuities at both reservoir scale and well scale. In this work, a new hybrid numerical model that couples Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and Dual-Lattice Discrete Element Method (DL-DEM) is proposed to investigate the interaction between hydraulic fracture and natural fractures. Based on the proposed model, the effects of natural fracture orientation, density and injection properties on hydraulic-natural fractures interaction are investigated.

  15. Risk Factors of Superimposed Preeclampsia in Women with Essential Chronic Hypertension Treated before Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia in women with essential chronic hypertension receiving antihypertensive therapy prior to conception. METHODS: A retrospective study of 211 patients that analyzed risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia at first prenatal visit. Variables with a p

  16. 16 CFR 300.27 - Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool products containing superimposed or added fibers. 300.27 Section 300.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.27 Wool products containing superimposed...

  17. Fractures in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Siyi

    theory and experimental results in this report demonstrate that the presence of fractures in anisotropic material can be unambiguously interpreted if experimental measurements are made as a function of stress, which eliminates many fracture-generated discrete modes (e.g., interface waves, and leaky guided-modes). Orthogonal fracture networks that are often encountered in field exploration bring in additional challenges for seismic/acoustic data interpretation. An innovative wavefront imaging system with a bi-axial load frame was designed and implemented on orthogonally-fractured samples to determine the effect of fracture networks on elastic wave propagation. The effects of central wave guiding and extra time delays along a fracture intersection were observed in experiments and was analyzed. Interpreting data from media with intersecting fracture sets must account for fracture intersections and the non-uniformity of fracture properties caused by local tectonic conditions or other physical process such as non-uniform fluid distributions within a network and/or chemical alterations.

  18. Fracture imaging with converted elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

    2001-05-29

    This paper examines the seismic signatures of discrete, finite-length fractures, and outlines an approach for elastic, prestack reverse-time imaging of discrete fractures. The results of this study highlight the importance of incorporating fracture-generated P-S converted waves into the imaging method, and presents an alternate imaging condition that can be used in elastic reverse-time imaging when a direct wave is recorded (e.g., for crosswell and VSP acquisition geometries).

  19. Angiogenic factors in superimposed preeclampsia: a longitudinal study of women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Uma; Sison, Cristina; Sharma, Vijay; Helseth, Geri; Hawfield, Amret; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; August, Phyllis

    2012-03-01

    Imbalances in circulating angiogenic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. To characterize levels of angiogenic factors in pregnant women with chronic hypertension, we prospectively followed 109 women and measured soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), soluble endoglin, and placental growth factor at 12, 20, 28, and 36 weeks' gestation and postpartum. Superimposed preeclampsia developed in 37 (34%) and was early onset (hypertension. We conclude that alterations in angiogenic factors are detectable before and at the time of clinical diagnosis of early onset superimposed preeclampsia, whereas alterations were observed only at the time of diagnosis in women with late-onset superimposed preeclampsia. Longitudinal measurements of angiogenic factors may help anticipate early onset superimposed preeclampsia and facilitate diagnosis of superimposed preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension.

  20. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  1. 基于离散裂隙网络模型的节理岩体渗透张量及特性分析%Permeability tensor and seepage properties for jointed rock masses based on discrete fracture network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培涛; 杨天鸿; 于庆磊; 刘洪磊; 夏冬; 张鹏海

    2013-01-01

    节理岩体几何结构非常复杂,研究其渗流特性对于指导含水岩层稳定性分析具有重要价值。应用离散裂隙网络模型DFN方法,基于VC++6.0软件平台,建立了平面渗流分析方法,分析了节理岩体不同几何分布情况下的渗透率张量特征,通过定义渗流定向性系数对岩体渗流的定向性特征进行了定量分析。结果表明:单组节理岩体渗流具有明显的各向异性特征,渗流定向性随着节理角度变化显著;节理随着节理贯通性增加,节理渗透率呈现对数增加趋势;两组节理情况下,各向异性特征随着节理组间夹角变化;两组节理岩体渗流特征研究中,正交分布下,岩体仍存在各向异性,但渗流定向性系数较低;当节理倾角服从正态分布时,随着节理倾角标准差增大,渗透率增加;两组节理夹角不同时,节理渗透主方向倾角随着夹角增大而相应增大,基本沿两组节理夹角方向的角平分线方向。%Joint systems in rock masses are geometrically complex; and investigation of the hydraulic properties is important for understanding the hydraulic behavior of jointed rock masses and stability analysis of rock engineering. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model was designed using C++language based on VC++6.0 platform to realize a fracture network for seepage analysis. The permeability coefficients, possibility of equivalent permeability tensors of the jointed rock masses were examined by simulating flow through DFN models of varying joint properties. A directionality coefficient was defined to quantitatively assess the principal flow direction in jointed rock masses. The results show that the permeability coefficients are anisotropic according to permeability tensor analysis for rock masses with only one set of joints. The degree of obliquities of joint plane affects obviously the principal direction of permeability. The permeability coefficients

  2. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    2008-06-15

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this

  3. A numerical approach for pressure transient analysis of a vertical well with complex fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhao Wan; Yuewu Liu; Wenchao Liu; Guofeng Han; Congcong Niu

    2016-01-01

    A new well test model for a vertical fractured well is developed based on a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional (1-D) entities. The model overcomes the weakness of complex meshing, a large number of grids, and instability in conventional stripe-fracture models. Then, the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a hybrid element finite-element method. Triangular elements are used for matrix and line elements for the fractures. The finite element formulation is validated by comparing with the semi-analytical solution of a single ver-tical fractured well. The accuracy of the approach is shown through several examples with different fracture apertures, fracture conductivity, and fracture amount. Results from the discrete-fracture model agree reasonably well with the stripe-fracture model and the analytic solutions. The advantages of the discrete-fracture model are presented in mesh gen-eration, computational improvement, and abilities to handle complex fractures like wedge-shaped fractures and fractures with branches. Analytical results show that the number of grids in the discrete-fracture model is 10%less than stripe-fracture model, and computational efficiency increases by about 50%. The more fractures there are, the more the com-putational efficiency increases.

  4. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  5. Monitoring of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process with superimposed Fiber-Bragg-gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triollet, S.; Robert, L.; Marin, E.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2011-05-01

    We report the instrumentation of a manufacturing composite process using an optical fiber sensor based on Bragg gratings. The sensor is made of superimposed Long Period (LPG) and short period (FBG) Bragg gratings written in the same fiber section. The monitoring of the process needs simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain. It has been shown that these two solicitations can be determined and discriminated with a superimposed FBG/LPG sensor [1]. In this paper we present the device based on the dual superimposed gratings. The sensor is embedded in a composite specimen manufactured by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) process for monitoring purpose.

  6. Diagnostic dilemma: osteopetrosis with superimposed rickets causing neonatal hypocalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaç, Asburçe; Tümer, Leyla; Boyunağa, Öznur; Kızılkaya, Metehan; Hasanoğlu, Alev

    2015-04-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic condition of reduced osteoclastic bone resorption which causes defective bone remodeling and skeletal sclerosis during growth, having effects on many organs and tissues. Mutation of T-cell immune regulator 1 (TCRG1) gene is the most common genetic defect leading to osteopetrosis, with poor prognosis. The autosomal recessive form presents in the infantile period (also known as malignant infantile osteopetrosis--MIOP), and is characterized by fractures, short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, compressive neuropathies, hypocalcemia and pancytopenia. Being a rare disease with non-specific clinical manifestations, the diagnosis is difficult and usually delayed. Rickets is a characteristic feature of MIOP which results from the defect in osteoclasts to provide a normal Ca/P balance resulting in the poor mineralization of the osteoid. Various treatment options have been suggested for osteopetrosis, but hematopoietic stem cell transplantation still remains the only curative treatment option presently. The authors report the case of a 46-day-old girl with late-onset neonatal hypocalcemia and rickets that was later diagnosed as osteopetrosis. This case report emphasizes that infantile osteopetrosis is an important cause of neonatal hypocalcemia. As irreversible complications develop within the first months of life, immediate diagnosis and early intervention are crucial and may be life-saving.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Sequence Characteristics among Different Superimposed Stages of the Chelif Basin, Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuanfu; JIANG Zaixing; WANG Yue; BAO Dandan

    2009-01-01

    Superimposed basins were investigated with respect to tectonic evolution, sediment deposition and petroleum characteristics within a single superposition stage generally. The comparative study was seldom seen. Sequence characteristics were compared for two different superimposed stages-an expanding rifting stage and a depression-foreland transition stage-in the Chelif Basin during the Miocene in this paper. A model and mechanism for sequence evolution of superimposed basins in different dynamic situations are discussed with respect to sequence similarities and differences. The compared characters include sequence thickness, sequence boundaries and system tracts, as well as sediment deposition within sequences and sequence development patterns. Finally, some typical features of sequence development concomitant with changes of superimposed stages in the Chelif Basin are discussed.

  8. Superimposing of virtual graphics and real image based on 3D CAD information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Proposes methods of transforming 3D CAD models into 2D graphics and recognizing 3D objects by features and superimposing VE built in computer onto real image taken by a CCD camera, and presents computer simulation results.

  9. Modelling stress-dependent permeability in fractured rock including effects of propagating and bending fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latham, J.P.; Xiang, J.; Belayneh, M.; Nick, H.M.; Tsang, C.F.; Blunt, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of in-situ stresses on flow processes in fractured rock is investigated using a novel modelling approach. The combined finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) is used to model the deformation of a fractured rock mass. The fracture wall displacements and aperture changes are modelled in

  10. Discretization of topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Massoud; Golestani, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    There are several compactification procedures in topology, but there is only one standard discretization, namely, replacing the original topology with the discrete topology. We give a notion of discretization which is dual (in categorical sense) to compactification and give examples of discretizations. Especially, a discretization functor from the category of $\\alpha$-scattered Stonean spaces to the category of discrete spaces is constructed which is the converse of the Stone-\\v{C}ech compact...

  11. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-06-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.

  12. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    clamp with a final 30 min of superimposed two-legged exercise at 70% of individual maximal heart rate. With superimposed exercise, leg glucose extraction decreased (P exercise, leg......Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle...... +/- 8, DM: 70 +/- 10 ml. min(-1). kg leg(-1)) compared with UT (H: 63 +/- 8, DM: 45 +/- 7 ml. min(-1). kg leg(-1)) but not different between groups (P > 0.05). From these results it can be concluded that, in both diabetic and healthy aged muscle, exercise adds to a maximally insulin-stimulated glucose...

  13. Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Hip fracture By Mayo Clinic Staff A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age. Older people are at a ...

  14. A general gridding, discretization, and coarsening methodology for modeling flow in porous formations with discrete geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive framework for modeling flow in porous media containing thin, discrete features, which could be high-permeability fractures or low-permeability deformation bands, is presented. The key steps of the methodology are mesh generation, fine-grid discretization, upscaling, and coarse-grid discretization. Our specialized gridding technique combines a set of intersecting triangulated surfaces by constructing approximate intersections using existing edges. This procedure creates a conforming mesh of all surfaces, which defines the internal boundaries for the volumetric mesh. The flow equations are discretized on this conforming fine mesh using an optimized two-point flux finite-volume approximation. The resulting discrete model is represented by a list of control-volumes with associated positions and pore-volumes, and a list of cell-to-cell connections with associated transmissibilities. Coarse models are then constructed by the aggregation of fine-grid cells, and the transmissibilities between adjacent coarse cells are obtained using flow-based upscaling procedures. Through appropriate computation of fracture-matrix transmissibilities, a dual-continuum representation is obtained on the coarse scale in regions with connected fracture networks. The fine and coarse discrete models generated within the framework are compatible with any connectivity-based simulator. The applicability of the methodology is illustrated for several two- and three-dimensional examples. In particular, we consider gas production from naturally fractured low-permeability formations, and transport through complex fracture networks. In all cases, highly accurate solutions are obtained with significant model reduction.

  15. Observations of superimposed ice formation at melt-onset on fast ice on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Haas, Christian; Bareiss, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of superimposed ice formation and snow properties as a function of the surface energy balance during melt-onset are presented. They were performed on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, between late May and early June 2002. Rapid snow melt commenced and within 5 days the snow cover initially 0.23 m thick transformed completely into 0.05 m to 0.06 m of superimposed ice. Melt-onset was characterized by rapid changes in the total energy balance, which became positive throughout the whole day af...

  16. Groupoids, Discrete Mechanics, and Discrete Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jia-Feng; JIA Xiao-Yu; WU Ke; ZHAO Wei-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    After introducing some of the basic definitions and results from the theory of groupoid and Lie algebroid,we investigate the discrete Lagrangian mechanics from the viewpoint of groupoid theory and give the connection between groupoids variation and the methods of the first and second discrete variational principles.

  17. On discrete cosine transform

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

  18. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  19. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  20. Discrete mathematics, discrete physics and numerical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Iavernaro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrete mathematics has been neglected for a long time. It has been put in the shade by the striking success of continuous mathematics in the last two centuries, mainly because continuous models in physics proved very reliable, but also because of the greater difficulty in dealing with it. This perspective has been rapidly changing in the last years owing to the needs of the numerical analysis and, more recently, of the so called discrete physics. In this paper, starting from some sentences of Fichera about discrete and continuous world, we shall present some considerations about discrete phenomena which arise when designing numerical methods or discrete models for some classical physical problems.

  1. 16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products containing... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.23 Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. Where a textile...

  2. Chronic hypertension superimposed on preeclampsia at 13 gestational weeks: a case report with review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-chun; SUN Yu; YANG Hui-xia

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is represented by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy.It usually occurs after 20 gestational weeks.There are few reports on preeclampsia before 20 gestational weeks.In this case,we report a patient with chronic hypertension superimposed with preeclampsia at 13 gestational weeks.

  3. Superimposed Pilots Are Superior for Mitigating Pilot Contamination in Massive MIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Karthik; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.; Vehkapera, Mikko

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, superimposed pilots are introduced as an alternative to time-multiplexed pilot and data symbols for mitigating pilot contamination in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We propose a non-iterative scheme for uplink channel estimation based on superimposed pilots and derive an expression for the uplink signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the output of a matched filter employing this channel estimate. Based on this expression, we observe that power control is essential when superimposed pilots are employed. Moreover, the quality of the channel estimate can be improved by reducing the interference that results from transmitting data alongside the pilots, and an intuitive iterative data-aided scheme that reduces this component of interference is also proposed. Approximate expressions for the uplink SINR are provided for the iterative data-aided method as well. In addition, we show that a hybrid system with users utilizing both time-multiplexed and superimposed pilots is superior to an optimally designed system that employs only time-multiplexed pilots, even when the non-iterative channel estimate is used to build the detector and precoder. We also describe a simple approach to implement this hybrid system by minimizing the overall inter and intra-cell interference. Numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of the proposed channel estimation schemes and the superiority of the hybrid system are also provided.

  4. Randomization of Symbol Repetition of Punch Cards with Superimposed Coding in Information-Search Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovich, L. Ya

    The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…

  5. Late-Stage Reservoir Formation Effect and Its Dynamic Mechanisms in Complex Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Dejiang; PANG Xiongqi; KUANG Jun; LUO Xiaorong; PANG Hong; LEI Lei

    2010-01-01

    Complex superimposed basins exhibit multi-stage tectonic events and multi-stage reservoir formation; hydrocarbon reservoirs formed in the early stage have generally late-stage genesis characteristics after undergoing adjustment,reconstruction and destruction of later-stage multiple tectonic events.In this paper,this phenomenon is called the late-stage reservoir formation effect.The late-stage reservoir formation effect is a basic feature of oil and gas-forming reservoirs in complex superimposed basins,revealing not only multi-stage character,relevance and complexity of oil and gas-forming reservoirs in superimposed basins but also the importance of late-stage reservoir formation.Late-stage reservoir formation is not a basic feature of off and gas forming reservoir in superimposed basins.Multi-stage reservoir formation only characterizes one aspect of oil and gas-forming reservoir in superimposed basins and does not represent fully the complexity of oil and gas-forming reservoir in superimposed basins.We suggest using"late-stage reservoir formation effect"to replace the"late-stage reservoir formation"concept to guide the exploration of complex reservoirs in superimposed basins.Under current geologic conditions,the late-stage reservoir formation effect is represented mainly by four basic forms:phase transformation,scale reconstruction,component variation and trap adjustment.The late-stage reservoir formation effect is produced by two kinds of geologic processes:first,the off and gas retention function of various geologic thresholds(hydrocarbon expulsion threshold,hydrocarbon migration threshold,and hydrocarbon accumulating threshold)causes the actual time of oil and gas reservoir formation to be later than the time of generation of large amounts of hydrocarbon in a conventional sense,producing the late-stage reservoir formation effect; second,multiple types of tectonic events(continuously strong reconstruction,early-stage strong reconstruction,middle-stage strong

  6. Discrete Wigner function dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A B; Munoz, C [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    We study the evolution of the discrete Wigner function for prime and the power of prime dimensions using the discrete version of the star-product operation. Exact and semiclassical dynamics in the limit of large dimensions are considered.

  7. Application of Stochastic Fracture Network with Numerical Fluid Flow Simulations to Groundwater Flow Modeling in Fractured Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The continuum approach in fluid flow modeling is generally applied to porous geological media,but has limitel applicability to fractured rocks. With the presence of a discrete fracture network relatively sparsely distributed in the matrix, it may be difficult or erroneous to use a porous medium fluid flow model with continuum assumptions to describe the fluid flow in fractured rocks at small or even large field scales. A discrete fracture fluid flow approach incorporating a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations could have the capability of capturing fluid flow behaviors such as inhomogeneity and anisotropy while reflecting the changes of hydraulic features at different scales.Moreover, this approach can be implemented to estimate the size of the representative elementary volume (REV) in order to find out the scales at which a porous medium flow model could be applied, and then to determine the hydraulic conductivity tensor for fractured rocks. The following topics are focused on in this study: (a) conceptual discrete fracture fluid flow modeling incorporating a stochastic fracture network with numerical flow simulations; (b) estimation of REVand hydraulic conductivity tensor for fractured rocks utilizing a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations; (c) investigation of the effect of fracture orientation and density on the hydraulic conductivity and REV by implementing a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations, and (d) fluid flow conceptual models accounting for major and minor fractures in the 2-D or 3-D flow fields incorporating a stochastic fracture network with numerical fluid flow simulations.``

  8. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing using a three-dimensional fracture model coupled with an adaptive mesh fluid model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, G.L.; Vire, A.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fracture model developed in the context of the combined finite-discrete element method is incorporated into a two-way fluid-solid coupling model. The fracture model is capable of simulating the whole fracturing process. It includes pre-peak hardening deformation, post-peak strain

  9. Discrete Noether Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple generalization of Noether's theorem for discrete symmetries in relativistic continuum field theories. We calculate explicitly the conserved current for several discrete spacetime and internal symmetries. In addition, we formulate an analogue of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Noether current associated with a discrete symmetry.

  10. Hydraulic fracture propagation modeling and data-based fracture identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing

    Successful shale gas and tight oil production is enabled by the engineering innovation of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulically induced fractures will most likely deviate from the bi-wing planar pattern and generate complex fracture networks due to mechanical interactions and reservoir heterogeneity, both of which render the conventional fracture simulators insufficient to characterize the fractured reservoir. Moreover, in reservoirs with ultra-low permeability, the natural fractures are widely distributed, which will result in hydraulic fractures branching and merging at the interface and consequently lead to the creation of more complex fracture networks. Thus, developing a reliable hydraulic fracturing simulator, including both mechanical interaction and fluid flow, is critical in maximizing hydrocarbon recovery and optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multistage horizontal wells. A novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple nonplanar fractures' propagation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs with or without pre-existing natural fractures. Initiation, growth, and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. This physics-based modeling approach leads to realistic fracture patterns without using the empirical rock failure and fracture propagation criteria required in conventional continuum methods. Based on this model, a sensitivity study is performed to investigate the effects of perforation spacing, in-situ stress anisotropy, rock properties (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and compressive strength), fluid properties, and natural fracture properties on hydraulic fracture propagation. In addition, since reservoirs are buried thousands of feet below the surface, the

  11. Demonstrating Chirality: Using a Mirror with Physical Models To Show Non-superimposability of Chiral Molecules with Their Mirror Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a remarkable demonstration on chiralty in molecules and the existence of enantiomers, also known as non-superimposable mirror images. Uses a mirror, a physical model of a molecule, and a bit of trickery involving the non-superimposable mirror image. (Author/NB)

  12. A 10-days heatwave around flowering superimposed on climate change conditions significantly affects production of 22 barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo;

    2015-01-01

    representing a worst case scenario (~RCP8.5, IPCC) at the end of the 21st century. A 10 day-heatwave of 33/22°C (day/night) was superimposed around the time of flowering on the basic climate treatments. The superimposed heatwave decreased overall grain yield in all combinations, however, vast variation...

  13. Detection of correlated fragments in a sequence of images by superimposed Fourier holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of detecting correlated fragments in a sequence of images recorded by the superimposing holograms within the Fourier holography scheme with angular multiplication of a spatially modulated reference beam is considered. The approach to the solution of this problem is based on the properties of the variance of the image sum. It is shown that this problem can be solved by providing a constant distance between the signal and reference images when recording superimposed holograms and a partial mutual correlatedness of reference images. The detection efficiency is analysed from the point of view of estimated image data capacity, the degree of mutual correlation of reference images, and the hologram recording conditions. The results of a numerical experiment under the most complicated conditions (representation of images by realisations of homogeneous random fields) confirm the theoretical conclusions.

  14. Artistic creation as stimulated by superimposed versus combined-composite visual images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    1986-02-01

    The creative role of homospatial thinking in visual art was assessed in an experiment with 39 highly talented young artists. In order to compare the creative effects of visual elements occupying the same space with identical elements arrayed in a combined foreground and background organization, superimposed slide images were presented to a randomly selected portion of the subject group, and the other portion of the subject group viewed the same slide images constructed into a figure-ground composite. Both groups produced three drawings stimulated by the slide stimuli, and these drawings were independently judged by three art experts. Results were that drawings produced by the group exposed to the superimposed images were rated higher in creative potential than those stimulated by the figure-ground controls. These results extend previous experimental findings of a tendency toward homospatial thinking in creative individuals in literature and visual art.

  15. [Atlas fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, S; Jeanneret, B

    1999-05-01

    Fractures of the atlas account for 1-2% of all vertebral fractures. We divide atlas fractures into 5 groups: isolated fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas, isolated fractures of the posterior arch, combined fractures of the anterior and posterior arch (so-called Jefferson fractures), isolated fractures of the lateral mass and fractures of the transverse process. Isolated fractures of the anterior or posterior arch are benign and are treated conservatively with a soft collar until the neck pain has disappeared. Jefferson fractures are divided into stable and unstable fracture depending on the integrity of the transverse ligament. Stable Jefferson fractures are treated conservatively with good outcome while unstable Jefferson fractures are probably best treated operatively with a posterior atlanto-axial or occipito-axial stabilization and fusion. The authors preferred treatment modality is the immediate open reduction of the dislocated lateral masses combined with a stabilization in the reduced position using a transarticular screw fixation C1/C2 according to Magerl. This has the advantage of saving the atlanto-occipital joints and offering an immediate stability which makes immobilization in an halo or Minerva cast superfluous. In late instabilities C1/2 with incongruency of the lateral masses occurring after primary conservative treatment, an occipito-cervical fusion is indicated. Isolated fractures of the lateral masses are very rare and may, if the lateral mass is totally destroyed, be a reason for an occipito-cervical fusion. Fractures of the transverse processes may be the cause for a thrombosis of the vertebral artery. No treatment is necessary for the fracture itself.

  16. Multiple-Element Matching Reservoir Formation and Quantitative Prediction of Favorable Areas in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaijie; PANG Xiongqi; WANG Zhaoming; YU Qiuhua; HUO Zhipeng; MENG Qingyang

    2010-01-01

    Superimposed basins in West China have experienced multi-stage tectonic events and multicycle hydrocarbon reservoir formation,and complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been discovered widely in basins of this kind.Most of the complex hydrocarbon reservoirs are characterized by relocation,scale re-construction,component variation and phase state transformation,and their distributions are very difficult to predict.Research shows that regional caprock(C),high-quality sedimentary facies(Deposits,D),paleohighs(Mountain,M)and source rock(S)are four geologic elements contributing to complex hydrocarbon reservoir formation and distribution of western superimposed basins.Longitudinal sequential combinations of the four elements control the strata of hydrocarbon reservoir formation,and planar superimpositions and combinations control the range of hydrocarbon reservoir and their simultaneous joint effects in geohistory determine the time of hydrocarbon reservoir formation.Multiple-element matching reservoir formation presents a basic mode of reservoir formation in superimposed basins,and we recommend it is expressed as T-CDMS.Based on the multiple-element matching reservoir formation mode,a comprehensive reservoir formation index(Tcdms)is developed in this paper to characterize reservoir formation conditions,and a method is presented to predict reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in superimposed basins.Through application of new theory,methods and technology,the favorable reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in the Ordovician target zone in Tarim Basin in four different reservoir formation periods are predicted.Results show that central Tarim,Yinmaili and Lunnan are the three most favorable regions where Ordovician oil and gas fields may have formed.The coincidence of prediction results with currently discovered hydrocarbon reservoirs reaches 97%.This reflects the effectiveness and reliability of the new theory,methods and technology.

  17. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  18. Superimposed electrical stimulation comfortably improves the endurance of maximal voluntary contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisgontier, Matthieu; Moineau, Bastien; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Electrical stimulation has shown to improve muscle endurance in sub-maximal contractions but sessions were painful due to the electric stimuli parameters. Therefore, the present study tested the effects of the superimposed electrical stimulation technique using comfortable current on endurance in repetitions of maximal voluntary contraction. METHODS: Seventeen young healthy subjects performed fifty maximal voluntary contractions of the triceps brachii in two condi...

  19. Acute effects of superimposed electromyostimulation during cycling on myokines and markers of muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, P.; Hein, M.; Achtzehn, S.; Bloch, W.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of superimposed electromyostimulation (E) during cycling on myokines and markers of muscle damage, as E might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle during endurance training without performing high external workloads. Methods: 13 subjects participated in three experimental trials each lasting 60 min in a randomized order. 1) Cycling (C), 2) Cycling with superimposed E (C+E) and 3) E. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin were determined before (pre) and 0’, 30’, 60’, 240’ and 24h after each intervention. Results: Only C+E caused significant increases in levels of CK and myoglobin. BDNF and IL-6 significantly increased after C and C+E, however increases for IL-6 were significantly higher after C+E compared to C. Conclusion: The present study showed that superimposed E during cycling might be a useful tool to induce a high local stimulus to skeletal muscle even when performing low to moderate external workloads. This effect might be due the activation of additional muscle fibers and mild eccentric work due to the concomitant activation of agonist and antagonist. However the higher load to skeletal muscle has to be taken into account. PMID:25730652

  20. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  1. Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Cladouhos, Trenton

    2001-09-06

    This progress report describes activities during the period January 1, 1999 to June 30, 1999. Work was carried out on 21 tasks. The major activity during the reporting period was the development and preliminary application of discrete fracture network (DFN) models for Stoney Point, South Oregon Basin, and North Oregon Basins project study sites. In addition, research was carried out on analysis algorithms for discrete future orientation.

  2. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  3. Comment on "Depth-discrete specific storage in fractured sedimentary rock using steady-state and transient single-hole hydraulic tests" by Patryk M. Quinn, John A. Cherry, Beth L. Parker, J. Hydrol. 542 (2016) 756-771

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Mesut

    2017-03-01

    Quinn et al. (2016) presented a method to estimate storativity (S) of fractured sedimentary rock from straddle packer tests after transmissivity (T) of aquifer was determined from low-flow constant-head (CH) step tests. Constant-rate pumping tests were carried out to determine S by using the Cooper and Jacob (1946) approximation. Estimating the aquifer parameters depends on a matching of observation data to theoretical response which is mathematically obtained from a physical model. The results of both constant rate injection and withdrawal tests in the borehole C6zone17 cannot show this simulation. This comment proposes a reasonable procedure to estimate storativity.

  4. Statistical discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy Permana

    2016-01-01

    Following our earlier work, we construct statistical discrete geometry by applying statistical mechanics to discrete (Regge) gravity. We propose a coarse-graining method for discrete geometry under the assumptions of atomism and background independence. To maintain these assumptions, restrictions are given to the theory by introducing cut-offs, both in ultraviolet and infrared regime. Having a well-defined statistical picture of discrete Regge geometry, we take the infinite degrees of freedom (large n) limit. We argue that the correct limit consistent with the restrictions and the background independence concept is not the continuum limit of statistical mechanics, but the thermodynamical limit.

  5. Discrete mathematics, discrete physics and numerical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Felice Iavernaro; Donato Trigiante

    2007-01-01

    Discrete mathematics has been neglected for a long time. It has been put in the shade by the striking success of continuous mathematics in the last two centuries, mainly because continuous models in physics proved very reliable, but also because of the greater difficulty in dealing with it. This perspective has been rapidly changing in the last years owing to the needs of the numerical analysis and, more recently, of the so called discrete physics. In this paper, starting from some sentences o...

  6. Effects of fracture reactivation and diagenesis on fracture network evolution: Cambrian Eriboll Formation, NW Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. N.; Eichhubl, P.; Xu, G.; Ahn, H.; Fall, A.; Hargrove, P.; Laubach, S.; Ukar, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Cambrian Eriboll Formation quartzarenites contain abundant fractures with varying degrees of quartz cement infill. Fractures exist that are entirely sealed; are locally sealed by bridging cements but preserve pore space among bridges; are mostly open but lined with veneers of cement; or are devoid of cement. Fracture propagation in the Eriboll Formation is highly sensitive to the presence of pre-existing fractures. Fracture reactivation occurs in opening mode as individual fractures repeatedly open and are filled or bridged by syn-kinematic cements. As well, reactivation occurs in shear as opening of one fracture orientation coincides with shear displacement along pre-existing fractures of different orientations. The tendency for pre-existing fractures to slip varies in part by the extent of cement infill, yet we observe shear and opening-mode reactivation even among sealed fractures. Paleotemperature analysis of fluid inclusions within fracture cements suggests some fractures now in outcrop formed deep in the subsurface. Fractures within the Eriboll Formation may therefore affect later fracture propagation throughout geologic time. With progressive strain, fault zones develop within fracture networks by a sequence of opening-mode fracture formation, fracture reactivation and linkage, fragmentation, cataclasis, and the formation of slip surfaces. Cataclasite within fault zones is commonly more thoroughly cemented than fractures in the damage zone or outside the fault zone. This variance of cement abundance is likely the result of (1) continued exposure of freshly broken quartz surfaces within cataclasite, promoting quartz precipitation, and (2) possibly more interconnected pathways for mass transfer within the fault zone. Enhanced cementation of cataclasite results in strengthening or diagenetic strain hardening of the evolving fault zone. Further slip is accommodated by shear localization along discrete slip surfaces. With further linkage of fault segments

  7. Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite...

  8. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  9. Discrete Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2012-01-01

    We construct a discrete quantum mechanics using a vector space over the Galois field GF(q). We find that the correlations in our model do not violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) version of Bell's inequality, despite the fact that the predictions of this discrete quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced with any hidden variable theory.

  10. Discrete Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Taeyoung; McClamroch, N Harris

    2007-01-01

    Discrete control systems, as considered here, refer to the control theory of discrete-time Lagrangian or Hamiltonian systems. These discrete-time models are based on a discrete variational principle, and are part of the broader field of geometric integration. Geometric integrators are numerical integration methods that preserve geometric properties of continuous systems, such as conservation of the symplectic form, momentum, and energy. They also guarantee that the discrete flow remains on the manifold on which the continuous system evolves, an important property in the case of rigid-body dynamics. In nonlinear control, one typically relies on differential geometric and dynamical systems techniques to prove properties such as stability, controllability, and optimality. More generally, the geometric structure of such systems plays a critical role in the nonlinear analysis of the corresponding control problems. Despite the critical role of geometry and mechanics in the analysis of nonlinear control systems, non...

  11. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  12. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  13. Continuity in Discrete Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Continuous models used in physics and other areas of mathematics applications become discrete when they are computerized, e.g., utilized for computations. Besides, computers are controlling processes in discrete spaces, such as films and television programs. At the same time, continuous models that are in the background of discrete representations use mathematical technology developed for continuous media. The most important example of such a technology is calculus, which is so useful in physics and other sciences. The main goal of this paper is to synthesize continuous features and powerful technology of the classical calculus with the discrete approach of numerical mathematics and computational physics. To do this, we further develop the theory of fuzzy continuous functions and apply this theory to functions defined on discrete sets. The main interest is the classical Intermediate Value theorem. Although the result of this theorem is completely based on continuity, utilization of a relaxed version of contin...

  14. Nitrogen washout during tidal breathing with superimposed high-frequency chest wall oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, A; Zidulka, A; Chang, H K

    1985-08-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) superimposed on tidal ventilation, multiple-breath nitrogen washout curves were obtained in 7 normal seated subjects. To maintain a regular breathing pattern throughout the study, the subjects breathed synchronously with a Harvard ventilator set at a constant tidal volume and frequency for each subject during a trial period. Washout curves were obtained during 3 different maneuvers performed in random order. Series A was the control condition with no superimposed HFCWO. In Series B and C, HFCWO at 5 Hz was superimposed on the regulated tidal breathing; the magnitude of the oscillatory tidal volume measured at the airway opening was 20 ml for Series B and 40 ml for Series C. The nitrogen washout was clearly faster in Series C than in Series A for each subject. In Series B, there was an interindividual variability, with a washout rate either equal to that in Maneuver A or in Maneuver C, or intermediate between the two. When these washout curves were analyzed in terms of a simple monocompartment model, the time constant of the washout was found to decrease by 16 +/- 11% in Series B, and 25 +/- 7% in Series C compared with that in Series A. In this group of normal subjects, the correction of any inhomogeneity in the distribution of the ventilation is unlikely to explain these results because of the close fit of all washout curves to a monoexponential model. It is postulated that during inspiration HFCWO enhances gas mixing in the lung periphery and that during expiration it improves gas mixing in the airways.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Aspirin plus calcium supplementation to prevent superimposed preeclampsia: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have tested calcium supplementation and aspirin separately to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia but not the effects of combined supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin combined with calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out at the antenatal clinic of a large university hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. A total of 49 women with chronic hypertension and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 20-27 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 26 or 100 mg aspirin plus 2 g calcium (N = 23 daily until delivery. The main outcome of this pilot study was development of superimposed preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. The rate of superimposed preeclampsia was 28.6% lower among women receiving aspirin plus calcium than in the placebo group (52.2 vs 73.1%, respectively, P=0.112. The rate of fetal growth restriction was reduced by 80.8% in the supplemented group (25 vs 4.8% in the placebo vs supplemented groups, respectively; P=0.073. The rate of preterm birth was 33.3% in both groups. The combined supplementation of aspirin and calcium starting at 20-27 weeks of gestation produced a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of superimposed preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler.

  16. Aspirin plus calcium supplementation to prevent superimposed preeclampsia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E V; Torloni, M R; Atallah, A N; Santos, G M S dos; Kulay, L; Sass, N

    2014-05-01

    Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have tested calcium supplementation and aspirin separately to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia but not the effects of combined supplementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of aspirin combined with calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia in women with chronic hypertension. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was carried out at the antenatal clinic of a large university hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. A total of 49 women with chronic hypertension and abnormal uterine artery Doppler at 20-27 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 26) or 100 mg aspirin plus 2 g calcium (N = 23) daily until delivery. The main outcome of this pilot study was development of superimposed preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. The rate of superimposed preeclampsia was 28.6% lower among women receiving aspirin plus calcium than in the placebo group (52.2 vs 73.1%, respectively, P=0.112). The rate of fetal growth restriction was reduced by 80.8% in the supplemented group (25 vs 4.8% in the placebo vs supplemented groups, respectively; P=0.073). The rate of preterm birth was 33.3% in both groups. The combined supplementation of aspirin and calcium starting at 20-27 weeks of gestation produced a nonsignificant decrease in the incidence of superimposed preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in hypertensive women with abnormal uterine artery Doppler.

  17. The Dahl salt-sensitive rat is a spontaneous model of superimposed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Ellen E; Williams, Jan M; Garrett, Michael R; Mooney, Jennifer N; Sasser, Jennifer M

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a leading cause of maternal morbidity and death worldwide, are poorly understood in part due to a lack of spontaneous animal models of the disease. We hypothesized that the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a genetic model of hypertension and kidney disease, is a spontaneous model of superimposed preeclampsia. The Dahl S was compared with the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, a strain with a well-characterized normal pregnancy, and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a genetic model of hypertension that does not experience a preeclamptic phenotype despite preexisting hypertension. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured via telemetry) was elevated in the Dahl S and SHR before pregnancy, but hypertension was exacerbated during pregnancy only in Dahl S. In contrast, SD and SHR exhibited significant reductions in MAP consistent with normal pregnancy. Dahl S rats exhibited a severe increase in urinary protein excretion, glomerulomegaly, increased placental hypoxia, increased plasma soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), and increased placental production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The Dahl S did not exhibit the expected decrease in uterine artery resistance during late pregnancy in contrast to the SD and SHR. Dahl S pups and litter sizes were smaller than in the SD. The Dahl S phenotype is consistent with many of the characteristics observed in human superimposed preeclampsia, and we propose that the Dahl S should be considered further as a spontaneous model to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of superimposed preeclampsia and to identify and test new therapeutic targets for its treatment.

  18. Superimpose signal processing method for micro-scale thermal imaging of solar salts at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Kato, Yukitaka

    2016-05-01

    The global interest in energy applications activates the advanced study about the molten salts in the usage of fluids in the power cycle, such as for transport and heat storage in solar power facilities. However, the basic properties of molten salts show a general scattering in characterization especially in thermal properties. It is suggested that new studies are required on the measurement of thermal properties of solar salts using recent technologies. In this study, micro-scale heat transfer and phase change in molten salts are presented using our originally developed device: the micro-bolometer Infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPA) measuring system is a portable type instrument, which is re-designed to measure the thermal phenomena in high temperature up to 700 °C or higher. The superimpose system is newly setup adjusted to the signal processing in high temperature to realize the quantitative thermal imaging, simultaneously. The portable type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer has been proposed based on an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in the long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. Combined with the superimpose technique, the micro-scale thermal imaging in high temperature is achieved and the molten flows of the solar salts, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate are successfully observed. The solar salt, the mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, shows a different shape of exothermic heat front morphology in the lower phase transition (solidification) temperature than the nitrates on cooling. The proposed measuring technique will be utilized to accelerate the screening step to determine the phase diagram and the eutectics of the multiple mixtures of candidate molten salts, which may be used as heat transport medium from the concentrated solar power to a processing plant for thermal energy

  19. Pixelated speckle image holography carrier fringes for efficient superimposed light harvesting in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Ou, Qing-Dong; Tang, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Yun; Lin, Yi; Wei, Huai-Xin

    2017-06-01

    An inverted organic solar cell (OSC) device structure by incorporating pixelated speckle image holography carrier fringes (SIHFs) for efficient superimposed light harvesting is demonstrated. The proposed SIHF based OSCs yield an 18.2% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of the flat control devices. Moreover, compared to the common two-dimensional (2D) periodic grating patterned OSCs, SIHF based devices achieve 7.8% higher short-circuit current (JSC) and 10.0% higher PCE. This observable improvement in PCE of SIHF based OSCs is mainly ascribed to the geometric effect due to the unique chaotic carrier fringes of SIHFs.

  20. Freezing, accelerating and slowing directed currents in real time with superimposed driven lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K; Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generic scheme offering real time control of directed particle transport in superimposed driven lattices. This scheme allows to accelerate, slow and freeze the transport on demand, by switching one of the lattices subsequently on and off. The underlying physical mechanism hinges on a systematic opening and closing of channels between transporting and non-transporting phase space structures upon switching, and exploits cantori structures which generate memory effects in the population of these structures. Our results should allow for real time control of cold thermal atomic ensembles in optical lattices, but might also be useful as a design principle for targeted delivery of molecules or colloids in optical devices.

  1. Buckling patterns of gold thin films on silicon substrates: Formation of superimposed blisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, J.; Coupeau, C.; Durinck, J.; Grilhé, J.

    2009-06-01

    Buckling phenomena leading to the formation of superimposed blisters have been experimentally observed with the help of a confocal interferometric microscope onto the surface of gold thin films deposited on silicon substrates. Assuming that residual folding effects resulting from plastic deformation mechanisms take place in the film during its morphological evolution, different probable scenarios for the formation of the observed buckling patterns are elaborated in the framework of the Föppl-von Karman's theory of thin plates. Multi-step buckling with growing interface delamination is considered for the first scenario while a single or multi-step buckling at a given delamination width is assumed for the other ones.

  2. [Acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänsslen, A; Oestern, H J

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of acetabular fractures requires extensive knowledge of the bony anatomy, the amount of possible exposure of the bone with the selected approaches and fracture type-dependent indications of operative treatment. Classification of the fracture with detailed analysis of the fracture morphology is the basis for decision making and planning. The primary treatment aim is the anatomic reconstruction of the acetabulum which results in optimal long-term results.The basis of this overview is the presentation of standard treatment concepts in acetabular fracture surgery. Beside characteristics of the acetabular bony anatomy, biomechanical and pathomechanical principles and the relevant radiological anatomy, the treatment options, both conservative and operative and basic principles of the indications for standard surgical approaches will be discussed.The special fracture type is discussed in detail regarding incidence, injury mechanism, concomitant injuries, options for conservative and operative treatment, quality of operative reduction and long-term results.Furthermore, epidemiological data on typical postoperative complications are evaluated.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Propagation of Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Using Dijkstra’s Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of hydraulic-fracturing technology is dramatically increasing in exploitation of natural gas extraction. However the prediction of the configuration of propagated hydraulic fracture is extremely challenging. This paper presents a numerical method of obtaining the configuration of the propagated hydraulic fracture into discrete natural fracture network system. The method is developed on the basis of weighted fracture which is derived in combination of Dijkstra’s algorithm energy theory and vector method. Numerical results along with experimental data demonstrated that proposed method is capable of predicting the propagated hydraulic fracture configuration reasonably with high computation efficiency. Sensitivity analysis reveals a number of interesting observation results: the shortest path weight value decreases with increasing of fracture density and length, and increases with increasing of the angle between fractures to the maximum principal stress direction. Our method is helpful for evaluating the complexity of the discrete fracture network, to obtain the extension direction of the fracture.

  4. Streaming potential modeling in fractured rock: Insights into the identification of hydraulically active fractures

    CERN Document Server

    Roubinet, D; Jougnot, D; Irving, J

    2016-01-01

    Numerous field experiments suggest that the self-potential (SP) geophysical method may allow for the detection of hydraulically active fractures and provide information about fracture properties. However, a lack of suitable numerical tools for modeling streaming potentials in fractured media prevents quantitative interpretation and limits our understanding of how the SP method can be used in this regard. To address this issue, we present a highly efficient two-dimensional discrete-dual-porosity approach for solving the fluid flow and associated self-potential problems in fractured rock. Our approach is specifically designed for complex fracture networks that cannot be investigated using standard numerical methods. We then simulate SP signals associated with pumping conditions for a number of examples to show that (i) accounting for matrix fluid flow is essential for accurate SP modeling and (ii) the sensitivity of SP to hydraulically active fractures is intimately linked with fracture-matrix fluid interaction...

  5. Sports fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level o...

  6. An element-based finite-volume method approach for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br; Varavei, Abdoljalil; Sepehrnoori, Kamy [The University of Texas at Austin (United States). Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Dept.], e-mails: varavei@mail.utexas.edu, kamys@mail.utexas.edu

    2010-07-01

    An element-based finite-volume approach in conjunction with unstructured grids for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation is presented. In this approach, both the discrete fracture and the matrix mass balances are taken into account without any additional models to couple the matrix and discrete fractures. The mesh, for two dimensional domains, can be built of triangles, quadrilaterals, or a mix of these elements. However, due to the available mesh generator to handle both matrix and discrete fractures, only results using triangular elements will be presented. The discrete fractures are located along the edges of each element. To obtain the approximated matrix equation, each element is divided into three sub-elements and then the mass balance equations for each component are integrated along each interface of the sub-elements. The finite-volume conservation equations are assembled from the contribution of all the elements that share a vertex, creating a cell vertex approach. The discrete fracture equations are discretized only along the edges of each element and then summed up with the matrix equations in order to obtain a conservative equation for both matrix and discrete fractures. In order to mimic real field simulations, the capillary pressure is included in both matrix and discrete fracture media. In the implemented model, the saturation field in the matrix and discrete fractures can be different, but the potential of each phase in the matrix and discrete fracture interface needs to be the same. The results for several naturally fractured reservoirs are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)

  7. Hamate fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Colles Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, Belisario; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Our expertise is the study of more than 2,000 cases of Colles' fractures. Colles name should in this case to synthesize the type of fractures of the lower end of the radius. There have been various proposed classifications according to the different fracture lines can be demonstrated radiologically in the region of the wrist. We believe that these ratings should only be retained if the concept of the articular fracture or not in the classical sense, since it has great value in the functional ...

  9. Discrete Cylindrical Vector Beam Generation from an Array of Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kurti, R. Steven; Halterman, Klaus; Shori, Ramesh K.; Wardlaw, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is presented for the beam shaping of far field intensity distributions of coherently combined fiber arrays. The fibers are arranged uniformly on the perimeter of a circle, and the linearly polarized beams of equal shape are superimposed such that the far field pattern represents an effective radially polarized vector beam, or discrete cylindrical vector (DCV) beam. The DCV beam is produced by three or more beams that each individually have a varying polarization vector. The bea...

  10. Patients' preferences for osteoporosis drug treatment: A discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); W.J. Meerding (Willem Jan); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); B.W. Koes (Bart); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Active case finding for osteoporosis is used to identify patients at high fracture risk who may benefit from preventive drug treatment. We investigated the relative weight that women place on various aspects of preventive drugs in a discrete choice experiment. Our patients said

  11. Torus Bifurcation Under Discretization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永魁; 黄明游

    2002-01-01

    Parameterized dynamical systems with a simple zero eigenvalue and a couple of purely imaginary eigenvalues are considered. It is proved that this type of eigen-structure leads to torns bifurcation under certain nondegenerate conditions. We show that the discrete systems, obtained by discretizing the ODEs using symmetric, eigen-structure preserving schemes, inherit the similar torus bifurcation properties. Fredholm theory in Banach spaces is applied to obtain the global torns bifurcation. Our results complement those on the study of discretization effects of global bifurcation.

  12. Discrete density of states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-03-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic.

  13. [Relationship between jaws and the masseter muscle by superimposing MR images on the cephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Ryoji

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the morphological relationship between maxillofacial skeleton and masseter by superimposing the masseter image constructed by MR image scanning on the cephalogram. Sixteen subjects with different mandibular plane angle were examined in this study. Cephalogram and MR images of each subject were taken, and the images were input to a computer by using a digitizer. The areas of masseter were selected in each MR scan image which were projected to the mid-sagittal layer of the MR scan images. The synthesized image of cephalogram and masseter was obtained by completely superimposing sagittal images of the masseter with the mid-sagittal-plane MR image on the cephalogram. The inclination of masseter was determined by the center of gravity on the cross-section of masseter. These synthesized images of cephalogram and masseter showed various shapes of masseter according to different mandibular plane angle. The inclination of masseter had a close correlation with some skeletal parameters (mandibular plane angle, ANB, Y-axis, facial angle, saddle angle) of cephalometric analysis. The volume of the masseter also had a close correlation with skeletal parameters (mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, Y-axis). These results revealed that morphometric analysis using synthesized images of cephalogram and masseter is useful, and that the inclination and the volume of masseter may have an influence on the shape of the mandibular bone and its vertical and anteroposterior development.

  14. A System on a Programmable Chip Architecture for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martín del Campo

    2009-01-01

    with the information, a series of known symbols, whose analysis is used to define the parameters of the filters that remove the distortion of the data. Nevertheless, a part of the available bandwidth has to be destined to these symbols. Until now, no alternative solution has demonstrated to be fully satisfying for commercial use, but one technique that looks promising is superimposed training (ST. This work describes a hybrid software-hardware FPGA implementation of a recent algorithm that belongs to the ST family, known as Data-dependent Superimposed Training (DDST, which does not need extra bandwidth for its training sequences (TS as it adds them arithmetically to the data. DDST also adds a third sequence known as data-dependent sequence, that destroys the interference caused by the data over the TS. As DDST's computational burden is too high for the commercial processors used in mobile systems, a System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC approach is used in order to solve the problem.

  15. Simultaneously mapping and superimposing landmark configurations with parsimony as optimality criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, S A; Goloboff, P A

    2012-05-01

    All methods proposed to date for mapping landmark configurations on a phylogenetic tree start from an alignment generated by methods that make no use of phylogenetic information, usually by superimposing all configurations against a consensus configuration. In order to properly interpret differences between landmark configurations along the tree as changes in shape, the metric chosen to define the ancestral assignments should also form the basis to superimpose the configurations. Thus, we present here a method that merges both steps, map and align, into a single procedure that (for the given tree) produces a multiple alignment and ancestral assignments such that the sum of the Euclidean distances between the corresponding landmarks along tree nodes is minimized. This approach is an extension of the method proposed by Catalano et al. (2010. Phylogenetic morphometrics (I): the use of landmark data in a phylogenetic framework. Cladistics. 26:539-549) for mapping landmark data with parsimony as optimality criterion. In the context of phylogenetics, this method allows maximizing the degree to which similarity in landmark positions can be accounted for by common ancestry. In the context of morphometrics, this approach guarantees (heuristics aside) that all the transformations inferred on the tree represent changes in shape. The performance of the method was evaluated on different data sets, indicating that the method produces marked improvements in tree score (up to 5% compared with generalized superimpositions, up to 11% compared with ordinary superimpositions). These empirical results stress the importance of incorporating the phylogenetic information into the alignment step.

  16. Superimposed XOR: Approaching Capacity Bounds of the Two-Way Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jianquan; Xu, Youyun; Wang, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    In two-way relay channels, bitwise XOR and symbol-level superposition coding are two popular network-coding based relaying schemes. However, neither of them can approach the capacity bound when the channels in the broadcast phase are asymmetric. In this paper, we present a new physical layer network coding (PLNC) scheme, called \\emph{superimposed XOR}. The new scheme advances the existing schemes by specifically taking into account the channel asymmetry as well as information asymmetry in the broadcast phase. We obtain its achievable rate regions over Gaussian channels when integrated with two known time control protocols in two-way relaying. We also demonstrate their average maximum sum-rates and service delay performances over fading channels. Numerical results show that the proposed superimposed XOR achieves a larger rate region than both XOR and superposition and performs much better over fading channels. We further deduce the boundary of its achievable rate region of the broadcast phase in an explicit an...

  17. Pearls of Discrete Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Presents methods for solving counting problems and other types of problems that involve discrete structures. This work illustrates the relationship of these structures to algebra, geometry, number theory and combinatorics. It addresses topics such as information and game theories

  18. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  19. The Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    focuses on bringing together two separately motivated implementations of the wavelet transform , the algorithm a trous and Mallat’s multiresolution...decomposition. These algorithms are special cases of a single filter bank structure, the discrete wavelet transform , the behavior of which is governed by...nonorthogonal multiresolution algorithm for which the discrete wavelet transform is exact. Moreover, we show that the commonly used Lagrange a trous

  20. Discrete computational structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korfhage, Robert R

    1974-01-01

    Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize

  1. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T

    2012-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  2. Natural thermal convection in fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, P. M.; Mezon, C.; Mourzenko, V.; Thovert, J. F.; Antoine, R.; Finizola, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the crust, fractures/faults can provide preferential pathways for fluid flow or act as barriers preventing the flow across these structures. In hydrothermal systems (usually found in fractured rock masses), these discontinuities may play a critical role at various scales, controlling fluid flows and heat transfer. The thermal convection is numerically computed in 3D fluid satured fractured porous media. Fractures are inserted as discrete objects, randomly distributed over a damaged volume, which is a fraction of the total volume. The fluid is assumed to satisfy Darcy's law in the fractures and in the porous medium with exchanges between them. All simulations were made for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) equilibrium with the medium), cubic boxes and closed-top conditions. Checks were performed on an unfractured porous medium and the convection cells do start for the theoretical value of Ra, namely 4p². 2D convection was verified up to Ra=800. The influence of parameters such as fracture aperture (or fracture transmissivity), fracture density and fracture length is studied. Moreover, these models are compared to porous media with the same macroscopic permeability. Preliminary results show that the non-uniqueness associated with initial conditions which makes possible either 2D or 3D convection in porous media (Schubert & Straus 1979) is no longer true for fractured porous media (at least for 50fracture density and fracture aperture on the Nusselt number (Nu) is highly Ra dependent. The effect of the damaged zone on Nu is roughly proportional to its size. All these models also allows us to determine for which range of fracture density the fractured porous medium is in good agreement with an unfractured porous medium of the same bulk permeability.

  3. Design of air-gapped magnetic-core inductors for superimposed direct and alternating currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, A. K.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Using data on standard magnetic-material properties and standard core sizes for air-gap-type cores, an algorithm designed for a computer solution is developed which optimally determines the air-gap length and locates the quiescent point on the normal magnetization curve so as to yield an inductor design with the minimum number of turns for a given ac voltage and frequency and with a given dc bias current superimposed in the same winding. Magnetic-material data used in the design are the normal magnetization curve and a family of incremental permeability curves. A second procedure, which requires a simpler set of calculations, starts from an assigned quiescent point on the normal magnetization curve and first screens candidate core sizes for suitability, then determines the required turns and air-gap length.

  4. Superimposed folding and thrusting by two phases of mutually orthogonal or oblique shortening in analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongling; Koyi, Hemin A.; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    Orogens may suffer more than one phase shortening resulting in superposition of structures of different generations. Superimposition of orthogonal or oblique shortening is studied using sandbox and centrifuge modelling. Results of sand models show that in orthogonal superimposition, the two resulting structural trends are approximately orthogonal to each other. In oblique superimposition, structures trend obliquely to each other in the relatively thin areas of the model (foreland), and mutually orthogonal in areas where the model is thickened during the first phase of shortening (i.e. the hinterland). Thrusts formed during the first shortening phase may be reactivated during the later shortening phase. Spacing of the later phase structures is not as wide as expected, considering they across the pre-existing thickened wedge. Superposition of structures results in formation of type 1 fold interference pattern. Bedding is curved outwards both in the dome and basin structures. Folded layers are dipping and plunging outwards in a dome, while they are dipping and plunging inwards in a basin. In the areas between two adjacent domes or basins (i.e. where an anticline is superimposed by a syncline or a syncline is superimposed by an anticline), bedding is curved inwards, and the anticlines plunge inwards and the synclines outwards. The latter feature could be helpful to determine the age relationship for type 2 fold interference pattern. In tectonic regions where multiple phases of shortening have occurred, the orogenic-scale dome-and-basin and arrowhead-shaped interference patterns are commonly formed, as in the models. However, in some areas, the fold interference pattern might be modified by a later phase of thrusting. Similar to models results, superimposition of two and/or even more deformation phases may not be recorded by structures all over the tectonic area.

  5. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  6. Discrete Anderson Speckle

    CERN Document Server

    Kondakci, H Esat; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2016-01-01

    When a disordered array of coupled waveguides is illuminated with an extended coherent optical field, discrete speckle develops: partially coherent light with a granular intensity distribution on the lattice sites. The same paradigm applies to a variety of other settings in photonics, such as imperfectly coupled resonators or fibers with randomly coupled cores. Through numerical simulations and analytical modeling, we uncover a set of surprising features that characterize discrete speckle in one- and two-dimensional lattices known to exhibit transverse Anderson localization. Firstly, the fingerprint of localization is embedded in the fluctuations of the discrete speckle and is revealed in the narrowing of the spatial coherence function. Secondly, the transverse coherence length (or speckle grain size) is frozen during propagation. Thirdly, the axial coherence depth is independent of the axial position, thereby resulting in a coherence voxel of fixed volume independently of position. We take these unique featu...

  7. Discrete systems and integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Hietarinta, J; Nijhoff, F W

    2016-01-01

    This first introductory text to discrete integrable systems introduces key notions of integrability from the vantage point of discrete systems, also making connections with the continuous theory where relevant. While treating the material at an elementary level, the book also highlights many recent developments. Topics include: Darboux and Bäcklund transformations; difference equations and special functions; multidimensional consistency of integrable lattice equations; associated linear problems (Lax pairs); connections with Padé approximants and convergence algorithms; singularities and geometry; Hirota's bilinear formalism for lattices; intriguing properties of discrete Painlevé equations; and the novel theory of Lagrangian multiforms. The book builds the material in an organic way, emphasizing interconnections between the various approaches, while the exposition is mostly done through explicit computations on key examples. Written by respected experts in the field, the numerous exercises and the thoroug...

  8. Discrete Classical Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M

    1997-01-01

    The classical electromagnetic field of a spinless point electron is described in a formalism with extended causality by discrete finite transverse point-vector fields with discrete and localized point interactions. These fields are taken as a classical representation of photons, ``classical photons". They are all transversal photons; there are no scalar nor longitudinal photons as these are definitely eliminated by the gauge condition. The angular distribution of emitted photons coincides with the directions of maximum emission in the standard formalism. The Maxwell formalism and its standard field are retrieved by the replacement of these discrete fields by their space-time averages, and in this process scalar and longitudinal photons are necessarily created and added. Divergences and singularities are by-products of this averaging process. This formalism enlighten the meaning and the origin of the non-physical photons, the ones that violate the Lorentz condition in manifestly covariant quantization methods.

  9. Fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

  10. Fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics to the design of ceramic structures will require the precise measurement of crack growth and fracture resistance of these materials over their entire range of anticipated service temperatures and standardized test methods for making such measurements. The development of a standard test for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness is sought. Stress intensity factor coefficients were determined for three varieties of chevron-notch specimens, and fracture toughness measurements were made on silicon nitrides, silicon carbides, and aluminum oxides to assess the performance of each specimen variety. It was determined that silicon nitride and silicon carbides have flat crack growth resistance curves, but aluminum oxide does not. Additionally, batch-to-batch differences were noticed for the aluminum oxide. Experiments are continuing to explain the rising crack growth resistance and batch-to-batch variations for the aluminum oxide.

  11. Introductory discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, V K

    2010-01-01

    This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

  12. Discrete breathers in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Baimova, Yu A.; Velarde, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems, in addition to traveling waves, support vibrational defect-localized modes. It turned out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Since the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, it is only through the special choice of initial conditions that a group of nodes can be found on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), will be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of the small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically conserve its vibrational energy forever provided no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery in them of DBs was only a matter of time. It is well known that periodic discrete defect-containing systems support both traveling waves and vibrational defect-localized modes. It turns out that if a periodic discrete system is nonlinear, it can support spatially localized vibrational modes as exact solutions even in the absence of defects. Because the nodes of the system are all on equal footing, only a special choice of the initial conditions allows selecting a group of nodes on which such a mode, called a discrete breather (DB), can be excited. The DB frequency must be outside the frequency range of small-amplitude traveling waves. Not resonating with and expending no energy on the excitation of traveling waves, a DB can theoretically preserve its vibrational energy forever if no thermal vibrations or other perturbations are present. Crystals are nonlinear discrete systems, and the discovery of DBs in them was only a matter of time. Experimental studies of DBs encounter major technical difficulties, leaving atomistic computer simulations as the primary investigation tool. Despite

  13. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well a

  14. Deformed discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  15. Fracture-correlated lineaments at Great Bay, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James R.; Clark, Stewart F.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis by remote-sensing techniques and observations of exposed bedrock structure were preliminary steps taken in a study to locate potential bedrock-fracture zones that may store and transmit ground water near Great Bay, N.H. To help correlate lineaments on the surface with fractures, structural measurements were made at exposed bedrock, largely along the shoreline of the bay, and analyzed to identify fracture trends and fracture characteristics. With these fracture data, lineament-filtering techniques, such as (1) buffer analysis around individual lineaments, (2) discrete-measurement analysis by domain, and (3) spacing-normalized analysis by domain, identified 'fracture-correlated lineaments.' Of the 927 lineaments identified in the study area (180 square kilometers), 406 (44 percent) were evaluated because they either were located within 305 meters of an outcrop with fracture data or intersected one of five 3,300-meter-square grid domain cells that encompassed the fracture data. Of the 406 lineaments, 190 (47 percent) are fracture correlated, although only 15 percent were correlated by more than one filtering technique. The large number of lineaments found in areas of thin glacial overburden and high densities of fractured outcrops suggests that filtering techniques are useful in these areas to selectively identify fracture-correlated lineaments. Fractures parallel to bedding in the Kittery Formation are open locally and often associated with vugs, with up to 1-centimeter aperture, and may provide appreciable secondary porosity in this rock unit. Discrete-measurement analysis by domain identified fracture-correlated lineaments with orientations parallel to these open and vug-filled fractures. Fracture-correlated lineaments related to closely spaced fractures were identified by the spacing-normalized analysis by domain. Analysis results may be used to indicate the potential bedrock pathways for ground-water-discharge points along the shoreline of Great Bay.

  16. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...

  17. Nonlocal Theory for Fracturing of Quasibrittle Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    fracture behavior and its impact on design code, ACI Fall Con- vention, San Juan, Puerto Rico, October 29, 1992. 1621 Discrete element modeling of...eaeieengf’em Mi.Heweitser Uxirenris^ His research mieieests i’clairt faitie andfract applicatioms to htictcura destga. p Fiv. 2- TesI etrup ’eIr

  18. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...... an overview of the structure of the research and a summary of current status archived so far....

  19. Well test analysis in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, K.

    1986-04-01

    In this study the behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented. This model develops an explicit solution in the porous matrix as well as in the discrete fractures. Because the model does not require the assumptions of the conventional double porosity approach, it may be used to simulate cases where double porosity models fail.

  20. The discrete Feynman integral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlas, T. C.; Thomas, E. G. F.

    2008-01-01

    We construct a genuine Radon measure with values in B(l(2)(Z(d))) on the set of paths in Z(d) representing Feynman's integral for the discrete Laplacian on l(2)(Z(d)), and we prove the Feynman integral formula for the solutions of the Schrodinger equation with Hamiltonian H=-1/2 Delta+ V, where Delt

  1. Discrete time process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The axiom system ACP of [BeK84a] was extended with real time features in [BaB91]. Here we proceed to define a discrete time extension of ACP, along the lines of ATP [NiS94]. We present versions based on relative timing and on absolute timing. Both approaches are integrated using parametric timing. T

  2. Discrete gauge theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild Propitius, M.D.F.; Bais, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures, we present a self-contained treatment of planar gauge theories broken down to some finite residual gauge group $H$ via the Higgs mechanism. The main focus is on the discrete $H$ gauge theory describing the long distance physics of such a model. The spectrum features global $H$ cha

  3. Developing fracture density models using terrestrial laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollyea, R.; Fairley, J. P.; Podgorney, R. K.; McLing, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing fracture heterogeneity for subsurface flow and transport modeling has been of interest to the hydrogeologic community for many years. Currently, stochastic continuum and discrete fracture representations have come to be accepted as two of the most commonly used tools for incorporating fracture heterogeneity into subsurface flow and transport models. In this research, ground-based lidar data are used to model the surface roughness of vertical basalt exposures in the East Snake River Plain, Idaho (ESRP) as a surrogate for fracture density. The surface roughness is modeled by discretizing the dataset over a regular grid and fitting a regression plane to each gridblock. The standard deviation of distance from the block data to the regression plane is then assumed to represent a measure of roughness for each gridblock. Two-dimensional plots of surface roughness from ESRP exposures indicate discrete fractures can be quantitatively differentiated from unfractured rock at 0.25- meter resolution. This methodology may have broad applications for characterizing fracture heterogeneity. One application, demonstrated here, is to capture high resolution (low noise) covariance statistics for building stochastic property sets to be used in large scale flow simulations. Additional applications may include using surface roughness datasets as training images for multiple-point geostatistics analysis and for constraining discrete fracture models.

  4. Reduced Fracture Finite Element Model Analysis of an Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar Z.

    2017-06-09

    A Hybrid Embedded Fracture (HEF) model was developed to reduce various computational costs while maintaining physical accuracy (Amir and Sun, 2016). HEF splits the computations into fine scale and coarse scale. Fine scale solves analytically for the matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter. Coarse scale solves for the properties of the entire system. In literature, fractures were assumed to be either vertical or horizontal for simplification (Warren and Root, 1963). Matrix-fracture flux exchange parameter was given few equations built on that assumption (Kazemi, 1968; Lemonnier and Bourbiaux, 2010). However, such simplified cases do not apply directly for actual random fracture shapes, directions, orientations …etc. This paper shows that the HEF fine scale analytic solution (Amir and Sun, 2016) generates the flux exchange parameter found in literature for vertical and horizontal fracture cases. For other fracture cases, the flux exchange parameter changes according to the angle, slop, direction, … etc. This conclusion rises from the analysis of both: the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) and the HEF schemes. The behavior of both schemes is analyzed with exactly similar fracture conditions and the results are shown and discussed. Then, a generalization is illustrated for any slightly compressible single-phase fluid within fractured porous media and its results are discussed.

  5. Knee joint neuromuscular activation performance during muscle damage and superimposed fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, Claire; Eston, Roger; Rees, David; Gleeson, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent effects of exercise-induced muscle damage and superimposed acute fatigue on the neuromuscular activation performance of the knee flexors of nine males (age: 26.7 ± 6.1 years; height 1.81 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.2 ± 11.7 kg [mean±s]). Measures were obtained during three experimental conditions: (i) 'fatigue-muscle damage', involving acute fatiguing exercise performed on each assessment occasion plus a single episode of eccentric exercise performed on the first occasion and after the fatigue trial; (ii) 'fatigue', involving the fatiguing exercise only; and (iii) 'control' consisting of no exercise. Assessments were performed prior to (pre) and at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h relative to the muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed that muscle damage elicited reductions of up to 38%, 24% and 65% in volitional peak force, electromechanical delay and rate of force development compared to baseline and controls, respectively (F ([10, 80]) = 2.3 to 4.6; P exercise.

  6. A case of extra hepatic portal vein obstruction in pregnancy with superimposed pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Nambisan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra hepatic portal vein obstruction in pregnancy poses a clinical challenge by itself. We present here a case of a 19 year old primigravida with EHPVO who developed superimposed preeclampsia. She had a successful maternal and fetal outcome in a tertiary care centre owing to the team effort involving specialists from medical gastroenterology, nephrology, anesthesiology, and neonatology apart from senior obstetrician. EHPVO is an important cause of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in third world countries. In pregnancy, the increased blood volume and cardiac output and mesenteric vasodilatation will increase portal flow and aggravate portal hypertension in these patients. The resultant hematemesis in such patients, can compromise the perinatal outcome. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL reduces the risk of variceal bleeding, and can improve the pregnancy outcome in these women. Thrombocytopenia due to splenomegaly is one of the major complications in these patients and has to be corrected before pregnancy. Platelet transfusion is required intrapartum if the count is less than 50,000/mm3 caesarean delivery is reserved only for obstetric indications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3213-3215

  7. Configurable Transmitter and Systolic Channel Estimator Architectures for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero-Aguirre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a configurable superimposed training (ST/data-dependent ST (DDST transmitter and architecture based on array processors (APs for DDST channel estimation are presented. Both architectures, designed under full-hardware paradigm, were described using Verilog HDL, targeted in Xilinx Virtex-5 and they were compared with existent approaches. The synthesis results showed a FPGA slice consumption of 1% for the transmitter and 3% for the estimator with 160 and 115 MHz operating frequencies, respectively. The signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR performance of the transmitter is about 82 dB to support 4/16/64-QAM modulation. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the mean square error (MSE of the channel estimator implemented in hardware is practically the same as the one obtained with the floating-point golden model. The high performance and reduced hardware of the proposed architectures lead to the conclusion that the DDST concept can be applied in current communications standards.

  8. Research on a Composite Power-Superimposed Ultrasonic Vibrator for Wire Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration power and amplitude are essential factors in ultrasonic drawing processes, especially for difficult-to-draw materials like titanium and its alloys. This paper presents a new composite power-superimposed ultrasonic vibrator for wire drawing which was driven by three separate ultrasonic transducers. The transducers were uniformly distributed around the circular cross section of the vibrator, with their axes along the radial direction and pointing to the center. The vibrator can concentrate the vibrational energy of multiple transducers and transform the radial vibration into a longitudinal vibrator because of the Poisson effect and therefore output larger vibration power and amplitude. In the paper, the four-terminal network method was used to establish the vibration equations of the vibrator. The FE model was established in ANSYS to investigate its characteristics under various excitation conditions. A prototype was manufactured and measurements were performed to verify the validation of FEA results. The results matched well with the theoretical results. It was found that the composite vibrator achieved an amplitude of about 40 μm when driven by square wave signals with 120° in phase difference, which implies a potential way of applying ultrasonic vibration to the processing of difficult-to-draw materials.

  9. Optimal Superimposed Training Sequences for Channel Estimation in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnam V. Raja Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an iterative time domain Least Squares (LS based channel estimation method using superimposed training (ST for a Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM system over time varying frequency selective fading channels is proposed. The performance of the channel estimator is analyzed in terms of the Mean Square Estimation Error (MSEE and its impact on the uncoded Bit Error Rate (BER of the MIMO-OFDM system is studied. A new selection criterion for the training sequences that jointly optimizes the MSEE and the BER of the OFDM system is proposed. Chirp based sequences are proposed and shown to satisfy the same. These are compared with the other sequences proposed in the literature and are found to yield a superior performance. The sequences, one for each transmitting antenna, offers fairness through providing equal interference in all the data carriers unlike earlier proposals. The effectiveness of the mathematical analysis presented is demonstrated through a comparison with the simulation studies. Experimental studies are carried out to study and validate the improved performance of the proposed scheme. The scheme is applied to the IEEE 802.16e OFDM standard and a case is made with the required design of the sequence.

  10. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  11. Galeazzi fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2011-10-01

    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  12. Discrete mathematics with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  13. Discrete torsion defects

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Ilka; Plencner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Orbifolding two-dimensional quantum field theories by a symmetry group can involve a choice of discrete torsion. We apply the general formalism of `orbifolding defects' to study and elucidate discrete torsion for topological field theories. In the case of Landau-Ginzburg models only the bulk sector had been studied previously, and we re-derive all known results. We also introduce the notion of `projective matrix factorisations', show how they naturally describe boundary and defect sectors, and we further illustrate the efficiency of the defect-based approach by explicitly computing RR charges. Roughly half of our results are not restricted to Landau-Ginzburg models but hold more generally, for any topological field theory. In particular we prove that for a pivotal bicategory, any two objects of its orbifold completion that have the same base are orbifold equivalent. Equivalently, from any orbifold theory (including those based on nonabelian groups) the original unorbifolded theory can be be obtained by orbifo...

  14. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Fernando; de Diego, David Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher-dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical and a practical examples, e.g. the control of an underwater vehicle, will illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  15. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Fernando; Kobilarov, Marin; Martín de Diego, David

    2013-06-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, and underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical examples and a practical one, the control of an underwater vehicle, illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  16. Discrete dynamical models

    CERN Document Server

    Salinelli, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the analysis of discrete dynamical systems. The content is presented by an unitary approach that blends the perspective of mathematical modeling together with the ones of several discipline as Mathematical Analysis, Linear Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Systems Theory and Probability. After a preliminary discussion of several models, the main tools for the study of linear and non-linear scalar dynamical systems are presented, paying particular attention to the stability analysis. Linear difference equations are studied in detail and an elementary introduction of Z and Discrete Fourier Transform is presented. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of bifurcations and chaotic dynamics. One-step vector-valued dynamical systems are the subject of three chapters, where the reader can find the applications to positive systems, Markov chains, networks and search engines. The book is addressed mainly to students in Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Economic...

  17. Time Discretization Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, S.

    2016-10-12

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include multistep, multistage, or multiderivative methods, as well as a combination of these approaches. The time step constraint is mainly a result of the absolute stability requirement, as well as additional conditions that mimic physical properties of the solution, such as positivity or total variation stability. These conditions may be required for stability when the solution develops shocks or sharp gradients. This chapter contains a review of some of the methods historically used for the evolution of hyperbolic PDEs, as well as cutting edge methods that are now commonly used.

  18. Linearity stabilizes discrete breathers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Krishna Mohan; Surajit Sen

    2011-11-01

    The study of the dynamics of 1D chains with both harmonic and nonlinear interactions, as in the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) and related problems, has played a central role in efforts to identify the broad consequences of nonlinearity in these systems. Here we study the dynamics of highly localized excitations, or discrete breathers, which are known to be initiated by the quasistatic stretching of bonds between adjacent particles. We show via dynamical simulations that acoustic waves introduced by the harmonic term stabilize the discrete breather by suppressing the breather’s tendency to delocalize and disperse. We conclude that the harmonic term, and hence acoustic waves, are essential for the existence of localized breathers in these systems.

  19. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  20. Fracture Blisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing, Claire M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fracture blisters are a relatively uncommon complication of fractures in locations of the body, such as the ankle, wrist elbow and foot, where skin adheres tightly to bone with little subcutaneous fat cushioning. The blister that results resembles that of a second degree burn.These blisters significantly alter treatment, making it difficult to splint or cast and often overlying ideal surgical incision sites. Review of the literature reveals no consensus on management; however, most authors agree on early treatment prior to blister formation or delay until blister resolution before attempting surgical correction or stabilization. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1;131-133.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    Full Text Available Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM, mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuliang; Ren, Long; Meng, Fankun; Xu, Chen; Wang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM), mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP) and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing.

  3. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Fosson, Sophie; Magli, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, an...

  4. Discrete Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the discrete quantum mechanics with the pure imaginary shifts and the real shifts is presented in parallel with the corresponding results in the ordinary quantum mechanics. The main subjects to be covered are the factorised Hamiltonians, the general structure of the solution spaces of the Schroedinger equation (Crum's theorem and its modification), the shape invariance, the exact solvability in the Schroedinger picture as well as in the Heisenberg picture, the creati...

  5. Comparison of different modeling approaches to simulate contaminant transport in a fractured limestone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Rosenberg, L.; Balbarini, Nicola

    approaches have been developed to describe contaminant transport in fractured media, such as the discrete fracture (with various fracture geometries), equivalent porous media (with and without anisotropy), and dual porosity models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for limestone geologies...... of field data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias towards fracture sampling, however concentrations in the limestone matrix are needed for assessing contaminant...

  6. Poly-phase salt tectonics and hydrocarbon accumulation in Tarim superimposed basin, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liangjie; JIN Zhijun; JlA Chengzao; PI Xuejun; CHEN Suping

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the poly-phase salt tectonics and its relation to the hydrocarbon accumulation of the Tarim superimposed basin. Several salt sequences are developed in the Tarim basin, they are: (1) the Mid-Early Cambrian salt sequence, mainly distributed in the west part of the north Tarim uplift and Keping uplift; (2) the Early Carboniferous salt sequence, mainly distributed in the south slope of the north Tarim uplift; (3) the Paleogene salt sequence, mainly distributed in the mid-west part of the Kuqa foreland fold belt and north Tarim uplift; and (4) the Miocene salt sequence, mainly distributed in the east part of the Kuqa foreland fold belt. The salt sequences deposited in the tectonically calm scenario, while the salt layers deformed during the period of intense tectonism. Although the salt sequences are characteristic of plastic flow, the differences of salt deformation styles exist in the different salt sequences because of the different deformation mechanism. It is attractive that the distribution of the large oil-gas fields or pools has a bearing upon the salt sequences and salt structures, such as the Tahe oilfield related to the Lower Carboniferous salt sequence and laterally facies changed mudstone, the Kela No.2 gas field to the Paleogene salt structures, and the Dina gas field to the Miocene salt structures. It is indicated that the large-scale hydrocarbon accumulation is controlled by the poly-phase salt sequences and structures. The deep analysis of the poly-phase salt tectonics is helpful to understanding the characteristics of the structural deformation and oil-gas accumulation of the Tarim basin.

  7. [Tubeless superimposed high frequency jet ventilation in high grade laryngeal stenoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloy, A; Kimla, T; Schragl, E; Donner, A; Grasl, M

    1994-08-01

    Massive stenosis of the larynx may present a potentially life-threatening situation for the patient, requiring immediate measures to ensure a patient's airway. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate potential benefits of Superimposed High Frequency Jet Ventilation (SHFJV) in patients requiring microlaryngeal surgery due to massive stenosis of the larynx. 23 patients (age range 1.5 to 90 years) with laryngeal stenosis grade 2 and 3 according to the Cotton scale were ventilated using SHFJV. The duration of the SHFJV was 12 to 116 minutes. SHFJV was performed using a Bronchotron Respirator via a jet-laryngoscope. Arterial blood gases demonstrated paO2 between 71 and 295 mmHg and paCO2 of 28 to 81 mmHg. The mean FiO2 applied was 61.75 +/- 19.26. The airway pressure was measured at the tip of the jet-laryngoscope and was between 6 and 15 mmHg, and PEEP was 1 to 5 mmHg. In 13 patients a CO2 laser was utilised during surgery. In all patients SHFJV was performed without problems. Since the ventilation is delivered above any possible stenosis the danger of barotrauma is minimised. The surgeon obtains optimal visibility of the larynx and is not obstructed in the surgical procedure. SHFJV enables both the surgeon and the anesthetist to perform their respective duties and therefore increases the safety of the patient in the management of such a difficult problem as massive stenosis of the larynx.

  8. Incidence and pregnancy outcomes of superimposed preeclampsia with or without proteinuria among women with chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Sayuri; Aoki, Shigeru; Nagashima, Ami; Seki, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and pregnancy outcomes of superimposed preeclampsia (PE) with or without proteinuria among women with chronic hypertension. This retrospective study included 142 women with essential hypertension diagnosed at ⩽20weeks of gestation, managed at a tertiary center. They were divided into three groups (non-PE, PE with proteinuria, and PE without proteinuria) to compare pregnancy outcomes. The non-PE group was further divided into two subgroups (controlled and uncontrolled hypertension). There were 87 women in the non-PE group, 47 in the PE with proteinuria group, and 8 in the PE without proteinuria group. Median gestational age at delivery was 38.7weeks in the non-PE group, 30.4 in the PE with proteinuria group, and 28.4 in the PE without proteinuria group. In three of the women in the PE without proteinuria group, the diagnostic criteria were fulfilled by liver involvement (complicated by thrombocytopenia in one woman). The remaining five women had uteroplacental dysfunction. The 87 women in the non-PE group were divided into a controlled hypertension subgroup of 75 women and uncontrolled hypertension subgroup of 12. The median gestational age at delivery was 39.1weeks in the controlled HT subgroup and 34.1weeks in the uncontrolled hypertension subgroup. The pregnancy outcomes were significantly poorer in the latter group. Pregnancy outcomes were unfavorable in both the PE without proteinuria and PE with proteinuria groups. Women with non-PE uncontrolled hypertension also had poor pregnancy outcomes, although their outcomes were better than those of women with PE. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  10. A New Catalogue of Fine Structures Superimposed on Solar Microwave Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Jun Fu; Yi-Hua Yan; Yu-Ying Liu; Min Wang; Shu-Juan Wang

    2004-01-01

    The 2.6-3.8 GHz, 4.5-7.5 GHz, 5.2-7.6 GHz and 0.7-1.5 GHz component spectrometers of Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS) started routine observations, respectively, in late August 1996, August 1999, August 1999, and June 2000. They just managed to catch the coming 23rd solar active maximum. Consequently, a large amount of microwave burst data with high temporal and high spectral resolution and high sensitivity were obtained. A variety of fine structures (FS)superimposed on microwave bursts have been found. Some of them are known, such as microwave type Ⅲ bursts, microwave spike emission, but these were observed with more detail; some are new. Reported for the first time here are microwave type U bursts with similar spectral morphology to those in decimetric and metric wavelengths, and with outstanding characteristics such as very short durations(tens to hundreds ms), narrow bandwidths, higher frequency drift rates and higher degrees of polarization. Type N and type M bursts were also observed. Detailed zebra pattern and fiber bursts at the high frequency were found. Drifting pulsation structure (DPS) phenomena closely associated with CME are considered to manifest the initial phase of the CME, and quasi-periodic pulsation with periods of tens ms have been recorded. Microwave "patches", unlike those reported previously, were observed with very short durations (about 300 ms), very high flux densities (up to 1000 sfu), very high polarization (about 100% RCP), extremely narrow bandwidths(about 5%), and very high spectral indexes. These cannot be interpreted with the gyrosynchrotron process. A superfine structure in the form of microwave FS (ZPS,type U), consisting of microwave millisecond spike emission (MMS), was also found.

  11. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging.

  12. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ... serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist ... When one of these hand bones is broken (fractured), it can prevent you ...

  13. Fracture source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The fracture properties of many different types of fibers are covered in a timely new book that will prove to be a tremendous source of information and references for researchers in the wide and diverse field of fibers and composites, says Bill Clegg.

  14. Rib Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... or a collapsed lung (pneumothorax—see Traumatic Pneumothorax ). An injury that fractures the lower ribs sometimes also damages the liver (see Liver ...

  15. [Thoracolumbar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freslon, M; Bouaka, D; Coipeau, P; Defossez, G; Leclercq, N; Nebout, J; Marteau, E; Poilbout, N; Prebet, R

    2008-06-01

    Thoracolumbar fractures are frequent and the functional outcomes are sometimes severe. This multicentric study, including five medical centers, was performed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the patients. One hundred and thirty six patients with thoracolumbar fracture (T11 to L2) was evaluated with a minimal follow-up of two years. Every one had a clinical exam with a score of Oswestry and an X-Ray study (before and after treatment and at revision). Most of them presented compression fractures, the most often at L1 level. On X-rays, a gain was noted on the vertebral kyphosis immediately after surgery, but there is a loss of correction over time whatever the treatment. The clinical outcomes for the patients were great, with an Oswestry average score of 6,4. A correlation was noted between this functional score and vertebral kyphosis. So, an anterior column strengthening (isolated or performed during the surgery) could improve these functional outcomes. Moreover, the Thoraco Lumbar Injury Severity Score (TLISS) seems to be a simple organigram to determine the most appropriate treatment of these fractures, with particular attention to the distraction mechanism or posterior ligamentous complex lesions. However, RMI before surgery is necessary to evaluate these lesions.

  16. Efficient and robust compositional two-phase reservoir simulation in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, A.; Firoozabadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Compositional and compressible two-phase flow in fractured media has wide applications including CO2 injection. Accurate simulations are currently based on the discrete fracture approach using the cross-flow equilibrium model. In this approach the fractures and a small part of the matrix blocks are combined to form a grid cell. The major drawback is low computational efficiency. In this work we use the discrete-fracture approach to model the fractures where the fracture entities are described explicitly in the computational domain. We use the concept of cross-flow equilibrium in the fractures (FCFE). This allows using large matrix elements in the neighborhood of the fractures. We solve the fracture transport equations implicitly to overcome the Courant-Freidricks-Levy (CFL) condition in the small fracture elements. Our implicit approach is based on calculation of the derivative of the molar concentration of component i in phase (cαi ) with respect to the total molar concentration (ci ) at constant volume V and temperature T. This contributes to significant speed up of the code. The hybrid mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve for the velocity in both the matrix and the fractures coupled with the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve the species transport equations in the matrix, and a finite volume (FV) discretization in the fractures. In large scale problems the proposed approach is orders of magnitude faster than the existing models.

  17. Multi-scale approach to invasion percolation of rock fracture networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, Ali N; Araújo, Nuno A M; Herrmann, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    A multi-scale scheme for the invasion percolation of rock fracture networks with heterogeneous fracture aperture fields is proposed. Inside fractures, fluid transport is calculated on the finest scale and found to be localized in channels as a consequence of the aperture field. The channel network is characterized and reduced to a vectorized artificial channel network (ACN). Different realizations of ACNs are used to systematically calculate efficient apertures for fluid transport inside differently sized fractures as well as fracture intersection and entry properties. Typical situations in fracture networks are parameterized by fracture inclination, flow path length along the fracture and intersection lengths in the entrance and outlet zones of fractures. Using these scaling relations obtained from the finer scales, we simulate the invasion process of immiscible fluids into saturated discrete fracture networks, which were studied in previous works.

  18. The hydraulic fracturing of geothermal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naceur, K. Ben; Economides, M.J.; Schlumberger, Dowell

    1988-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been attempted in geothermal formations as a means to stimulate both production and injection wells. Since most geothermal formations contain fissures and on occasion massive natural fissures, the production behavior of the man-made fractures results in certain characteristic trends. A model is offered that allows the presence of a finite or infinite conductivity fracture intercepting a fissured medium. The method is based on a numerical discretization of the formation allowing transient interporosity flow. Type curves for pressure drawdown and cumulative production are given for infinite acting and closed reservoirs. Since most of the fissured formations exhibit a degree of anisotropy, the effects of the orientation of the hydraulic fracture with respect to the fissure planes, and of the ratio between the directional permeabilities are then discussed. Guidelines are offered as to the size of appropriate stimulation treatments based on the observed fissured behavior of the reservoir.

  19. Discrete epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Fred; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical theory of single outbreak epidemic models really began with the work of Kermack and Mackendrick about decades ago. This gave a simple answer to the long-standing question of why epidemics woould appear suddenly and then disappear just as suddenly without having infected an entire population. Therefore it seemed natural to expect that theoreticians would immediately proceed to expand this mathematical framework both because the need to handle recurrent single infectious disease outbreaks has always been a priority for public health officials and because theoreticians often try to push the limits of exiting theories. However, the expansion of the theory via the inclusion of refined epidemiological classifications or through the incorporation of categories that are essential for the evaluation of intervention strategies, in the context of ongoing epidemic outbreaks, did not materialize. It was the global threat posed by SARS in that caused theoreticians to expand the Kermack-McKendrick single-outbreak framework. Most recently, efforts to connect theoretical work to data have exploded as attempts to deal with the threat of emergent and re-emergent diseases including the most recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, have marched to the forefront of our global priorities. Since data are collected and/or reported over discrete units of time, developing single outbreak models that fit collected data naturally is relevant. In this note, we introduce a discrete-epidemic framework and highlight, through our analyses, the similarities between single-outbreak comparable classical continuous-time epidemic models and the discrete-time models introduced in this note. The emphasis is on comparisons driven by expressions for the final epidemic size.

  20. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  1. 3D mode discrete element method with the elastoplastic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional mode-deformable discrete element method (3MDEM) is an extended distinct element approach under the assumptions of small strain,finite displacement,and finite rotation of blocks.The deformation of blocks is expressed by the combination of the deformation modes in 3MDEM.In this paper,the elastoplastic constitutive relationship of blocks is implemented on the 3MDEM platform to simulate the integrated process from elasticity to plasticity and finally to fracture.To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional criterion for contact fracturing,a new criterion based on plastic strain is introduced.This approach is verified by two numerical examples.Finally,a cantilever beam is simulated as a comprehensive case study,which went through elastic,elastoplastic,and discontinuous fracture stages.

  2. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia Strongly Predicts Worse Outcomes in Older Rehabilitation Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel; Fick, Donna M.; Turco, Renato; Boustani, Malaz; Lucchi, Elena; Guerini, Fabio; Morghen, Sara; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Gentile, Simona; MacLullich, Alasdair M.; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is common in many settings. Nonetheless, little is known about the association between DSD and clinical outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate the association between DSD and related adverse outcomes at discharge from rehabilitation and at 1-year follow-up in older inpatients undergoing rehabilitation. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Hospital rehabilitation unit. Participants A total of 2642 patients aged 65 years or older admitted between January 2002 and December 2006. Measurements Dementia predating rehabilitation admission was detected by DSM-III-R criteria. Delirium was diagnosed with the DSM-IV-TR. The primary outcome was that of walking dependence (Barthel Index mobility subitem score of <15) captured as a trajectory from discharge to 1-year follow-up. A mixed-effects multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between DSD and outcome, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes were institutionalization and mortality at 1-year follow-up, and logistic regression models were used to analyze these associations. Results The median age was 77 years (interquartile range: 71–83). The prevalence of DSD was 8%, and the prevalence of delirium and dementia alone were 4% and 22%, respectively. DSD at admission was found to be significantly associated with almost a 15-fold increase in the odds of walking dependence (odds ratio [OR] 15.5; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.6–42.7; P < .01). DSD was also significantly associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of institutionalization (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.8–8.9; P < .01) and an almost twofold increase in the risk of mortality (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8; P = .01). Conclusions DSD is a strong predictor of functional dependence, institutionalization, and mortality in older patients admitted to a rehabilitation setting, suggesting that strategies to detect DSD routinely in practice should be developed and DSD should

  3. Impact of Stress on Anomalous Transport in Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P. K.; Lei, Q.; Lee, S.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport in fractured rock controls many natural and engineered processes in the subsurface. However, characterizing flow and transport through fractured media is challenging due to the large heterogeneity of fractured rock properties. In addition to these "static" challenges, geologic fractures are always under significant overburden stress, and changes in the stress state can lead to changes in the fracture's ability to conduct fluids. While confining stress has been shown to impact fluid flow through fractures in a fundamental way, the impact of confining stress on transport through fractured rock remains largely unexplored. The link between anomalous (non-Fickian) transport and confining stress has been shown only recently, at the level of a single rough fracture [1]. Here, we investigate the impact of confining stress on flow and transport through discrete fracture networks. We model geomechanical effects in 2D fractured rock by means of a finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM), which can capture the deformation of matrix blocks, reactivation and propagation of cracks. We implement a joint constitutive model within the FEMDEM framework to simulate the effect of fracture roughness. We apply the model to a fracture network extracted from the geological map of an actual outcrop to obtain the aperture field at different stress conditions (Figure 1). We then simulate fluid flow and particle transport through the stressed fracture networks. We observe that anomalous transport emerges in response to confining stress on the fracture networks, and show that this anomalous behavior can be linked to the stress state of the rock. Finally, we develop an effective transport model that captures the anomalous transport through stressed fractures. Our results point to a heretofore unrecognized link between geomechanics and anomalous transport in discrete fractured networks. [1] P. K. Kang, S. Brown, and R. Juanes, Emergence of anomalous transport in stressed

  4. Tidal reorientation and the fracturing of Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1986-01-01

    The lineaments on Europa are discussed in terms of the orientation of the lineaments relative to the tensile stress trajectories due to tidal distortions and to nonsynchronous rotation. The cracks are noticeable by their darker albedo compared to the presumed water ice surrounding them. The stress trajectories for tidal distortion of a thin elastic shell are superimposed on Mercator projection maps of the lineaments. It is shown that the lineaments are mainly oriented at high angles to the tensile stress trajectories that would be expected for regularly occurring nonsynchronous rotation, i.e., extensional fractures would appear. The reorientation motions which would cause the fractures are estimated. It is suggested that the fractures occur episodically to release stresses built up on the tensile surface of the crust during the continuous nonsynchronous rotation of Europa.

  5. Superimposed epitopes restricted by the same HLA molecule drive distinct HIV-specific CD8+ T cell repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Shi, Yi; Kuse, Nozomi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Appay, Victor; Gao, George F; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2014-07-01

    Superimposed epitopes, in which a shorter epitope is embedded within a longer one, can be presented by the same HLA class I molecule. CD8(+) CTL responses against such epitopes and the contribution of this phenomenon to immune control are poorly characterized. In this study, we examined HLA-A*24:02-restricted CTLs specific for the superimposed HIV Nef epitopes RYPLTFGWCF (RF10) and RYPLTFGW (RW8). Unexpectedly, RF10-specific and RW8-specific CTLs from HIV-1-infected HLA-A*24:02+ individuals had no overlapping Ag reactivity or clonotypic compositions. Single-cell TCR sequence analyses demonstrated that RF10-specific T cells had a more diverse TCR repertoire than did RW8-specific T cells. Furthermore, RF10-specific CTLs presented a higher Ag sensitivity and HIV suppressive capacity compared with RW8-specific CTLs. Crystallographic analyses revealed important structural differences between RF10- and RW8-HLA-A*24:02 complexes as well, with featured and featureless conformations, respectively, providing an explanation for the induction of distinct T cell responses against these epitopes. The present study shows that a single viral sequence containing superimposed epitopes restricted by the same HLA molecule could elicit distinct CD8+ T cell responses, therefore enhancing the control of HIV replication. This study also showed that a featured epitope (e.g., RF10) could drive the induction of T cells with high TCR diversity and affinity. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Difference Discrete Variational Principle in Discrete Mechanics and Symplectic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xu-Dong; GUO Han-Ying; LI Yu-Qi; WU Ke

    2004-01-01

    We propose the difference discrete variational principle in discrete mechanics and symplectic algorithmwith variable step-length of time in finite duration based upon a noncommutative differential calculus established inthis paper. This approach keeps both symplecticity and energy conservation discretely. We show that there exists thediscrete version of the Euler-Lagrange cohomology in these discrete systems. We also discuss the solution existencein finite time-length and its site density in continuous limit, and apply our approach to the pendulum with periodicperturbation. The numerical results are satisfactory.

  7. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  8. Discrete Element Method, a Tool to Investigate Complex Material Behaviour in Material Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Iordanoff, Ivan; Iliescu, Daniel; Charles, Jean-Luc; NÉAUPORT, Jérome

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Discrete Model is based on the description of the physical state (velocity, position, temperature, magnetic moment, electric potential ..) of a large number of discrete elements that form the media to be studied. It is not based on a continuous description of the media. Then, it is particularly well adapted to describe media evolution driven by discontinuous phenomena : - multi fracturation problems like abrasion process and composite machining, - description of multi ...

  9. Dependence of Upscaled Effective Permeability Upon Fracture Orientation and Connectivity in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulamali, M. Y.; Matthai, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Although geologically informed models of hydrocarbon reservoirs are available at relatively high resolution, i.e. the pore scale, numerical reservoir simulators require descriptions at a larger scale, i.e. the grid-block scale, in order to produce exploitable information about the reservoir. This process, known as upscaling, is especially complicated, yet relevant, in the case of naturally fractured reservoirs which contain over half of the global hydrocarbon reserves, and are extremely heterogeneous, exhibiting complicated multiphase flow behaviour at all scales. In this work we study the effect of discrete fracture networks upon the upscaled effective permeability of the system, using a sophisticated numerical pressure-solver method based upon a finite element-finite volume scheme. We begin by examining an idealized scenario consisting of a single discrete fracture in two dimensions, and show how the upscaled effective permeability is a non-additive property. This investigation is extended to real fracture networks using outcrop data, where we find the upscaled effective permeability to be dependent upon the orientation and connectivity of the fracture network. Finally, we present our ideas for examining the influence of three dimensional fractures upon upscaled reservoir parameters.

  10. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  11. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  12. Basalt microlapilli in deep sea sediments of Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Iyer, S.D.

    Two cores recovered from the flanks of Mid-India oceanic ridge in the vicinity of Vityaz fracture zone consist of discrete pyroclastic layers at various depths. These layers are composed of coarse-grained, angular basaltic microlapilli in which...

  13. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of two-dimensional fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. T.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through stochastically generated two-dimensional fracture networks. The centres and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow either a lognormal distribution or a power law distribution. We have considered the case where the fractures in the network each have the same aperture, as well as the case where the aperture of each fracture is directly proportional to the fracture length. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this conductivity using a simple estimation method that does not require extensive computation. For our calculations, fracture networks are represented as networks composed of conducting segments (bonds) between nodes. Each bond represents the region of a single fracture between two adjacent intersections with other fractures. We assume that the bonds are arranged on a kagome lattice, with some fraction of the bonds randomly missing. The conductance of each bond is then replaced with some effective conductance, Ceff, which we take to be the arithmetic mean of the individual conductances, averaged over each bond, rather than over each fracture. This is in contrast to the usual approximation used in effective medium theories, wherein the geometric mean is used. Our

  14. Discrete R Symmetries and Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dine(Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Santa Cruz CA 95064, U.S.A.); Angelo Monteux(Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, U.S.A.)

    2012-01-01

    We comment on aspects of discrete anomaly conditions focussing particularly on $R$ symmetries. We review the Green-Schwarz cancellation of discrete anomalies, providing a heuristic explanation why, in the heterotic string, only the "model-independent dilaton" transforms non-linearly under discrete symmetries; this argument suggests that, in other theories, multiple fields might play a role in anomaly cancellations, further weakening any anomaly constraints at low energies. We provide examples...

  15. Simulation of Solute Flow and Transport in a Geostatistically Generated Fractured Porous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assteerawatt, A.; Helmig, R.; Haegland, H.; Bárdossy, A.

    2007-12-01

    Fractured aquifer systems have provided important natural resources such as petroleum, gas, water and geothermal energy and have also been recently under investigation for their suitability as storage sites for high-level nuclear waste. The resource exploitation and potential utilization have led to extensive studies aiming of understanding, characterizing and finally predicting the behavior of fractured aquifer systems. By applying a discrete model approach to study flow and transport processes, fractures are determined discretely and the effect of individual fractures can be explicitly investigated. The critical step for the discrete model is the generation of a representative fracture network since the development of flow paths within a fractured system strongly depends on its structure. The geostatistical fracture generation (GFG) developed in this study aims to create a representative fracture network, which combines the spatial structures and connectivity of a fracture network, and the statistical distribution of fracture geometries. The spatial characteristics are characterized from indicator fields, which are evaluated from fracture trace maps. A global optimization, Simulated annealing, is utilized as a generation technique and the spatial characteristics are formulated to its objective function. We apply the GFG to a case study at a Pliezhausen field block, which is a sandstone of a high fracture density. The generated fracture network from the GFG are compared with the statistically generated fracture network in term of structure and hydraulic behavior. As the GFG is based on a stochastic concept, several realizations of the same descriptions can be generated, hence, an overall behavior of the fracture-matrix system have to be investigated from various realizations which leads to a problem of computational demand. In order to overcome this problem, a streamline method for a solute transport in a fracture porous system is presented. The results obtained

  16. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Fosson, Sophie M.; Magli, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, and enables precise matching of directionality in each image block, achieving improved coding efficiency. The optimal rotation angles for SDCT can be represented as solution of a suitable rate-distortion (RD) problem. We propose iterative methods to search such solution, and we develop a fully fledged image encoder to practically compare our techniques with other competing transforms. Analytical and numerical results prove that SDCT outperforms both DCT and state-of-the-art directional transforms.

  17. Discrete Thermodynamics of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2007-01-01

    The paper offers a discrete thermodynamic model of lasers. Laser is an open system; its equilibrium is based on a balance of two thermodynamic forces, one related to the incoming pumping power and another to the emitted light. The basic expression for such equilibrium is a logistic map, graphical solutions to which are pitchfork bifurcation diagrams. As pumping force increases, the relative populations on the ground and lasing branches tend to zero and unity correspondingly. An interesting feature of this model is the line spectrum of the up and down transitions between the branches beyond bifurcation point. Even in a simple case of 2-level laser with only 2 possible transition types (up and down), the spectra look like sets of the line packets, starting well before the population inversion. This effect is an independent confirmation of the Einstein's prohibition on practical realization of 2-level laser. Multilevel lasers may be approached by employing the idea of thermodynamic activity for the emitting atom...

  18. Discrete anti-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, H. Pierre; Starson, Scott

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance, allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound.

  19. Discrete anti-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Starson, S. (STARSON Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs.

  20. Discrete Pearson distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, K.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shenton, L.R. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States); Kastenbaum, M.A. [Kastenbaum (M.A.), Basye, VA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.

  1. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration.

  2. A discrete, finite multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    McKenzie, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI) famously avoids the issue of wave function collapse. Different MWI trees representing the same quantum events can have different topologies, depending upon the observer. However, they are all isomorphic to the group of block universes containing all of the outcomes of all of the events, and so, in that sense, the group of block universes is a more fundamental representation. Different branches of the MWI tree, representing different universes in MWI, ultimately share the same quantum state in a common ancestor branch. This branching topology is incompatible with that of the Minkowski block universe; the resolution is to replace the branches with discrete, parallel block universes, each of which extends from the trunk to the outermost twigs. The number of universes in a branch is proportional to its thickness which, in turn, depends upon the absolute square of the probability amplitude for the state in that branch. Every quantum event may be represented by a kernel of unive...

  3. Modeling Electric Current Flow in 3D Fractured Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, S.; Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a variety of research fields and applications such as hydrogeology, hydrocarbon extraction and long-term storage of toxic waste. As fractures are highly conductive structures in comparison to the surrounding rock, their presence can be either an advantage or a drawback. For hydrocarbon extraction, fractures allow for quick and easy access to the resource whereas for toxic waste storage their presence increases the risk of leakage and migration of pollutants. In both cases, the identification of fracture network characteristics is an essential step. Recently, we have developed an approach for modeling electric current flow in 2D fractured media. This approach is based on a discrete-dual-porosity model where fractures are represented explicitly, the matrix is coarsely discretized into blocks, and current flow exchange between the fractures and matrix is analytically evaluated at the fracture-scale and integrated at the block-scale [1]. Although this approach has shown much promise and has proven its efficiency for 2D simulations, its extension to 3D remains to be addressed. To this end, we assume that fractures can be represented as two-dimensional finite planes embedded in the surrounding matrix, and we express analytically the distribution of electric potential at the fracture scale. This fracture-scale expression takes into account the electric-current-flow exchange with the surrounding matrix and flow conservation is enforced at the fracture intersections. The fracture-matrix exchange is then integrated at the matrix-block scale where the electric current flow conservation at the block boundaries is formulated with a modified finite volume method. With the objective of providing a low-computational-cost modeling approach adapted to 3D simulations in fractured media, our model is (i) validated and compared to existing modeling approaches and, (ii) used to evaluate the impact of the presence of fractures on

  4. Thermodynamics of discrete quantum processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Janet; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2013-03-01

    We define thermodynamic configurations and identify two primitives of discrete quantum processes between configurations for which heat and work can be defined in a natural way. This allows us to uncover a general second law for any discrete trajectory that consists of a sequence of these primitives, linking both equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations. Moreover, in the limit of a discrete trajectory that passes through an infinite number of configurations, i.e. in the reversible limit, we recover the saturation of the second law. Finally, we show that for a discrete Carnot cycle operating between four configurations one recovers Carnot's thermal efficiency.

  5. Principles of discrete time mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.

  6. A semi-analytical model for the flow behavior of naturally fractured formations with multi-scale fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pin; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Wu, Yonghui

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical model for the flow behavior of naturally fractured formations with multi-scale fracture networks. The model dynamically couples an analytical dual-porosity model with a numerical discrete fracture model. The small-scale fractures with the matrix are idealized as a dual-porosity continuum and an analytical flow solution is derived based on source functions in Laplace domain. The large-scale fractures are represented explicitly as the major fluid conduits and the flow is numerically modeled, also in Laplace domain. This approach allows us to include finer details of the fracture network characteristics while keeping the computational work manageable. For example, the large-scale fracture network may have complex geometry and varying conductivity, and the computations can be done at predetermined, discrete times, without any grids in the dual-porosity continuum. The validation of the semi-analytical model is demonstrated in comparison to the solution of ECLIPSE reservoir simulator. The simulation is fast, gridless and enables rapid model setup. On the basis of the model, we provide detailed analysis of the flow behavior of a horizontal production well in fractured reservoir with multi-scale fracture networks. The study has shown that the system may exhibit six flow regimes: large-scale fracture network linear flow, bilinear flow, small-scale fracture network linear flow, pseudosteady-state flow, interporosity flow and pseudoradial flow. During the first four flow periods, the large-scale fracture network behaves as if it only drains in the small-scale fracture network; that is, the effect of the matrix is negligibly small. The characteristics of the bilinear flow and the small-scale fracture network linear flow are predominantly determined by the dimensionless large-scale fracture conductivity. And low dimensionless fracture conductivity will generate large pressure drops in the large-scale fractures surrounding the wellbore. With

  7. Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiati, Jose A. E.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults. Methods and findings This was a prospective cohort study completed in the geriatric ward of a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 hospitalizations of acutely ill patients aged 60 y and over from January 2009 to June 2015. Main variables and measures included dementia and dementia severity (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Clinical Dementia Rating) and delirium (Confusion Assessment Method). Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital and time to death in 12 mo (for the discharged sample). Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission, and additional clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Cases were categorized into four groups (no delirium or dementia, dementia alone, delirium alone, and DSD). The no delirium/dementia group was defined as the referent category for comparisons, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders (sociodemographic information, medical history and physical examination data, functional and nutritional status, polypharmacy, and laboratory covariates). Overall, 61% were women and 39% had dementia, with a mean age of 80 y. Dementia alone was observed in 13% of the cases, with delirium alone in 21% and DSD in 26% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 8% for patients without delirium or dementia, 12% for patients with dementia alone, 29% for patients with delirium alone, and 32% for DSD patients (Pearson Chi-square = 112, p < 0.001). DSD and delirium alone were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios

  8. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  9. Effects of simplifying fracture network representation on inert chemical migration in fracture-controlled aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, T.P.; Shapiro, A.M.; Hill, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    While it is widely recognized that highly permeable 'large-scale' fractures dominate chemical migration in many fractured aquifers, recent studies suggest that the pervasive 'small-scale' fracturing once considered of less significance can be equally important for characterizing the spatial extent and residence time associated with transport processes. A detailed examination of chemical migration through fracture-controlled aquifers is used to advance this conceptual understanding. The influence of fracture structure is evaluated by quantifying the effects to transport caused by a systematic removal of fractures from three-dimensional discrete fracture models whose attributes are derived from geologic and hydrologic conditions at multiple field sites. Results indicate that the effects to transport caused by network simplification are sensitive to the fracture network characteristics, degree of network simplification, and plume travel distance, but primarily in an indirect sense since correlation to individual attributes is limited. Transport processes can be 'enhanced' or 'restricted' from network simplification meaning that the elimination of fractures may increase or decrease mass migration, mean travel time, dispersion, and tailing of the concentration plume. The results demonstrate why, for instance, chemical migration may not follow the classic advection-dispersion equation where dispersion approximates the effect of the ignored geologic structure as a strictly additive process to the mean flow. The analyses further reveal that the prediction error caused by fracture network simplification is reduced by at least 50% using the median estimate from an ensemble of simplified fracture network models, and that the error from network simplification is at least 70% less than the stochastic variability from multiple realizations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Fracture driven by a Thermal Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Pla, O

    1995-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments by Yuse and Sano (Nature, 362, 329 (1993)), we propose a discrete model of linear springs for studying fracture in thin and elastically isotropic brittle films. The method enables us to draw a map of the stresses in the material. Cracks generated by the model, imposing a moving thermal gradient in the material, can branch or wiggle depending on the driving parameters. The results may be used to compare with other recent theoretical work, or to design future experiments.

  11. Chopart fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, Kaj

    2004-09-01

    The Chopart articular space was described by François Chopart (1743-1795) as a practical space for amputations in cases of distal foot necrosis. It corresponds to the limit between the anatomical hind-foot and the mid-foot. The bones involved are the talus and the calcaneus proximally, and the navicular and the cuboid distally. This space thus holds two functionally distinct entities, the anterior part of the coxa pedis (an essential functional joint) and the calcaneo-cuboidal joint,which can be considered to be an "adaptive joint" within a normal foot. Trauma to this region may cause fractures and/or dislocations and, in high energy trauma,compartment syndromes. Principles of treatment are immediate reduction of dislocations and realignment of the medial and lateral column of the foot in length and orientation. Open reduction and internal fixation of talus and navicular fractures are often indicated to restore the "coxa pedis". Open reconstruction or fusion in correct length of the calcaneo-cuboidal joint is occasionally indicated. Salvage procedures in malunions include navicular osteotomies and calcaneo-cuboidal bone block fusions. Treatment of joint destructions, especially involving the talo-navicular joint, include triple arthrodesis.

  12. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...

  13. Discretization error of Stochastic Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Fukasawa, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Asymptotic error distribution for approximation of a stochastic integral with respect to continuous semimartingale by Riemann sum with general stochastic partition is studied. Effective discretization schemes of which asymptotic conditional mean-squared error attains a lower bound are constructed. Two applications are given; efficient delta hedging strategies with transaction costs and effective discretization schemes for the Euler-Maruyama approximation are constructed.

  14. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  15. Fractures of the distal radius (Colles' fracture)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    João Carlos Belloti; João Baptista Gomes dos Santos; Álvaro Nagib Atallah; Walter Manna Albertoni; Flavio Faloppa

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although Colles' fracture is a common clinical situation for the orthopedist, we did not find any information in the literature that would allow safe decision-making on the best treatment for each fracture type...

  16. Discretization and implicit mapping dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2015-01-01

    This unique book presents the discretization of continuous systems and implicit mapping dynamics of periodic motions to chaos in continuous nonlinear systems. The stability and bifurcation theory of fixed points in discrete nonlinear dynamical systems is reviewed, and the explicit and implicit maps of continuous dynamical systems are developed through the single-step and multi-step discretizations. The implicit dynamics of period-m solutions in discrete nonlinear systems are discussed. The book also offers a generalized approach to finding analytical and numerical solutions of stable and unstable periodic flows to chaos in nonlinear systems with/without time-delay. The bifurcation trees of periodic motions to chaos in the Duffing oscillator are shown as a sample problem, while the discrete Fourier series of periodic motions and chaos are also presented. The book offers a valuable resource for university students, professors, researchers and engineers in the fields of applied mathematics, physics, mechanics,...

  17. Simultaneous ultrafast optical pulse train bursts generation and shaping based on Fourier series developments using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Víctor; Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2007-08-20

    We propose an all-fiber method for the generation of ultrafast shaped pulse train bursts from a single pulse based on Fourier Series Developments (FDSs). The implementation of the FSD based filter only requires the use of a very simple non apodized Superimposed Fiber Bragg Grating (S-FBG) for the generation of the Shaped Output Pulse Train Burst (SOPTB). In this approach, the shape, the period and the temporal length of the generated SOPTB have no dependency on the input pulse rate.

  18. Recent developments in study of the typical superimposed basins and petroleum accumulation in China:Exemplified by the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhijun; WANG Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    Most of petroliferous sedimentary basins in China have experienced multiple phases of tectonic evolution and deposition, and are characterized by tectonic and depositional superimposition. The term "superimposed basin" is suggested to describe those basins which consist of two or more simple prototype basins superimposing vertically and/or coalescing laterally. The characteristics of petroliferous superimposed basins are "multiple stages of basin forming and reworking, multiple layers of source rocks, multiple periods of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, multiple periods of petroleum migration-accumulation-escape". Therefore,applying the wave process analysis method to studying the process of basin formation, hydrocarbon generation, and reservoir formation, and then establishing theory of "petroleum accumulation system" is helpful to enhancing petroleum exploration efficiency in superimposed basins.This paper will, based on case study in the Tarim basin, report the major developments in studying basin formation, hydrocarbon generation and petroleum accumulation. In study of basin formation, (1) geophysical comprehensive profiles reveal that the Tarim plate has been subducted beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt with an interfinger structure and that the deep structure in the eastern section of the Tianshan orogenic belt is different from that in the western section. (2) The vertical variation in debris and geochemical composition reveals the nature and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution history of the Kuqa Depression. (3) Field investigation and paleostress reconstruction show that the Kuqa Depression has undergone gravity-driven extension in sedimentary cover when the Tianshan uplifted vertically. In hydrocarbon generation study, new developments include (1) setting environmental index to judge high grade source rocks in marine carbonates, and (2) establishing the lower limit of the organic carbon content for effective carbonate source rocks. In petroleum accumulation

  19. Recent developments in study of the typical superimposed basins and petroleum accumulation in China: Exemplified by the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhijun; WANG; Qingchen

    2004-01-01

    Most of petroliferous sedimentary basins in China have experienced multiple phases of tectonic evolution and deposition, and are characterized by tectonic and depositional superimposition. The term "superimposed basin" is suggested to describe those basins which consist of two or more simple prototype basins superimposing vertically and/or coalescing laterally. The characteristics of petroliferous superimposed basins are "multiple stages of basin forming and reworking, multiple layers of source rocks, multiple periods of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, multiple periods of petroleum migration-accumulation-escape". Therefore,applying the wave process analysis method to studying the process of basin formation, hydrocarbon generation, and reservoir formation, and then establishing theory of "petroleum accumulation system" is helpful to enhancing petroleum exploration efficiency in superimposed basins.This paper will, based on case study in the Tarim basin, report the major developments in studying basin formation, hydrocarbon generation and petroleum accumulation. In study of basin formation, (1) geophysical comprehensive profiles reveal that the Tarim plate has been subducted beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt with an interfinger structure and that the deep structure in the eastern section of the Tianshan orogenic belt is different from that in the western section. (2) The vertical variation in debris and geochemical composition reveals the nature and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution history of the Kuqa Depression. (3) Field investigation and paleostress reconstruction show that the Kuqa Depression has undergone gravity-driven extension in sedimentary cover when the Tianshan uplifted vertically. In hydrocarbon generation study, new developments include (1) setting environmental index to judge high grade source rocks in marine carbonates, and (2) establishing the lower limit of the organic carbon content for effective carbonate source rocks. In petroleum accumulation

  20. Vulvar and Perianal Condyloma Superimposed Inflammatory Linear Verrucous Epidermal Nevus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyra Nergız Avcioğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus (ILVEN is a benign cutaneous hamartoma characterized by intensely erythematous, pruritic, and inflammatory papules that occur as linear bands along the lines of Blaschko. There is a considerable clinical and histological resemblance between ILVEN and linear psoriasis, lichen striatus, linear lichen planus, and invasion of epidermal nevus by psoriasis. The pathogenesis of ILVEN is unknown. It is regarded as a genetic dyskeratotic disease reflecting genetic mosaicism. Here, a case of vulvar and perianal condyloma superimposed ILVEN is presented.

  1. Using Standardized Case Vignettes to Evaluate Nursing Home Staff Recognition of Delirium and Delirium Superimposed on Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Donna M.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Hill, Nikki L.; Yevchak, Andrea; DiMeglio, Brittney; Mulhall, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe nursing home staff knowledge regarding delirium detection and the most common causes of delirium. Specific aims that guided this study include identifying the rate of nurse recognition of delirium and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD), including different motoric subtypes of delirium, using standardized case vignettes, and exploring what nursing home staff describe as the potential causes of delirium. The study showed overall poor recognition of delirium and DSD, which did not improve over time. Interventions have the potential to increase the early detection of delirium and DSD by the staff and warrant development. PMID:25400513

  2. Flow simulations in porous media with immersed intersecting fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrone, Stefano; Pieraccini, Sandra; Scialò, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    A novel approach for fully 3D flow simulations in porous media with immersed networks of fractures is presented. The method is based on the discrete fracture and matrix model, in which fractures are represented as two-dimensional objects in a three-dimensional porous matrix. The problem, written in primal formulation on both the fractures and the porous matrix, is solved resorting to the constrained minimization of a properly designed cost functional that expresses the matching conditions at fracture-fracture and fracture-matrix interfaces. The method, originally conceived for intricate fracture networks in impervious rock matrices, is here extended to fractures in a porous permeable rock matrix. The purpose of the optimization approach is to allow for an easy meshing process, independent of the geometrical complexity of the domain, and for a robust and efficient resolution tool, relying on a strong parallelism. The present work is devoted to the presentation of the new method and of its applicability to flow simulations in poro-fractured domains.

  3. Geomechanical paleostress inversion using fracture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerten, Laurent; Maerten, Frantz; Lejri, Mostfa; Gillespie, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We describe a fast geomechanically-based paleostress inversion technique that uses observed fracture data to constrain stress through multiple simulations. The method assumes that the local stress field around individual fractures is heterogeneous and derives the far field tectonic stress, that we also call the far field boundary conditions. We show how such far field tectonic stress can be recovered through a mechanical stress inversion technique using local observations of natural fractures (i.e. mechanical type, orientation and location). We test the paleostress inversion against outcrop analogues of fractured carbonates from both Nash Point, U.K., where there are well exposed faults and joints and the Matelles, France, where there are well exposed faults, veins and stylolites. We demonstrate through these case studies how the method can be efficiently applied to natural examples and we highlight its advantages and limitations. We discuss how such method could be applied to subsurface problems and how it can provide complementary constraints to drive discrete fracture models for better fractured reservoir characterization and modelling.

  4. Discrete Darboux transformation for discrete polynomials of hypergeometric type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerezako, Gaspard

    1998-03-01

    The Darboux transformation, well known in second-order differential operator theory, is applied to the difference equations satisfied by the discrete hypergeometric polynomials (Charlier, Meixner-Kravchuk, Hahn).

  5. Hydrologic Mechanisms Governing Fluid Flow in a Partially Saturated, Fractured, Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S. Y.; Narasimhan, T. N.

    1985-12-01

    In contrast to the saturated zone within which fluid moves rapidly along fractures, the fractures (with apertures large relative to the size of matrix pores) will desaturate first during the drainage process, and the bulk of fluid flow would be through interconnected pores in the matrix. Within a partially drained fracture, the presence of a relatively continuous air phase will produce practically an infinite resistance to liquid flow in the direction parallel to the fracture. The residual liquid will be held by capillary force, in regions around fracture contact areas where the apertures are small. Normal to the fracture surfaces, the drained portion of the fractures will reduce the effective area for liquid flow from one matrix block to another matrix block. A general statistical theory is constructed for flow along the fracture and for flow between the matrix blocks to the fractures under partially saturated conditions. Results are obtained from an aperture distribution model for fracture saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and effective matrix-fracture flow areas as functions of pressure. The effects of distortion of flow paths by the air pockets are taken into account by a phase-separation constriction factor in a generalized cubic law for fracture flow under a partially saturated condition. The reduction of matrix-fracture flow area is taken into account by summing the aperture distribution function to a saturation cutoff aperture, which is inversely proportional to the suction head. Drainage from a column of fractured tuff is simulated using available parameters for the densely welded tuff of the Topopah Spring Member at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada. The column is bounded by discrete vertical fractures and dissected by horizontal fractures with the fracture spacings determined by the frequencies and orientations of fractured cores. The fraction of fracture surfaces with coatings is assumed to correspond to the fraction of in situ fracture contact area

  6. The origin of discrete particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bastin, T

    2009-01-01

    This book is a unique summary of the results of a long research project undertaken by the authors on discreteness in modern physics. In contrast with the usual expectation that discreteness is the result of mathematical tools for insertion into a continuous theory, this more basic treatment builds up the world from the discrimination of discrete entities. This gives an algebraic structure in which certain fixed numbers arise. As such, one agrees with the measured value of the fine-structure constant to one part in 10,000,000 (10 7 ). Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (56 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction

  7. Fracture channel waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  8. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  9. Evaluation of modeling approaches to simulate contaminant transport in a fractured limestone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Broholm, Mette Martina

    contaminant transport in fractured media, such as discrete fracture, equivalent porous media, and dual continuum models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for real limestone geologies. Our goal is therefore to develop, evaluate and compare approaches for modeling transport of contaminants...... data is the determination of relevant hydraulic properties and interpretation of aqueous and solid phase contaminant concentration sampling data. Traditional water sampling has a bias towards fracture sampling; however, concentrations in the limestone matrix are needed for assessing contaminant rebound...

  10. Experimental investigation of SDBD plasma actuator driven by AC high voltage with a superimposed positive pulse bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Yan, Hui-Jie; Yang, Liang; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a driven voltage consisting of AC high voltage with a superimposed positive pulse bias voltage ("AC+ Positive pulse bias" voltage) is adopted to study the performance of a surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator under atmospheric conditions. To compare the performance of the actuator driven by single-AC voltage and "AC+ Positive pulse bias" voltage, the actuator-induced thrust force and power consumption are measured as a function of the applied AC voltage, and the measured results indicate that the thrust force can be promoted significantly after superimposing the positive pulse bias voltage. The physical mechanism behind the thrust force changes is analyzed by measuring the optical properties, electrical characteristics, and surface potential distribution. Experimental results indicate that the glow-like discharge in the AC voltage half-cycle, next to the cycle where a bias voltage pulse has been applied, is enhanced after applying the positive pulse bias voltage, and this perhaps is the main reason for the thrust force increase. Moreover, surface potential measurement results reveal that the spatial electric field formed by the surface charge accumulation after positive pulse discharge can significantly affect the applied external electric field, and this perhaps can be responsible for the experimental phenomenon that the decrease of thrust force is delayed by pulse bias voltage action after the filament discharge occurs in the glow-like discharge region. The schlieren images further verify that the actuator-induced airflow velocity increases with the positive pulse voltage.

  11. Combined multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting process to superimpose two porous networks for hierarchical three-dimensional microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica E; Hunger, Philipp M; Wang, Chengyang; Hamid, Qudus; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Sun, Wei

    2014-03-01

    An engineered three-dimensional scaffold with hierarchical porosity and multiple niche microenvironments is produced using a combined multi-nozzle deposition-freeze casting technique. In this paper we present a process to fabricate a scaffold with improved interconnectivity and hierarchical porosity. The scaffold is produced using a two-stage manufacturing process which superimposes a printed porous alginate (Alg) network and a directionally frozen ceramic-polymer matrix. The combination of two processes, multi-nozzle deposition and freeze casting, provides engineering control of the microenvironment of the scaffolds over several length scales; including the addition of lateral porosity and the ratio of polymer to ceramic microstructures. The printed polymer scaffold is submerged in a ceramic-polymer slurry and subsequently, both structures are directionally frozen (freeze cast), superimposing and patterning both microenvironments into a single hierarchical architecture. An optional additional sintering step removes the organic material and densifies the ceramic phase to produce a well-defined network of open pores and a homogenous cell wall material composition. The techniques presented in this contribution address processing challenges, such as structure definition, reproducibility and fine adjustments of unique length scales, which one typically encounters when fabricating topological channels between longitudinal and transverse porous networks.

  12. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.j.pontefract@sheffield.ac.uk; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  13. Understanding hydraulic fracturing: a multi-scale problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, J D; Jiménez-Martínez, J; Viswanathan, H S; Carey, J W; Porter, M L; Rougier, E; Karra, S; Kang, Q; Frash, L; Chen, L; Lei, Z; O'Malley, D; Makedonska, N

    2016-10-13

    Despite the impact that hydraulic fracturing has had on the energy sector, the physical mechanisms that control its efficiency and environmental impacts remain poorly understood in part because the length scales involved range from nanometres to kilometres. We characterize flow and transport in shale formations across and between these scales using integrated computational, theoretical and experimental efforts/methods. At the field scale, we use discrete fracture network modelling to simulate production of a hydraulically fractured well from a fracture network that is based on the site characterization of a shale gas reservoir. At the core scale, we use triaxial fracture experiments and a finite-discrete element model to study dynamic fracture/crack propagation in low permeability shale. We use lattice Boltzmann pore-scale simulations and microfluidic experiments in both synthetic and shale rock micromodels to study pore-scale flow and transport phenomena, including multi-phase flow and fluids mixing. A mechanistic description and integration of these multiple scales is required for accurate predictions of production and the eventual optimization of hydrocarbon extraction from unconventional reservoirs. Finally, we discuss the potential of CO2 as an alternative working fluid, both in fracturing and re-stimulating activities, beyond its environmental advantages.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  14. The impact of in-situ stress and outcrop-based fracture geometry on hydraulic aperture and upscaled permeability in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Nick, Hamidreza M.

    2016-10-01

    Aperture has a controlling impact on porosity and permeability and is a source of uncertainty in modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs. This uncertainty results from difficulties in accurately quantifying aperture in the subsurface and from a limited fundamental understanding of the mechanical and diagenetic processes that control aperture. In the absence of cement bridges and high pore pressure, fractures in the subsurface are generally considered to be closed. However, experimental work, outcrop analyses and subsurface data show that some fractures remain open, and that aperture varies even along a single fracture. However, most fracture flow models consider constant apertures for fractures. We create a stress-dependent heterogeneous aperture by combining Finite Element modeling of discrete fracture networks with an empirical aperture model. Using a modeling approach that considers fractures explicitly, we quantify equivalent permeability, i.e. combined matrix and stress-dependent fracture flow. Fracture networks extracted from a large outcropping pavement form the basis of these models. The results show that the angle between fracture strike and σ1 has a controlling impact on aperture and permeability, where hydraulic opening is maximum for an angle of 15°. At this angle, the fracture experiences a minor amount of shear displacement that allows the fracture to remain open even when fluid pressure is lower than the local normal stress. Averaging the heterogeneous aperture to scale up permeability probably results in an underestimation of flow, indicating the need to incorporate full aperture distributions rather than simplified aperture models in reservoir-scale flow models.

  15. Statistical analysis of fracture data, adapted for modelling Discrete Fracture Networks-Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond

    2004-04-01

    The report describes the parameters which are necessary for DFN modelling, the way in which they can be extracted from the data base acquired during site investigations, and their assignment to geometrical objects in the geological model. The purpose here is to present a methodology for use in SKB modelling projects. Though the methodology is deliberately tuned to facilitate subsequent DFN modelling with other tools, some of the recommendations presented here are applicable to other aspects of geo-modelling as well. For instance, we here recommend a nomenclature to be used within SKB modelling projects, which are truly multidisciplinary, to ease communications between scientific disciplines and avoid misunderstanding of common concepts. This report originally occurred as an appendix to a strategy report for geological modelling (SKB-R--03-07). Strategy reports were intended to be successively updated to include experience gained during site investigations and site modelling. Rather than updating the entire strategy report, we choose to present the update of the appendix as a stand-alone document. This document thus replaces Appendix A2 in SKB-R--03-07. In short, the update consists of the following: The target audience has been broadened and as a consequence thereof, the purpose of the document. Correction of errors found in various formulae. All expressions have been rewritten. Inclusion of more worked examples in each section. A new section describing area normalisation. A new section on spatial correlation. A new section describing anisotropy. A new chapter describing the expected output from DFN modelling, within SKB projects.

  16. Discrete geodesics and cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamical notion of discrete geodesics, understood as straightest trajectories in discretized curved spacetime. The notion is generic, as it is formulated in terms of a general deviation function, but readily specializes to metric spaces such as discretized pseudo-riemannian manifolds. It is effective: an algorithm for computing these geodesics naturally follows, which allows numerical validation---as shown by computing the perihelion shift of a Mercury-like planet. It is consistent, in the continuum limit, with the standard notion of timelike geodesics in a pseudo-riemannian manifold. Whether the algorithm fits within the framework of cellular automata is discussed at length. KEYWORDS: Discrete connection, parallel transport, general relativity, Regge calculus.

  17. Exact analysis of discrete data

    CERN Document Server

    Hirji, Karim F

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in fields ranging from biology and medicine to the social sciences, law, and economics regularly encounter variables that are discrete or categorical in nature. While there is no dearth of books on the analysis and interpretation of such data, these generally focus on large sample methods. When sample sizes are not large or the data are otherwise sparse, exact methods--methods not based on asymptotic theory--are more accurate and therefore preferable.This book introduces the statistical theory, analysis methods, and computation techniques for exact analysis of discrete data. After reviewing the relevant discrete distributions, the author develops the exact methods from the ground up in a conceptually integrated manner. The topics covered range from univariate discrete data analysis, a single and several 2 x 2 tables, a single and several 2 x K tables, incidence density and inverse sampling designs, unmatched and matched case -control studies, paired binary and trinomial response models, and Markov...

  18. Causal Dynamics of Discrete Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We formalize the intuitive idea of a labelled discrete surface which evolves in time, subject to two natural constraints: the evolution does not propagate information too fast; and it acts everywhere the same.

  19. Discrete Event Programming with Simkit

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Arnold

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to the use of Simkit, a software package for implementing Discrete Event Simulation (DES) models. Simkit is written in Java (for any operating system with Java 2TM ).

  20. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ömer Ünsal; Filiz Taşcan; Mehmet Naci Özer

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we show the attainability of KdV equation from some types of nonlinear Schrödinger equation by using multiscale expansions discretely. The power of this manageable method is confirmed by applying it to two selected nonlinear Schrödinger evolution equations. This approach can also be applied to other nonlinear discrete evolution equations. All the computations have been made with Maple computer packet program.

  1. Discrete solitons in graphene metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Bludov, Yuliy V.; Smirnova, Daria A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    We study nonlinear properties of multilayer metamaterials created by graphene sheets separated by dielectric layers. We demonstrate that such structures can support localized nonlinear modes described by the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and that its solutions are associated with stable discrete plasmon solitons. We also analyze the nonlinear surface modes in truncated graphene metamaterials being a nonlinear analog of surface Tamm states. Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnolog...

  2. Discrete solitons in graphene metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Smirnova, D. A.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear properties of multilayer metamaterials created by graphene sheets separated by dielectric layers. We demonstrate that such structures can support localized nonlinear modes described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and that its solutions are associated with stable discrete plasmon solitons. We also analyze the nonlinear surface modes in truncated graphene metamaterials being a nonlinear analog of surface Tamm states.

  3. [Periprosthetic Acetabulum Fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, A J; Stuby, F; de Zwart, P M; Ochs, B G

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to periprosthetic fractures of the femur, periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are rare complications - both primary fractures and fractures in revision surgery. This topic is largely under-reported in the literature; there are a few case reports and no long term results. Due to an increase in life expectancy, the level of patients' activity and the number of primary joint replacements, one has to expect a rise in periprosthetic complications in general and periprosthetic acetabular fractures in particular. This kind of fracture can be intra-, peri- or postoperative. Intraoperative fractures are especially associated with insertion of cementless press-fit acetabular components or revision surgery. Postoperative periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are usually related to osteolysis, for example, due to polyethylene wear. There are also traumatic fractures and fractures missed intraoperatively that lead to some kind of insufficiency fracture. Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are treated conservatively if the implant is stable and the fracture is not dislocated. If surgery is needed, there are many possible different surgical techniques and challenging approaches. That is why periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum should be treated by experts in pelvic surgery as well as revision arthroplasty and the features specific to the patient, fracture and prosthetic must always be considered. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Fracture Mechanics of an Elastic Softening Material like Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concrete is modelled as a linear elastic softening material and introduced into fracture mechanics. A discrete crack is considered with softening zones at the crack tips. Following the approach of Dugdale/Barenblatt, closing stresses are applied to the crack faces in the softening zone. The stresses

  5. Applied discrete-time queues

    CERN Document Server

    Alfa, Attahiru S

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...

  6. Micromechanical Aspects of Hydraulic Fracturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-torres, S. A.; Behraftar, S.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.; Williams, D.

    2014-12-01

    A micromechanical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic fracturing process. The model comprises two key components. Firstly, the solid matrix, assumed as a rock mass with pre-fabricated cracks, is represented by an array of bonded particles simulated by the Discrete Element Model (DEM)[1]. The interaction is ruled by the spheropolyhedra method, which was introduced by the authors previously and has been shown to realistically represent many of the features found in fracturing and communition processes. The second component is the fluid, which is modelled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). It was recently coupled with the spheropolyhedra by the authors and validated. An advantage of this coupled LBM-DEM model is the control of many of the parameters of the fracturing fluid, such as its viscosity and the injection rate. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first application of such a coupled scheme for studying hydraulic fracturing[2]. In this first implementation, results are presented for a two-dimensional situation. Fig. 1 shows one snapshot of the LBM-DEM coupled simulation for the hydraulic fracturing where the elements with broken bonds can be identified and the fracture geometry quantified. The simulation involves a variation of the underground stress, particularly the difference between the two principal components of the stress tensor, to explore the effect on the fracture path. A second study focuses on the fluid viscosity to examine the effect of the time scales of different injection plans on the fracture geometry. The developed tool and the presented results have important implications for future studies of the hydraulic fracturing process and technology. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., et al., Breaking processes in three-dimensional bonded granular materials with general shapes. Computer Physics Communications, 2012. 183(2): p. 266-277. 2. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the

  7. Origin of Permeability and Structure of Flows in Fractured Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreuzy, J.; Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Erhel, J.; Le Goc, R.; Maillot, J.; Meheust, Y.; Pichot, G.; Poirriez, B.

    2013-12-01

    its consequence for crustal hydromechanics, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 115, 13. de Dreuzy, J.-R., et al. (2012a), Influence of fracture scale heterogeneity on the flow properties of three-dimensional Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN), J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf., 117(B11207), 21 PP. de Dreuzy, J.-R., et al. (2012b), Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media, Computers and Geosciences(0). Pichot, G., et al. (2010), A Mixed Hybrid Mortar Method for solving flow in Discrete Fracture Networks, Applicable Analysis, 89(10), 1729-1643. Pichot, G., et al. (2012), Flow simulation in 3D multi-scale fractured networks using non-matching meshes, SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing (SISC), 34(1). Figure: (a) Fracture network with a broad-range of fracture lengths. (b) Flows (log-scale) with homogeneous fractures. (c) Flows (log-scale) with heterogeneous fractures [de Dreuzy et al., 2012a]. The impact of the fracture apertures (c) is illustrated on the organization of flows.

  8. An upscaling procedure for fractured reservoirs with embedded grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Alessio; Pasquale, Luca; Zonca, Stefano; Micheletti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Upscaling of geological models for reservoir simulation is an active and important area of research. In particular, we are interested in reservoirs where the rock matrix exhibits an intricate network of fractures, which usually acts as a preferential path to the flow. Accounting for fractures' contribution in the simulation of a reservoir is of paramount importance. Here we have focused on obtaining effective parameters (e.g., transmissibility) on a 3-D computational grid on the reservoir scale, which account for the presence, at a finer spatial scale, of fractures and a network of fractures. We have essentially followed the idea illustrated in Karimi-Fard et al. (2006), yet this work has some notable aspects of innovation in the way the procedure has been implemented, and in its capability to consider rather general corner-point grids, like the ones normally used in reservoir simulations in the industry, and complex and realistic fracture networks, possibly not fully connected inside the coarse cells. In particular, novel contribution is the employment of an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) for computing fracture-fracture and matrix-fracture transmissibilities, with a remarkable gain in speedup. The output is in the form of transmissibility that, although obtained by considering single-phase flow, can be used for coarse-scale multiphase reservoir simulations, also via industrial software, such as Eclipse, Intersect, or GPRS. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the numerical procedure which is now ready for further testing and industrialization.

  9. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

  10. Numerical Investigation on Stress Shadowing in Fluid Injection-Induced Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Zimmermann, Günter; Zang, Arno

    2015-07-01

    In low permeability shale reservoirs, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing is largely used to increase the productivity by enlarging the stimulated rock volume. Hydraulic fracture created alters the stress field around it, and affects the subsequent fractures by the change of the stress field, in particular, mostly increased minimum principal stress at the area of subsequent fracturing. This is called stress shadow which accumulates as the fracturing stages advance from toe to heel. Hydraulic fractures generated in such altered stress field are shorter and compact with orientation deviating significantly from the far-field maximum horizontal stress orientation. This paper presents 2D discrete element-based numerical modeling of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in a naturally fractured reservoir and investigates stress shadowing. The stress shadowing is tested with two different injection scenarios: constant and cyclic rate injections. The results show that cyclic injection tends to lower the effect of stress shadow as well as mitigates the magnitude of the induced seismicity. Another modeling case is presented to show how the stress shadow can be utilized to optimize a hydraulic fracture network in application to Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir, rather than being mitigated. The modeling demonstrated that the stress shadow is successfully utilized for optimizing the geothermal heat exchanger by altering the initial in situ stress field from highly anisotropic to less or even to isotropic.

  11. Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the

  12. The algorithm of decomposing superimposed 2-D Poisson processes and its application to the extracting earthquake clustering pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴韬; 周成虎; 杨明; 骆剑承; 李全林

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the complexity of seismic gestation mechanism and spatial distribution, we hypothesize that the seismic data are composed of background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes in a certain temporal-spatial scope. Also the background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes both satisfy the 2-D Poisson process of different parameters respectively. In the paper, the concept of N-th order distance is introduced in order to transform 2-D superimposed Poisson process into 1-D mixture density function. On the basis of choosing the distance, mixture density function is decomposed to recognize the anomaly earthquakes through genetic algorithm. Combined with the temporal scanning of C value, the algorithm is applied to the recognition on spatial pattern of foreshock anomalies by examples of Songpan and Longling sequences in the southwest of China.

  13. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  14. Fracture Criterion for Fracture Mechanics of Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘灏; 杨文涛

    2003-01-01

    The applicability and limitation of some fracture criteria in the fracture mechanics of magnets are studied.It is shown that the magnetic field intensity factor can be used as a fracture criterion when the crack in a magnet is only affected by a magnetic field. For some magnetostrictive materials in which the components of magnetostriction strain do not satisfy the compatibility equation of deformation, the stress intensity factor can no longer be effectively applicable as a fracture criterion when the crack in a magnet is affected by a magnetic field and mechanical loads simultaneously.

  15. Metallogenetic Mechanism and Timing of Late Superimposing Fluid Mineralization in the Dongguashan Diplogenetic Stratified Copper Deposit, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaowen; LU Xiancai; LING Hongfei; LU Jianjun; JIANG Shoyong; NIE Guiping; HUANG Shunsheng; HUA Ming

    2005-01-01

    An important diplogenetic mineralization event superimposed on pre-existing exhalation sediments in the Tongling area, Anhui province, was triggered by widespread granitic magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block during 140-135 Ma under extensional tectonic circumstances following the collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks. The main orebodies of the Dongguashan copper deposit, a typical diplogenetic stratified deposit among many polymetallic ore deposits in China, are hosted by strata between Upper Devonian sandstone and Carboniferous limestone, and its mineralization was genetically related to the Qingshanjiao intrusive. The Rb-Sr isotopic isochron of the Qingshanjiao intrusive yields an age of about 136.5±1.4 Ma. The ore-forming fluid reflected by the inclusion fluid in quartz veins is characterized by high temperature and high salinity, and its age was also determined by Rb-Sr isotope dating as 134±11 Ma. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition data suggest that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from magmatism. By integrating these isotopic dating data, characteristics of fluid inclusions and the geology of the deposit, the mineralization of the Dongguashan copper deposit is divided into two stages. First, a stratiform sedimentary deposit or protore layer formed in the Late Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, while in the second stage the pre-existing protore was superimposed by hydrothermal fluid that was derived from the Yanshanian magmatic activities occurring around 135 Ma ago. This two-stage mineralization formed the Dongguashan statiform copper deposit.Associated "porphyry" mineralization found in the bottom of and in surrounding intrusive rocks of the orebodies might have occurred in the same period as a second-stage mineralization of this deposit.

  16. Analysis of Discrete Mittag - Leffler Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shobanadevi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrete Mittag - Leffler functions play a major role in the development of the theory of discrete fractional calculus. In the present article, we analyze qualitative properties of discrete Mittag - Leffler functions and establish sufficient conditions for convergence, oscillation and summability of the infinite series associated with discrete Mittag - Leffler functions.

  17. Research and practice of the impulse sand fracturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the deep development of tight sand gas reservoirs, problems such as short stable production period and quick production decline of gas wells after fracturing have become increasingly prominent. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for the effective penetration and conductivity of artificial fractures. Impulse sand fracturing technology introduces a concept of discrete multilayer sanding inside fractures; joint application of pulse blender which can be switched at high frequency, intensive multi-cluster perforation and special fibrous material made it possible to ensure the flow stability of proppant slug, and placement of nonuniformly-laid sand pinnacles and grooves, which markedly upgraded the capacity of the fracture conductivity to several orders of magnitude more than the conventional method. Laboratory engineering simulation evaluation and field test show that pre-fracturing reservoir evaluation, pulse time design and the optimization of degradable fiber and support equipment are the keys to the success of impulse sand fracturing. Compared with the conventional fracturing, this technique can effectively increase well production, decrease the volume of fracturing proppant, and lower sand plugging risks. An independent sand fracturing pilot test has been conducted in 6 layers of 3 wells for the first time in Block Tao 7 of the Sulige Gasfield, Ordos Basin, as a result, the average volume of fracturing proppant dropped by 28.3%, the average sand intensity dropped by 21.88%, and the post-fracturing average daily gas output increased by 26.8%. This technology provides an efficient and environmentally friendly reservoir stimulation option for tight sand gas reservoirs in China.

  18. Rationale for finding and exploiting fractured reservoirs, based on the MWX/SHCT-Piceance basin experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    The deliverability of a reservoir depends primarily on its permeability, which, in many reservoirs, is controlled by a combination of natural fractures and the in situ stresses. Therefore it is important to be able to predict which parts of a basin are most likely to contain naturally fractured strata, what the characteristics of those fractures might be, and what the most likely in situ stresses are at a given location. This paper presents a set of geologic criteria that can be superimposed onto factors, such as levels of maturation and porosity development, in order to predict whether fractures are present once the likelihood of petroleum presence and reservoir development have been determined. Stress causes fracturing, but stresses are not permanent. A natural-fracture permeability pathway opened by one system of stresses may be held open by those stresses, or narrowed or even closed by changes of the stress to an oblique or normal orientation. The origin of stresses and stress anisotropies in a basin, the potential for stress to create natural fractures, and the causes of stress reorientation are examined in this paper. The appendices to this paper present specific techniques for exploiting and characterizing natural fractures, for measuring the present-day in situ stresses, and for reconstructing a computerized stress history for a basin.

  19. New discrete element models for elastoplastic problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Cheng; Weifu Liu; Kaixin Liu

    2009-01-01

    The discrete element method (DEM) has attractive features for problems with severe damages, but lack of theoretical basis for continua behavior especially for nonlinear behavior has seriously restricted its application, The present study proposes a new approach to developing the DEM as a general and robust technique for modeling the elastoplastic behavior of solid materials. New types of connective links between elements are proposed, the inter-element parameters are theoretically determined based on the principle of energy equivalence and a yield criterion and a flow rule for DEM are given for describing nonlinear behavior of materials. Moreover, a numerical scheme, which can be applied to modeling the behavior of a continuum as well as the transformation from a continuum to a discontinuum, is obtained by introducing a fracture criterion and a contact model into the DEM. The elastoplastic stress wave propagations and the tensile failure process of a steel plate are simulated, and the numerical results agree well with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM) and corresponding experiment, and thus the accuracy and efficiency of the DEM scheme are demonstrated.

  20. New discrete element models for elastoplastic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; Liu, Weifu; Liu, Kaixin

    2009-10-01

    The discrete element method (DEM) has attractive features for problems with severe damages, but lack of theoretical basis for continua behavior especially for nonlinear behavior has seriously restricted its application. The present study proposes a new approach to developing the DEM as a general and robust technique for modeling the elastoplastic behavior of solid materials. New types of connective links between elements are proposed, the inter-element parameters are theoretically determined based on the principle of energy equivalence and a yield criterion and a flow rule for DEM are given for describing nonlinear behavior of materials. Moreover, a numerical scheme, which can be applied to modeling the behavior of a continuum as well as the transformation from a continuum to a discontinuum, is obtained by introducing a fracture criterion and a contact model into the DEM. The elastoplastic stress wave propagations and the tensile failure process of a steel plate are simulated, and the numerical results agree well with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM) and corresponding experiment, and thus the accuracy and efficiency of the DEM scheme are demonstrated.

  1. Pressure Transient Analysis of Multi-Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ermeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-fractured horizontal well is applied in tight gas reservoirs due to the low permeability. A new pressure transient model of multi-fractured horizontal well based on discrete-fracture model in which the hydraulic fractures are discretized as 2D entities is built in this paper, The model is divided into hydraulic fracture region and formation region. The model can be solved using the Galerkin finite element method, then the pressure transient type curves are plotted by computer programming. The results show that there are five different flow regimes observed in type curves including early linear flow, early radial flow, elliptical flow, later pseudo-radial flow and boundary response regime. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to study impacts of hydraulic fracture number, hydraulic fracture half-length, hydraulic fracture spacing, and hydraulic fracture conductivity on pressure transient type curves. The new model and obtained results in this paper not only enrich the well testing models, but also play a guiding role in analyzing pressure transient response of multi-fractured horizontal well in tight gas reservoirs.

  2. Modelling CO2 flow in naturally fractured geological media using MINC and multiple subregion upscaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Flemisch, Bernd; Class, Holger; Helmig, Rainer; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 represents one viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Potential leakage of CO2 storage can occur through networks of interconnected fractures. The geometrical complexity of these networks is often very high involving fractures occurring at various scales and having hierarchical structures. Such multiphase flow systems are usually hard to solve with a discrete fracture modelling (DFM) approach. Therefore, continuum fracture models assuming average properties are usually preferred. The multiple interacting continua (MINC) model is an extension of the classic double porosity model (Warren and Root, 1963) which accounts for the non-linear behaviour of the matrix-fracture interactions. For CO2 storage applications the transient representation of the inter-porosity two phase flow plays an important role. This study tests the accuracy and computational efficiency of the MINC method complemented with the multiple sub-region (MSR) upscaling procedure versus the DFM. The two phase flow MINC simulator is implemented in the free-open source numerical toolbox DuMux (www.dumux.org). The MSR (Gong et al., 2009) determines the inter-porosity terms by solving simplified local single-phase flow problems. The DFM is considered as the reference solution. The numerical examples consider a quasi-1D reservoir with a quadratic fracture system , a five-spot radial symmetric reservoir, and a completely random generated fracture system. Keywords: MINC, upscaling, two-phase flow, fractured porous media, discrete fracture model, continuum fracture model

  3. An Efficient Mesh Generation Method for Fractured Network System Based on Dynamic Grid Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meshing quality of the discrete model influences the accuracy, convergence, and efficiency of the solution for fractured network system in geological problem. However, modeling and meshing of such a fractured network system are usually tedious and difficult due to geometric complexity of the computational domain induced by existence and extension of fractures. The traditional meshing method to deal with fractures usually involves boundary recovery operation based on topological transformation, which relies on many complicated techniques and skills. This paper presents an alternative and efficient approach for meshing fractured network system. The method firstly presets points on fractures and then performs Delaunay triangulation to obtain preliminary mesh by point-by-point centroid insertion algorithm. Then the fractures are exactly recovered by local correction with revised dynamic grid deformation approach. Smoothing algorithm is finally applied to improve the quality of mesh. The proposed approach is efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to the cases of initial existing fractures and extension of fractures. The method is successfully applied to modeling of two- and three-dimensional discrete fractured network (DFN system in geological problems to demonstrate its effectiveness and high efficiency.

  4. Minisuperspace models of discrete systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baytaş, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    A discrete quantum spin system is presented in which several modern methods of canonical quantum gravity can be tested with promising results. In particular, features of interacting dynamics are analyzed with an emphasis on homogeneous configurations and the dynamical building-up and stability of long-range correlations. Different types of homogeneous minisuperspace models are introduced for the system, including one based on condensate states, and shown to capture different aspects of the discrete system. They are evaluated with effective methods and by means of continuum limits, showing good agreement with operator calculations whenever the latter are available. As a possibly quite general result, it is concluded that an analysis of the building-up of long-range correlations in discrete systems requires non-perturbative solutions of the dynamical equations. Some questions related to stability can be analyzed perturbatively, but suggest that matter couplings may be relevant for this question in the context o...

  5. Interference in discrete Wigner functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cormick, C; Cormick, Cecilia; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We analyse some features of the class of discrete Wigner functions that was recently introduced by Gibbons et al. to represent quantum states of systems with power-of-prime dimensional Hilbert spaces [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004)]. We consider "cat" states obtained as coherent superpositions of states with positive Wigner function; for such states we show that the oscillations of the discrete Wigner function typically spread over the entire discrete phase-space (including the regions where the two interfering states are localized). This is a generic property which is in sharp contrast with the usual attributes of Wigner functions that make them useful candidates to display the existence of quantum coherence through oscillations. However, it is possible to find subsets of cat states with a natural phase-space representation, in which the oscillatory regions remain localized. We show that this can be done for interesting families of stabilizer states used in quantum error-correcting codes, and illustrate this...

  6. Intermittent Flow Regimes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Or, D.

    2001-12-01

    Flow regimes in unsaturated fractured rocks are significantly influenced by interplay between gravitational and capillary forces and by abrupt changes in media pore space properties. These interactions give rise to complex flow mechanisms that are not amenable to representation by standard continuum theories. Even when the flux of water into the fracture is uniform, actual flow of liquid occurs through preferential pathways. We developed a model for interactions between a uniform flux and local variations in fracture aperture, leading to fragmentation of the liquid into discrete elements (bridges) and subsequent initiation of avalanches. Liquid bridges form and grow in local asperities along the preferential pathways, with subsequent breakup of the bridges at a critical bridge size. The detached bridge has a potential of sweeping other bridges along the pathway downhill from the initiation point, creating an avalanche of growing mass. Consequently, the outflow at the end of the fracture occurs as a series of discrete discharge events. The size and interval of the discharge events depend on the flux of liquid into the fracture and the fracture geometry on the pathway (e.g., number of apertures and aperture sizes). Such complex flow structure was observed in other studies involving gravity-driven unsaturated flow.

  7. Numerical evaluation of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli; Zhihong Zhao; Lanru Jing

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the strength and deformability of fractured rocks is important for design, construction and stability evaluation of slopes, foundations and underground excavations in civil and mining engineering. However, laboratory tests of intact rock samples cannot provide information about the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses that include many fractures of varying sizes, orientations and locations. On the other hand, large-scale in situ tests of fractured rock masses are economically costly and often not practical in reality at present. Therefore, numerical modeling becomes necessary. Numerical predicting using discrete element methods (DEM) is a suitable approach for such modeling because of their advantages of explicit representations of both fractures system geometry and their constitutive behaviors of fractures, besides that of intact rock matrix. In this study, to generically determine the compressive strength of fractured rock masses, a series of numerical experiments were performed on two-dimensional discrete fracture network models based on the realistic geometrical and mechanical data of fracture systems from field mapping. We used the UDEC code and a numerical servo-controlled program for controlling the progressive compressive loading process to avoid sudden violent failure of the models. The two loading conditions applied are similar to the standard laboratory testing for intact rock samples in order to check possible differences caused by such loading conditions. Numerical results show that the strength of fractured rocks increases with the increasing confining pressure, and that deformation behavior of fractured rocks follows elasto-plastic model with a trend of strain hardening. The stresses and strains obtained from these numerical experiments were used to fit the well-known Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) and Hoek-Brown (H-B) failure criteria, represented by equivalent material properties defining these two criteria. The results show

  8. Geometry of discrete quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Ortiz, Gerardo; Sabry, Amr; Tai, Yu-Tsung

    2013-05-01

    Conventional quantum computing entails a geometry based on the description of an n-qubit state using 2n infinite precision complex numbers denoting a vector in a Hilbert space. Such numbers are in general uncomputable using any real-world resources, and, if we have the idea of physical law as some kind of computational algorithm of the universe, we would be compelled to alter our descriptions of physics to be consistent with computable numbers. Our purpose here is to examine the geometric implications of using finite fields Fp and finite complexified fields \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} (based on primes p congruent to 3 (mod4)) as the basis for computations in a theory of discrete quantum computing, which would therefore become a computable theory. Because the states of a discrete n-qubit system are in principle enumerable, we are able to determine the proportions of entangled and unentangled states. In particular, we extend the Hopf fibration that defines the irreducible state space of conventional continuous n-qubit theories (which is the complex projective space \\mathbf {CP}^{2^{n}-1}) to an analogous discrete geometry in which the Hopf circle for any n is found to be a discrete set of p + 1 points. The tally of unit-length n-qubit states is given, and reduced via the generalized Hopf fibration to \\mathbf {DCP}^{2^{n}-1}, the discrete analogue of the complex projective space, which has p^{2^{n}-1} (p-1)\\,\\prod _{k=1}^{n-1} ( p^{2^{k}}+1) irreducible states. Using a measure of entanglement, the purity, we explore the entanglement features of discrete quantum states and find that the n-qubit states based on the complexified field \\mathbf {F}_{p^2} have pn(p - 1)n unentangled states (the product of the tally for a single qubit) with purity 1, and they have pn + 1(p - 1)(p + 1)n - 1 maximally entangled states with purity zero.

  9. Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy collisions, such as an automobile or motorcycle crash, are common causes of tibial sha fractures. In cases like these, the bone can be broken into several pieces (comminuted fracture). Sports injuries, such as a fall while skiing or running ...

  10. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Physicians Annual Scientific Meeting Webinars Careers in Podiatry APMA 2040 Student Profiles CPME REdRC Manage Your ... and fractures. Many fractures and sprains occur during sports. Football players are particularly vulnerable to foot and ...

  11. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000168.htm Hip fracture - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in ...

  12. Hip fracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis - hip ... You may receive general anesthesia for this surgery. This means you ... spinal anesthesia . With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  13. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000553.htm Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  14. Periprosthetic acetabular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzo, Francesco; Formagnana, Mario; Bargagliotti, Marco; Perticarini, Loris

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the acetabular periprosthetic fractures. This article explores the current literature on the epidemiology, causes and classification of periprosthetic acetabular fractures. Integrating data with the experience of the authors, it offers a guide to diagnosis and possible therapeutic strategies. Intra-operative fractures can occur during rasping, reaming or implant impaction, and they must be treated immediately if the component(s) is (are) unstable. Post-operative fractures can be due to major trauma (acute fractures) or minor forces in bone osteolysis; it is possible to plan reconstruction and fixation according to fracture characteristics. Treatment choice depends upon fracture site and implant stability. Periprosthetic acetabular fractures are uncommon complications that can occur intra-operatively or post-operatively, and a reconstructive surgeon must be able to manage the procedure. Accurate planning and reconstruction implant are necessary to achieve good cup stability.

  15. Adaptive mixed finite element methods for Darcy flow in fractured porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we propose adaptive mixed finite element methods for simulating the single-phase Darcy flow in two-dimensional fractured porous media. The reduced model that we use for the simulation is a discrete fracture model coupling Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures, and the fractures are modeled by one-dimensional entities. The Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element methods are utilized for the solution of the coupled Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures. In order to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use adaptive mixed finite element methods based on novel residual-based a posteriori error estimators. In addition, we develop an efficient upscaling algorithm to compute the effective permeability of the fractured porous media. Several interesting examples of Darcy flow in the fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm.

  16. Adaptive mixed finite element methods for Darcy flow in fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huangxin; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose adaptive mixed finite element methods for simulating the single-phase Darcy flow in two-dimensional fractured porous media. The reduced model that we use for the simulation is a discrete fracture model coupling Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures, and the fractures are modeled by one-dimensional entities. The Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element methods are utilized for the solution of the coupled Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures. In order to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use adaptive mixed finite element methods based on novel residual-based a posteriori error estimators. In addition, we develop an efficient upscaling algorithm to compute the effective permeability of the fractured porous media. Several interesting examples of Darcy flow in the fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm.

  17. Resolution of superimposed pre-eclampsia, and improvement in umbilical artery flow in a surviving twin after intrauterine demise of its co-twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, Deepa M; Karakash, Scarlett; Rankin, Linda; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-09-01

    Pre-eclampsia has a progressive clinical course, and is only cured by delivery of the placenta. We report a 30-year-old G1P0 with dichorionic twins, discordant growth and chronic hypertension who developed superimposed pre-eclampsia in her 21st week of gestation. After intrauterine demise of the severely growth-restricted twin, the superimposed pre-eclampsia resolved. The surviving twin initially had absent end diastolic flow, which resolved after the demise. A healthy 1935-g neonate with Apgar 9/9 was delivered at 34 weeks. Antenatal resolution of pre-eclampsia is extremely rare and resolution of superimposed pre-eclampsia has not, to our knowledge, been reported.

  18. DISCRETE ROTATIONS AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvel, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    In a discrete space, such as the set of integer-coordinate points, the modelization of isotropy may lead to noticeable theoretical difficulties. At this time, we do not know any gerometric theory on $\\ZZ^n$ that would be suitable to describe the isotropy the same way it is perceived by Euclidean geometry. With respect to this problematic, our aim is to describe some algorithms that would give to the discrete rotations some properties that would be similar to the properties of the Euclidean ro...

  19. Stable discrete surface light bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-01-22

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization near the edge of a semi-infinite array of weakly coupled nonlinear optical waveguides and demonstrate the existence of a novel class of continuous-discrete spatiotemporal solitons, the so-called discrete surface light bullets. We show that their properties are strongly affected by the presence of the surface. To this end the crossover between surface and quasi-bulk bullets is studied by analyzing the families of solitons propagating at different distances from the edge of the waveguide array.

  20. Discrete Hamiltonian for General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ziprick, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from canonical general relativity written in terms of Ashtekar variables, we derive a discrete phase space with a physical Hamiltonian for gravity. The key idea is to define the gravitational fields within a complex of three-dimensional cells such that the dynamics is completely described by discrete boundary variables, and the full theory is recovered in the continuum limit. Canonical quantization is attainable within the loop quantum gravity framework, and we believe this will lead to a promising candidate for quantum gravity.

  1. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral f...

  2. Flow of fluids from matrix to fractures in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The flow of a single-phase compressible fluid from the rock matrix to fractures was modeled using the pressure diffusion equation. Pressure histories are presented for homogeneous isotropic blocks bounded by planar fractures. The case of an infinite slab bounded by planes of constant pore pressure was studied. The slab was divided by a planar fracture perpendicular to the planes. Lateral flow was found to cease once equilibrium is reached between the fracture and the matrix. Disequilibrium is found to be short-lived for laboratory-sized specimens of typical reservoir rock. The most-important parameter in cross-flow is the distance l between the two planes of constan pore pressure. When a second fracture was added, parallel to the first, the cross-flow behavior was nearly identical to the one fracture case if the spacing of the fractures is greater than l. The pressure history of the blocks of the continuum model of naturally fractured reservoirs was examined with a discrete mathematical model. An analytical solution to the pressure diffusion equation with time dependent boundary conditions is presented for blocks in both a finite and infinite reservoir.

  3. Estimation of fracture roughness from the acoustic borehole televiewer image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Dae Soek; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2000-12-01

    Estimation of fracture roughness - as one of the basic hydraulic fracture parameters - is very important in assessing ground water flow described by using discrete fracture network modeling. Former manual estimation of the roughness for each fracture surface of drill cores is above all a tedious, time-consuming work and will often cause some ambiguities of roughness interpretation partly due to the subjective judgements of observers, and partly due to the measuring procedure itself. However, recently, indebt to the highly reliable Televiewer data for the fracture discrimination, it has led to a guess to develop a relationship between the traditional roughness method based on a linear profiles and the method from the Televiewer image based on a ellipsoidal profile. Hence, the aim of this work is to develop an automatic evaluation algorithm for measuring the roughness from the Televiewer images. A highly reliable software named 'FRAFA' has been developed and realized to the extent that its utility merits. In the developing procedure, various problems - such as the examination of a new base line(ellipsoidal) for measuring the unevenness of fracture, the elimination of overlapping fracture signatures or noise, the wavelet estimation according to the type of fractures and the digitalization of roughness etc. - were considered. With these consideration in mind, the newly devised algorithm for the estimation of roughness curves showed a great potential not only for avoiding ambiguities of roughness interpretation but also for the judgement of roughness classification.

  4. Fracture prevention in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, PP; Sambrook, P.N.; Lems, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime risk of experiencing a fracture in 50-year-old men is lower (20%) than the risk in women (50%). Consequently, much less research has been carried out on osteoporosis and fracture risk in men. Differences in the risk and incidence of fractures between men and women are related to differe

  5. Imaging of insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.krestan@meduniwien.ac.at; Hojreh, Azadeh [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This review focuses on the occurrence, imaging and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence, the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures occur with normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. Other conditions which affect bone turnover include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure and high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures, and to differentiate them from other bone lesions. Radiographs are still the most widely used imaging method for identification of insufficiency fractures, but sensitivity is limited, depending on the location of the fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures. Thin section, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but limited specificity. The most important differential diagnosis is underlying malignant disease leading to pathologic fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical history may also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of insufficiency fractures.

  6. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  7. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and termi

  8. A nonlocal discretization of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, R G; Pimentel, L O; Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.

    2001-01-01

    A nonlocal method to obtain discrete classical fields is presented. This technique relies on well-behaved matrix representations of the derivatives constructed on a non--equispaced lattice. The drawbacks of lattice theory like the fermion doubling or the breaking of chiral symmetry for the massless case, are absent in this method.

  9. Discrete breathers in Josephson ladders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trias, E.; Mazo, J.J.; Brinkman, A.; Orlando, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of nonlinear localized excitations called discrete breathers in a superconducting array. These localized solutions were recently observed in Josephson-junction ladder arrays by two different experimental groups [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 741; Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 745; Phys.

  10. Proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.

  11. Stress fractures in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T

    2012-04-01

    Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention.

  12. Role of MRI in hip fractures, including stress fractures, occult fractures, avulsion fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtrab, O. [Department of Radiology, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Gobowen, Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N., E-mail: Victor.Pullicino@rjah.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Gobowen, Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Lalam, R.; Tins, B.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; Singh, J. [Department of Radiology, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Gobowen, Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    MR imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of hip fractures in all age groups, in a large spectrum of patient groups spanning the elderly and sporting population. It allows a confident exclusion of fracture, differentiation of bony from soft tissue injury and an early confident detection of fractures. There is a spectrum of MR findings which in part is dictated by the type and cause of the fracture which the radiologist needs to be familiar with. Judicious but prompt utilisation of MR in patients with suspected hip fractures has a positive therapeutic impact with healthcare cost benefits as well as social care benefits.

  13. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increased...... with increasing age and disease duration. Among 34 deceased MS patients 4 had had fractures. These findings are discussed in relation to physical and cognitive impairment in MS. A case-control study is recommended....

  14. Discrete implementations of scale transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjanovic, Dragan; Williams, William J.; Koh, Christopher K.

    1999-11-01

    Scale as a physical quantity is a recently developed concept. The scale transform can be viewed as a special case of the more general Mellin transform and its mathematical properties are very applicable in the analysis and interpretation of the signals subject to scale changes. A number of single-dimensional applications of scale concept have been made in speech analysis, processing of biological signals, machine vibration analysis and other areas. Recently, the scale transform was also applied in multi-dimensional signal processing and used for image filtering and denoising. Discrete implementation of the scale transform can be carried out using logarithmic sampling and the well-known fast Fourier transform. Nevertheless, in the case of the uniformly sampled signals, this implementation involves resampling. An algorithm not involving resampling of the uniformly sampled signals has been derived too. In this paper, a modification of the later algorithm for discrete implementation of the direct scale transform is presented. In addition, similar concept was used to improve a recently introduced discrete implementation of the inverse scale transform. Estimation of the absolute discretization errors showed that the modified algorithms have a desirable property of yielding a smaller region of possible error magnitudes. Experimental results are obtained using artificial signals as well as signals evoked from the temporomandibular joint. In addition, discrete implementations for the separable two-dimensional direct and inverse scale transforms are derived. Experiments with image restoration and scaling through two-dimensional scale domain using the novel implementation of the separable two-dimensional scale transform pair are presented.

  15. Multiporosity Flow in Fractured Low-Permeability Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Heath, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    A multiporosity extension of classical double and triple porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids is presented. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo-steady-state and transient interporosity flow double porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semi-analytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform to illustrate its behavior. The multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice ...

  16. Role of geomechanically grown fractures on dispersive transport in heterogeneous geological formations

    KAUST Repository

    Nick, H. M.

    2011-11-04

    A second order in space accurate implicit scheme for time-dependent advection-dispersion equations and a discrete fracture propagation model are employed to model solute transport in porous media. We study the impact of the fractures on mass transport and dispersion. To model flow and transport, pressure and transport equations are integrated using a finite-element, node-centered finite-volume approach. Fracture geometries are incrementally developed from a random distributions of material flaws using an adoptive geomechanical finite-element model that also produces fracture aperture distributions. This quasistatic propagation assumes a linear elastic rock matrix, and crack propagation is governed by a subcritical crack growth failure criterion. Fracture propagation, intersection, and closure are handled geometrically. The flow and transport simulations are separately conducted for a range of fracture densities that are generated by the geomechanical finite-element model. These computations show that the most influential parameters for solute transport in fractured porous media are as follows: fracture density and fracture-matrix flux ratio that is influenced by matrix permeability. Using an equivalent fracture aperture size, computed on the basis of equivalent permeability of the system, we also obtain an acceptable prediction of the macrodispersion of poorly interconnected fracture networks. The results hold for fractures at relatively low density. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  17. [Fractures of carpal bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lögters, T; Windolf, J

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the carpal bones are uncommon. On standard radiographs fractures are often not recognized and a computed tomography (CT) scan is the diagnostic method of choice. The aim of treatment is to restore pain-free and full functioning of the hand. A distinction is made between stable and unstable carpal fractures. Stable non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively. Unstable and displaced fractures have an increased risk of arthritis and non-union and should be stabilized by screws or k‑wires. If treated adequately, fractures of the carpal bones have a good prognosis. Unstable and dislocated fractures have an increased risk for non-union. The subsequent development of carpal collapse with arthrosis is a severe consequence of non-union, which has a heterogeneous prognosis.

  18. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  19. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced...... Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... type" fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1-C3/4 posterior fusion and the course...

  20. Discrete Multiscale Analysis: A Biatomic Lattice System

    CERN Document Server

    Contra, G A Cassatella; 10.1142/S1402925110000957

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a discrete approach to the multiscale reductive perturbative method and apply it to a biatomic chain with a nonlinear interaction between the atoms. This system is important to describe the time evolution of localized solitonic excitations. We require that also the reduced equation be discrete. To do so coherently we need to discretize the time variable to be able to get asymptotic discrete waves and carry out a discrete multiscale expansion around them. Our resulting nonlinear equation will be a kind of discrete Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. If we make its continuum limit, we obtain the standard Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger differential equation.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Variable Fluid Injection-Rate Modes on Fracturing Network Evolution in Naturally Fractured Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, variable injection-rate technology was numerically investigated in a pre-existing discrete fracture network (DFN formation, the Tarim Basin in China. A flow-stress-damage (FSD coupling model has been used in an initial attempt towards how reservoir response to variable injection-rates at different hydraulic fracturing stages. The established numerical model simultaneously considered the macroscopic and microscopic heterogeneity characteristics. Eight numerical cases were studied. Four cases were used to study the variable injection-rate technology, and the other four cases were applied for a constant injection-rate in order to compare with the variable injection-rate technology. The simulation results show that the variable injection-rate technology is a potentially good method to a form complex fracturing networks. The hydraulic fracturing effectiveness when increasing the injection-rate at each stage is the best, also, the total injected fluid is at a minimum. At the initial stage, many under-fracturing points appear around the wellbore with a relatively low injection-rate; the sudden increase of injection rate drives the dynamic propagation of hydraulic fractures along many branching fracturing points. However, the case with decreasing injection rate is the worst. By comparing with constant injection-rate cases, the hydraulic fracturing effectiveness with variable flow rate technology is generally better than those with constant injection-rate technology. This work strongly links the production technology and hydraulic fracturing effectiveness evaluation and aids in the understanding and optimization of hydraulic fracturing simulations in naturally fractured reservoirs.

  2. Modeling contaminant plumes in fractured limestone aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosthaf, Klaus; Brauns, Bentje; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    the established approaches of the equivalent porous medium, discrete fracture and dual continuum models. However, these modeling concepts are not well tested for contaminant plume migration in limestone geologies. Our goal was to develop and evaluate approaches for modeling the transport of dissolved contaminant...... in the planning of field tests and to update the conceptual model in an iterative process. Field data includes information on spill history, distribution of the contaminant (multilevel sampling), geology and hydrogeology. To describe the geology and fracture system, data from borehole logs, packer tests, optical...... distribution in the aquifer. Different models were used for the planning and interpretation of the pump and tracer test. The models were evaluated by examining their ability to describe collected field data. The comparison with data showed that the models have substantially different representations...

  3. Permeability analysis of fractured vuggy porous media based on homogenization theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of fractured vuggy porous media,a novel mathematical model was proposed to model fluid flow in such media on fine scale,i.e.,the discrete fracture-vug network model.The new model consists of three systems:porous rock system,fracture system,and vug system.The fractures and vugs are embedded in porous rock,and the isolated vugs could be connected via the discrete fracture network.The flow in porous rock and fractures follows Darcy’s law,and the vugs system is free fluid region.Using a two-scale homogenization limit theory,we obtained a macroscopic Darcy’s law governing the media on coarse scale.The theoretical formula of the equivalent permeability of the fractured vuggy porous media was derived.The model and method of this paper were verified by some numerical examples.At the end the permeability of some fractured vuggy porous media with typical fracture-vug structures was analyzed.

  4. Hierarchical multiscale modeling for flows in fractured media using generalized multiscale finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-06-05

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale finite element method for solving flows in fractured media. Our approach is based on generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM), where we represent the fracture effects on a coarse grid via multiscale basis functions. These multiscale basis functions are constructed in the offline stage via local spectral problems following GMsFEM. To represent the fractures on the fine grid, we consider two approaches (1) discrete fracture model (DFM) (2) embedded fracture model (EFM) and their combination. In DFM, the fractures are resolved via the fine grid, while in EFM the fracture and the fine grid block interaction is represented as a source term. In the proposed multiscale method, additional multiscale basis functions are used to represent the long fractures, while short-size fractures are collectively represented by a single basis functions. The procedure is automatically done via local spectral problems. In this regard, our approach shares common concepts with several approaches proposed in the literature as we discuss. We would like to emphasize that our goal is not to compare DFM with EFM, but rather to develop GMsFEM framework which uses these (DFM or EFM) fine-grid discretization techniques. Numerical results are presented, where we demonstrate how one can adaptively add basis functions in the regions of interest based on error indicators. We also discuss the use of randomized snapshots (Calo et al. Randomized oversampling for generalized multiscale finite element methods, 2014), which reduces the offline computational cost.

  5. The multiscale restriction smoothed basis method for fractured porous media (F-MsRSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Swej; Møyner, Olav; Tene, Matei; Lie, Knut-Andreas; Hajibeygi, Hadi

    2016-08-01

    A novel multiscale method for multiphase flow in heterogeneous fractured porous media is devised. The discrete fine-scale system is described using an embedded fracture modeling approach, in which the heterogeneous rock (matrix) and highly-conductive fractures are represented on independent grids. Given this fine-scale discrete system, the method first partitions the fine-scale volumetric grid representing the matrix and the lower-dimensional grids representing fractures into independent coarse grids. Then, basis functions for matrix and fractures are constructed by restricted smoothing, which gives a flexible and robust treatment of complex geometrical features and heterogeneous coefficients. From the basis functions one constructs a prolongation operator that maps between the coarse- and fine-scale systems. The resulting method allows for general coupling of matrix and fracture basis functions, giving efficient treatment of a large variety of fracture conductivities. In addition, basis functions can be adaptively updated using efficient global smoothing strategies to account for multiphase flow effects. The method is conservative and because it is described and implemented in algebraic form, it is straightforward to employ it to both rectilinear and unstructured grids. Through a series of challenging test cases for single and multiphase flow, in which synthetic and realistic fracture maps are combined with heterogeneous petrophysical matrix properties, we validate the method and conclude that it is an efficient and accurate approach for simulating flow in complex, large-scale, fractured media.

  6. Discrete Gauge Symmetries in Discrete MSSM-like Orientifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ibanez, L E; Uranga, A M

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the necessity of discrete Z_N symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)xU(2)xU(1)xU(1) and U(3)xSp(2)xU(1)xU(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z_2 (R-parity) and Z_3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.

  7. Discrete gauge symmetries in discrete MSSM-like orientifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, L. E.; Schellekens, A. N.; Uranga, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the necessity of discrete ZN symmetries in the MSSM to insure baryon stability, we study the origin of discrete gauge symmetries from open string sector U(1)'s in orientifolds based on rational conformal field theory. By means of an explicit construction, we find an integral basis for the couplings of axions and U(1) factors for all simple current MIPFs and orientifolds of all 168 Gepner models, a total of 32 990 distinct cases. We discuss how the presence of discrete symmetries surviving as a subgroup of broken U(1)'s can be derived using this basis. We apply this procedure to models with MSSM chiral spectrum, concretely to all known U(3)×U(2)×U(1)×U(1) and U(3)×Sp(2)×U(1)×U(1) configurations with chiral bi-fundamentals, but no chiral tensors, as well as some SU(5) GUT models. We find examples of models with Z2 (R-parity) and Z3 symmetries that forbid certain B and/or L violating MSSM couplings. Their presence is however relatively rare, at the level of a few percent of all cases.

  8. Development of a prototype apparatus visualizing on a screen the gamma sources superimposed on the image of the vision field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbard, G.; Lemaire, J.E. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d`Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Carcreff, H.; Marchand, L.; Thellier, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Reacteurs Experimentaux

    1994-12-31

    Mapping the gamma activity of irradiating zones is often an important prerequisite in dismantling nuclear facilities. The operation is necessary to define a suitable decommissioning strategy before any work begins; it is also required during the procedure to measure the residual activity wherever dose rates are too high to allow human intervention. This report summarizes the work carried out under CEC contract FIED-0055, covering a prototype imaging system designed to display radioactive sources superimposed in real time over a visible light image on a video monitor. This project was developed from an earlier off-line system. The gamma photons are collimated by a double cone system. The imaging system comprises a transparent scintillator bonded to the fiber-optic window of an ultrasensitive camera. The camera was miniaturized to meet specification requirements: with its radiological shielding, the gamma camera weighs 40 kg and is 120 mm in diameter. The processing system is compatible with a realtime camera, and small enough for use at any nuclear. The point-source angular resolution is 1.4 deg. for {sup 60} Co and 0.8 deg. for {sup 137} Cs. The dose rate sensitivity limit is approximately 0.01 mGy.h{sup -1}. Process reliability was confirmed by tests in a high-level radio-metallurgy cell at actual decommissioning site. (authors). 7 figs.

  9. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiokada, Takuya, E-mail: nishiokada@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi [Division of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-855 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF.

  10. Delirium superimposed on dementia: a survey of delirium specialists shows a lack of consensus in clinical practice and research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel H J; Neufeld, Karin J; Kamholz, Barbara A; Trabucchi, Marco; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Morandi, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in delirium knowledge and the publication of best practice guidelines, uncertainties exist regarding assessment of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (DSD). An international survey of delirium specialists was undertaken to evaluate current practice. Invitations to participate in an online survey were distributed by email among members of four international delirium associations with additional publication on their websites. The survey covered the assessment and diagnosis of DSD in clinical practice and research studies. Questions were structured around current practice and attitudes. The 205 responders were mostly confident that they could detect DSD with 60% rating their confidence at 7 or above on a likert scale of 0 (none) to 10 (excellent). Seventy-six percent felt that Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) was the most challenging dementia subtype in which to diagnose DSD. Several scales were used to assess for the presence of DSD including the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) (54%), DSM-5 criteria (25%) and CAM-ICU (15%). Responders stated that attention (71%), fluctuation in cognitive status (65%), and arousability (41%) were the most clinically useful features to assess when diagnosing DSD. Motor fluctuations were also deemed important but 61% had no specific test to monitor these. The largest survey of DSD practice to date demonstrates that despite good levels of confidence in recognizing DSD, there exists a lack of consensus concerning assessment and diagnosis globally. These findings suggest the need for the development of more research leading to precise diagnostic criteria and comprehensive guidelines regarding the assessment and diagnosis of DSD.

  11. Feasibility study of monitoring of plasma etching chamber conditions using superimposed high-frequency signals on rf power transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Y; Uesugi, F

    2015-10-01

    An in situ monitoring system that can detect changes in the conditions of a plasma etching chamber has been developed. In the system, low-intensity high-frequency signals are superimposed on the rf power transmission line used for generating plasma. The system measures reflected high-frequency signals and detects the change in their frequency characteristics. The results indicate that the system detects the changes in the conditions in etching chambers caused by the changes in the electrode gap and the inner wall condition and demonstrate the effectiveness of the system. The system can easily be retrofitted to mass-production equipment and it can be used with or without plasma discharge. Therefore, our system is suitable for in situ monitoring of mass-production plasma etching chambers. The system is expected to contribute to development of predictive maintenance, which monitors films deposited on the inner wall of the chamber and prevents equipment faults caused by misalignment of chamber parts in mass-production equipment.

  12. Novel Au/La-SrTiO3 microspheres: superimposed effect of gold nanoparticles and lanthanum doping in photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guannan; Wang, Pei; Luo, He-Kuan; Hor, T S Andy

    2014-07-01

    Novel multielement Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method using monodisperse gold and La-SrTiO(3) nanocrystals as building blocks. The porous Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres had a large surface area of 94.6 m(2)  g(-1). The stable confined Au nanoparticles demonstrated strong surface plasmon resonance effect, leading to enhanced absorption in a broad UV/Vis/NIR range. Doping of rare-earth metal La also broadened the absorption band to the visible region. Both the conduction and valence bands of Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres thus show favorable potential for proton reduction under visible light. The superimposed effect of Au nanoparticles and La doping in Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres led to high photocurrent density in photoelectrochemical water splitting and good photocatalytic activity in photodegradation of rhodamine B. The photocatalytic activities are in the order of the following: Au/La-SrTiO(3) microspheres>Au/SrTiO(3) microspheres>La-SrTiO(3) microspheres>SrTiO(3) microspheres.

  13. High-speed observation of bubble cloud generation near a rigid wall by second-harmonic superimposed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Shin; Yasuda, Jun; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Cavitation bubbles are known to accelerate therapeutic effects of ultrasound. Although negative acoustic pressure is the principle factor of cavitation, positive acoustic pressure has a role for bubble cloud formation at a high intensity of focused ultrasound when cavitation bubbles provide pressure release surfaces converting the pressure from highly positive to negative. In this study, the second-harmonic was superimposed onto the fundamental acoustic pressure to emphasize either peak positive or negative pressure. The peak negative and positive pressure emphasized waves were focused on a surface of an aluminum block. Cavitation bubbles induced near the block were observed with a high-speed camera by backlight and the size of the cavitation generation region was measured from the high-speed images. The negative pressure emphasized waves showed an advantage in cavitation inception over the positive pressure emphasized waves. In the sequence of the negative pressure emphasized waves immediately followed by the positive pressure emphasized waves, cavitation bubbles were generated on the block by the former waves and the cavitation region were expanded toward the transducer in the latter waves with high reproducibility. The sequence demonstrated its potential usefulness in enhancing the effects of therapeutic ultrasound at a high acoustic intensity.

  14. Normal Spectral Emissivity Measurement of Molten Cu-Co Alloy Using an Electromagnetic Levitator Superimposed with a Static Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shoya; Nakamura, Yuki; Sugioka, Ken-Ichi; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of molten Cu-Co alloy with different compositions was measured in the wavelength range of 780 nm to 920 nm and in the temperature range of 1430 K to 1770 K including the undercooled condition by an electromagnetic levitator superimposed with a static magnetic field. The emissivity was determined as the ratio of the radiance from a levitated molten Cu-Co droplet measured by a spectrometer to the radiance from a blackbody calculated by Planck's law at a given temperature, where a static magnetic field of 2.5 T to 4.5 T was applied to the levitated droplet to suppress the surface oscillation and translational motion of the sample. We found little temperature dependence of the normal spectral emissivity of molten Cu-Co alloy. Concerning the composition dependence, the emissivity decreased markedly above 80 at%Cu and reached that of pure Cu, although its dependence was low between 20 at%Cu and 80 at%Cu. In addition, this composition dependence of the emissivity of molten Cu-Co alloy can be explained well by the Drude free-electron model.

  15. [Fracture endoprosthesis of distal humerus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L P; Wegmann, K; Burkhart, K J

    2013-08-01

    The treatment of choice for fractures of the distal humerus is double plate osteosynthesis. Due to anatomical preshaped angle stable plates the primary stability and management of soft tissues has been improved. However, osteoporotic comminuted fractures in the elderly are often not amenable to stable osteosynthesis and total elbow arthroplasty has been established as an alternative therapy. Although complication rates have been reduced, complications of total elbow arthroplasty are still much more frequent than in total hip replacement. Furthermore, patients are advised not to exceed a weight bearing of 5 kg. Therefore, the indications for elbow arthroplasty must be evaluated very strictly and should be reserved for comminuted distal humeral fractures in the elderly with poor bone quality that are not amenable to stable osteosynthesis or for simple fractures in cases of preexisting symptomatic osteoarthritis. This article introduces and discusses modern concepts of elbow arthroplasty, such as modular convertible prosthesis systems, hemiarthroplasty and radial head replacement in total elbow arthroplasty.

  16. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  17. Discretizing a backward stochastic differential equation

    OpenAIRE

    Yinnan Zhang; Weian Zheng

    2002-01-01

    We show a simple method to discretize Pardoux-Peng's nonlinear backward stochastic differential equation. This discretization scheme also gives a numerical method to solve a class of semi-linear PDEs.

  18. Discrete and Continuous Linearizable Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lafortune, S; Ramani, A

    1998-01-01

    We study the projective systems in both continuous and discrete settings. These systems are linearizable by construction and thus, obviously, integrable. We show that in the continuous case it is possible to eliminate all variables but one and reduce the system to a single differential equation. This equation is of the form of those singled-out by Painlevé in his quest for integrable forms. In the discrete case, we extend previous results of ours showing that, again by elimination of variables, the general projective system can be written as a mapping for a single variable. We show that this mapping is a member of the family of multilinear systems (which is not integrable in general). The continuous limit of multilinear mappings is also discussed.

  19. Discrete mathematics using a computer

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Cordelia

    2000-01-01

    Several areas of mathematics find application throughout computer science, and all students of computer science need a practical working understanding of them. These core subjects are centred on logic, sets, recursion, induction, relations and functions. The material is often called discrete mathematics, to distinguish it from the traditional topics of continuous mathematics such as integration and differential equations. The central theme of this book is the connection between computing and discrete mathematics. This connection is useful in both directions: • Mathematics is used in many branches of computer science, in applica­ tions including program specification, datastructures,design and analysis of algorithms, database systems, hardware design, reasoning about the correctness of implementations, and much more; • Computers can help to make the mathematics easier to learn and use, by making mathematical terms executable, making abstract concepts more concrete, and through the use of software tools su...

  20. Discrete Scalar Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gudder, Stan

    2016-01-01

    We begin with a description of spacetime by a 4-dimensional cubic lattice $\\sscript$. It follows from this framework that the the speed of light is the only nonzero instantaneous speed for a particle. The dual space $\\sscripthat$ corresponds to a cubic lattice of energy-momentum. This description implies that there is a discrete set of possible particle masses. We then define discrete scalar quantum fields on $\\sscript$. These fields are employed to define interaction Hamiltonians and scattering operators. Although the scattering operator $S$ cannot be computed exactly, approximations are possible. Whether $S$ is unitary is an unsolved problem. Besides the definitions of these operators, our main assumption is conservation of energy-momentum for a scattering process. This article concludes with various examples of perturbation approximations. These include simplified versions of electron-electron and electron-proton scattering as well as simple decay processes. We also define scattering cross-sections, decay ...

  1. Discrete fields on the lightcone

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a classical field theory based on a concept of extended causality that mimics the causality of a point- particle Classical Mechanics by imposing constraints that are equivalent to a particle initial position and velocity. It results on a description of discrete (pointwise) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant $(1+1)$-dimensional dynamics in a $(3+1)$ spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete fields. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging proccess. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problems of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum th...

  2. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

  3. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  4. Discrete mathematics: methods and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Alon, Noga

    2002-01-01

    Combinatorics is a fundamental mathematical discipline as well as an essential component of many mathematical areas, and its study has experienced an impressive growth in recent years. One of the main reasons for this growth is the tight connection between Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, and the rapid development of the latter. While in the past many of the basic combinatorial results were obtained mainly by ingenuity and detailed reasoning, the modern theory has grown ...

  5. The remarkable discreteness of being

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bahram Houchmandzadeh

    2014-04-01

    Life is a discrete, stochastic phenomenon: for a biological organism, the time of the two most important events of its life (reproduction and death) is random and these events change the number of individuals of the species by single units. These facts can have surprising, counterintuitive consequences. I review here three examples where these facts play, or could play, important roles: the spatial distribution of species, the structuring of biodiversity and the (Darwinian) evolution of altruistic behaviour.

  6. Manpower Analysis Using Discrete Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Course STA-21 Seaman to Admiral (21st century) SQL Structured Query Language TOS Time on Station xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...using Simkit—a widely available library based in the Java programming language for building Discrete Event Simulation (DES) models. By overriding...intervals (i.e., quarterly), while holding attrition negligible. For the purposes of modeling each new accession to the system, the Arrival

  7. Invariants of broken discrete symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kalozoumis, P; Diakonos, F K; Schmelcher, P

    2014-01-01

    The parity and Bloch theorems are generalized to the case of broken global symmetry. Local inversion or translation symmetries are shown to yield invariant currents that characterize wave propagation. These currents map the wave function from an arbitrary spatial domain to any symmetry-related domain. Our approach addresses any combination of local symmetries, thus applying in particular to acoustic, optical and matter waves. Nonvanishing values of the invariant currents provide a systematic pathway to the breaking of discrete global symmetries.

  8. The remarkable discreteness of being

    CERN Document Server

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Life is a discrete, stochastic phenomena : for a biological organism, the time of the two most important events of its life (reproduction and death) is random and these events change the number of individuals of the species by single units. These facts can have surprising, counter-intuitive consequences. I review here three examples where these facts play, or could play, important roles : the spatial distribution of species, the biodiversity and the (Darwinian) evolution of altruistic behavior.

  9. Discretized configurations and partial partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Hower, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We show that the discretized configuration space of $k$ points in the $n$-simplex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres of dimension $n-k+1$. This space is homeomorphic to the order complex of the poset of ordered partial partitions of $\\{1,\\...,n+1\\}$ with exactly $k$ parts. We also compute the Euler characteristic in two different ways, thereby obtaining a topological proof of a combinatorial recurrence satisfied by the Stirling numbers of the second kind.

  10. Observability of discretized partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.

  11. Discretization of Preisach hysteresis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安凯; 蔡国平

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the partial derivative errors in Preisach hysteresis model caused by inaccurate experimental data, the concept and correlative method of discretization of Preisach hysteresis model are proposed, the essential of which is to centralize the distribution density of Preisach hysteresis model in local region as an integral, which is defined as the weight of a certain point in that region. For the input composed of an ascending segment and a descending segment, a method to determine the initial weights together with an additional method to determine present weights is given according to the number of input ascending segments. If the number of input ascending segments increases, the weights of the corresponding points in updating rectangle are updated by adding the initial weights of corresponding points. A prominent advantage of discrete Preisach hysteresis model is its memory efficiency. Another advantage of discrete Preisach hysteresis model is that there is no function in the model, and thus, it can be expediently operated using a computer. By generalizing the above updating rectangle method to the continuous Preisach hysteresis model, identification method of distribution density can be given as well.

  12. Modelling Mobility: A Discrete Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to model and analyze \\emph{Mobility}. It is fully based on discrete mathematics and yields a class of mobility models, called the \\emph{Markov Trace} Model. This model can be seen as the discrete version of the \\emph{Random Trip} Model including all variants of the \\emph{Random Way-Point} Model \\cite{L06}. We derive fundamental properties and \\emph{explicit} analytical formulas for the \\emph{stationary distributions} yielded by the Markov Trace Model. Such results can be exploited to compute formulas and properties for concrete cases of the Markov Trace Model by just applying counting arguments. We apply the above general results to the discrete version of the \\emph{Manhattan Random Way-Point} over a square of bounded size. We get formulas for the total stationary distribution and for two important \\emph{conditional} ones: the agent spatial and destination distributions. Our method makes the analysis of complex mobile systems a feasible task. As a further evidence of this important...

  13. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  14. Modelisation of transport in fractured media with a smeared fractures modeling approach: special focus on matrix diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourno, A.; Grenier, C.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Modeling flow and transport in natural fractured media is a difficult issue due among others to the complexity of the system, the particularities of the geometrical features, the strong parameter value contrasts between the fracture zones (flow zones) and the matrix zones (no flow zones). This lead to the development of dedicated tools like for instance discrete fracture network models (DFN). We follow here another line applicable for classical continuous modeling codes. The fracture network is not meshed here but presence of fractures is taken into account by means of continuous heterogeneous fields (permeability, porosity, head, velocity, concentration ...). This line, followed by different authors, is referred as smeared fracture approach and presents the following advantages: the approach is very versatile because no dedicated spatial discretization effort is required (we use a basic regular mesh, simulations can be done on a rough mesh saving computer time). This makes this kind of approach very promising for taking heterogeneity of properties as well as uncertainties into account within a Monte Carlo framework for instance. Furthermore, the geometry of the matrix blocks where transfers proceed by diffusion is fully taken into account contrary to classical simplified 1D approach for instance. Nevertheless continuous heterogeneous field representation of a fractured medium requires a homogenization process at the scale of the mesh considered. Literature proves that this step of homogenization for transport is still a challenging task. Consequently, the level precision of the results has to be estimated. We precedently proposed a new approach dedicated to Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element approach. This numerical scheme is very interesting for such highly heterogeneous media and in particular guaranties exact conservation of mass flow for each mesh leading to good transport results. We developed a smeared fractures approach to model flow and transport limited to

  15. Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems : mixed interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talasila, Viswanath; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling

  16. Jaw fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, R; Kärjä, J; Kullaa-Mikkonen, A

    1990-03-01

    From a total of 350 jaw fractures treated in 1980-1984 at Kuopio University Central Hospital, 20% were in children. These injuries were evaluated retrospectively regarding age, sex, incidence and etiology. Forty-five of the patients were boys and 25 girls. The frequency of maxillary and mandibular fractures in 70 young patients was 28.6%. The most common type of bone fractures was fracture of the alveolar process, which was prevalent in persons with mixed dentition. Before the age of 7 years, falls from height were the common causes of jaw fractures. The major cause of the jaw fractures in children from 7 to 15 years old was road accidents (47.1%), especially in boys. Most of these were cycling accidents, only a few patients were victims of automobile accidents. In addition, about one third (25.7%) of the patients were treated in the hospital because of multiple injuries to other organs.

  17. Growing skull fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Miljan H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growing skull fracture or craniocerebral erosion is a rare complication of linear skull fracture in childhood. It is characterized by progressive diastatic enlargement of the fracture line, which leads to a cranial defect, dural cleft, and cerebral herniation. It is presented as a soft pulsabile scalp swelling above the fracture, with a clear cranial defect. Case report. In this paper we presented a patient, an 8-month-old boy with the growing skull fracture revealed four weeks after the injury. After the surgical treatment, the boy was in a good general condition without the presence of neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Early recognition of craniocerebral erosion is very important. Timely detection prevents further progression of the disease and the evolution of neurological impairment. Surgery is the method of choice for treating a growing skull fracture .

  18. Pelvic fractures and mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    K.H. Chong; DeCoster, T.; Osler, T.; Robinson, B.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study of all patients (N = 343) with pelvic fractures admitted to our trauma service was conducted to evaluate the impact of pelvic fractures on mortality. All patients sustained additional injuries with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of twenty. Thirty-six patients died. This group had more severe pelvic fractures as graded by the Tile classification as well as a greater number and severity of associated injuries. Six patients died as a direct result of pelvic hemorrha...

  19. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen;

    2016-01-01

    was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion......Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced...

  20. Protective and super-imposing effects of Estradiol , Breviscapini, Lumbrokinase In focal cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury on rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang huiFang; Luo ZuMing

    2000-01-01

    Baekgrouad: Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy is always associated with a decrease in risk of stroke incidence and mortality. The breviscapini and lumbrokinase can protect brain from ischemic injury..Experiments in animal models suggest estradiol can protect brain from ischemic injury. But we know little about the mechanism of brain protection role of estradiol. Espectically we don't know if estrodiol plus other brain protective drugs such as breviscapini and lumbrokinase have superimposing protection. Objective: To study protective function and its mechanism of estradio breviscapini and lumbrokinase after cerebral ischemic reperfusion tn overiectimiaed rat. Methods: We made the local ischemic repenfusion model with thread emgolism of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of young female SD rars which werc bilaterally ovariectomized two weeks ago were used. These rats were randomized into sham-operated group, control group, estrodiol group, brevisacapini group, 10 SD rats each group. We admistrated each group with reseponsed treatment when rats were subjected to half an hour of MCAO. MCA were oecluded 2 hours and followed by 70 hours of reperfusion. Sham-poerated group were exposed cervical common artery and weren't occluded MCA. The rats were killed at 72 hours. The observed patameters each group listed: 1) The neurological deficit scores were made after MCAO 2 hours and bcforc killed. 2) Each group excluded sham operaated group were caculaled cerebral infarct volume ratio and edema volume with stereological microscoppe. 3) The level of Nitrc oxide (NO) in serum were determined with nitrate redutase method. 4) The level of Interlukin-I (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factot (TNF) were determined by biological activity method. 5) Ultrastructure of neuron were observed with electron microscope. All the rcsults from different groups were compared with each other. The drugs identified effictive in formcr study plus estradiot wcre admistratcd to rats to obscrvcd

  1. Protective and super-imposing effects of Estradiol , Breviscapini, Lumbrokinase In focal cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury on rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang huiFang; Luo ZuMing

    2000-01-01

    Baekgrouad: Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy is always associated with a decrease in risk of stroke incidence and mortality. The breviscapini and lumbrokinase can protect brain from ischemic injury..Experiments in animal models suggest estradiol can protect brain from ischemic injury. But we know little about the mechanism of brain protection role of estradiol. Espectically we don't know if estrodiol plus other brain protective drugs such as breviscapini and lumbrokinase have superimposing protection. Objective: To study protective function and its mechanism of estradio breviscapini and lumbrokinase after cerebral ischemic reperfusion tn overiectimiaed rat. Methods: We made the local ischemic repenfusion model with thread emgolism of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of young female SD rars which werc bilaterally ovariectomized two weeks ago were used. These rats were randomized into sham-operated group, control group, estrodiol group, brevisacapini group, 10 SD rats each group. We admistrated each group with reseponsed treatment when rats were subjected to half an hour of MCAO. MCA were oecluded 2 hours and followed by 70 hours of reperfusion. Sham-poerated group were exposed cervical common artery and weren't occluded MCA. The rats were killed at 72 hours. The observed patameters each group listed: 1) The neurological deficit scores were made after MCAO 2 hours and bcforc killed. 2) Each group excluded sham operaated group were caculaled cerebral infarct volume ratio and edema volume with stereological microscoppe. 3) The level of Nitrc oxide (NO) in serum were determined with nitrate redutase method. 4) The level of Interlukin-I (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factot (TNF) were determined by biological activity method. 5) Ultrastructure of neuron were observed with electron microscope. All the rcsults from different groups were compared with each other. The drugs identified effictive in formcr study plus estradiot wcre admistratcd to rats to obscrvcd

  2. A Two-Scale Reduced Model for Darcy Flow in Fractured Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a two-scale reduced model for simulating the Darcy flow in two-dimensional porous media with conductive fractures. We apply the approach motivated by the embedded fracture model (EFM) to simulate the flow on the coarse scale, and the effect of fractures on each coarse scale grid cell intersecting with fractures is represented by the discrete fracture model (DFM) on the fine scale. In the DFM used on the fine scale, the matrix-fracture system are resolved on unstructured grid which represents the fractures accurately, while in the EFM used on the coarse scale, the flux interaction between fractures and matrix are dealt with as a source term, and the matrix-fracture system can be resolved on structured grid. The Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element methods are used for the solution of the coupled flows in the matrix and the fractures on both fine and coarse scales. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model for simulation of flow in fractured porous media.

  3. Thermal front propagation in variable aperture fracture-matrix system: A numerical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nikhil Bagalkot; G Suresh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A numerical study on the effect of complex fracture aperture geometry on propagation of thermal front in a coupled single fracture-matrix system has been carried out. Sinusoidal and logarithmic functions have been used to capture the variation in fracture aperture. Modifications have been made to existing coupled partial differential governing equations to consider the variation of fracture aperture. Effect of temperature on the thermal and physical properties of rock have been incorporated. A fully implicit finite difference scheme has been used to discretize the coupled governing equations. Thermal convection, dispersion and conduction are the major transport processes within fracture, while conduction is the major transport process within rock matrix. The results suggest that variation of fracture aperture increases the heat transfer rate at the fracture-matrix interface. Sensitivity analysis on rock thermal conductivity and fracture aperture have been carried out. The results suggest that the heat transfer from rock matrix to fracture for the case of the parallel plate model is greatly dependent on the rock thermal conductivity (m) as compared to variable aperture model. Further, the thermal front propagation for both parallel plate model and variable aperture model is sensitive to changes in fracture aperture. The heat transfer rate at the interface is greater at smaller fracture apertures and decreases with increase in aperture.

  4. Frequency dependence of lung volume changes during superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, R; Priori, R; Larsson, A; LoMauro, A; Frykholm, P; Aliverti, A

    2014-01-01

    Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) has proved to be safe and effective in clinical practice. However, it is unclear which frequency range optimizes ventilation and gas exchange. The aim of this study was to systematically compare high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) with HFJV by assessing chest wall volume variations (ΔEEV(CW)) and gas exchange in relation to variable high frequency. SHFJV or HFJV were used alternatively to ventilate the lungs of 10 anaesthetized pigs (21-25 kg). The low-frequency component was kept at 16 min(-1) in SHFJV. In both modes, high frequencies ranging from 100 to 1000 min(-1) were applied in random order and ventilation was maintained for 5 min in all modalities. Chest wall volume variations were obtained using opto-electronic plethysmography. Airway pressures and arterial blood gases were measured repeatedly. SHFJV increased ΔEEV(CW) compared with HFJV; the difference ranged from 43 to 68 ml. Tidal volume (V(T)) was always >240 ml during SHFJV whereas during HFJV ranged from 92 ml at the ventilation frequency of 100 min(-1) to negligible values at frequencies >300 min(-1). We observed similar patterns for Pa(O₂) and Pa(CO₂). SHFJV provided generally higher, frequency-independent oxygenation (Pa(O₂) at least 32.0 kPa) and CO₂ removal (Pa(CO₂) ∼5.5 kPa), whereas HFJV led to hypoxia and hypercarbia at higher rates (Pa(O₂) 10 kPa at f(HF)>300 min(-1)). In a porcine model, SHFJV was more effective in increasing end-expiratory volume than single-frequency HFJV, but both modes may provide adequate ventilation in the absence of airway obstruction and respiratory disease, except for HFJV at frequencies ≥300 min(-1).

  5. Synergistic and Superimposed Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with Fasudil in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-Wen; Li, Yan-Hua; Song, Guo-Bin; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Liu, Chun-Yun; Liu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai-Fei; Yang, Wan-Fang; Wang, Qing; Yan, Ya-Ping; Xiao, Bao-Guo; Ma, Cun-Gen

    2016-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the ideal transplanted cells of cellular therapy for promoting neuroprotection and neurorestoration. However, the optimization of transplanted cells and the improvement of microenvironment around implanted cells are still two critical challenges for enhancing therapeutic effect. In the current study, we observed the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with Fasudil in mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and explored possible mechanisms of action. The results clearly show that combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil further reduced the severity of EAE compared with MSCs or Fasudil alone, indicating a synergistic and superimposed effect in treating EAE. The addition of Fasudil inhibited MSC-induced inflammatory signaling TLR-4/MyD88 and inflammatory molecule IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α but did not convert M1 microglia to M2 phenotype. The delivery of MSCs enhanced the expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) compared with that of Fasudil. Importantly, combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil further increased the expression of BDNF and GDNF compared with the delivery of MSCs alone, indicating that combined intervention of MSCs and Fasudil synergistically contributes to the expression of neurotrophic factors which should be related to the expression of increased galactocerebroside (GalC) compared with mice treated with Fasudil and MSCs alone. However, a lot of investigation is warranted to further elucidate the cross talk of MSCs and Fasudil in the therapeutic potential of EAE/multiple sclerosis.

  6. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  7. Fracture mechanics safety approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Eisele, U. [Materials Testing Inst. (MPA), Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Component integrity assessments require the knowledge of reliable fracture toughness parameters characterising the initiation of the failure process in the whole relevant temperature range. From a large number of fracture mechanics tests a statistically based procedure was derived allowing to quantify the initiation of fracture toughness as a function of temperature as a closed function as well as the temperature dependence of the cleavage instability parameters. Alternatively to the direct experimental determination one also can use a correlation between fracture toughness and notch impact energy. (orig.)

  8. Scaphoid fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scaphoid fractures are rare in childhood. Diagnosis is very difficult to establish because carpal bones are not fully ossified. In suspected cases comparative or delayed radiography is used, as well as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and bone scintigraphy. Majority of scaphoid fractures are treated conservatively with good results. In case of delayed fracture healing various types of treatment are available. Objective. To determine the mechanism of injury, clinical healing process, types and outcome of treatment of scaphoid fractures in children. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone over a ten-year period (2002-2011. The outcome of the treatment of “acute” scaphoid fracture was evaluated using the Mayo Wrist Score. Results. There were in total 34 patients, of mean age 13.8 years, with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone, whose bone growth was not finished yet. Most common injury mechanism was fall on outstretched arm - 76% of patients. During the examined period 31 children with “acute” fracture underwent conservative treatment, with average immobilization period of 51 days. Six patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 25 patients, after completed rehabilitation, functional results determined by the Mayo Wrist Score were excellent. Conclusion. Conservative therapy of “acute” scaphoid fractures is an acceptable treatment option for pediatric patients with excellent functional results.

  9. Atraumatic First Rib Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydogdu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rib fractures are usually seen after a trauma, while atraumatic spontaneous rib fractures are quite rare. A first rib fracture identified in our 17 years old female patient who had not a history of trauma except lifting a heavy weight was examined in details in terms of the potential complications and followed-up for a long time. We presented our experience on this case with atraumatic first rib fracture that has different views for the etiology in light of the literature.

  10. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; van der Schaft, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a ‘smooth’ model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to provide a discrete analogue of differential geometry, and to define on these discrete models a formal discrete Hamiltonian structure—in doing so we try to bring together various fundamental concepts...

  11. Pressure Transient Analysis and Flux Distribution for Multistage Fractured Horizontal Wells in Triple-Porosity Reservoir Media with Consideration of Stress-Sensitivity Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-porosity model is usually adopted to describe reservoirs with multiscaled pore spaces, including matrix pores, natural fractures, and vugs. Multiple fractures created by hydraulic fracturing can effectively improve the connectivity between existing natural fractures and thus increase well deliverability. However, little work has been done on pressure transient behavior of multistage fractured horizontal wells in triple-porosity reservoirs. Based on source/sink function method, this paper presents a triple-porosity model to investigate the transient pressure dynamics and flux distribution for multistage fractured horizontal wells in fractured-vuggy reservoirs with consideration of stress-dependent natural fracture permeability. The model is semianalytically solved by discretizing hydraulic fractures and Pedrosa’s transformation, perturbation theory, and integration transformation method. Type curves of transient pressure dynamics are generated, and flux distribution among hydraulic fractures for a fractured horizontal well with constant production rate is also discussed. Parametric study shows that major influential parameters on transient pressure responses are parameters pertinent to reservoir properties, interporosity mass transfer, and hydraulic fractures. Analysis of flux distribution indicates that flux density gradually increases from the horizontal wellbore to fracture tips, and the flux contribution of outermost fractures is higher than that of inner fractures. The model can also be extended to optimize hydraulic fracture parameters.

  12. Fracture of the styloid process associated with the mandible fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the styloid process (SP of temporal bone is an uncommon injuries. Fracture of the SP can be associated with the facial injuries including mandible fracture. However, injury to the SP may be concealed and missed diagnosis may lead to the improper or various unnecessary treatments. A rare case of SP fracture associated with the ipsilateral mandibular fracture and also the diagnostic and management considerations of the SP fracture are discussed.

  13. A Discrete Equivalent of the Logistic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulou EugeniaN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete equivalent and not analogue of the well-known logistic differential equation is proposed. This discrete equivalent logistic equation is of the Volterra convolution type, is obtained by use of a functional-analytic method, and is explicitly solved using the -transform method. The connection of the solution of the discrete equivalent logistic equation with the solution of the logistic differential equation is discussed. Also, some differences of the discrete equivalent logistic equation and the well-known discrete analogue of the logistic equation are mentioned. It is hoped that this discrete equivalent of the logistic equation could be a better choice for the modelling of various problems, where different versions of known discrete logistic equations are used until nowadays.

  14. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes containing many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a numerical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D discrete fracture network (DFN models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM, with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  15. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli; Lanru Jing

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes con-taining many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a nu-merical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D) discrete fracture network (DFN) models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM), with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  16. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... get older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  17. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  18. Discrete Torsion and Symmetric Products

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1999-01-01

    In this note we point out that a symmetric product orbifold CFT can be twisted by a unique nontrivial two-cocycle of the permutation group. This discrete torsion changes the spins and statistics of corresponding second-quantized string theory making it essentially ``supersymmetric.'' The long strings of even length become fermionic (or ghosts), those of odd length bosonic. The partition function and elliptic genus can be described by a sum over stringy spin structures. The usual cubic interaction vertex is odd and nilpotent, so this construction gives rise to a DLCQ string theory with a leading quartic interaction.

  19. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  20. Invariants of Broken Discrete Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalozoumis, P. A.; Morfonios, C.; Diakonos, F. K.; Schmelcher, P.

    2014-08-01

    The parity and Bloch theorems are generalized to the case of broken global symmetry. Local inversion or translation symmetries in one dimension are shown to yield invariant currents that characterize wave propagation. These currents map the wave function from an arbitrary spatial domain to any symmetry-related domain. Our approach addresses any combination of local symmetries, thus applying, in particular, to acoustic, optical, and matter waves. Nonvanishing values of the invariant currents provide a systematic pathway to the breaking of discrete global symmetries.

  1. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-06-13

    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  2. Discrete low-discrepancy sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Omer; Martin, James B; Propp, James

    2009-01-01

    Holroyd and Propp used Hall's marriage theorem to show that, given a probability distribution pi on a finite set S, there exists an infinite sequence s_1,s_2,... in S such that for all integers k >= 1 and all s in S, the number of i in [1,k] with s_i = s differs from k pi(s) by at most 1. We prove a generalization of this result using a simple explicit algorithm. A special case of this algorithm yields an extension of Holroyd and Propp's result to the case of discrete probability distributions on infinite sets.

  3. Discrete and finite General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    De Souza, M M; Souza, Manoelito M. de; Silveira, Robson N.

    1999-01-01

    We develop the General Theory of Relativity in a formalism with extended causality that describes physical interaction through discrete, transversal and localized pointlike fields. The homogeneous field equations are then solved for a finite, singularity-free, point-like field that we associate to a ``classical graviton". The standard Einstein's continuous formalism is retrieved by means of an averaging process, and its continuous solutions are determined by the chsosen imposed symetry. The Schwarzschild metric is obtained by the imposition of spherical symmetry on the averaged field.

  4. Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Acharjya, DP

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The book `Fundamental Approach to Discrete Mathematics` is a required part of pursuing a computer science degree at most universities. It provides in-depth knowledge to the subject for beginners and stimulates further interest in the topic. The salient features of this book include: Strong coverage of key topics involving recurrence relation, combinatorics, Boolean algebra, graph theory and fuzzy set theory. Algorithms and examples integrated throughout the book to bring clarity to the fundamental concepts. Each concept and definition is followed by thoughtful examples.

  5. Discrete gravity from statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2011-01-01

    We show how to construct space time lattices with a Regge action proportional to the energy of a given Ising or Potts model macrostate. This allows to take advantage of the existence of exact solutions for these models to calculate the quantum wave function of the universe using the sum over the histories approach to quantum gravity. Motivated by this isomorphism we show how the Regge equations, i.e. the discrete equivalent of the vacuum Einstein equations, can be derived using statistical mechanics under the assumption that the energy of a given space time geometry is proportional to the Regge action.

  6. Pneumothorax complicating isolated clavicle fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Redouane; Ennaciri, Badr; Jeddi, Idriss; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Isolated clavicle fractures are among the commonest of traumatic fractures in the emergency department. Complications of isolated clavicle fractures are rare. Pneumothorax has been described as a complication of a fractured clavicle only rarely in English literature. In all the reported cases, the pneumothorax was treated by a thoracostomy and the clavicle fracture was treated conservatively. In our case, the pneumothorax required a chest drain insertion and the clavicle fracture was treated surgically with good result.

  7. Mathematical algorithm development and parametric studies with the GEOFRAC three-dimensional stochastic model of natural rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Violeta M.; Sousa, Rita; Murrihy, Brian; Einstein, Herbert H.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents results from research conducted at MIT during 2010-2012 on modeling of natural rock fracture systems with the GEOFRAC three-dimensional stochastic model. Following a background summary of discrete fracture network models and a brief introduction of GEOFRAC, the paper provides a thorough description of the newly developed mathematical and computer algorithms for fracture intensity, aperture, and intersection representation, which have been implemented in MATLAB. The new methods optimize, in particular, the representation of fracture intensity in terms of cumulative fracture area per unit volume, P32, via the Poisson-Voronoi Tessellation of planes into polygonal fracture shapes. In addition, fracture apertures now can be represented probabilistically or deterministically whereas the newly implemented intersection algorithms allow for computing discrete pathways of interconnected fractures. In conclusion, results from a statistical parametric study, which was conducted with the enhanced GEOFRAC model and the new MATLAB-based Monte Carlo simulation program FRACSIM, demonstrate how fracture intensity, size, and orientations influence fracture connectivity.

  8. An evaluation of the active fracture concept with modelingunsaturated flow and transport in a fractured meter-sized block ofrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ito, Kazumasa

    2003-05-30

    Numerical simulation is an effective and economical tool for optimally designing laboratory experiments and deriving practical experimental conditions. We executed a detailed numerical simulation study to examine the active fracture concept (AFC, Liu et al., 1998) using a cubic meter-sized block model. The numerical simulations for this study were performed by applying various experimental conditions, including different bottom flow boundaries, varying injection rates, and different fracture-matrix interaction (by increasing absolute matrix permeability at the fracture matrix boundary) for a larger fracture interaction under transient or balanced-state flow regimes. Two conceptual block models were developed based on different numerical approaches: a two-dimensional discrete-fracture-network model (DFNM) and a one-dimensional dual continuum model (DCM). The DFNM was used as a surrogate for a natural block to produce synthetic breakthrough curves of water and tracer concentration under transient or balanced-state conditions. The DCM is the approach typically used for the Yucca Mountain Project because of its computational efficiency. The AFC was incorporated into the DCM to capture heterogeneous flow patterns that occur in unsaturated fractured rocks. The simulation results from the DCM were compared with the results from the DFNM to determine whether the DCM could predict the water flow and tracer transport observed in the DFNM at the scale of the experiment. It was found that implementing the AFC in the DCM improved the prediction of unsaturated flow and that the flow and transport experiments with low injection rates in the DFNM were compared better with the AFC implemented DCM at the meter scale. However, the estimated AFC parameter varied from 0.38 to 1.0 with different flow conditions, suggesting that the AFC parameter was not a sufficient to fully capture the complexity of the flow processes in a one meter sized discrete fracture network.

  9. Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official...consider preferential fracture on cleavage planes of multiple discrete orientations requires introduction of additional order parameter(s) for...trends for elastically compliant grain boundary phases are in general agreement with experiment [6]. As will be examined in more detail in Section 4.2

  10. Experimental Study on Wing Crack Behaviours in Dynamic-Static Superimposed Stress Field Using Caustics and High-Speed Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Y. Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the drill-and-blast progress in rock tunnel excavation of great deep mine, rock fracture is evaluated by both blasting load and pre-exiting earth stress (pre-compression. Many pre-existing flaws in the rock mass, like micro-crack, also seriously affect the rock fracture pattern. Under blasting load with pre-compression, micro-cracks initiate, propagate and grow to be wing cracks. With an autonomous design of static-dynamic loading system, dynamic and static loads were applied on some PMMA plate specimen with pre-existing crack, and the behaviour of the wing crack was tested by caustics corroding with a high-speed photography. Four programs with different static loading modes that generate different pre-compression fields were executed, and the length, velocity of the blasting wing crack and dynamic stress intensity factor (SIF at the wing crack tip were analyzed and discussed. It is found that the behaviour of blasting-induced wing crack is affected obviously by blasting and pre-compression. And pre-compression, which is vertical to the direction of the wing crack propagation, hinders the crack propagation. Furthermore, the boundary constraint condition plays an important role on the behaviour of blasting induced crack during the experiment.

  11. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  12. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 6. Prawer A. Radius and ulna fractures. In: Eiff M, Hatch R, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  13. Displaced patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. THORACIC SPINE FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴力扬

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the unique characteristics and treatment of thoracic spine fractures.Methods. Severty-seven patients with thoracic spine fractures were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, therewere 37 compressior fractures, 34 fracture-dislocations, 3 burst fractures and 3 burst-dislocations. Twenty-six pa-tients had a complete lesion of the spinal cord, 14 sustained a neurologically incomplete injury, and 37 wereneurologically intact. Fifty-three patients were treated nonoperatively and 24 treated operatively.Results. All patients were followed up for 2 ~ 15 years. None of the 26 patients with a complete lesion recov-ered any significant function. Of 37 neurologically intact patients, 13 had local pain although all of them re-mained normal function. Two of 14 patients with incomplete paraplegia returned to normal, 7 recovered some func-tion and 5 did not recovered.Conclusions. E ecause of the unique anatomy and biomechanics of the thoracic spine, the classification common-ly applied to thoracolumbar fractures is not suitable for thoracic fractures. Fusion and instrumentation are indicat-ed when the fractures are unstable, while patients with incomplete lesion of the spinal cord may be the candidatesfor supplemented decompression.

  15. A residual-based a posteriori error estimator for single-phase Darcy flow in fractured porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2016-12-09

    In this paper we develop an a posteriori error estimator for a mixed finite element method for single-phase Darcy flow in a two-dimensional fractured porous media. The discrete fracture model is applied to model the fractures by one-dimensional fractures in a two-dimensional domain. We consider Raviart–Thomas mixed finite element method for the approximation of the coupled Darcy flows in the fractures and the surrounding porous media. We derive a robust residual-based a posteriori error estimator for the problem with non-intersecting fractures. The reliability and efficiency of the a posteriori error estimator are established for the error measured in an energy norm. Numerical results verifying the robustness of the proposed a posteriori error estimator are given. Moreover, our numerical results indicate that the a posteriori error estimator also works well for the problem with intersecting fractures.

  16. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerating Oil and Gas Exploration in Western China by Studies of Formations of Hydrocarbon Accumulations in Superimposed Basins——A Preface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiongqi

    2010-01-01

    @@ The superimposed basins in the western region of China are a hot research topic for earth scientists home and abroad for their vast area and rich oil and gas resources.Their complex geological conditions and resultant great exploration difficulties have received much attention of the scientists.This issue presents the advances of several scholars in their long-term research on the mechanisms of oil and gas accumulation and the patterns of oil and gas distribution.These studies are part of the National 973Project entitled"Mechanism of Oil and Gas Accumulation and Patterns of Oil and Gas Distribution in Typical Superimposed Basins in the Western Region of China(no.2006CB202300)",which is funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

  18. Transphyseal Distal Humerus Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle.

  19. Galeazzi fracture-dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, Z D

    1975-12-01

    Among 125 patients with the Galeazzi-type fracture-dislocation of the forearm, there were fourteen children and eighty-six adults with the classic Galeazzi lesion, and twenty-five patients with a special type -- fracture of both bones and dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint. Conservative management was successful only in children. In adults this method resulted in failure in 80 per cent of cases. The results of operative treatment were much better. The fracture fragments of the radius and the dislocation of the radio-ulnar joint in this complex injury are very unstable, especially in the lesion with fractures of the radius and ulna, and it appears that rigid internal fixation is necessary for the dislocation as well as the fracture. With combined fixation over half of the results were excellent.

  20. Dynamic fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic fracture and crack propagation concepts for ductile materials are reviewed. The equations for calculating dynamic stress integrity and the dynamic energy release rate in order to study dynamic crack propagation are provided. The stress intensity factor versus crack velocity relation is investigated. The uses of optical experimental techniques and finite element methods for fracture analyses are described. The fracture criteria for a rapidly propagating crack under mixed mode conditions are discussed; crack extension and fracture criteria under combined tension and shear loading are based on maximum circumferential stress or energy criteria such as strain energy density. The development and use of a Dugdale model and finite element models to represent crack and fracture dynamics are examined.

  1. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  2. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  3. Entwinement in discretely gauged theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; Craps, B.; De Jonckheere, T.; Galli, F.

    2016-12-01

    We develop the notion of "entwinement" to characterize the amount of quantum entanglement between internal, discretely gauged degrees of freedom in a quantum field theory. This concept originated in the program of reconstructing spacetime from entanglement in holographic duality. We define entwinement formally in terms of a novel replica method which uses twist operators charged in a representation of the discrete gauge group. In terms of these twist operators we define a non-local, gauge-invariant object whose expectation value computes entwinement in a standard replica limit. We apply our method to the computation of entwinement in symmetric orbifold conformal field theories in 1+1 dimensions, which have an S N gauging. Such a theory appears in the weak coupling limit of the D1-D5 string theory which is dual to AdS3 at strong coupling. In this context, we show how certain kinds of entwinement measure the lengths, in units of the AdS scale, of non-minimal geodesics present in certain excited states of the system which are gravitationally described as conical defects and the M = 0 BTZ black hole. The possible types of entwinement that can be computed define a very large new class of quantities characterizing the fine structure of quantum wavefunctions.

  4. Supervised Discrete Hashing With Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Sun, Zhenan; Tao, Dacheng; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-12-29

    Data-dependent hashing has recently attracted attention due to being able to support efficient retrieval and storage of high-dimensional data, such as documents, images, and videos. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based hashing method called ''supervised discrete hashing with relaxation'' (SDHR) based on ''supervised discrete hashing'' (SDH). SDH uses ordinary least squares regression and traditional zero-one matrix encoding of class label information as the regression target (code words), thus fixing the regression target. In SDHR, the regression target is instead optimized. The optimized regression target matrix satisfies a large margin constraint for correct classification of each example. Compared with SDH, which uses the traditional zero-one matrix, SDHR utilizes the learned regression target matrix and, therefore, more accurately measures the classification error of the regression model and is more flexible. As expected, SDHR generally outperforms SDH. Experimental results on two large-scale image data sets (CIFAR-10 and MNIST) and a large-scale and challenging face data set (FRGC) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of SDHR.

  5. Entwinement in discretely gauged theories

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, V; Craps, B; De Jonckheere, T; Galli, F

    2016-01-01

    We develop the notion of entwinement to characterize the amount of quantum entanglement between internal, discretely gauged degrees of freedom in a quantum field theory. This concept originated in the program of reconstructing spacetime from entanglement in holographic duality. We define entwinement formally in terms of a novel replica method which uses twist operators charged in a representation of the discrete gauge group. In terms of these twist operators we define a non-local, gauge-invariant object whose expectation value computes entwinement in a standard replica limit. We apply our method to the computation of entwinement in symmetric orbifold conformal field theories in 1+1 dimensions, which have an $S_N$ gauging. Such a theory appears in the weak coupling limit of the D1-D5 string theory which is dual to AdS$_3$ at strong coupling. In this context, we show how certain kinds of entwinement measure the lengths, in units of the AdS scale, of non-minimal geodesics present in certain excited states of the...

  6. Discrete auroras and magnetotail processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.

    Important information about magnetospheric phenomena associated with auroras and substorms can be inferred from low-altitude auroral observations. Satellite observations have shown that discrete auroral arcs lie within a boundary plasma sheet (BPS) region that is outside the central plasma sheet (CPS). The observations imply that arcs are generated along BPS field lines by magnetospheric processes that form large, perpendicular electric field structures. The BPS and the arc generation processes apparently lie along field lines that are in the vicinity of the boundary between open and closed field lines and cross the tail (or magnetopause) current sheet. Ground-based observations show that the first indication of a substorm onset is the brightening of a quiet, discrete arc. This suggests that substorms are initiated along the BPS field lines associated with arc generation, and not within the CPS. Finally, auroral observations have shown that the area of open, polar-cap field lines varies considerably during periods of geomagnetic activity. Expansion of the polar cap has the potential for releasing trapped plasma sheet particles along freshly open field lines. The resulting evacuation of field lines has the potential for being an important loss process for the plasma sheet and for being a source of tailward flows and energetic particle bursts in the tail.

  7. Investigation of the Impact of a Heinrich-Event-like Abrupt Event Superimposed Onto the RCP 8.5 Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, D.; Ramstein, G.; Dumas, C.; Charbit, S.

    2014-12-01

    The CMIP5/IPCC (AR5) projections of climate change showed the temperatures should increase by between 1.3 °C and 4.4 °C by 2100 and the sea level rise between 26 cm and 82 cm on average. Superimposed on these climatic and hydrologic trends associated with the RCP 8.5 most pessimistic scenario, it is important to investigate the possible effect of an abrupt event like an ice-sheet surge. This is first justified by the recent collapse of the Larsen B ice shelf which illustrates that a non-linear response of the cryosphere may occur in a warming world. Furthermore, in glacial periods, ice-sheets have been unstable and huge surges of icebergs did occur and deeply modified the climate. The aim of this presentation is to show the hypothetical climatic consequences of such a Heinrich-type event on future climate change. To achieve this goal, 3 scenarios of rapid ice-sheet deglaciation have been designed, corresponding to an additional sea level rise of around 3 m : - S1 corresponds to a contribution from Greenland only; - S2 from West-Antarctica only; - S3 from both ice-sheets. We use the global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (OAGCM) IPSL-CM5A-LR. The freshwater perturbation is applied near the ice-sheet(s) during 20 years from 2050 to 2070 during an RCP8.5 perturbation. The RCP8.5 scenario is then continued until 2100 (without freshwater). For these types of scenarios, previous experiments for paleoclimatic cases help us diagnose the most vulnerable areas. The North Atlantic and the collapse of thermohaline circulation is one key issue, but far field teleconnections with the Asian monsoon will also be explored. We will investigate the timing and amplitude of the climate impacts due to the perturbations, which may be quite different in our 3 scenarios. These abrupt events consequences can be important for the populations and the consideration of rapid changes should improve the reliability of IPCC predictions.

  8. Geomechanically Coupled Simulation of Flow in Fractured Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C.; Moos, D.; Hartley, L.; Baxter, S.; Foulquier, L.; Holl, H.; Hogarth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Capturing the necessary and sufficient detail of reservoir hydraulics to accurately evaluate reservoir behavior remains a significant challenge to the exploitation and management of fracture-dominated geothermal reservoirs. In these low matrix permeability reservoirs, stimulation response is controlled largely by the properties of natural and induced fracture networks, which are in turn controlled by the in situ stresses, the fracture distribution and connectivity and the hydraulic behavior of the fractures. This complex interaction of fracture flow systems with the present-day stress field compounds the problem of developing an effective and efficient simulation to characterize, model and predict fractured reservoir performance. We discuss here a case study of the integration of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, and reservoir engineering data to characterize the in situ stresses, the natural fracture network and the controls on fracture permeability in geothermal reservoirs. A 3D geomechanical reservoir model includes constraints on stress magnitudes and orientations, and constraints on mechanical rock properties and the fractures themselves. Such a model is essential to understanding reservoir response to stimulation and production in low matrix permeability, fracture-dominated reservoirs. The geomechanical model for this study was developed using petrophysical, drilling, and wellbore image data along with direct well test measurements and was mapped to a 3D structural grid to facilitate coupled simulation of the fractured reservoir. Wellbore image and stimulation test data were used along with microseismic data acquired during the test to determine the reservoir fracture architecture and to provide control points for a realistic inter-connected discrete fracture network. As most fractures are stress-sensitive, their hydraulic conductivities will change with changes in bottomhole flowing and reservoir pressures, causing variations in production profiles

  9. Review: Mathematical expressions for estimating equivalent permeability of rock fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing; Huang, Na

    2016-06-01

    Fracture networks play a more significant role in conducting fluid flow and solute transport in fractured rock masses, comparing with that of the rock matrix. Accurate estimation of the permeability of fracture networks would help researchers and engineers better assess the performance of projects associated with fluid flow in fractured rock masses. This study provides a review of previous works that have focused on the estimation of equivalent permeability of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete fracture networks (DFNs) considering the influences of geometric properties of fractured rock masses. Mathematical expressions for the effects of nine important parameters that significantly impact on the equivalent permeability of DFNs are summarized, including (1) fracture-length distribution, (2) aperture distribution, (3) fracture surface roughness, (4) fracture dead-end, (5) number of intersections, (6) hydraulic gradient, (7) boundary stress, (8) anisotropy, and (9) scale. Recent developments of 3-D fracture networks are briefly reviewed to underline the importance of utilizing 3-D models in future research.

  10. Review: Mathematical expressions for estimating equivalent permeability of rock fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing; Huang, Na

    2016-11-01

    Fracture networks play a more significant role in conducting fluid flow and solute transport in fractured rock masses, comparing with that of the rock matrix. Accurate estimation of the permeability of fracture networks would help researchers and engineers better assess the performance of projects associated with fluid flow in fractured rock masses. This study provides a review of previous works that have focused on the estimation of equivalent permeability of two-dimensional (2-D) discrete fracture networks (DFNs) considering the influences of geometric properties of fractured rock masses. Mathematical expressions for the effects of nine important parameters that significantly impact on the equivalent permeability of DFNs are summarized, including (1) fracture-length distribution, (2) aperture distribution, (3) fracture surface roughness, (4) fracture dead-end, (5) number of intersections, (6) hydraulic gradient, (7) boundary stress, (8) anisotropy, and (9) scale. Recent developments of 3-D fracture networks are briefly reviewed to underline the importance of utilizing 3-D models in future research.

  11. Data assimilation method for fractured reservoirs using mimetic finite differences and ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ping, Jing

    2017-05-19

    Optimal management of subsurface processes requires the characterization of the uncertainty in reservoir description and reservoir performance prediction. For fractured reservoirs, the location and orientation of fractures are crucial for predicting production characteristics. With the help of accurate and comprehensive knowledge of fracture distributions, early water/CO 2 breakthrough can be prevented and sweep efficiency can be improved. However, since the rock property fields are highly non-Gaussian in this case, it is a challenge to estimate fracture distributions by conventional history matching approaches. In this work, a method that combines vector-based level-set parameterization technique and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for estimating fracture distributions is presented. Performing the necessary forward modeling is particularly challenging. In addition to the large number of forward models needed, each model is used for sampling of randomly located fractures. Conventional mesh generation for such systems would be time consuming if possible at all. For these reasons, we rely on a novel polyhedral mesh method using the mimetic finite difference (MFD) method. A discrete fracture model is adopted that maintains the full geometry of the fracture network. By using a cut-cell paradigm, a computational mesh for the matrix can be generated quickly and reliably. In this research, we apply this workflow on 2D two-phase fractured reservoirs. The combination of MFD approach, level-set parameterization, and EnKF provides an effective solution to address the challenges in the history matching problem of highly non-Gaussian fractured reservoirs.

  12. Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shicheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Han, Li

    2016-09-01

    Shale formations are often characterized by low matrix permeability and contain numerous bedding planes (BPs) and natural fractures (NFs). Massive hydraulic fracturing is an important technology for the economic development of shale formations in which a large-scale hydraulic fracture network (HFN) is generated for hydrocarbon flow. In this study, HFN propagation is numerically investigated in a horizontally layered and naturally fractured shale formation by using a newly developed complex fracturing model based on the 3D discrete element method. In this model, a succession of continuous horizontal BP interfaces and vertical NFs is explicitly represented and a shale matrix block is considered impermeable, transversely isotropic, and linearly elastic. A series of simulations is performed to illustrate the influence of anisotropy, associated with the presence of BPs, on the HFN propagation geometry in shale formations. Modeling results reveal that the presence of BP interfaces increases the injection pressure during fracturing. HF deflection into a BP interface tends to occur under high strength and elastic anisotropy as well as in low vertical stress anisotropy conditions, which generate a T-shaped or horizontal fracture. Opened BP interfaces may limit the growth of the fracture upward and downward, resulting in a very low stimulated thickness. However, the opened BP interfaces favor fracture complexity because of the improved connection between HFs and NFs horizontally under moderate vertical stress anisotropy. This study may help predict the HF growth geometry and optimize the fracturing treatment designs in shale formations with complex depositional heterogeneity.

  13. Fractured porous medium flow analysis using numerical manifold method with independent covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Hua; Lin, Shao-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Qiang; Su, Hai-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Due to the complexity of geometry and the difficulty of mesh discretization of 3D (three-dimensional) blocks cut by complexly distributed fractures, explicitly considering arbitrary fracture network in fractured porous medium (FPM) flow analysis is very challenging for various numerical methods. In this study, we developed a FPM flow model by taking full advantage of numerical manifold method (NMM) with independent covers. With the independent covers, arbitrarily-shaped 3D blocks identified by block-cutting analysis can be directly used as basic computational elements. Along the boundaries of the divided blocks, fractures elements are generated according to the fractures' apertures. Therefore, it is able to handle very complicated fracture network in 3D flow analysis without need to subdivide 3D blocks into computational meshes. In order to refine the meshes, we introduced artificial fractures with same material properties as surrounding rock into a fracture network, without need to coordinate with the shapes of the blocks. We demonstrated our new model on different 2D examples. At last, we applied our model to 2D and 3D examples with complexly distributed fractures, and achieved reasonable results. The results show that our model is very powerful to analyze fluid flow in arbitrarily and complexly fractured rock mass in 3D.

  14. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  15. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  16. Periodic Hydraulic Testing for Discerning Fracture Network Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Guihéneuf, N.; Cole, M.

    2015-12-01

    Discrete fracture network (DFN) models often predict highly variable hydraulic connections between injection and pumping wells used for enhanced oil recovery, geothermal energy extraction, and groundwater remediation. Such connections can be difficult to verify in fractured rock systems because standard pumping or pulse interference tests interrogate too large a volume to pinpoint specific connections. Three field examples are presented in which periodic hydraulic tests were used to obtain information about hydraulic connectivity in fractured bedrock. The first site, a sandstone in New York State, involves only a single fracture at a scale of about 10 m. The second site, a granite in Brittany, France, involves a fracture network at about the same scale. The third site, a granite/schist in the U.S. State of New Hampshire, involves a complex network at scale of 30-60 m. In each case periodic testing provided an enhanced view of hydraulic connectivity over previous constant rate tests. Periodic testing is particularly adept at measuring hydraulic diffusivity, which is a more effective parameter than permeability for identify the complexity of flow pathways between measurement locations. Periodic tests were also conducted at multiple frequencies which provides a range in the radius of hydraulic penetration away from the oscillating well. By varying the radius of penetration, we attempt to interrogate the structure of the fracture network. Periodic tests, therefore, may be uniquely suited for verifying and/or calibrating DFN models.

  17. Computed tomograms of blowout fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Haruhide; Hayashi, Minoru; Shoin, Katsuo; Hwang, Wen-Zern; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Yonemura, Taizo

    1985-02-01

    We studied 18 cases of orbital fractures, excluding optic canal fracture. There were 11 cases of pure blowout fracture and 3 of the impure type. The other 4 cases were orbital fractures without blowout fracture. The cardinal syndromes were diplopia, enophthalmos, and sensory disturbances of the trigeminal nerve in the pure type of blowout fracture. Many cases of the impure type of blowout fracture or of orbital fracture showed black eyes or a swelling of the eyelids which masked enophthalmos. Axial and coronal CT scans demonstrated: 1) the orbital fracture, 2) the degree of enophthalmos, 3) intraorbital soft tissue, such as incarcerated or prolapsed ocular muscles, 4) intraorbital hemorrhage, 5) the anatomical relation of the orbital fracture to the lacrimal canal, the trochlea, and the trigeminal nerve, and 6) the lesions of the paranasal sinus and the intracranial cavity. CT scans play an important role in determining what surgical procedures might best be employed. Pure blowout fractures were classified by CT scans into these four types: 1) incarcerating linear fracture, 2) trapdoor fracture, 3) punched-out fracture, and 4) broad fracture. Cases with severe head injury should be examined to see whether or not blowout fracture is present. If the patients are to hope to return to society, a blowout fracture should be treated as soon as possible. (author).

  18. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions And Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-06-30

    Matrix diffusion and adsorption within a rock matrix are widely regarded as important mechanisms for retarding the transport of radionuclides and other solutes in fractured rock (e.g., Neretnieks, 1980; Tang et al., 1981; Maloszewski and Zuber, 1985; Novakowski and Lapcevic, 1994; Jardine et al., 1999; Zhou and Xie, 2003; Reimus et al., 2003a,b). When remediation options are being evaluated for old sources of contamination, where a large fraction of contaminants reside within the rock matrix, slow diffusion out of the matrix greatly increases the difficulty and timeframe of remediation. Estimating the rates of solute exchange between fractures and the adjacent rock matrix is a critical factor in quantifying immobilization and/or remobilization of DOE-relevant contaminants within the subsurface. In principle, the most rigorous approach to modeling solute transport with fracture-matrix interaction would be based on local-scale coupled advection-diffusion/dispersion equations for the rock matrix and in discrete fractures that comprise the fracture network (Discrete Fracture Network and Matrix approach, hereinafter referred to as DFNM approach), fully resolving aperture variability in fractures and matrix property heterogeneity. However, such approaches are computationally demanding, and thus, many predictive models rely upon simplified models. These models typically idealize fracture rock masses as a single fracture or system of parallel fractures interacting with slabs of porous matrix or as a mobile-immobile or multi-rate mass transfer system. These idealizations provide tractable approaches for interpreting tracer tests and predicting contaminant mobility, but rely upon a fitted effective matrix diffusivity or mass-transfer coefficients. However, because these fitted parameters are based upon simplified conceptual models, their effectiveness at predicting long-term transport processes remains uncertain. Evidence of scale dependence of effective matrix diffusion

  19. A New Physics-Based Modeling of Multiple Non-Planar Hydraulic Fractures Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing [University of Utah; Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deo, Milind [University of Utah; Jiang, Shu [Energy & Geoscience Institute

    2015-10-01

    Because of the low permeability in shale plays, closely spaced hydraulic fractures and multilateral horizontal wells are generally required to improve production. Therefore, understanding the potential fracture interaction and stress evolution is critical in optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multi-stage horizontal wells. In this paper, a novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple non-planar fractures propagation. The numerical model from Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to simulate the mechanics of fracture propagations and interactions, while a conjugate irregular lattice network is generated to represent fluid flow in both fractures and formation. The fluid flow in the formation is controlled by Darcy’s law, but within fractures it is simulated by using cubic law for laminar flow through parallel plates. Initiation, growth and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. We investigate the fracture propagation path in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs using the simulator developed. Stress shadow caused by the transverse fracture will change the orientation of principal stress in the fracture neighborhood, which may inhibit or alter the growth direction of nearby fracture clusters. However, the initial in-situ stress anisotropy often helps overcome this phenomenon. Under large in-situ stress anisotropy, the hydraulic fractures are more likely to propagate in a direction that is perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress. Under small in-situ stress anisotropy, there is a greater chance for fractures from nearby clusters to merge with each other. Then, we examine the differences in fracture geometry caused by fracturing in cemented or uncemented wellbore. Moreover, the impact of

  20. 3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Hermanson, Jan

    2002-09-09

    The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.