WorldWideScience

Sample records for superhorizon curvature perturbations

  1. Suppressing Super-Horizon Curvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloth, M S

    2006-01-01

    We consider the possibility of suppressing superhorizon curvature perturbations after the end of the ordinary slow-roll inflationary stage. This is the opposite of the curvaton limit. We assume that large curvature perturbations are created by the inflaton and investigate to which extent they can be diluted or suppressed by a second very homogeneous field which starts to dominate the energy density of the universe shortly after the end of inflation. The suppression is non-trivial to achieve, but we demonstrate two examples where it works. The mechanism is shown to work if the decay rate of the second field has a certain time-dependence leading to an intrinsic non-adiabatic energy transfer or if the second field is an axion field with a very non-linear periodic potential leading to a non-vanishing intrinsic non-adiabatic pressure perturbation. This opens the possibility of having much larger inflaton perturbations created during inflation than normally allowed by the COBE bound. It relaxes the upper bound on t...

  2. Superhorizon Perturbations and the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Superhorizon perturbations induce large-scale temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the Grishchuk-Zel'dovich effect. We analyze the CMB temperature anisotropies generated by a single-mode adiabatic superhorizon perturbation. We show that an adiabatic superhorizon perturbation in a LCDM universe does not generate a CMB temperature dipole, and we derive constraints to the amplitude and wavelength of a superhorizon potential perturbation from measurements of the CMB quadrupole and octupole. We also consider constraints to a superhorizon fluctuation in the curvaton field, which was recently proposed as a source of the hemispherical power asymmetry in the CMB.

  3. Can superhorizon cosmological perturbations explain the acceleration of the universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Hirata, C M; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the recent suggestions by Barausse et al. (astro-ph/0501152) and Kolb et al. (hep-th/0503117) that the acceleration of the universe could be explained by large superhorizon fluctuations generated by inflation. We show that no acceleration can be produced by this mechanism. We begin by showing how the application of Raychaudhuri equation to inhomogeneous cosmologies results in several ``no go'' theorems for accelerated expansion. Next we derive an exact solution for a specific case of initial perturbations, for which application of the Kolb et al. expressions leads to an acceleration, while the exact solution reveals that no acceleration is present. We show that the discrepancy can be traced to higher order terms that were dropped in the Kolb et al. analysis. We proceed with the analysis of initial value formulation of general relativity to argue that causality severely limits what observable effects can be derived from superhorizon perturbations. By constructing a Riemann normal coordinate syst...

  4. A super-horizon conservation law in non-adiabatic Horndeski theories and the validity of perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Germani, Cristiano; Watanabe, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    We first point out that generic Horndeski theories in a Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker background are non-adiabatic. Therefore, curvature perturbations on super-horizon scales are generically not conserved. Nevertheless, we show that the re-scaled Mukhanov-Sasaki variable is conserved implying a constraint equation for the Newtonian potential. In the general case, the super-horizon Newtonian potential can potentially grow to very large values after inflation exit. If that happens, inflationary predictability is lost during the oscillating period. When this does not happen, the perturbations generated during inflation can be standardly related to the CMB, if the theory chosen is minimal at low energies. As a concrete example, we analytically and numerically discuss the new Higgs inflationary case. There, the Inflaton is the Higgs boson that is non-minimally kinetically coupled to gravity. During the high-energy part of the post-inflationary oscillations, the system is anisotropic and the Newtonian poten...

  5. On the breakdown of the curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ during reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Algan, Merve Tarman; Kutluk, Emine Seyma

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in single scalar field inflationary models the standard curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is supposedly conserved at superhorizon scales, diverges during reheating at times d\\Phi/dt=0, i.e. when the time derivative of the background inflaton field vanishes. This happens because the comoving gauge \\phi=0, where \\phi\\ denotes the inflaton perturbation, breaks down when d\\Phi/dt=0. The issue is usually bypassed by averaging out the inflaton oscillations but strictly speaking the evolution of \\zeta\\ is ill posed mathematically. We solve this problem by introducing a family of smooth gauges that still eliminates the inflaton fluctuation \\phi\\ in the Hamiltonian formalism and gives a well behaved curvature perturbation \\zeta, which is now rigorously conserved at superhorizon scales. In the linearized theory, this conserved variable can be used to unambiguously propagate the inflationary perturbations from the end of inflation to subsequent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results for th...

  6. Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum.

  7. Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2009-06-01

    This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum.

  8. Amplification of curvature perturbations in cyclic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Piao, Yun-Song

    2010-12-01

    We analytically and numerically show that through the cycles with nonsingular bounce, the amplitude of curvature perturbation on a large scale will be amplified and the power spectrum will redden. In some sense, this amplification will eventually destroy the homogeneity of the background, which will lead to the ultimate end of cycles of the global universe. We argue that for the model with increasing cycles, it might be possible that a fissiparous multiverse will emerge after one or several cycles, in which the cycles will continue only at corresponding local regions.

  9. The probability equation for the cosmological comoving curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: antonio.riotto@pd.infn.it, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, PH-TH Division, CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-10-01

    Fluctuations of the comoving curvature perturbation with wavelengths larger than the horizon length are governed by a Langevin equation whose stochastic noise arise from the quantum fluctuations that are assumed to become classical at horizon crossing. The infrared part of the curvature perturbation performs a random walk under the action of the stochastic noise and, at the same time, it suffers a classical force caused by its self-interaction. By a path-interal approach and, alternatively, by the standard procedure in random walk analysis of adiabatic elimination of fast variables, we derive the corresponding Kramers-Moyal equation which describes how the probability distribution of the comoving curvature perturbation at a given spatial point evolves in time and is a generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach offers an alternative way to study the late time behaviour of the correlators of the curvature perturbation from infrared effects.

  10. Primordial black hole formation from non-Gaussian curvature perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Klimai, P A

    2012-01-01

    We consider several early Universe models that allow for production of large curvature perturbations at small scales. As is well known, such perturbations can lead to production of primordial black holes (PBHs). We briefly review the Gaussian case and then focus on two models which produce strongly non-Gaussian perturbations: hybrid inflation waterfall model and the curvaton model. We show that limits on the values of curvature perturbation power spectrum amplitude are strongly dependent on the shape of perturbations and can significantly (by two orders of magnitude) deviate from the usual Gaussian limit of ${\\cal P}_\\zeta \\lesssim 10^{-2}$. We give examples of PBH mass spectra calculations for each case.

  11. Evolution of curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2009-07-21

    Using the cosmological perturbation theory in terms of the deltaN formalism, we find the simple formulation of the evolution of the curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories. Compared with the standard gravity theory, a crucial difference appears in the end-boundary of the inflationary stage, which is due to the non-ideal form of the energy-momentum tensor that depends explicitly on the curvature scalar. Recent study shows that ultraviolet-complete quantum theory of gravity (Horava-Lifshitz gravity) can be approximated by using a generalized gravity action. Our paper may give an important step in understanding the evolution of the curvature perturbation during inflation, where the energy-momentum tensor may not be given by the ideal form due to the corrections from the fundamental theory.

  12. A general proof of the conservation of the curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Lyth, D H; Sasaki, M; Lyth, David H.; Malik, Karim A.; Sasaki, Misao

    2004-01-01

    Without invoking a perturbative expansion, we define the cosmological curvature perturbation, and consider its behaviour after smoothing on a comoving scale much bigger than the horizon. We, however, do invoke an expansion in spatial gradients, the so-called gradient expansion. The only essential assumption is that the spatial metric is conformally flat to a sufficiently good approximation. More precisely, a non-conformally flat component is of second order in spatial gradients at most. The results obtained are straight-forward generalisations of those already proven in linear perturbation theory and (in part) in second-order perturbation theory. The equations are simple, resembling closely the first-order equations.

  13. Generating Ekpyrotic Curvature Perturbations Before the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Lehners, J L; Steinhardt, P J; Turok, N G; Fadden, Paul Mc; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We analyze a general mechanism for producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological curvature perturbations during a contracting phase preceding a big bang, that can be entirely described using 4d effective field theory. The mechanism, based on first producing entropic perturbations and then converting them to curvature perturbations, can be naturally incorporated in cyclic and ekpyrotic models in which the big bang is modelled as a brane collision, as well as other types of cosmological models with a pre-big bang phase. We show that the correct perturbation amplitude can be obtained and that the scalar spectral tilt n tends to range from slightly blue to red, with 0.97 < n < 1.02 for the simplest models, a range compatible with current observations but shifted by a few per cent towards the blue compared to the prediction of the simplest, large-field inflationary models.

  14. Converting entropy to curvature perturbations after a cosmic bounce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno; Wilson-Ewing, Edward [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-10-04

    We study two-field bouncing cosmologies in which primordial perturbations are created in either an ekpyrotic or a matter-dominated contraction phase. We use a non-singular ghost condensate bounce model to follow the perturbations through the bounce into the expanding phase of the universe. In contrast to the adiabatic perturbations, which on large scales are conserved across the bounce, entropy perturbations can grow significantly during the bounce phase. If they are converted into adiabatic/curvature perturbations after the bounce, they typically form the dominant contribution to the observed temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, which can have several beneficial implications. For ekpyrotic models, this mechanism loosens the constraints on the amplitude of the ekpyrotic potential while naturally suppressing the intrinsic amount of non-Gaussianity. For matter bounce models, the mechanism amplifies the scalar perturbations compared to the associated primordial gravitational waves.

  15. Converting entropy to curvature perturbations after a cosmic bounce

    CERN Document Server

    Fertig, Angelika; Mallwitz, Enno; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We study two-field bouncing cosmologies in which primordial perturbations are created in either an ekpyrotic or a matter-dominated contraction phase. We use a non-singular ghost condensate bounce model to follow the perturbations through the bounce into the expanding phase of the universe. In contrast to the adiabatic perturbations, which on large scales are conserved across the bounce, entropy perturbations can grow significantly during the bounce phase. If they are converted into adiabatic/curvature perturbations after the bounce, they typically form the dominant contribution to the observed temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, which can have several beneficial implications. For ekpyrotic models, this mechanism loosens the constraints on the amplitude of the ekpyrotic potential while naturally suppressing the intrinsic amount of non-Gaussianity. For matter bounce models, the mechanism amplifies the scalar perturbations compared to the associated primordial gravitational waves.

  16. Superhorizon magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wavenumber $k$ evolves, after inflation, according to the values of $k\\eta_e$, $n_{\\mathbf{k}}$, and $\\Omega_k$, where $\\eta_e$ is the conformal time at the end of inflation, $n_{\\mathbf{k}}$ is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and $\\Omega_k$ is the phase difference between the two Bogolubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that $n_{\\mathbf{k}}^{-1} \\ll |k\\eta_e| \\ll 1$, and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: ($i$) $|\\Omega_k \\mp \\pi| = \\mathcal{O}(1)$, in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum $B_k(\\eta)$ is adiabatic, $a^2B_k(\\eta) = \\mbox{const}$, with $a$ being the expansion parameter; ($ii$) $|\\Omega_k \\mp \\pi| \\ll |k\\eta_e|$,...

  17. Generation of Curvature Perturbations with Extra Anisotropic Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kazuhiko; Mathews, Grant J

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of curvature perturbations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum in the presence of an hypothesized extra anisotropic stress in the early universe. Such extra anisotropic stress terms might arise, for example, from the presence of the dark radiation term in brane-world cosmology. For the first time we evolve the scalar modes of such perturbations before and after neutrino decoupling and analyze their effects on the CMB spectrum. A novel result of this work is that the cancellation of the neutrino and extra anisotropic stress could lead to a spectrum of residual curvature perturbations which by themselves could reproduce the observed CMB power spectrum. This possibility may be testable as it would generate non-Gaussian fluctuations which could be constrained by future observations of density fluctuations.

  18. Non-perturbative effects of primordial curvature perturbations on the apparent value of a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea Romano, Antonio; Sanes Negrete, Sergio; Sasaki, Misao; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2014-06-01

    We study effects on the luminosity distance of a local inhomogeneity seeded by primordial curvature perturbations of the type predicted by the inflationary scenario and constrained by the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find that a local underdensity originated from a one, two or three standard deviations peaks of the primordial curvature perturbations field can induce corrections to the value of a cosmological constant of the order of 0.6{%},1{%},1.5{%} , respectively. These effects cannot be neglected in the precision cosmology era in which we are entering. Our results can be considered an upper bound for the effect of the monopole component of the local non-linear structure which can arise from primordial curvature perturbations and requires a fully non-perturbative relativistic treatment.

  19. Statistically anisotropic curvature perturbation generated during the waterfall

    CERN Document Server

    Lyth, David H

    2012-01-01

    If the waterfall field of hybrid inflation couples to a U(1) gauge field, the waterfall can generate a statistically anisotropic contribution to the curvature perturbation. We investigate this possibility, generalising in several directions the seminal work of Yokoyama and Soda. The statistical anisotropy of the bispectrum could be detectable by PLANCK even if the statistical anisotropy of the spectrum is too small to detect.

  20. Entropy production and curvature perturbation from dissipative curvatons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    Considering the curvaton field that follows dissipative slow-roll equation, we show that the field can lead to entropy production and generation of curvature perturbation after reheating. Spectral index is calculated to discriminate warm and thermal scenarios of dissipative curvatons from the standard curvaton model. In contrast to the original curvaton model, quadratic potential is not needed in the dissipative scenario, since the growth in the oscillating period is not essential for the model.

  1. Synaptobrevin transmembrane domain influences exocytosis by perturbing vesicle membrane curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Jackson, Meyer B

    2015-07-07

    Membrane fusion requires that nearly flat lipid bilayers deform into shapes with very high curvature. This makes membrane bending a critical force in determining fusion mechanisms. A lipid bilayer will bend spontaneously when material is distributed asymmetrically between its two monolayers, and its spontaneous curvature (C0) will influence the stability of curved fusion intermediates. Prior work on Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis revealed that fusion pore lifetime (τ) varies with vesicle content (Q), and showed that this relation reflects membrane bending energetics. Lipids that alter C0 change the dependence of τ on Q. These results suggested that the greater stability of an initial exocytotic fusion pore associated with larger vesicles reflects the need to bend more membrane during fusion pore dilation. In this study, we explored the possibility of manipulating C0 by mutating the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the vesicle membrane protein synaptobrevin 2 (syb2). Amperometric measurements of exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells revealed that syb2 TMD mutations altered the relation between τ and Q. The effects of these mutations showed a striking periodicity, changing sign as the structural perturbation moved through the inner and outer leaflets. Some glycine and charge mutations also influenced the dependence of τ on Q in a manner consistent with expected changes in C0. These results suggest that side chains in the syb2 TMD influence the kinetics of exocytosis by perturbing the packing of the surrounding lipids. The present results support the view that membrane bending occurs during fusion pore expansion rather than during fusion pore formation. This supports the view of an initial fusion pore through two relatively flat membranes formed by protein. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The hybrid inflation waterfall and the primordial curvature perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyth, David H., E-mail: d.lyth@lancaster.ac.uk [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Cosmology and Astroparticle Group, Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    Without demanding a specific form for the inflaton potential, we obtain an estimate of the contribution to the curvature perturbation generated during the linear era of the hybrid inflation waterfall. The spectrum of this contribution peaks at some wavenumber k = k{sub *}, and goes like k{sup 3} for k << k{sub *}, making it typically negligible on cosmological scales. The scale k{sub *} can be outside the horizon at the end of inflation, in which case ζ = −(g{sup 2}−(g{sup 2})) with g gaussian. Taking this into account, the cosmological bound on the abundance of black holes is likely to be satisfied if the curvaton mass m much bigger than the Hubble parameter H, but is likely to be violated if m∼

  3. The Kramers-Moyal Equation of the Cosmological Comoving Curvature Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations of the comoving curvature perturbation with wavelengths larger than the horizon length are governed by a Langevin equation whose stochastic noise arise from the quantum fluctuations that are assumed to become classical at horizon crossing. The infrared part of the curvature perturbation performs a random walk under the action of the stochastic noise and, at the same time, it suffers a classical force caused by its self-interaction. By a path-interal approach and, alternatively, by the standard procedure in random walk analysis of adiabatic elimination of fast variables, we derive the corresponding Kramers-Moyal equation which describes how the probability distribution of the comoving curvature perturbation at a given spatial point evolves in time and is a generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach offers an alternative way to study the late time behaviour of the correlators of the curvature perturbation from infrared effects.

  4. Evolution of curvature perturbations in a brane-world inflation at high-energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hiramatsu, T; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Koyama, Kazuya

    2006-01-01

    We study the evolution of scalar curvature perturbations in a brane-world inflation model in a 5D Anti-de Sitter spacetime. The inflaton perturbations are confined to a 4D brane but they are coupled to the 5D bulk metric perturbations. We numerically solve full coupled equations for the inflaton perturbations and the 5D metric perturbations. At high energies, the inflaton perturbations are strongly coupled to the bulk metric perurbations even on subhorizon scales, leading to the suppression of the amplitude of the comoving curvature perturbation at a horizon crossing with a particular choice of initial conditions. This indicates the need to qunatise the coupled brane-bulk system in a consistent way in order to define an initial vacuum state and calculate the spectrum of the scalar perturbations in a brane-world inflation.

  5. The Kramers-Moyal Equation of the Cosmological Comoving Curvature Perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations of the comoving curvature perturbation with wavelengths larger than the horizon length are governed by a Langevin equation whose stochastic noise arise from the quantum fluctuations that are assumed to become classical at horizon crossing. The infrared part of the curvature...... the corresponding Kramers-Moyal equation which describes how the probability distribution of the comoving curvature perturbation at a given spatial point evolves in time and is a generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach offers an alternative way to study the late time behaviour of the correlators...

  6. Reheating in tachyonic inflationary models: Effects on the large scale curvature perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Chingangbam, Pravabati, E-mail: prava@iiap.res.in [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43 Cheongnyangni 2-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Sriramkumar, L., E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

    2011-11-11

    We investigate the problem of perturbative reheating and its effects on the evolution of the curvature perturbations in tachyonic inflationary models. We derive the equations governing the evolution of the scalar perturbations for a system consisting of a tachyon and a perfect fluid. Assuming the perfect fluid to be radiation, we solve the coupled equations for the system numerically and study the evolution of the perturbations from the sub-Hubble to the super-Hubble scales. In particular, we analyze the effects of the transition from tachyon driven inflation to the radiation dominated epoch on the evolution of the large scale curvature and non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. We consider two different potentials to describe the tachyon and study the effects of two possible types of decay of the tachyon into radiation. We plot the spectrum of curvature perturbations at the end of inflation as well as at the early stages of the radiation dominated epoch. We find that reheating does not affect the amplitude of the curvature perturbations in any of these cases. These results corroborate similar conclusions that have been arrived at earlier based on the study of the evolution of the perturbations in the super-Hubble limit. We illustrate that, before the transition to the radiation dominated epoch, the relative non-adiabatic pressure perturbation between the tachyon and radiation decays in a fashion very similar to that of the intrinsic entropy perturbation associated with the tachyon. Moreover, we show that, after the transition, the relative non-adiabatic pressure perturbation dies down extremely rapidly during the early stages of the radiation dominated epoch. It is these behavior which ensure that the amplitude of the curvature perturbations remain unaffected during reheating. We also discuss the corresponding results for the popular chaotic inflation model in the case of the canonical scalar field.

  7. Adiabatic Ekpyrosis: Scale-Invariant Curvature Perturbations from a Single Scalar Field in a Contracting Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin

    2009-01-01

    The universe can be made flat and smooth by undergoing a phase of ultra-slow (ekpyrotic) contraction with equation of state w >> 1, a condition that is achievable with a single, canonical scalar field and conventional general relativity. It has been argued, though, that another goal, generating scale-invariant density perturbations, requires at least two scalar fields and a two-step process that first produces entropy fluctuations and then converts them to curvature perturbations. In this paper, we exploit a loophole in the argument and introduce an ekpyrotic model based on a single, canonical scalar field that utilizes a purely "adiabatic mechanism" to generate nearly scale-invariant curvature fluctuations. The curvature perturbation tends to a constant at long wavelengths, indicating that the background evolution is a dynamical attractor. The resulting spectrum is slightly red with distinctive non-gaussian fluctuations.

  8. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit, the magnetic non-linear parameter becomes as large as |b_{NL}| ~ 10^3. In the squeezed limit where the wave number of the curvature perturbation vanishes, our results agree with the magnetic consistency relation derived in arXiv:1207.4187.

  9. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24, Quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk [CP3-Origins, Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2013-02-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit, the magnetic non-linear parameter becomes as large as |b{sub NL}| ∼ O(10{sup 3}). In the squeezed limit where the wave number of the curvature perturbation vanishes, our results agree with the magnetic consistency relation derived in arXiv:1207.4187.

  10. Effects of primordial curvature perturbations on the value of the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects on the luminosity distance of a local inhomogeneity seeded by primordial curvature perturbations as predicted by the inflationary scenario and constrained by the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find that a local overdensity originated from a one, two or three standard deviations peaks of the primordial curvature perturbations field can induce corrections to the value of the cosmological constant respectively of order of $0.6%,1%,1.5%$. These effects cannot be neglected in the precision cosmology era in which we are entering.

  11. On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2013-01-01

    We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified...... with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit...

  12. Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Minamitsuji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.

  13. Holographic curvature perturbations in a cosmology with a space-like singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Elisa G.M. [Department of Physics, McGill University,3600 University St., Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University,3600 University St., Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zürich,Clausiusstr. 47, Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland)

    2016-07-19

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in an anti-de-Sitter (AdS) bulk through a cosmological singularity by mapping the dynamics onto the boundary conformal fields theory by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider a deformed AdS space-time obtained by considering a time-dependent dilaton which induces a curvature singularity in the bulk at a time which we call t=0, and which asymptotically approaches AdS both for large positive and negative times. The boundary field theory becomes free when the bulk curvature goes to infinity. Hence, the evolution of the fluctuations is under better controle on the boundary than in the bulk. To avoid unbounded particle production across the bounce it is necessary to smooth out the curvature singularity at very high curvatures. We show how the bulk cosmological perturbations can be mapped onto boundary gauge field fluctuations. We evolve the latter and compare the spectrum of fluctuations on the infrared scales relevant for cosmological observations before and after the bounce point. We find that the index of the power spectrum of fluctuations is the same before and after the bounce.

  14. Numerical Evolution in time of curvature perturbations in Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    López-Aleman, R

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic features of the theory of curvature perturbations in Kerr spacetime, which is customarily written in terms of gauge invariant components of the Weyl tensor which satisfy a perturbation equation known as the Teukolsky equation. I will describe how to evolve generic perturbations about the Kerr metric and the separable form of the wave solutions that one obtains, and the relation of the Teukolsky function to the energy of gravitational waves emitted by the black hole. A discussion of a numerical scheme to evolve perturbations as a function of time and some preliminary results of our research project implementing it for matter sources falling into the black hole is included.

  15. Generating the curvature perturbation at the end of inflation in string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyth, David H; Riotto, Antonio

    2006-09-22

    In brane inflationary scenarios, the cosmological perturbations are supposed to originate from the vacuum fluctuations of the inflaton field corresponding to the position of the brane. We show that a significant, and possibly dominant, contribution to the curvature perturbation is generated at the end of inflation through the vacuum fluctuations of fields, other than the inflaton, which are light during the inflationary trajectory and become heavy at the brane-antibrane annihilation. These fields appear generically in string compactifications where the background geometry has exact or approximate isometries and parametrize the internal angular directions of the brane.

  16. Cosmological perturbations in theories with non-minimal coupling between curvature and matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    In this work, one examines how the presence of a non-minimal coupling between the spacetime curvature and matter affects the evolution of cosmological perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic Universe and hence the formation of large-scale structure. This framework places constraints on the terms which arise due to the coupling with matter and, in particular, on the modification in the growth of matter density perturbations. One obtains approximate analytical solutions for the evolution of matter overdensities during the matter dominated era and shows that these favor the presence of a coupling function that is compatible with the late-time cosmic acceleration.

  17. An Exact Evolution Equation of the Curvature Perturbation for Closed Universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章德海; 孙成一

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the exact evolution equation of the curvature perturbation plays a very important role in investigation of the inflation power spectrum of the flat universe. However, the corresponding exact extension for the non-flat universes has not yet been given clearly. Interest in the non-flat, specially closed, universes has been aroused recently. The need for this extension is pressing. We start with the most elementary physical consideration and obtain finally this exact evolution equation of the curvature perturbation for the non-flat universes, as well as the evolutionary controlling parameter and the exact expression of the variable mass in this equation. We approximately perform a primitive and immature analysis on the power spectrum of non-flat universes. This analysis shows that the exact evolution equation of the curvature perturbation for the non-flat universes is very complicated, and we need to carry out many numerical and analytic works for this new equation in the future to judge whether the universe is flat or closed by comparison of theories with observations.

  18. Non-linear curvature perturbation in multi-field inflation models with non-minimal coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; Minamitsuji, Masato; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: jwhite@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: masato.minamitsuji@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Using the δN formalism we consider the non-linear curvature perturbation in multi-field models of inflation with non-minimal coupling. In particular, we focus on the relation between the δN formalism as applied in the conformally related Jordan and Einstein frames. Exploiting results already known in the Einstein frame, we give expressions for the power spectrum, spectral tilt and non-gaussianity associated with the Jordan frame curvature perturbation. In the case that an adiabatic limit has not been reached, we find that in general these quantities differ from those associated with the Einstein frame curvature perturbation, and also confirm their equivalence in the absence of isocurvature modes. We then proceed to consider two analytically soluble examples, the first involving a non-minimally coupled 'spectator' field and the second being a non-minimally coupled extension of the multi-brid inflation model. In the first model we find that predictions can easily be brought into agreement with the recent Planck results, as the tensor-to-scalar ratio is generally small, the spectral tilt tuneable and the non-gaussianity suppressed. In the second model we find that predictions for all three parameters can differ substantially from those predicted in the minimally coupled case, and that the recent Planck results for the spectral tilt can be used to constrain the non-minimal coupling parameters.

  19. Perturbation of the metric around a spherical body from a nonminimal coupling between matter and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Castel-Branco, Nuno; March, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the effects of a nonminimally coupled model of gravity on a perturbed Minkowski metric are presented. The action functional of the model involves two functions $f^1(R)$ and $f^2(R)$ of the Ricci scalar curvature $R$. Based upon a Taylor expansion around $R = 0$ for both functions $f^1(R)$ and $f^2(R)$, we find that the metric around a spherical object is a perturbation of the weak-field Schwarzschild metric: the time perturbation is shown to be a Newtonian plus Yukawa term, which can be constrained using the available experimental results. We conclude that the Starobinsky model for inflation complemented with a generalized preheating mechanism is not experimentally constrained by observations. The geodetic precession effects of the model are also shown to be of no relevance for the constraints.

  20. A Modified Perturbation Method of Electromagnetic Scattering from a Rough Surface by Considering the Effect of the Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立新; 吴振森; 张民

    2001-01-01

    A modified perturbation method of electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface is presented, in which theeffect of the curvature of the surface is taken into account based on the conventional small perturbation method.The problem of scattering error by the conventional small perturbation method at grazing angle is solved. Compared with a set of measured data, the numerical results of the backscattering radar cross section show that thismodified perturbation method is walidity for small, moderate and grazing angle incidence.

  1. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale struc......Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large......-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter...... content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant...

  2. Curvature Perturbation and Domain Wall Formation with Pseudo Scaling Scalar Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological dynamics of scalar field with a monomial potential $\\phi^{n}$ with a general background equation of state is revisited. It is known that if $n$ is smaller than a critical value, the scalar field exhibits a coherent oscillation and if $n$ is larger it obeys a scaling solution without oscillation. We study in detail the case where $n$ is equal to the critical value, and find a peculiar scalar dynamics which is neither oscillating nor scaling solution, and we call it a pseudo scaling solution. We also discuss cosmological implications of a pseudo scaling scalar dynamics, such as the curvature perturbation and the domain wall problem.

  3. The Scale-invariant Power Spectrum of Primordial Curvature Perturbation in CSTB Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified space of parameters for a systematic study of inflationary/bouncing cosmologies. We find that CSTB cosmos is dual--in Wands's sense--to the slow-roll inflation model as can be easily seen from this unified parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of CSTB Cosmos, this scale invariance is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.

  4. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large......-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter...... content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant...

  5. Slope and curvature of Isgur–Wise function using variationally improved perturbation theory in a quantum chromodynamics inspired potential model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Jyoti Hazarika; D K Choudhury

    2010-09-01

    We used variationally improved perturbation theory (VIPT) in calculating the slope and curvature of Isgur–Wise (I–W) function with the Cornell potential $− \\dfrac{4_{s}}{3r} br + c$ instead of the usual stationary state perturbation theory as done earlier. We used $−(4_{s} /3r)$, i.e. the Coulombic potential, as the parent and the linear one, i.e. $br +c$ as the perturbed potential in the theory and calculated the slope and curvature of Isgur–Wise function including three states in the summation involved in the first-order correction to wave function in the method.

  6. Feynman-like Rules for Calculating n-Point Correlators of the Primordial Curvature Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A; Almeida, J P Beltran

    2011-01-01

    A diagrammatic approach to calculate n-point correlators of the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta was developed a few years ago following the spirit of the Feynman rules in Quantum Field Theory. The methodology is very useful and time-saving, as it is for the case of the Feynman rules in the particle physics context, but, unfortunately, is not very well known by the cosmology community. In the present work, we extend such an approach in order to include not only scalar field perturbations as the generators of \\zeta, but also vector field perturbations. The purpose is twofold: first, we would like the diagrammatic approach (which we would call the Feynman-like rules) to become widespread among the cosmology community; second, we intend to give an easy tool to formulate any correlator of \\zeta for those cases that involve vector field perturbations and that, therefore, may generate prolonged stages of anisotropic expansion and/or important levels of statistical anisotropy. Indeed, the usual way of formula...

  7. Primordial perturbations from slow-roll inflation on a brane

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Mennim, A; Rubakov, V A; Wands, D; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Koyama, Kazuya; Mennim, Andrew; Wands, David

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we quantise scalar perturbations in a Randall-Sundrum-type model of inflation where the inflaton field is confined to a single brane embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time. In the high energy regime, small-scale inflaton fluctuations are strongly coupled to metric perturbations in the bulk and gravitational back-reaction has a dramatic effect on the behaviour of inflaton perturbations on sub-horizon scales. This is in contrast to the standard four-dimensional result where gravitational back-reaction can be neglected on small scales. Nevertheless, this does not give rise to significant particle production, and the correction to the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations on super-horizon scales is shown to be suppressed by a slow-roll parameter. We calculate the complete first order slow-roll corrections to the spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations.

  8. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the parameters of the assumed cosmological model from CMB and LSS data. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given in general by a convolution of the PPS with some smoothing kernel. The deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the PPS from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are precisely quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the performance of several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's C_p method give optimal r...

  9. Perturbations in Symmetric Lee-Wick Bouncing Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the tensor and the scalar perturbations in the symmetric bouncing universe driven by one ordinary field and its Lee-Wick partner field which is a ghost. We obtain the even- and the odd-mode functions of the tensor perturbation in the matter-dominated regime. The tensor perturbation grows in time during the contracting phase of the Universe, and decays during the expanding phase. The power spectrum for the tensor perturbation is evaluated and the spectral index is given by $n_{\\rm T} =6$. We add the analysis on the scalar perturbation by inspecting the even- and the odd-mode functions in the matter-dominated regime, which was studied numerically in our previous work. We conclude that the comoving curvature by the scalar perturbation is constant in the super-horizon scale and starts to decay in the far sub-horizon scale while the Universe expands.

  10. Superhorizon curvaton amplitude in inflation and pre-big bang cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sloth, M S

    2003-01-01

    We follow the evolution of the curvaton on superhorizon scales and check that the spectral tilt of the curvaton perturbations is unchanged as the curvaton becomes non-relativistic. Both inflation and pre-big bang cosmology can be treated since the curvaton mechanism within the two scenarios works the same way. We also discuss the amplitude of the density perturbations, which leads to some interesting constrains on the pre-big bang scenario. It is shown that within a SL(3,R) non-linear sigma model one of the three axions has the right coupling to the dilaton and moduli to yield a flat spectrum with a high string scale, if a quadratic non-perturbative potential is generated and an intermediate string phase lasts long enough.

  11. Delta-N formalism for the evolution of the curvature perturbations in generalized multi-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    The deltaN formalism is considered to calculate the evolution of the curvature perturbation in generalized multi-field inflation models. The result is consistent with the usual calculation of the standard kinetic term. For the calculation of the generalized kinetic term, we improved the definition of the adiabatic field. Our calculation improves the usual calculation of R{sup .} based on the field equations and the perturbations, giving a very simple and intuitive argument for the evolution equations in terms of the perturbations of the inflaton velocity. Significance of non-equilibrium corrections are also discussed, which is caused by the small-scale (decaying) inhomogeneities. This formalism based on the modulated inflation scenario (i.e., calculation based on the perturbations related to the inflaton velocity) provides a powerful tool for investigating the signature of moduli that may appear in string theory.

  12. Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    We present Finslerian perturbation for the $\\Lambda$CDM model, which breaks the isotropic symmetry of the universe. The analysis on the Killing vectors shows that the Randers-Finsler spacetime breaks the isotropic symmetry even if the scalar perturbations of the FRW metric vanish. In Randers-Finsler spacetime, the modified geodesic equation deduces a modified Boltzmann equation. We propose a perturbational version of the gravitational field equation in Randers-Finsler spacetime, where we have omitted the curvature tensor that does not belong to the base space of the tangent bundle. The gravitational field equations for the gravitational wave are also presented. The primordial power spectrum of the gravitational wave is investigated. We show that the primordial power spectrum for super-horizon perturbations is unchanged. For sub-horizon perturbations, however, the power spectrum is modified.

  13. Transporting non-Gaussianity from sub to super-horizon scales

    CERN Document Server

    Mulryne, David J

    2013-01-01

    We extend the `moment transport method' for calculating the statistics of inflationary perturbations to the quantum phase of evolution on sub-horizon scales. The quantum transport equations form a set of coupled ordinary differential equations for the evolution of quantum correlation functions during inflation, which are valid on sub- and super-horizon scales, and reduce to the known classical transport equations after horizon crossing. The classical and quantum equations follow directly from the field equations of cosmological perturbation theory. In this paper, we focus on how the evolution equations arise, and explore how transport methods relate to other approaches, and in particular how formal integral solutions to the transport equations connect to those of the In-In formalism.

  14. Evolution of cosmological perturbations in a stage dominated by an oscillatory scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Kodama, H; Kodama, Hideo; Hamazaki, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    In the investigation of the evolution of cosmological perturbations in inflationary universe models the behavior of perturbations during the reheating stage is the most unclear point. In particular in the early reheating phase in which a rapidly oscillating scalar field dominates the energy density, the behavior of perturbations is not known well because their evolution equation expressed in terms of the curvature perturbation becomes singular. In this paper it is shown that in spite of this singular behavior of the evolution equation the Bardeen parameter stays constant in a good accuracy during this stage for superhorizon-scale perturbations except for a sequence of negligibly short intervals around the zero points of the time derivative of the scalar field. This justifies the conventional formula relating the amplitudes of quantum fluctuations during inflation and those of adiabatic perturbations at horizon crossing in the Friedmann stage, except for possible corrections produced by the energy transfer fro...

  15. The periodic problem for curvature-like equations with asymmetric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersnel, Franco; Omari, Pierpaolo

    We discuss existence and multiplicity of solutions of the periodic problem for the curvature-like equation -(u/√{a+u} )=f(t,u) by means of variational techniques in the space of bounded variation functions. As a=0 is allowed, both the prescribed curvature equation and the 1-Laplace equation are considered. We are concerned with the case where the right-hand side f of the equation interacts with the beginning of the spectrum of the 1-Laplace operator with periodic boundary conditions on [0,T], being mainly interested in the situation where ess sup f(t,s) may differ from -ess inf f(t,s).

  16. Superhorizon entanglement entropy from particle decay in inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Lello, Louis; Holman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In inflationary cosmology all particle states decay as a consequence of the lack of kinematic thresholds. We generalize and extend a field theoretical method that is manifestly unitary and allows us to obtain the time evolution of the quantum state. Particle decay results in an \\emph{entangled quantum state of the product particles}. We consider the decay of a light scalar field with mass $M\\ll H$ with a cubic coupling in de Sitter space-time. Radiative corrections feature an infrared enhancement manifest as poles in $\\Delta=M^2/3H^2$ and we obtain the quantum state implementing a consistent expansion in $\\Delta$. To leading order in the $\\Delta$ expansion the pure state density matrix describing the decay of a particle with sub-horizon wavevector is dominated by the emission of superhorizon quanta, describing \\emph{entanglement between superhorizon and subhorizon fluctuations and correlations across the horizon}. Tracing over the superhorizon degrees of freedom yields a mixed state density matrix from which ...

  17. Superhorizon entanglement entropy from particle decay in inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lello, L.; Boyanovsky, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh,3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Holman, R. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University,5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-04-08

    In inflationary cosmology all particle states decay as a consequence of the lack of kinematic thresholds. The decay of an initial single particle state yields an entangled quantum state of the product particles. We generalize and extend a manifestly unitary field theoretical method to obtain the time evolution of the quantum state. We consider the decay of a light scalar field with mass M≪H with a cubic coupling in de Sitter space-time. Radiative corrections feature an infrared enhancement manifest as poles in Δ=M{sup 2}/3H{sup 2} and we obtain the quantum state in an expansion in Δ. To leading order the pure state density matrix describing the decay of a particle with sub-horizon wavevector is dominated by the emission of superhorizon quanta, describing entanglement between superhorizon and subhorizon fluctuations and correlations across the horizon. Tracing over the superhorizon degrees of freedom yields a mixed state density matrix from which we obtain the entanglement entropy. Asymptotically this entropy grows with the physical volume as a consequence of more modes of the decay products crossing the Hubble radius. A generalization to localized wave packets is provided. The cascade decay of single particle states into many particle states is discussed. We conjecture on possible impact of these results on non-gaussianity and on the “low multipole anomalies” of the CMB.

  18. The scale invariant power spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbations from the coupled scalar tachyon bounce cosmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E., E-mail: chellifegood@gmail.com, E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing, 210093 China (China)

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the spectrum of cosmological perturbations in a bounce cosmos modeled by a scalar field coupled to the string tachyon field (CSTB cosmos). By explicit computation of its primordial spectral index we show the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, generated during the tachyon matter dominated contraction phase, to be nearly scale invariant. We propose a unified parameter space for a systematic study of inflationary and bounce cosmologies. The CSTB cosmos is dual-in Wands's sense-to slow-roll inflation as can be visualized with the aid of this parameter space. Guaranteed by the dynamical attractor behavior of the CSTB Cosmos, the scale invariance of its power spectrum is free of the fine-tuning problem, in contrast to the slow-roll inflation model.

  19. On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De, Amit

    We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic...... expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic...

  20. Directional dependence of the local estimation of H0 and the nonperturbative effects of primordial curvature perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea Romano, Antonio; Andrés Vallejo, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation have shown an apparent tension with the present value of the Hubble parameter inferred from local observations of supernovae, which look closer, i.e. brighter, than what is expected in a homogeneous model with a value of H0 equal to the one estimated from CMB observations. We examine the possibility that such a discrepancy is the consequence of the presence of a local inhomogeneity seeded by primordial curvature perturbations, finding that a negative peak of the order of less than two standard deviations could allow to fit low-redshift supernovae observations without the need of using a value of the Hubble parameter different from H0CMB. The type of inhomogeneity we consider does not modify the distance to the last scattering, making it compatible with the constraints of the PLANCK mission data. The effect on the luminosity distance is in fact localized around the region in space where the transition between different values of the curvature perturbations occurs, producing a local decrease, while the distance outside the inhomogeneity is not affected. Our calculation is fully relativistic and nonperturbative, and for this reason shows important effects which were missed in the previous investigations using relativistic perturbations or Newtonian approximations, because the structures seeded by primordial curvature perturbations can be today highly nonlinear, and relativist Doppler terms cannot be neglected. Because of these effects the correction to the luminosity distance necessary to explain observations is associated to a compensated structure which involves both an underdense central region and an overdense outer shell, ensuring that the distance to the last scattering surface is unaffected. Comparison with studies of local structure based on galaxy surveys analysis reveals that the density profile we find could in fact be compatible with the one obtained for the same region of sky where

  1. Early time perturbations behaviour in scalar field cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, F; Perrotta, Francesca; Baccigalupi, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    We consider the problem of the initial conditions and behaviour of the perturbations in scalar field cosmology with general potential. We use the general definition of adiabatic and isocurvature conditions to set the appropriate initial values for the perturbation in the scalar field and in the ordinary matter and radiation components. In both the cases of initial adiabaticity and isocurvature, we solve the Einstein and fluid equation at early times and on superhorizon scales to find the initial behaviour of the relevant quantities. In particular, in the isocurvature case, we consider models in which the initial perturbation arises from the matter as well as from the scalar field itself, provided that the initial value of the gauge invariant curvature is zero. We extend the standard code to include all these cases, and we show some results concerning the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. In particular, it turns out that the acoustic peaks follow opposite behaviours in...

  2. Cosmological Perturbation Theory to second order for curvature, density, and gravity waves on FRW background; and the WMAP results of inhomogeneity and clustering in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Ajay; Kumar, M S R

    2008-01-01

    The second order perturbation calculations for gravity wave and Einstein equation for space time and matter are presented for the FRW metric cosmological model. While exact equations are found, suitable approximations are made to obtain definite results. In the gravity wave case the small wavelength case allows nearly locally flat background for obtaining a fit to the WMAP data. In the density and curvature case the FRW background is retained for the length scale of WMAP. Clustering and inhomogeneity are understood. The gravity wave ripples from Big Bang couple nonlinearly and redistribute the modes to higher values of 'l' giving consistency with the WMAP results. The order by order consistency of Einstein equations relate the second order perturbations in the curvature and density and the wrinkles in spacetime caused by the gravity wave modes reorganize these distributions. The radiation data of WMAP gives the picture of a FRW spacetime deformed and wrinkled consistent with matter distribution to one hundred...

  3. Boosted perturbations at the end of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaballa, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect on the primordial cosmological perturbations of a sharp transition from inflationary to a radiation and matter dominated epoch respectively. We assume that the perturbations are generated by the vacuum fluctuations of a scalar field slowly rolling down its potential, and that the transition into the subsequent epoch takes place much faster than a Hubble time. The behaviour of the superhorizon perturbations corresponding to cosmological scales in this case is well known. However, it is not clear how perturbations on scales of and smaller than the Hubble horizon scale at the end of inflation may evolve through such a transition. We derive the evolution equation for the gravitational potential $\\Psi$, which allows us to study the evolution of the perturbations on all scales under these circumstances. We show that for a certain range of scales inside the horizon at the end of inflation, the amplitude of the perturbations are enhanced relative to the superhorizon scales. This enhancement may le...

  4. Convective radial energy flux due to resonant magnetic perturbations and magnetic curvature at the tokamak plasma edge

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, F A; Fuhr, G; Monnier, A; Benkadda, S

    2014-01-01

    With the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) consolidating as an important tool to control the transport barrier relaxation, the mechanism on how they work is still a subject to be clearly understood. In this work we investigate the equilibrium states in the presence of RMPs for a reduced MHD model using 3D electromagnetic fluid numerical code (EMEDGE3D) with a single harmonic RMP (single magnetic island chain) and multiple harmonics RMPs in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Two different equilibrium states were found in the presence of the RMPs with different characteristics for each of the geometries used. For the cylindrical geometry in the presence of a single RMP, the equilibrium state is characterized by a strong convective radial thermal flux and the generation of a mean poloidal velocity shear. In contrast, for toroidal geometry the thermal flux is dominated by the magnetic flutter. For multiple RMPs, the high amplitude of the convective flux and poloidal rotation are basically the same in cylindr...

  5. Dynamical Systems Approach to Magnetised Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, S; Hobbs, Stacey; Dunsby, Peter K. S.

    2000-01-01

    Assuming a large-scale homogeneous magnetic field, we follow the covariant and gauge-invariant approach used by Tsagas and Barrow to describe the evolution of density and magnetic field inhomogeneities and curvature perturbations in a matter-radiation universe. We use a two parameter approximation scheme to linearize their exact non-linear general-relativistic equations for magneto-hydrodynamic evolution. Using a two-fluid approach we set up the governing equations as a fourth order autonomous dynamical system. Analysis of the equilibrium points for the radiation dominated era lead to solutions similar to the super-horizon modes found analytically by Tsagas and Maartens. We find that a study of the dynamical system in the dust-dominated era leads naturally to a magnetic critical length scale closely related to the Jeans Length. Depending on the size of wavelengths relative to this scale, these solutions show three distinct behaviours: large-scale stable growing modes, intermediate decaying modes, and small-sc...

  6. Curvature-induced dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Debus, J -D; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    By inspecting the effect of curvature on a moving fluid, we find that local sources of curvature not only exert inertial forces on the flow, but also generate viscous stresses as a result of the departure of streamlines from the idealized geodesic motion. The curvature-induced viscous forces are shown to cause an indirect and yet appreciable energy dissipation. As a consequence, the flow converges to a stationary equilibrium state solely by virtue of curvature-induced dissipation. In addition, we show that flow through randomly-curved media satisfies a non-linear transport law, resembling Darcy-Forchheimer's law, due to the viscous forces generated by the spatial curvature. It is further shown that the permeability can be characterized in terms of the average metric perturbation.

  7. Light Scalars and the Generation of Density Perturbations During Preheating or Inflaton Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, L; Grässer, M L; Wise, M B; Ackerman, Lotty; Bauer, Christian W.; Graesser, Michael L.; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    Reheating after inflation can occur through inflaton decay or efficient parametric resonant production of particles from the oscillation of the inflaton. If the particles produced interact with scalars that were light during inflation, then significant super-horizon density perturbations are generated during this era. These perturbations can be highly non-Gaussian.

  8. Matter Density Perturbations in Modified Teleparallel Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yi-Peng

    2012-01-01

    We study the matter density perturbations in modified teleparallel gravity theories, where extra degrees of freedom arise from the local Lorentz violation in the tangent space. We formulate a vierbein perturbation with variables addressing all the 16 components of the vierbein field. By assuming the perfect fluid matter source, we examine the cosmological implication of the 6 unfamiliar new degrees of freedom in modified $f(T)$ gravity theories. We find that despite the new modes in the vierbein scenario provide no explicit significant effect in the small-scale regime, they exhibit some deviation from the standard general relativity results in super-horizon scales.

  9. Cosmological perturbations from an inhomogeneous phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.j [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2009-07-21

    A mechanism for generating metric perturbations in inflationary models is considered. Long-wavelength inhomogeneities of light scalar fields in a decoupled sector may give rise to superhorizon fluctuations of couplings and masses in the low-energy effective action. Cosmological phase transitions may then occur that are not simultaneous in space, but occur with time lags in different Hubble patches that arise from the long-wavelength inhomogeneities. Here an interesting model in which cosmological perturbations may be created at the electroweak phase transition is considered. The results show that phase transitions may be a generic source of non-Gaussianity.

  10. The Spatial Curvature Endgame

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, C Danielle; Allison, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Current constraints on spatial curvature show that it is dynamically negligible: $|\\Omega_{\\rm K}| \\lesssim 5 \\times 10^{-3}$ (95% CL). Neglecting it as a cosmological parameter would be premature however, as more stringent constraints on $\\Omega_{\\rm K}$ at around the $10^{-4}$ level would offer valuable tests of eternal inflation models and probe novel large-scale structure phenomena. This precision also represents the "curvature floor", beyond which constraints cannot be meaningfully improved due to the cosmic variance of horizon-scale perturbations. In this paper, we discuss what future experiments will need to do in order to measure spatial curvature to this maximum accuracy. Our conservative forecasts show that the curvature floor is unreachable - by an order of magnitude - even with Stage IV experiments, unless strong assumptions are made about dark energy evolution and the optical depth to the CMB. We also discuss some of the novel problems that arise when attempting to constrain a global cosmological...

  11. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R; Durrer, Ruth; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    1997-01-01

    We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed perturbations in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. Using a gauge invariant linear perturbation analysis, we solve the perturbation equations on super-horizon scales, for CMB anisotropies triggered by generic gravitational seeds. We find that perturbations induced by seeds -- under very mild restrictions -- are nearly isocurvature. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sensible initial conditions, is very generic. We then restrict our study to the case of scaling sources, motivated by global scalar fields. We parameterize the energy momentum tensor of the source by ``seed functions'' and calculate the Sachs-Wolfe and acoustic contributions to the CMB anisotropies. We discuss the dependence of the anisotropy spectrum on the parameters of the model considered. Even within the restricted class of models investigated in this work, we find a surprising variety of results for the position and height of the first ac...

  12. Superhorizon curvaton amplitude in inflation and pre-big bang cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2002-01-01

    the same way. We also discuss the amplitude of the density perturbations, which leads to some interesting constrains on the pre-big bang scenario. It is shown that within a SL(3,R) non-linear sigma model one of the three axions has the right coupling to the dilaton and moduli to yield a flat spectrum...

  13. Cosmic Perturbations Through the Cyclic Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, J K; Steinhardt, P J; Turok, N G; Erickson, Joel K.; Gratton, Steven; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of cosmological perturbations in the cyclic model, paying particular attention to their behavior and interplay over multiple cycles. Our key results are: (1) galaxies and large scale structure present in one cycle are generated by the quantum fluctuations in the preceding cycle without interference from perturbations or structure generated in earlier cycles and without interfering with structure generated in later cycles; (2) the ekpyrotic phase, an epoch of gentle contraction with equation of state $w\\gg 1$ preceding the hot big bang, makes the universe homogeneous, isotropic and flat within any given observer's horizon; and, (3) although the universe is uniform within each observer's horizon, the global structure of the cyclic universe is more complex, owing to the effects of superhorizon length perturbations, and cannot be described in a uniform Friedmann-Robertson-Walker picture. In particular, we show that the ekpyrotic phase is so effective in smoothing, flattening and isotropiz...

  14. Spatial curvature endgame: Reaching the limit of curvature determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, C. Danielle; Bull, Philip; Allison, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Current constraints on spatial curvature show that it is dynamically negligible: |ΩK|≲5 ×10-3 (95% C.L.). Neglecting it as a cosmological parameter would be premature however, as more stringent constraints on ΩK at around the 10-4 level would offer valuable tests of eternal inflation models and probe novel large-scale structure phenomena. This precision also represents the "curvature floor," beyond which constraints cannot be meaningfully improved due to the cosmic variance of horizon-scale perturbations. In this paper, we discuss what future experiments will need to do in order to measure spatial curvature to this maximum accuracy. Our conservative forecasts show that the curvature floor is unreachable—by an order of magnitude—even with Stage IV experiments, unless strong assumptions are made about dark energy evolution and the Λ CDM parameter values. We also discuss some of the novel problems that arise when attempting to constrain a global cosmological parameter like ΩK with such high precision. Measuring curvature down to this level would be an important validation of systematics characterization in high-precision cosmological analyses.

  15. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  16. Quantum Complexity and Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k-local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system: classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  17. Anisotropic cubic curvature couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Quentin G

    2016-01-01

    To complement recent work on tests of spacetime symmetry in gravity, cubic curvature couplings are studied using an effective field theory description of spacetime-symmetry breaking. The associated mass dimension 8 coefficients for Lorentz violation studied do not result in any linearized gravity modifications and instead are revealed in the first nonlinear terms in an expansion of spacetime around a flat background. We consider effects on gravitational radiation through the energy loss of a binary system and we study two-body orbital perturbations using the post-Newtonian metric. Some effects depend on the internal structure of the source and test bodies, thereby breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle for self-gravitating bodies. These coefficients can be measured in solar-system tests, while binary-pulsar systems and short-range gravity tests are particularly sensitive.

  18. Quantization of Perturbations in an Inflating Elastic Solid

    CERN Document Server

    Sitwell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A sufficiently rigid relativistic elastic solid can be stable for negative pressure values and thus is capable of driving a stage of accelerated expansion. If a relativistic elastic solid drove an inflationary stage in the early Universe, quantum mechanically excited perturbations would arise in the medium. We quantize the linear scalar and tensor perturbations and investigate the observational consequences of having such an inflationary period. We find that slowly varying sounds speeds of the perturbations and a slowing varying equation of state of the solid can produce a slightly red-tilted scalar power spectrum that agrees with current observational data. Even in the absence of non-adiabatic pressures, perturbations evolve on superhorizon scales, due to the shear stresses within the solid. As such, the spectra of perturbations are in general sensitive to the details of the end of inflation and we characterize this dependence. Interestingly, we uncover here accelerating solutions for elastic solids with (1 ...

  19. Extrinsic Curvature Embedding Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, J L

    2003-01-01

    Embedding diagrams have been used extensively to visualize the properties of curved space in Relativity. We introduce a new kind of embedding diagram based on the {\\it extrinsic} curvature (instead of the intrinsic curvature). Such an extrinsic curvature embedding diagram, when used together with the usual kind of intrinsic curvature embedding diagram, carries the information of how a surface is {\\it embedded} in the higher dimensional curved space. Simple examples are given to illustrate the idea.

  20. Generalised functions and distributional curvature of cosmic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, C J S; Wilson, J P

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for assigning distributional curvature, in an invariant manner, to a space-time of low differentiability, using the techniques of Colombeau's `new generalised functions'. The method is applied to show that curvature of a cone is equivalent to a delta function. The same is true under small enough perturbations.

  1. Stability of Curvature Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Chazal, Frédéric; Lieutier, André; Thibert, Boris

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of curvature estimation from sampled compact sets. The main contribution is a stability result: we show that the gaussian, mean or anisotropic curvature measures of the offset of a compact set K with positive $\\mu$-reach can be estimated by the same curvature measures of the offset of a compact set K' close to K in the Hausdorff sense. We show how these curvature measures can be computed for finite unions of balls. The curvature measures of the offset of a compact set with positive $\\mu$-reach can thus be approximated by the curvature measures of the offset of a point-cloud sample. These results can also be interpreted as a framework for an effective and robust notion of curvature.

  2. A Scale-Dependent Power Asymmetry from Isocurvature Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Erickcek, Adrienne L; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-01

    If the hemispherical power asymmetry observed in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on large angular scales is attributable to a superhorizon curvaton fluctuation, then the simplest model predicts that the primordial density fluctuations should be similarly asymmetric on all smaller scales. The distribution of high-redshift quasars was recently used to constrain the power asymmetry on scales k ~ 1.5h/Mpc, and the upper bound on the amplitude of the asymmetry was found to be a factor of six smaller than the amplitude of the asymmetry in the CMB. We show that it is not possible to generate an asymmetry with this scale dependence by changing the relative contributions of the inflaton and curvaton to the adiabatic power spectrum. Instead, we consider curvaton scenarios in which the curvaton decays after dark matter freezes out, thus generating isocurvature perturbations. If there is a superhorizon fluctuation in the curvaton field, then the rms amplitude of these perturbations will be asymmetric, and the asymm...

  3. Curvature of the penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curvature of the penis after surgery or radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Peyronie's disease is uncommon. It affects men ages 40 to 60 and older. Curvature of the penis can occur along with Dupuytren's contracture . This is a cord-like thickening across the ...

  4. The meaning of curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diffusion to volume growth. We are e.g. interested in obtaining precise bounds for mean exit times for Brownian motions and for isoperimetric inequalities. One way to obtain such bounds are via curvature controlled comparison with corresponding values in constant curvature spaces and in other tailor-made so...

  5. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid $\\delta P_{nad}$, another is for a general matter field $\\delta P_{c,nad}$, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if $c_s^2=c_w^2$ where $c_s$ is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$. Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, $\\delta P_{c,nad}=0$, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing $A_c$ and $\\delta P_{nad}$ valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as $c_s\

  6. Cosmological perturbation theory in the synchronous and conformal newtonian gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Chung Pei; Ma, Chung Pei; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic treatment of the linear theory of scalar gravitational perturbations in the synchronous gauge and the conformal Newtonian (or longitudinal) gauge. It differs from others in the literature in that we give, in both gauges, a complete discussion of all particle species that are relevant to any flat cold dark matter (CDM), hot dark matter (HDM), or CDM+HDM models (including a possible cosmological constant). The particles considered include CDM, baryons, photons, massless neutrinos, and massive neutrinos (an HDM candidate), where the CDM and baryons are treated as fluids while a detailed phase-space description is given to the photons and neutrinos. Particular care is applied to the massive neutrino component, which has been either ignored or approximated crudely in previous works. Isentropic initial conditions on super-horizon scales are derived. The coupled, linearized Boltzmann, Einstein and fluid equations that govern the evolution of the metric and density perturbations are t...

  7. Penile Curvature (Peyronie's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use mechanical traction and vacuum devices aimed at stretching or bending the penis to reduce curvature. Surgery ... Communication Programs FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & Divisions Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating ...

  8. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-08-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  9. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A. [Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, DK-6400 Sonderborg (Denmark); Gravesen, J. [Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Matematiktorvet, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schroedinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  10. de Sitter limit of inflation and nonlinear perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarnhus, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    We study the fourth order action of comoving curvature perturbations in an inflationary universe in order to understand more systematically the de Sitter limit in nonlinear cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the action of the curvature perturbations to fourth order in the comoving gauge, and show that it vanishes sufficiently fast in the de Sitter limit. By studying the de Sitter limit, we then extrapolate to the n'th order action of comoving curvature perturbations and discuss the slow-roll order of the n-point correlation function.

  11. Gauge-invariant perturbations at second order in two-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzavara, Eleftheria; Tent, Bartjan van, E-mail: Eleftheria.Tzavara@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: Bartjan.Van-Tent@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS, Bâtiment 210, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2012-08-01

    We study the second-order gauge-invariant adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations in terms of the scalar fields present during inflation, along with the related fully non-linear space gradient of these quantities. We discuss the relation with other perturbation quantities defined in the literature. We also construct the exact cubic action of the second-order perturbations (beyond any slow-roll or super-horizon approximations and including tensor perturbations), both in the uniform energy-density gauge and the flat gauge in order to settle various gauge-related issues. We thus provide the tool to calculate the exact non-Gaussianity beyond slow-roll and at any scale.

  12. Gauge-invariant perturbations at second order in two-field inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Tzavara, Eleftheria

    2011-01-01

    We study the second-order gauge-invariant adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations in terms of the scalar fields present during inflation, along with the related fully non-linear space gradient of these quantities. We discuss the relation with other perturbation quantities defined in the literature. We also construct the exact cubic action of the second-order perturbations (beyond any slow-roll or super-horizon approximations and including tensor perturbations), both in the uniform energy density gauge and the flat gauge in order to settle various gauge-related issues. We thus provide the tool to calculate the exact non-Gaussianity beyond slow-roll and at any scale.

  13. Quantum Gravity and Higher Curvature Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, M; Bojowald, Martin; Skirzewski, Aureliano

    2006-01-01

    Effective equations are often useful to extract physical information from quantum theories without having to face all technical and conceptual difficulties. One can then describe aspects of the quantum system by equations of classical type, which correct the classical equations by modified coefficients and higher derivative terms. In gravity, for instance, one expects terms with higher powers of curvature. Such higher derivative formulations are discussed here with an emphasis on the role of degrees of freedom and on differences between Lagrangian and Hamiltonian treatments. A general scheme is then provided which allows one to compute effective equations perturbatively in a Hamiltonian formalism. Here, one can expand effective equations around any quantum state and not just a perturbative vacuum. This is particularly useful in situations of quantum gravity or cosmology where perturbations only around vacuum states would be too restrictive. The discussion also demonstrates the number of free parameters expect...

  14. Spaces of constant curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    This book is the sixth edition of the classic Spaces of Constant Curvature, first published in 1967, with the previous (fifth) edition published in 1984. It illustrates the high degree of interplay between group theory and geometry. The reader will benefit from the very concise treatments of riemannian and pseudo-riemannian manifolds and their curvatures, of the representation theory of finite groups, and of indications of recent progress in discrete subgroups of Lie groups. Part I is a brief introduction to differentiable manifolds, covering spaces, and riemannian and pseudo-riemannian geomet

  15. Curvature calculations with GEOCALC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.

    1987-04-01

    A new method for calculating the curvature tensor has been recently proposed by D. Hestenes. This method is a particular application of geometric calculus, which has been implemented in an algebraic programming language on the form of a package called GEOCALC. They show how to apply this package to the Schwarzchild case and they discuss the different results.

  16. The curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    hyperbolas. This means that when a plane orthogonal system of curves for which the vertices in a mesh always lie on a circle is mapped on a surface with positive Gaussian curvature using inverse mapping, and the mapped vertices are connected by straight lines, this network will form a faceted surface...

  17. On the conservation of second-order cosmological perturbations in a scalar field dominated universe

    CERN Document Server

    Vernizzi, F

    2005-01-01

    We discuss second-order cosmological perturbations on super-Hubble scales, in a scalar field dominated universe, such as during single field inflation. In this contest we show that the gauge-invariant curvature perturbations defined on the uniform density and comoving hypersurfaces coincide and that perturbations are adiabatic in the large scale limit. Since it has been recently shown that the uniform curvature perturbation is conserved on large scales if perturbations are adiabatic, we conclude that both the uniform and comoving curvature perturbations at second-order in a scalar field dominated universe are conserved.

  18. Cosmological perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kourosh Nozari; Siamak Akhshabi

    2012-01-01

    We use the smeared,coherent state picture of noncommutativity to study evolution of perturbations in a noncommutative braneworld scenario.Within the standard procedure of studying braneworld cosmological perturbations,we study the evolution of the Bardeen metric potential and curvature perturbations in this model.We show that in this setup,the early stage of the universe's evolution has a transient phantom evolution with imaginary effective sound speed.

  19. Scalar and vector perturbations in a universe with discrete and continuous matter sources

    CERN Document Server

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We study a universe filled with dust-like matter in the form of discrete inhomogeneities (e.g., galaxies and their groups and clusters) and two sets of perfect fluids with linear and nonlinear equations of state, respectively. The background spacetime geometry is defined by the FLRW metric. In the weak gravitational field limit, we develop the first-order scalar and vector cosmological perturbation theory. Our approach works at all cosmological scales (i.e. sub-horizon and super-horizon ones) and incorporates linear and nonlinear effects with respect to energy density fluctuations. We demonstrate that the scalar perturbation (i.e. the gravitational potential) as well as the vector perturbation can be split into individual contributions from each matter source. Each of these contributions satisfies its own equation. The velocity-independent parts of the individual gravitational potentials are characterized by a finite time-dependent Yukawa interaction range being the same for each individual contribution. We a...

  20. Forman curvature for complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, R. P.; Mohanraj, Karthikeyan; Jost, Jürgen; Saucan, Emil; Samal, Areejit

    2016-06-01

    We adapt Forman’s discretization of Ricci curvature to the case of undirected networks, both weighted and unweighted, and investigate the measure in a variety of model and real-world networks. We find that most nodes and edges in model and real networks have a negative curvature. Furthermore, the distribution of Forman curvature of nodes and edges is narrow in random and small-world networks, while the distribution is broad in scale-free and real-world networks. In most networks, Forman curvature is found to display significant negative correlation with degree and centrality measures. However, Forman curvature is uncorrelated with clustering coefficient in most networks. Importantly, we find that both model and real networks are vulnerable to targeted deletion of nodes with highly negative Forman curvature. Our results suggest that Forman curvature can be employed to gain novel insights on the organization of complex networks.

  1. Perturbing PLA

    CERN Document Server

    Kozma, Gady

    2012-01-01

    We proved earlier that every measurable function on the circle, after a uniformly small perturbation, can be written as a power series (i.e. a series of exponentials with positive frequencies), which converges almost everywhere. Here we show that this result is basically sharp: the perturbation cannot be made smooth or even H\\"older. We discuss also a similar problem for perturbations with lacunary spectrum.

  2. Non-Perturbative Quantum Dynamics of a New Inflation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; De Vega, H J; Holman, R; Kumar, S P

    1998-01-01

    We consider an O(N) model coupled self-consistently to gravity in the semiclassical approximation, where the field is subject to `new inflation' type initial conditions. We study the dynamics self-consistently and non-perturbatively with non-equilibrium field theory methods in the large N limit. We find that spinodal instabilities drive the growth of non-perturbatively large quantum fluctuations which shut off the inflationary growth of the scale factor. We find that a very specific combination of these large fluctuations plus the inflaton zero mode assemble into a new effective field. This new field behaves classically and it is the object which actually rolls down. We show how this reinterpretation saves the standard picture of how metric perturbations are generated during inflation and that the spinodal growth of fluctuations dominates the time dependence of the Bardeen variable for superhorizon modes during inflation. We compute the amplitude and index for the spectrum of scalar density and tensor perturb...

  3. Forman curvature for directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, R P; Saucan, Emil; Samal, Areejit

    2016-01-01

    A goal in network science is the geometrical characterization of complex networks. In this direction, we have recently introduced the Forman's discretization of Ricci curvature to the realm of undirected networks. Investigation of Forman curvature in diverse model and real-world undirected networks revealed that this measure captures several aspects of the organization of complex undirected networks. However, many important real-world networks are inherently directed in nature, and the Forman curvature for undirected networks is unsuitable for analysis of such directed networks. Hence, we here extend the Forman curvature for undirected networks to the case of directed networks. The simple mathematical formula for the Forman curvature in directed networks elegantly incorporates node weights, edge weights and edge direction. By applying the Forman curvature for directed networks to a variety of model and real-world directed networks, we show that the measure can be used to characterize the structure of complex ...

  4. A natural origin of primordial density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Lieu, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We suggest here a mechanism for the seeding of the primordial density fluctuations. We point out that a process like reheating at the end of inflation will inevitably generate perturbations, even on superhorizon scales, by the local diffusion of energy. Provided that the reheating temperature is of order the GUT scale, the density contrast $\\delta_R$ for spheres of radius $R$ will be of order $10^{-5}$ at horizon entry, consistent with the values measured by \\texttt{WMAP}. If this were a purely classical process, $\\delta_R^2$ would fall as $1/R^4$ beyond the horizon, and the resulting primordial density power spectrum would be $P(k) \\propto k^n$ with $n=4$. However, as shown by Gabrielli et al, a quantum diffusion process can generate a power spectrum with any index in the range $01$). Thus, the two characteristic parameters that determine the appearance of present day structures could be natural consequences of this mechanism. These are in any case the minimum density variations that must have formed if the ...

  5. On Gauss-Bonnet Curvatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Larbi Labbi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The $(2k$-th Gauss-Bonnet curvature is a generalization to higher dimensions of the $(2k$-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet integrand, it coincides with the usual scalar curvature for $k = 1$. The Gauss-Bonnet curvatures are used in theoretical physics to describe gravity in higher dimensional space times where they are known as the Lagrangian of Lovelock gravity, Gauss-Bonnet Gravity and Lanczos gravity. In this paper we present various aspects of these curvature invariants and review their variational properties. In particular, we discuss natural generalizations of the Yamabe problem, Einstein metrics and minimal submanifolds.

  6. Cosmological perturbations in mimetic Horndeski gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Arroja, Frederico; Karmakar, Purnendu; Matarrese, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    We study linear scalar perturbations around a flat FLRW background in mimetic Horndeski gravity. In the absence of matter, we show that the Newtonian potential satisfies a second-order differential equation with no spatial derivatives. This implies that the sound speed for scalar perturbations is exactly zero on this background. We also show that in mimetic $G^3$ theories the sound speed is equally zero. We obtain the equation of motion for the comoving curvature perturbation (first order differential equation) and solve it to find that the comoving curvature perturbation is constant on all scales in mimetic Horndeski gravity. We find solutions for the Newtonian potential evolution equation in two simple models. Finally we show that the sound speed is zero on all backgrounds and therefore the system does not have any wave-like scalar degrees of freedom.

  7. Cosmological perturbation spectra from SL(4,R)-invariant effective actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bridgman, H A; Bridgman, Helen A.; Wands, David

    2000-01-01

    We investigate four-dimensional cosmological vacuum solutions derived from aneffective action invariant under global SL(n,R) transformations. We find thegeneral solutions for linear axion field perturbations about homogeneousdilaton-moduli-vacuum solutions for an SL(4,R)-invariant action and find thespectrum of super-horizon perturbations resulting from vacuum fluctuations in apre big bang scenario. We show that for SL(n,R)-invariant actions with n>3there exists a regime of parameter space of non-zero measure where all theaxion field spectra have positive spectral tilt, as required if light axionfields are to provide a seed for anisotropies in the microwave background andlarge-scale structure in the universe.

  8. On Second Order Gauge Invariant Perturbations in Multi-Field Inflationary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rigopoulos, G I

    2002-01-01

    In a recent letter [1] Acquaviva et. al presented results from a second order calculation for a single field inflationary model. In this paper we elaborate on their approach. We present equations for the second order superhorizon perturbations of a generic multi field model. We utilise a change of coordinates in field space - first presented in [2] and given a more geometrical flavour here - to separate isocurvature and adiabatic perturbations and construct gauge invariant variables related to them to second order. Explicit relations are given for two scalar fields on a flat field manifold although the results can be generalised to curved field manifolds and an arbitrary number of fields. This is an outline of a possible procedure to study nonlinear and nongaussian effects during multifield inflation. For a more detailed discussion we refer to a future publication [12].

  9. Scale-invariant perturbations from NEC violation: A new variant of Galilean Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel branch of the Galilean Genesis scenario as an alternative to inflation, in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past with a gross violation of the null energy condition (NEC). This variant, described by several functions and parameters within the Horndeski scalar-tensor theory, shares the same background dynamics with the existing Genesis models, but the nature of primordial quantum fluctuations is quite distinct. In some cases, tensor perturbations grow on superhorizon scales. The tensor power spectrum can be red, blue, and scale invariant, depending on the model, while scalar perturbations are nearly scale invariant. This is in sharp contrast to typical NEC-violating cosmologies, in which a blue tensor tilt is generated. Though the primordial tensor and scalar spectra are both nearly scale invariant as in the inflationary scenario, the consistency relation in our variant of Galilean Genesis is non-standard.

  10. On Nonlinear Higher Spin Curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Manvelyan, Ruben(Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. St. 2, Yerevan, 0036, Armenia); Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-01-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider in detail the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the deWit-Freedman curvature.

  11. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manvelyan, Ruben, E-mail: manvel@physik.uni-kl.d [Department of Physics, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. Str. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Mkrtchyan, Karapet, E-mail: karapet@yerphi.a [Department of Physics, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. Str. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Ruehl, Werner, E-mail: ruehl@physik.uni-kl.d [Department of Physics, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Postfach 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Tovmasyan, Murad, E-mail: mtovmasyan@ysu.a [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. Str. 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2011-05-09

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  12. Environmental influences on DNA curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Higgins, C.F.; Bolshoy, A.

    1999-01-01

    DNA curvature plays an important role in many biological processes. To study environmentalinfluences on DNA curvature we compared the anomalous migration on polyacrylamide gels ofligation ladders of 11 specifically-designed oligonucleotides. At low temperatures (25 degreesC and below) most...... for DNAcurvature and for environmentally-sensitive DNA conformations in the regulation of geneexpression....

  13. Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, N.A., E-mail: koshna71@inbox.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str 42, 432970 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.

  14. Gravitational waves from perturbed stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.

  15. The de Sitter limit of inflation and non-linear perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarnhus, Philip; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2008-01-01

    We study the fourth order action of the comoving curvature perturbation in an inflationary universe in order to understand more systematically the de Sitter limit in nonlinear cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the action of the curvature perturbation to fourth order in the comoving gaug......, and show that it vanishes sufficiently fast in the de Sitter limit. By studying the de Sitter limit, we then extrapolate to the n'th order action of the comoving curvature perturbation and discuss the slow-roll order of the n-point correlation function....

  16. The de Sitter limit of inflation and non-linear perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnhus, Philip R; Sloth, Martin S, E-mail: pjarn@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sloth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2008-02-15

    We study the fourth-order action of the comoving curvature perturbation in an inflationary universe in order to understand more systematically the de Sitter limit in non-linear cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the action of the curvature perturbation to fourth order in the comoving gauge, and show that it vanishes sufficiently fast in the de Sitter limit. By studying the de Sitter limit, we then extrapolate to the nth-order action of the comoving curvature perturbation and discuss the slow-roll order of the n-point correlation function.

  17. Asymptotic analysis of perturbed dust cosmologies to second order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John

    2013-08-01

    Nonlinear perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies with dust and a cosmological constant Λ >0 have recently attracted considerable attention. In this paper our first goal is to compare the evolution of the first and second order perturbations by determining their asymptotic behaviour at late times in ever-expanding models. We show that in the presence of spatial curvature K or a cosmological constant, the density perturbation approaches a finite limit both to first and second order, but the rate of approach depends on the model, being power law in the scale factor if Λ >0 but logarithmic if Λ =0 and K0 the decaying mode does not die away, i.e. it contributes on an equal footing as the growing mode to the asymptotic expression for the density perturbation. On the other hand, the future asymptotic regime of the Einstein-de Sitter universe (K=Λ =0) is completely different, as exemplified by the density perturbation which diverges; moreover, the second order perturbation diverges faster than the first order perturbation, which suggests that the Einstein-de Sitter universe is unstable to perturbations, and that the perturbation series do not converge towards the future. We conclude that the presence of spatial curvature or a cosmological constant stabilizes the perturbations. Our second goal is to derive an explicit expression for the second order density perturbation that can be used to study the effects of including a cosmological constant and spatial curvature.

  18. Newtonian Limits of the Relativistic Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    Relativistic cosmological perturbation analyses can be made based on several different fundamental gauge conditions. In the pressureless limit the variables in certain gauge conditions show the correct Newtonian behaviors. We consider the general curvature and the cosmological constant in the background medium. The perturbed density in the comoving gauge, and the perturbed velocity and the perturbed potential in the zero-shear gauge show the same behavior as the Newtonian ones in a general scale. Far inside horizon, except for the uniform-density gauge, density perturbations in all the fundamental gauge conditions show the correct Newtonian behavior. In this paper we elaborate these Newtonian correspondences. We also present the relativistic results considering general pressures in the background and perturbation.

  19. CURVATURE COMPUTATIONS OF 2-MANIFOLDS IN IRk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-liang Xu; Chandrajit L. Bajaj

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we provide simple and explicit formulas for computing Riemannian cur-vatures, mean curvature vectors, principal curvatures and principal directions for a 2-dimensional Riemannian manifold embedded in IRk with k ≥ 3.

  20. Lectures on mean curvature flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xi-Ping

    2002-01-01

    "Mean curvature flow" is a term that is used to describe the evolution of a hypersurface whose normal velocity is given by the mean curvature. In the simplest case of a convex closed curve on the plane, the properties of the mean curvature flow are described by Gage-Hamilton's theorem. This theorem states that under the mean curvature flow, the curve collapses to a point, and if the flow is diluted so that the enclosed area equals \\pi, the curve tends to the unit circle. In this book, the author gives a comprehensive account of fundamental results on singularities and the asymptotic behavior of mean curvature flows in higher dimensions. Among other topics, he considers in detail Huisken's theorem (a generalization of Gage-Hamilton's theorem to higher dimension), evolution of non-convex curves and hypersurfaces, and the classification of singularities of the mean curvature flow. Because of the importance of the mean curvature flow and its numerous applications in differential geometry and partial differential ...

  1. EAU guidelines on penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Eardley, Ian; Giuliano, François; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios; Moncada, Ignacio; Salonia, Andrea; Vardi, Yoram; Wespes, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Penile curvature can be congenital or acquired. Acquired curvature is secondary due to La Peyronie (Peyronie's) disease. To provide clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of penile curvature. A systematic literature search on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of penile curvature was performed. Articles with the highest evidence available were selected and formed the basis for assigning levels of evidence and grades of recommendations. The pathogenesis of congenital penile curvature is unknown. Peyronie's disease is a poorly understood connective tissue disorder most commonly attributed to repetitive microvascular injury or trauma during intercourse. Diagnosis is based on medical and sexual histories, which are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Physical examination includes assessment of palpable nodules and penile length. Curvature is best documented by a self-photograph or pharmacologically induced erection. The only treatment option for congenital penile curvature is surgery based on plication techniques. Conservative treatment for Peyronie's disease is associated with poor outcomes. Pharmacotherapy includes oral potassium para-aminobenzoate, intralesional treatment with verapamil, clostridial collagenase or interferon, topical verapamil gel, and iontophoresis with verapamil and dexamethasone. They can be efficacious in some patients, but none of these options carry a grade A recommendation. Steroids, vitamin E, and tamoxifen cannot be recommended. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment and penile traction devices may only be used to treat penile pain and reduce penile deformity, respectively. Surgery is indicated when Peyronie's disease is stable for at least 3 mo. Tunical shortening procedures, especially plication techniques, are the first treatment options. Tunical lengthening procedures are preferred in more severe curvatures or in complex deformities. Penile prosthesis implantation is recommended in patients with erectile dysfunction

  2. Gravitational wave detector response in terms of spacetime Riemann curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Koop, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and --- correspondingly --- unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing arrays detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's response, to the unphysical metric perturbation has lead to a proliferation of false analogies and descriptions regarding how these detectors function, and true misunderstandings of the physical character of gravitational waves. Here we provide a fully physical and gauge invariant description of the response of a wide class of gravitational wave detectors in terms of the Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the limit of high frequency gravitational waves, the Riemann curvature...

  3. Sigma Models with Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-01-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold H^n, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O(n,1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  4. Enhancement of damage indicators in wavelet and curvature analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Raghu Prasad; N Lakshmanan; K Muthumani; N Gopalakrishnan

    2006-08-01

    Damage in a structural element induces a small perturbation in its static or dynamic displacement profile which can be captured by wavelet analysis. The paper presents the wavelet analysis of damaged linear structural elements using DB4 or BIOR6·8 family of wavelets. An expression is developed for computing the natural frequencies of a damaged beam using first order perturbation theory. Starting with a localized reduction of EI at the mid-span of a simply supported beam, damage modelling is done for a typical steel beam element. Wavelet analysis is performed for this damage model for displacement, rotation and curvature mode shapes as well as static displacement profiles. Damage indicators like displacement, slope and curvature are magnified under higher modes. Instantaneous step-wise linearity is assumed for all the nonlinear elements. A localization scheme with arbitrararily located curvature nodes within a pseudo span is developed for steady state dynamic loads, such that curvature response and damages are maximized and the scheme is numerically tested and proved.

  5. Gauge invariant perturbations of Petrov type D space-times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Bernard; Shah, Abhay

    2016-03-01

    The Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations are satisfied by gauge invariant perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole geometry. Both the perturbation of the imaginary part of Ψ2 (a component of the Weyl curvature), and its time derivative, are gauge invariant and solve the Regge-Wheeler equation with different sources. The Ψ0 and Ψ4 perturbations of the Weyl curvature are not only gauge, but also tetrad, invariant. We explore the framework in which these results hold, and consider what generalizations may extend to the Kerr geometry, and presumably to Petrov type D space-times in general. NSF Grants PHY 1205906 and 1314529, ERC (EU) FP7 Grant 304978.

  6. Solving higher curvature gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Pune (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Theoretical Physics Department, Kolkata (India)

    2016-10-15

    Solving field equations in the context of higher curvature gravity theories is a formidable task. However, in many situations, e.g., in the context of f(R) theories, the higher curvature gravity action can be written as an Einstein-Hilbert action plus a scalar field action. We show that not only the action but the field equations derived from the action are also equivalent, provided the spacetime is regular. We also demonstrate that such an equivalence continues to hold even when the gravitational field equations are projected on a lower-dimensional hypersurface. We have further addressed explicit examples in which the solutions for Einstein-Hilbert and a scalar field system lead to solutions of the equivalent higher curvature theory. The same, but on the lower-dimensional hypersurface, has been illustrated in the reverse order as well. We conclude with a brief discussion on this technique of solving higher curvature field equations. (orig.)

  7. The role of curvature in silica mesoporous crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Miyasaka, Keiichi

    2012-02-08

    Silica mesoporous crystals (SMCs) offer a unique opportunity to study micellar mesophases. Replication of non-equilibrium mesophases into porous silica structures allows the characterization of surfactant phases under a variety of chemical and physical perturbations, through methods not typically accessible to liquid crystal chemists. A poignant example is the use of electron microscopy and crystallography, as discussed herein, for the purpose of determining the fundamental role of amphiphile curvature, namely mean curvature and Gaussian curvature, which have been extensively studied in various fields such as polymer, liquid crystal, biological membrane, etc. The present work aims to highlight some current studies devoted to the interface curvature on SMCs, in which electron microscopy and electron crystallography (EC) are used to understand the geometry of silica wall surface in bicontinuous and cage-type mesostructures through the investigation of electrostatic potential maps. Additionally, we show that by altering the synthesis conditions during the preparation of SMCs, it is possible to isolate particles during micellar mesophase transformations in the cubic bicontinuous system, allowing us to view and study epitaxial relations under the specific synthesis conditions. By studying the relationship between mesoporous structure, interface curvature and micellar mesophases using electron microscopy and EC, we hope to bring new insights into the formation mechanism of these unique materials but also contribute a new way of understanding periodic liquid crystal systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.

  8. Effects of Curvature on Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss the effect of curvature on dynamics when a physical system moves adiabatically in a curved space. These effects give a way to measure the curvature of the space intrinsically without referring to higher dimensional space. Two interesting examples, the Foucault Pendulum and the perihelion shift of planetary orbits, are presented in a simple geometric way. A paper model is presented to see the perihelion shift.

  9. Cosmological perturbations through a simple bounce

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, L E

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a simple scalar field model that yields non-singular cosmological solutions. We study both the qualitative dynamics of the homogeneous and isotropic background and the evolution of inhomogeneous linear perturbations. We calculate the spectrum of perturbations generated on super-Hubble scales during the collapse phase from initial vacuum fluctuations on small scales and then evolve these numerically through the bounce. We show there is a gauge that remains well-defined throughout the bounce, even though other commonly used gauges break down. We show that the comoving curvature perturbation calculated during the collapse phase provides a good estimate of the resulting large scale adiabatic perturbation in the expanding phase while the Bardeen metric potential is dominated by what becomes a decaying mode after the bounce. We show that a power-law collapse phase with scale factor proportional $(-t)^{2/3}$ can yield a scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations in the ...

  10. Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the

  11. Suppressing the primordial tensor amplitude without changing the scalar sector in quadratic curvature gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    We address the question of how one can modify the inflationary tensor spectrum without changing at all the successful predictions on the curvature perturbation. We show that this is indeed possible, and determine the two quadratic curvature corrections that are free from instabilities and affect only the tensor sector at the level of linear cosmological perturbations. Both of the two corrections can reduce the tensor amplitude, though one of them generates large non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbation. It turns out that the other one corresponds to so-called Lorentz-violating Weyl gravity. In this latter case one can obtain as small as 65% of the standard tensor amplitude. Utilizing this effect we demonstrate that even power-law inflation can be within the 2$\\sigma$ contour of the Planck results.

  12. Perturbations of Dark Matter Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, M D; Müller, D; 10.1142/S0218271809015072

    2009-01-01

    Until recently the study of the gravitational field of dark matter was primarily concerned with its local effects on the motion of stars in galaxies and galaxy clusters. On the other hand, the WMAP experiment has shown that the gravitational field produced by dark matter amplifies the higher acoustic modes of the CMBR power spectrum, more intensely than the gravitational field of baryons. Such a wide range of experimental evidences from cosmology to local gravity suggests the necessity of a comprehensive analysis of the dark matter gravitational field per se, regardless of any other attributes that dark matter may eventually possess. In this paper we introduce and apply Nash's theory of perturbative geometry to the study of the dark matter gravitational field alone, in a higher-dimensional framework. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations in the early universe can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. Together with the estimated presence of massive neutrinos,...

  13. Equi-Gaussian Curvature Folding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E M El-Kholy; El-Said R Lashin; Salama N Daoud

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a new type of folding called equi-Gaussian curvature folding of connected Riemannian 2-manifolds. We prove that the composition and the cartesian product of such foldings is again an equi-Gaussian curvature folding. In case of equi-Gaussian curvature foldings, $f:M→ P_n$, of an orientable surface onto a polygon $P_n$ we prove that (i) $f\\in\\mathcal{F}_{EG}(S^2)\\Leftrightarrow n=3$ (ii) $f\\in\\mathcal{F}_{EG}(T^2)\\Rightarrow n=4$ (iii) $f\\in\\mathcal{F}_{EG}(\\# 2T^2)\\Rightarrow n=5, 6$ and we generalize (iii) for $\\# nT^2$.

  14. Integral Menger curvature for surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelecki, Paweł; von der Mosel, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    We develop the concept of integral Menger curvature for a large class of nonsmooth surfaces. We prove uniform Ahlfors regularity and a $C^{1,\\lambda}$-a-priori bound for surfaces for which this functional is finite. In fact, it turns out that there is an explicit length scale $R>0$ which depends only on an upper bound $E$ for the integral Menger curvature $M_p(\\Sigma)$ and the integrability exponent $p$, and \\emph{not} on the surface $\\Sigma$ itself; below that scale, each surface with energy...

  15. Surface meshing with curvature convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Environmental influences on DNA curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Higgins, C.F.; Bolshoy, A.

    1999-01-01

    of the sequences exhibited a degree of anomalous migration. Increasedtemperature had a significant effect on the anomalous migration (curvature) of some sequencesbut limited effects on others; at 50 degrees C only 1 sequence migrated anomalously. Mg2+ hada strong influence on the migration of certain sequences...

  17. Preheating and entropy perturbations in axion monodromy inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, Evan; Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Brandenberger, Robert H. [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zürich,CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-04

    We study the preheating of gauge fields in a simple axion monodromy model and compute the induced entropy perturbations and their effect on the curvature fluctuations. We find that the correction to the spectrum of curvature perturbations has a blue spectrum with index n{sub s}=5/2. Hence, these induced modes are harmless for the observed structure of the universe. Since the spectrum is blue, there is the danger of overproduction of primordial black holes. However, we show that the observational constraints are easily satisfied.

  18. Preheating and Entropy Perturbations in Axion Monodromy Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    We study the preheating of gauge fields in a simple axion monodromy model and compute the induced entropy perturbations and their effect on the curvature fluctuations. We find that the correction to the spectrum of curvature perturbations has a blue spectrum with index $n_s = 5/2$. Hence, these induced modes are harmless for the observed structure of the universe. Since the spectrum is blue, there is the danger of overproduction of primordial black holes. However, we show that the observational constraints are easily satisfied.

  19. On mean curvatures in submanifolds geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By using moving frame theory,first we introduce 2p-th mean curvatures and(2p+1)-th mean curvature vector fields for a submanifold.We then give an integral expression of them that characterizes them as mean values of symmetric functions of principle curvatures.Next we apply it to derive directly the celebrated Weyl-Gray tube formula in terms of integrals of the 2p-th mean curvatures and some Minkowski-type integral formulas.

  20. Cosmological model with dynamical curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Stichel, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the recently introduced relativistic Lagrangian darkon fluid model (EPJ C (2015) 75:9) by starting with a self-gravitating geodesic fluid whose energy-momentum tensor is dust-like with a nontrivial energy flow. The corresponding covariant propagation and constraint equations are considered in a shear-free nonrelativistic limit whose analytic solutions determine the 1st-order relativistic correction to the spatial curvature. This leads to a cosmological model where the accelerated expansion of the Universe is driven by a time-dependent spatial curvature without the need for introducing any kind of dark energy. We derive the differential equation to be satisfied by the area distance for this model.

  1. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  2. Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan

    2010-01-01

    A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found...

  3. Screening bulk curvature in the presence of large brane tension

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Nishant; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We study a flat brane solution in an effective 5D action for cascading gravity and propose a mechanism to screen extrinsic curvature in the presence of a large tension on the brane. The screening mechanism leaves the bulk Riemann-flat, thus making it simpler to generalize large extra dimension dark energy models to higher codimensions. By studying an action with cubic interactions for the brane-bending scalar mode, we find that the perturbed action suffers from ghostlike instabilities for positive tension, whereas it can be made ghost-free for sufficiently small negative tension.

  4. Curvature effect on tearing modes in presence of neoclassical friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maget, Patrick; Mellet, Nicolas; Lütjens, Hinrich; Meshcheriakov, Dmytro; Garbet, Xavier

    2013-11-01

    Neoclassical physics (here associated to the poloidal variation of the magnetic field strength along field lines in a tokamak) is well known for driving self-generated plasma current and nonlinear magnetic islands associated to it in high performance, ITER relevant plasma discharges. It is demonstrated that the neoclassical friction between a magnetic perturbation and plasma flow already impacts magnetic islands in the linear regime, by inducing a weakening of curvature stabilization for tearing modes. This conclusion holds in particular for regimes where convection is influencing the pressure dynamics, as shown using a simple analytical model and confirmed in full Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics simulations.

  5. Curvature effect on tearing modes in presence of neoclassical friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maget, Patrick; Mellet, Nicolas; Meshcheriakov, Dmytro; Garbet, Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lütjens, Hinrich [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS (France)

    2013-11-15

    Neoclassical physics (here associated to the poloidal variation of the magnetic field strength along field lines in a tokamak) is well known for driving self-generated plasma current and nonlinear magnetic islands associated to it in high performance, ITER relevant plasma discharges. It is demonstrated that the neoclassical friction between a magnetic perturbation and plasma flow already impacts magnetic islands in the linear regime, by inducing a weakening of curvature stabilization for tearing modes. This conclusion holds in particular for regimes where convection is influencing the pressure dynamics, as shown using a simple analytical model and confirmed in full Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics simulations.

  6. Mean curvature 1 surfaces in hyperbolic 3-space with low total curvature. I

    OpenAIRE

    Rossman, Wayne; Umehara, Masaaki; Yamada, Kotaro

    2004-01-01

    A complete surface of constant mean curvature 1 (CMC-1) in hyperbolic 3- space with constant curvature $-1$ has two natural notions of ‘‘total curvature’’—one is the total absolute curvature which is the integral over the surface of the absolute value of the Gaussian curvature, and the other is the dual total absolute curvature which is the total absolute curvature of the dual CMC-1 surface. In this paper, we completely classify CMC-1 surfaces with dual total absolute curvature...

  7. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungwook E; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D; Zoe, Heeseung

    2015-01-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, $k_\\mathrm{b}$, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor $\\sim 50$ at $k \\gg k_\\mathrm{b}$, with $k_\\mathrm{b}$ corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scal...

  8. On the scalar curvature for the noncommutative four torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathizadeh, Farzad

    2015-06-01

    The scalar curvature for noncommutative four tori TΘ 4 , where their flat geometries are conformally perturbed by a Weyl factor, is computed by making the use of a noncommutative residue that involves integration over the 3-sphere. This method is more convenient since it does not require the rearrangement lemma and it is advantageous as it explains the simplicity of the final functions of one and two variables, which describe the curvature with the help of a modular automorphism. In particular, it readily allows to write the function of two variables as the sum of a finite difference and a finite product of the one variable function. The curvature formula is simplified for dilatons of the form sp, where s is a real parameter and p ∈ C ∞ ( TΘ 4 ) is an arbitrary projection, and it is observed that, in contrast to the two dimensional case studied by Connes and Moscovici, J. Am. Math. Soc. 27(3), 639-684 (2014), unbounded functions of the parameter s appear in the final formula. An explicit formula for the gradient of the analog of the Einstein-Hilbert action is also calculated.

  9. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.

  10. Cosmological density perturbations from perturbed couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujikawa, S

    2003-01-01

    The density perturbations generated when the inflaton decay rate is perturbed by a light scalar field $\\chi$ are studied. By explicitly solving the perturbation equations for the system of two scalar fields and radiation, we show that even in low energy-scale inflation nearly scale-invariant spectra of scalar perturbations with an amplitude set by observations are obtained through the conversion of $\\chi$ fluctuations into adiabatic density perturbations. We demonstrate that the spectra depend on the average decay rate of the inflaton & on the inflaton fluctuations. We then apply this new mechanism to string cosmologies & generalized Einstein theories and discuss the conditions under which scale-invariant spectra are possible.

  11. The Cost of Bounded Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyo-Sil

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion-planning problem for a car-like robot whose turning radius is bounded from below by one and which is allowed to move in the forward direction only (Dubins car). For two robot configurations $\\sigma, \\sigma'$, let $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ be the shortest bounded-curvature path from $\\sigma$ to $\\sigma'$. For $d \\geq 0$, let $\\ell(d)$ be the supremum of $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$, over all pairs $(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ that are at Euclidean distance $d$. We study the function $\\dub(d) = \\ell(d) - d$, which expresses the difference between the bounded-curvature path length and the Euclidean distance of its endpoints. We show that $\\dub(d)$ decreases monotonically from $\\dub(0) = 7\\pi/3$ to $\\dub(\\ds) = 2\\pi$, and is constant for $d \\geq \\ds$. Here $\\ds \\approx 1.5874$. We describe pairs of configurations that exhibit the worst-case of $\\dub(d)$ for every distance $d$.

  12. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  13. S-curvature of isotropic Berwald metrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akbar TAYEBI; Mehdi RAFIE-RAD

    2008-01-01

    Isotropic Berwald metrics are as a generalization of Berwald metrics. Shen proved that every Berwald metric is of vanishing S-curvature. In this paper, we generalize this fact and prove that every isotropic Berwald metric is of isotropic S-curvature. Let F = α + β be a Randers metric of isotropic Berwald curvature. Then it corresponds to a conformal vector field through navigation representation.

  14. A Stringy (Holographic) Pomeron with Extrinsic Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Yachao

    2014-01-01

    We model the soft pomeron in QCD using a scalar Polyakov string with extrinsic curvature in the bottom-up approach of holographic QCD. The overall dipole-dipole scattering amplitude in the soft pomeron kinematics is shown to be sensitive to the extrinsic curvature of the string for finite momentum transfer. The characteristics of the diffractive peak in the differential elastic $pp$ scattering are affected by a small extrinsic curvature of the string.

  15. Curvature and bubble convergence of harmonic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kokarev, Gerasim

    2010-01-01

    We explore geometric aspects of bubble convergence for harmonic maps. More precisely, we show that the formation of bubbles is characterised by the local excess of curvature on the target manifold. We give a universal estimate for curvature concentration masses at each bubble point and show that there is no curvature loss in the necks. Our principal hypothesis is that the target manifold is Kaehler.

  16. Curvatures for Parameter Subsets in Nonlinear Regression

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The relative curvature measures of nonlinearity proposed by Bates and Watts (1980) are extended to an arbitrary subset of the parameters in a normal, nonlinear regression model. In particular, the subset curvatures proposed indicate the validity of linearization-based approximate confidence intervals for single parameters. The derivation produces the original Bates-Watts measures directly from the likelihood function. When the intrinsic curvature is negligible, the Bates-Watts parameter-effec...

  17. Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadota, Kenji [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Otsuka, Hajime [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2016-01-25

    We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.

  18. Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Kadota, Kenji; Otsuka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.

  19. Higher curvature supergravity and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Sergio [Th-Ph Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); U.C.L.A., Los Angeles, CA (United States); INFN - LNF, Frascati (Italy); Sagnotti, Augusto [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    In this contribution we describe dual higher-derivative formulations of some cosmological models based on supergravity. Work in this direction started with the R + R{sup 2} Starobinsky model, whose supersymmetric extension was derived in the late 80's and was recently revived in view of new CMB data. Models dual to higher-derivative theories are subject to more restrictions than their bosonic counterparts or standard supergravity. The three sections are devoted to a brief description of R + R{sup 2} supergravity, to a scale invariant R{sup 2} supergravity and to theories with a nilpotent curvature, whose duals describe non-linear realizations (in the form of a Volkov-Akulov constrained superfield) coupled to supergravity. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. On the Ricci Curvature of a Randers Metric of Isotropic S-curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Huan MO; Chang Tao YU

    2008-01-01

    We derive the integral inequality of a Randers metric with isotropic S-curvature in terms of its navigation representation. Using the obtained inequality we give some rigidity results under the condition of Ricci curvature. In particular, we show the following result: Assume that an n-dimensional compact Randers manifold (M, F)hasconstantS-curvature c.Then(M, F) must be Riemannian ifits Ricci curvature satisfies that Ric < - (n - 1)c2.

  1. Cauchy-horizon singularity inside perturbed Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Burko, Lior M; Zenginoǧlu, Anıl

    2016-01-01

    The Cauchy horizon inside a perturbed Kerr black hole develops an instability that transforms it into a curvature singularity. We solve for the linearized Weyl scalars $\\psi_0$ and $\\psi_4$ and for the curvature scalar $R_{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma\\delta}R^{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma\\delta}$ along outgoing null rays approaching the Cauchy horizon in the interior of perturbed Kerr black holes using the Teukolsky equation, and compare our results with those found in perturbation analysis. Our results corroborate the previous perturbation analysis result that at its early parts the Cauchy horizon evolves into a deformationally-weak, null, scalar-curvature singularity. We find excellent agreement for $\\psi_0(u={\\rm const},v)$, where $u,v$ are advanced and retarded times, respectively. We do find, however, that the exponential growth rate of $R_{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma\\delta}R^{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma\\delta}(u={\\rm const},v)$ approaching the singularity is dramatically slower than that found in perturbation analysis, and that the angular freq...

  2. Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model: Non-flat background

    CERN Document Server

    Noh, Hyerim

    2014-01-01

    We extend the fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in a Friedmann background universe to include the background curvature. The perturbation equations are presented in a gauge ready form, so any temporal gauge condition can be adopted freely depending on the problem to be solved. %The background curvature term explicitly appears only in the energy and momentum constraint equations. We consider the scalar, and vector perturbations without anisotropic stress. As an application, we analyze the equations in the special case of irrotational zero-pressure fluid in the comoving gauge condition. We also present the fully nonlinear formulation for a minimally coupled scalar field.

  3. Inflationary perturbations in a closed FLRW universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomizo, Nelson; Bonga, Beatrice; Gupt, Brajesh

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the evolution of gauge invariant quantum perturbations in the closed FLRW model in the presence of an inflationary potential. We first find out initial conditions for the background geometry which lead to a desired slow-roll phase that is compatible with observation. Providing the initial conditions for the quantum field at the onset of slow-roll we study the influence of the spatial curvature on the scalar and tensor power spectra at the end of inflation. By comparing our results with the recent Planck data we discuss the role of spatial curvature on the estimation of various cosmological parameters. We highlight the main differences from the standard inflationary scenario in a flat FLRW model and potential implications for future observations. Finally, we comment on the quantum gravitational extension of this scenario to the Planck scale. Supported by CNPq-Brazil and NSF.

  4. Lattice QCD simulation of the Berry curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2016-01-01

    The Berry curvature is a fundamental concept describing topological order of quantum systems. While it can be analytically tractable in non-interacting systems, numerical simulations are necessary in interacting systems. We present a formulation to calculate the Berry curvature in lattice QCD.

  5. BIFURCATION IN PRESCRIBED MEAN CURVATURE PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the existence problem in the study of some partial differential equations. The author gets some bifurcation on the prescribed mean curvature problem on the unit ball, the scalar curvature problem on the n-sphere, and some field equations. The author gives some natural conditions such that the standard bifurcation or Thom-Mather theory can be used.

  6. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear......-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute...

  7. Importance of plan curvature in watershed modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Ribail, J.; Zhao, M.

    2016-12-01

    A hillslope's hydrologic response to precipitation events is largely controlled by the topographic features of a given hillslope, specifically the profile and plan curvature. Many models simplify hillslope topography and ignore the curvature properties, and some use alternate measures such as a topographic index or the hillslope width function. Models that ignore curvature properties may be calibrated to produce the statistically acceptable integrated response of runoff at a watershed outlet, but incorporating these properties is necessary to model accurately hydrologic processes such as surface flow, erosion, subsurface lateral flow, location of runoff generation and drainage response. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff modelling to profile and plan curvature in two models. In the first model, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, hillslope uses a representative width to the hillslope by dividing the drainage area by the average surface channel length. Profile curvature is preserved with a limited spatial resolution due to the number of overland flow elements. In the second model, the distributed Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model, the geographic information system uses the D8 algorithm to capture profile and plan curvature. Sensitivity to topographic features was tested for three profile curvatures (convex, concave, straight) combined with three plan curvatures (diverging, converging, uniform) resulting in a total of nine hillslopes. Each hillslope was subjected to different rainfall events to detect threshold behavior for when topographic features cannot be ignored. Our findings indicate that concave and convex plan curvature need to be included when subsurface flow processes are the dominant flow process for surface flow runoff generation. We present thresholds for acceptable cases when profile and plan curvature can be simplified in larger spatial hydrologic units.

  8. Integrating 3D seismic curvature and curvature gradient attributes for fracture characterization: Methodologies and interpretational implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dengliang

    2013-03-01

    In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.

  9. Primordial Perturbations in Einstein-Aether and BPSH Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Garriga, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    We study the primordial perturbations generated during a stage of single-field inflation in Einstein-aether theories. Quantum fluctuations of the inflaton and aether fields seed long wavelength adiabatic and isocurvature scalar perturbations, as well as transverse vector perturbations. Geometrically, the isocurvature mode is the potential for the velocity field of the aether with respect to matter. For a certain range of parameters, this mode may lead to a sizable random velocity of the aether within the observable universe. The adiabatic mode corresponds to curvature perturbations of co-moving slices (where matter is at rest). In contrast with the standard case, it has a non-vanishing anisotropic stress on large scales. Scalar and vector perturbations may leave significant imprints on the cosmic microwave background. We calculate their primordial spectra, analyze their contributions to the temperature anisotropies, and formulate some of the phenomenological constraints that follow from observations. These ma...

  10. A model for the behaviour of fluid droplets based on mean curvature flow

    CERN Document Server

    Helmensdorfer, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    During his experiments W. D. Ristenpart made a very remarkable discovery. If two oppositely charged droplets of fl uid are close enough, they attract each other and touch eventually. Surprisingly after that the droplets are repelled from each other, if the initial strength of the charges is high enough. Otherwise they coalesce and form a big drop, as one might expect. We present a theoretical model for this observation, using mean curvature fl ow. With the help of appropriate barriers for the flow we can predict the observed droplet behaviour. This shows that, contrary to general belief, decreasing surface energy can explain the phenomenon. The barrier construction includes a new proof for the existence of multiple mean curvature flow evolutions of certain double cones, first discovered by Angenent, Chopp and Ilmanen. Our proof yields a slightly stronger result. Additionally we use perturbed catenoids to improve existing pinching barriers for the mean curvature flow.

  11. Curvature function and coarse graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marín, Homero; Zapata, José A.

    2010-12-01

    A classic theorem in the theory of connections on principal fiber bundles states that the evaluation of all holonomy functions gives enough information to characterize the bundle structure (among those sharing the same structure group and base manifold) and the connection up to a bundle equivalence map. This result and other important properties of holonomy functions have encouraged their use as the primary ingredient for the construction of families of quantum gauge theories. However, in these applications often the set of holonomy functions used is a discrete proper subset of the set of holonomy functions needed for the characterization theorem to hold. We show that the evaluation of a discrete set of holonomy functions does not characterize the bundle and does not constrain the connection modulo gauge appropriately. We exhibit a discrete set of functions of the connection and prove that in the abelian case their evaluation characterizes the bundle structure (up to equivalence), and constrains the connection modulo gauge up to "local details" ignored when working at a given scale. The main ingredient is the Lie algebra valued curvature function F_S (A) defined below. It covers the holonomy function in the sense that exp {F_S (A)} = Hol(l= partial S, A).

  12. Forced hyperbolic mean curvature flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate two hyperbolic flows obtained by adding forcing terms in direction of the position vector to the hyperbolic mean curvature flows in \\cite{klw,hdl}. For the first hyperbolic flow, as in \\cite{klw}, by using support function, we reduce it to a hyperbolic Monge-Amp$\\grave{\\rm{e}}$re equation successfully, leading to the short-time existence of the flow by the standard theory of hyperbolic partial differential equation. If the initial velocity is non-negative and the coefficient function of the forcing term is non-positive, we also show that there exists a class of initial velocities such that the solution of the flow exists only on a finite time interval $[0,T_{max})$, and the solution converges to a point or shocks and other propagating discontinuities are generated when $t\\rightarrow{T_{max}}$. These generalize the corresponding results in \\cite{klw}. For the second hyperbolic flow, as in \\cite{hdl}, we can prove the system of partial differential equations related to the flow is ...

  13. Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    1997-01-01

    The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

  14. Programming curvature using origami tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudte, Levi H.; Vouga, Etienne; Tachi, Tomohiro; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-05-01

    Origami describes rules for creating folded structures from patterns on a flat sheet, but does not prescribe how patterns can be designed to fit target shapes. Here, starting from the simplest periodic origami pattern that yields one-degree-of-freedom collapsible structures--we show that scale-independent elementary geometric constructions and constrained optimization algorithms can be used to determine spatially modulated patterns that yield approximations to given surfaces of constant or varying curvature. Paper models confirm the feasibility of our calculations. We also assess the difficulty of realizing these geometric structures by quantifying the energetic barrier that separates the metastable flat and folded states. Moreover, we characterize the trade-off between the accuracy to which the pattern conforms to the target surface, and the effort associated with creating finer folds. Our approach enables the tailoring of origami patterns to drape complex surfaces independent of absolute scale, as well as the quantification of the energetic and material cost of doing so.

  15. Parametric resonance of entropy perturbations in massless preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yi-Fu; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we revisit the question of possible preheating of entropy modes in a two-field model with a massless inflaton coupled to a matter scalar field. Using a perturbative approximation to the covariant method we demonstrate that there is indeed a parametric instability of the entropy mode which then at second-order leads to exponential growth of the curvature fluctuation on super-Hubble scale. Back-reaction effects shut off the induced curvature fluctuations, but possibly not early enough to prevent phenomenological problems. This confirms previous results obtained using different methods and resolves a controversy in the literature.

  16. On different curvatures of spheres in Funk geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Olin, Eugeny A

    2011-01-01

    We compute the series expansions for the normal curvatures of hyperspheres, the Finsler and Rund curvatures of circles in Funk geometry as the radii tend to infinity. These three curvatures are different at infinity in Funk geometry.

  17. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  18. Brane World Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Casali, A G; Wang, B; Casali, Adenauer G.; Abdalla, Elcio; Wang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    We consider a brane world and its gravitational linear perturbations. We present a general solution of the perturbations in the bulk and find the complete perturbed junction conditions for generic brane dynamics. We also prove that (spin 2) gravitational waves in the great majority of cases can only arise in connection with a non-vanishing anisotropic stress. This has far reaching consequences for inflation in the brane world. Moreover, contrary to the case of the radion, perturbations are stable.

  19. Magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Liao, X.; Sun, C. K.; Ou, W.; Liu, D.; Gui, G.; Wang, X. G.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence and transport in the Z-pinch and dipole-like systems are explored with two-fluid global simulations. By comparing the transport levels in the systems with a different magnetic curvature, we show that the interchange-mode driven transport strongly depends on the magnetic geometry. For the system with large magnetic curvature, the pressure and density profiles are strongly peaked in a marginally stable state and the nonlinear evolution of interchange modes produces the global convective cells in the azimuthal direction, which lead to the low level of turbulent convective transport.

  20. Approximation algorithms for curvature-constrained shortest paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyan; Agarwal, P.K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Let B be a point robot in the plane, whose path is constrained to have curvature of at most 1, and let {Omega} be a set of polygonal obstacles with n vertices. We study the collision-free, optimal path-planning problem for B. Given a parameter {epsilon}, we present an O((n{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sup 2}) log n)-time algorithm for computing a collision-free, curvature-constrained path between two given positions, whose length is at most (1 + {epsilon}) times the length of an optimal robust path (a path is robust if it remains collision-free even if certain positions on the path are perturbed). Our algorithm thus runs significantly faster than the previously best known algorithm by Jacobs and Canny whose running time is O((n+L/{epsilon}){sup 2} + n{sup 2} (n+1/{epsilon}) log n), where L is the total edge length of the obstacles. More importantly, the running time of our algorithm does not depend on the size of obstacles. The path returned by this algorithm is not necessarily robust. We present an O((n/{epsilon}){sup 2.5} log n)-time algorithm that returns a robust path whose length is at most (1 + {epsilon}) times the length of an optimal robust path. We also give a stronger characterization of curvature-constrained shortest paths, which, apart from being crucial for our algorithm, is interesting in its own right. Roughly speaking, we prove that, except in some special cases, a shortest path touches obstacles only at points that have a visible vertex nearby.

  1. Inflation in non-minimal matter-curvature coupling theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Cláudio; Bertolami, Orfeu

    2016-01-01

    We study inflationary scenarios driven by a scalar field in the presence of a non-minimal coupling between matter and curvature. We show that the Friedmann equation can be significantly modified when the energy density during inflation exceeds a critical value determined by the non-minimal coupling, which in turn may considerably modify the spectrum of primordial perturbations and the inflationary dynamics. In particular, we show that these models are characterised by a consistency relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the tensor spectral index that can differ significantly from the predictions of general relativity. We also give examples of observational predictions for some of the most commonly considered potentials and use the results of the Planck collaboration to set limits on the scale of the non-minimal coupling.

  2. Bounds on the Bondi Energy by a Flux of Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    We consider smooth null cones in a vacuum spacetime that extend to future null infinity. For such cones that are perturbations of shear-free outgoing null cones in Schwarzschild spacetimes, we prove bounds for the Bondi energy, momentum, and rate of energy loss. The bounds depend on the closeness between the given cone and a corresponding cone in a Schwarzschild spacetime, measured purely in terms of the differences between certain weighted $L^2$-norms of the space-time curvature on the cones, and of the geometries of the spheres from which they emanate. A key step in this paper is the construction of a family of asymptotically round cuts of our cone, relative to which the Bondi energy is measured.

  3. Thermodynamic curvature for attractive and repulsive intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Helge-Otmar; Mausbach, Peter; Ruppeiner, George

    2013-09-01

    The thermodynamic curvature scalar R for the Lennard-Jones system is evaluated in phase space, including vapor, liquid, and solid state. We paid special attention to the investigation of R along vapor-liquid, liquid-solid, and vapor-solid equilibria. Because R is a measure of interaction strength, we traced out the line R=0 dividing the phase space into regions with effectively attractive (R0) interactions. Furthermore, we analyzed the dependence of R on the strength of attraction applying a perturbation ansatz proposed by Weeks-Chandler-Anderson. Our results show clearly a transition from R>0 (for poorly repulsive interaction) to R<0 when loading attraction in the intermolecular potential.

  4. Curvature constraints from Large Scale Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Raccanelli, Alvise; Durrer, Ruth; Kamionkowski, Marc; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We modified the CLASS code in order to include relativistic galaxy number counts in spatially curved geometries; we present the formalism and study the effect of relativistic corrections on spatial curvature. The new version of the code is now publicly available. Using a Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate how measurements of the spatial curvature parameter $\\Omega_K$ with future galaxy surveys are affected by relativistic effects, which influence observations of the large scale galaxy distribution. These effects include contributions from cosmic magnification, Doppler terms and terms involving the gravitational potential. As an application, we consider angle and redshift dependent power spectra, which are especially well suited for model independent cosmological constraints. We compute our results for a representative deep, wide and spectroscopic survey, and our results show the impact of relativistic corrections on the spatial curvature parameter estimation. We show that constraints on the curvature para...

  5. Generalized Strong Curvature Singularities and Cosmic Censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, W; Kondracki, W

    2002-01-01

    A new definition of a strong curvature singularity is proposed. This definition is motivated by the definitions given by Tipler and Krolak, but is significantly different and more general. All causal geodesics terminating at these new singularities, which we call generalized strong curvature singularities, are classified into three possible types; the classification is based on certain relations between the curvature strength of the singularities and the causal structure in their neighborhood. A cosmic censorship theorem is formulated and proved which shows that only one class of generalized strong curvature singularities, corresponding to a single type of geodesics according to our classification, can be naked. Implications of this result for the cosmic censorship hypothesis are indicated.

  6. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  7. Holomorphic curvature of complex Finsler submanifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let M be a complex n-dimensional manifold endowed with a strongly pseudoconvex complex Finsler metric F. Let M be a complex m-dimensional submanifold of M, which is endowed with the induced complex Finsler metric F. Let D be the complex Rund connection associated with (M, F). We prove that (a) the holomorphic curvature of the induced complex linear connection  on (M, F) and the holomorphic curvature of the intrinsic complex Rund connection ~* on (M, F) coincide; (b) the holomorphic curvature of ~* does not exceed the holomorphic curvature of D; (c) (M, F) is totally geodesic in (M, F) if and only if a suitable contraction of the second fundamental form B(·, ·) of (M, F) vanishes, i.e., B(χ, ι) = 0. Our proofs are mainly based on the Gauss, Codazzi and Ricci equations for (M, F).

  8. Modular Curvature for Noncommutative Two-Tori

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the description of the conformal geometry of noncommutative 2-tori in the framework of modular spectral triples, we explicitly compute the local curvature functionals determined by the value at zero of the zeta functions affiliated with these spectral triples. We give a closed formula for the Ray-Singer analytic torsion in terms of the Dirichlet quadratic form and the generating function for Bernoulli numbers applied to the modular operator. The gradient of the Ray-Singer analytic torsion is then expressed in terms of these functionals, and yields the analogue of scalar curvature. Computing this gradient in two ways elucidates the meaning of the complicated two variable functions occurring in the formula for the scalar curvature. Moreover, the corresponding evolution equation for the metric produces the appropriate analogue of Ricci curvature. We prove the analogue of the classical result which asserts that in every conformal class the maximum value of the determinant of the Laplacian on metrics...

  9. Cosmological Attractor Models and Higher Curvature Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cecotti, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmological $\\alpha$-attractors in superconformal/supergravity models, where $\\alpha$ is related to the geometry of the moduli space. For $\\alpha=1$ attractors \\cite{Kallosh:2013hoa} we present a generalization of the previously known manifestly superconformal higher curvature supergravity model \\cite{Cecotti:1987sa}. The relevant standard 2-derivative supergravity with a minimum of two chiral multiplets is shown to be dual to a 4-derivative higher curvature supergravity, where in general one of the chiral superfields is traded for a curvature superfield. There is a degenerate case when both matter superfields become non-dynamical and there is only a chiral curvature superfield, pure higher derivative supergravity. Generic $\\alpha$-models \\cite{Kallosh:2013yoa} interpolate between the attractor point at $\\alpha=0$ and generic chaotic inflation models at large $\\alpha$, in the limit when the inflaton moduli space becomes flat. They have higher derivative duals with the same number of matter fields as...

  10. Higher Curvature Supergravity, Supersymmetry Breaking and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    In these lectures, after a short introduction to cosmology, we discuss the supergravity embedding of higher curvature models of inflation. The supergravity description of such models is presented for the two different formulations of minimal supergravity.

  11. Mutations in the Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway interfere with crescentin-mediated cell curvature in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeen, Matthew T; Murolo, Michelle A; Briegel, Ariane; Bui, N Khai; Vollmer, Waldemar; Ausmees, Nora; Jensen, Grant J; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial cell morphogenesis requires coordination among multiple cellular systems, including the bacterial cytoskeleton and the cell wall. In the vibrioid bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the intermediate filament-like protein crescentin forms a cell envelope-associated cytoskeletal structure that controls cell wall growth to generate cell curvature. We undertook a genetic screen to find other cellular components important for cell curvature. Here we report that deletion of a gene (wbqL) involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis pathway abolishes cell curvature. Loss of WbqL function leads to the accumulation of an aberrant O-polysaccharide species and to the release of the S layer in the culture medium. Epistasis and microscopy experiments show that neither S-layer nor O-polysaccharide production is required for curved cell morphology per se but that production of the altered O-polysaccharide species abolishes cell curvature by apparently interfering with the ability of the crescentin structure to associate with the cell envelope. Our data suggest that perturbations in a cellular pathway that is itself fully dispensable for cell curvature can cause a disruption of cell morphogenesis, highlighting the delicate harmony among unrelated cellular systems. Using the wbqL mutant, we also show that the normal assembly and growth properties of the crescentin structure are independent of its association with the cell envelope. However, this envelope association is important for facilitating the local disruption of the stable crescentin structure at the division site during cytokinesis.

  12. Curvature Gradient Driving Droplets in Fast Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cunjing; Yin, Yajun; Tseng, Fan-gang; Zheng, Quanshui

    2011-01-01

    Earlier works found out spontaneous directional motion of liquid droplets on hydrophilic conical surfaces, however, not hydrophobic case. Here we show that droplets on any surface may take place spontaneous directional motion without considering contact angle property. The driving force is found to be proportional to the curvature gradient of the surface. Fast motion can be lead at surfaces with small curvature radii. The above discovery can help to create more effective transportation technology of droplets, and better understand some observed natural phenomena.

  13. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  14. Spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    Values of scalar, vector and second-order tensor parameters of the Earth's gravitational field have been collected by various sensors in geodesy and geophysics. Such observables have been widely exploited in different parametrization methods for the gravitational field modelling. Moreover, theoretical aspects of these quantities have extensively been studied and well understood. On the other hand, new sensors for observing gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, are currently under development. As the gravitational curvatures represent new types of observables, their exploitation for modelling of the Earth's gravitational field is a subject of this study. Firstly, the gravitational curvature tensor is decomposed into six parts which are expanded in terms of third-order tensor spherical harmonics. Secondly, gravitational curvature boundary-value problems defined for four combinations of the gravitational curvatures are formulated and solved in spectral and spatial domains. Thirdly, properties of the corresponding sub-integral kernels are investigated. The presented mathematical formulations reveal some important properties of the gravitational curvatures and extend the so-called Meissl scheme, i.e., an important theoretical framework that relates various parameters of the Earth's gravitational field.

  15. Nonadditive Compositional Curvature Energetics of Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodt, A. J.; Venable, R. M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R. W.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface, in turn, govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and thus they will underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. We describe observations from simulations of unexpected nonadditive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature.

  16. Total mean curvature, scalar curvature, and a variational analog of Brown-York mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mantoulidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Let $(\\Omega, g)$ be a compact Riemannian 3-manifold with nonnegative scalar curvature, and with a mean-convex boundary $\\Sigma$ which is topologically a 2-sphere. We demonstrate that the total mean curvature of $\\Sigma$ is bounded from above by a constant depending only on the induced metric on $\\Sigma$. As an application, we define a variational analog of the Brown-York quasi-local mass of $\\Sigma$ in $(\\Omega, g)$ without assuming that $\\Sigma$ has positive Gauss curvature. We also cast this discussion in the light of a natural variational problem on compact 3-manifolds with boundary and nonnegative scalar curvature.

  17. Inflationary perturbation theory is geometrical optics in phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Seery, David; Frazer, Jonathan; Ribeiro, Raquel H

    2012-01-01

    A pressing problem in comparing inflationary models with observation is the accurate calculation of correlation functions. One approach is to evolve them using ordinary differential equations ("transport equations"), analogous to the Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of in-out quantum field theory. We extend this approach to the complete set of momentum space correlation functions. A formal solution can be obtained using raytracing techniques adapted from geometrical optics. We reformulate inflationary perturbation theory in this language, and show that raytracing reproduces the familiar "delta N" Taylor expansion. Our method produces ordinary differential equations which allow the Taylor coefficients to be computed efficiently. We use raytracing methods to express the gauge transformation between field fluctuations and the curvature perturbation, zeta, in geometrical terms. Using these results we give a compact expression for the nonlinear gauge-transform part of fNL in terms of the principal curvatures of uniform e...

  18. Cosmological perturbations from a Spectator field during inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingfei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss analytically the perturbations created from a slowly rolling subdominant spectator field which decays much before the end of inflation. The quantum fluctuations of such a spectator field can seed perturbations on very large scales and explain the temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation with moderate non-Gaussianity, provided the relevant modes leave the Hubble patch while the spectator is slowly rolling. Furthermore, the perturbations are purely {\\it adiabatic} since the inflaton decay dominates and creates all the Standard Model degrees of freedom. We will provide two examples for the spectator field potential, one with a step function profile, and the other with an inflection point. In both the cases we will compute higher order curvature perturbations, i.e.\\ local bispectrum and trispectrum, which can be constrained by the forthcoming Planck data.

  19. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  20. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João

    2010-03-01

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  1. Non-gaussianity from the trispectrum and vector field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A

    2009-01-01

    We use the \\delta N formalism to study the trispectrum T_\\zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta when the latter is generated by vector field perturbations, considering the tree-level and one-loop contributions. The level of non-gaussianity in the trispectrum, \\tau_{NL}, is calculated in this scenario and related to the level of non-gaussianity in the bispectrum, f_{NL}, and the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g_\\zeta. Such consistency relations will put under test this scenario against future observations. Comparison with the expected observational bound on \\tau_{NL} from WMAP, for generic inflationary models, is done.

  2. Density Perturbations from Modulated Decay of the Curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, David

    2013-01-01

    We study density perturbations, including their non-Gaussianity, in models in which the decay rate of the curvaton depends on another light scalar field, denoted the modulaton. Although this model shares some similarities with the standard curvaton and modulated reheating scenarios, it exhibits interesting predictions for f_NL and g_NL that are specific to this model. We also discuss the possibility that both modulaton and curvaton fluctuations contribute to the final curvature perturbation. Our results naturally include the standard curvaton and modulated reheating scenarios as specific limits and are thus useful to present a unified treatment of these models and their variants.

  3. Generalized Supersymmetric Perturbation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. G(o)n(ǖ)l

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using the basic ingredient of supersymmetry, a simple alternative approach is developed to perturbation theory in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The formulae for the energy shifts and wavefunctions do not involve tedious calculations which appear in the available perturbation theories. The model applicable in the same form to both the ground state and excited bound states, unlike the recently introduced supersymmetric perturbation technique which, together with other approaches based on logarithmic perturbation theory, are involved within the more general framework of the present formalism.

  4. Density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt

    2004-05-14

    An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.

  5. Braneworld Inflation with Induced Gravity and Curvature Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kourosh Nozari; S.Shafizadeh

    2011-01-01

    We construct a general braneworld inflation scenario where the inflaton field evolves on the DGP brahe and curvature effects are taken into account via incorporation of the Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk action. While induced gravity on the DGP brahe modifies the IR limit of general relativity, the Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk action modifies the UV sector of the theory. In this setup, the dynamics of perturbations on the brahe are studied with details and some confrontation with recent observations are discussed. While the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet inflation scenario favors only a red spectrum of the scalar perturbation, pure DGP and GBIG inflation models have the capacity to realize the blue spectrum too. In addition, the GBIG inflation scenario in the large field limit requires a smaller number of e-folds than other proposed scenarios in the same situation. For the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the GBIG inflation scenario gives a better 1fit with observationally supported value of R≈ 0.24.

  6. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

  7. Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodrubetz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...

  8. Period problems for mean curvature one surfaces in H^3 (with application to surfaces of low total curvature)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossman, Wayne; Umehara, Masaaki; Yamada, Kotaro

    2001-01-01

    We survey our recent results on classifying complete constant mean curvature 1 (CMC-1) surfaces in hyperbolic 3-space with low total curvature. There are two natural notions of "total curvature"-- one is the total absolute curvature which is the integral over the surface of the absolute value of the Gaussian curvature, and the other is the dual total absolute curvature which is the total absolute curvature of the dual CMC-1 surface. Here we discuss results on both notions (proven in two other...

  9. Dark energy, curvature and cosmic coincidence

    CERN Document Server

    Franca, U

    2006-01-01

    The fact that the energy densities of dark energy and matter are similar currently, known as the coincidence problem, is one of the main unsolved problems of cosmology. We present here a phenomenological model in which a spatial curvature of the universe can lead to a transition in the present epoch from a matter dominated universe to a scaling dark energy dominance in a very natural way. In particular, we show that if the exponential potential of the dark energy field depends linearly on the spatial curvature density of a closed universe, the observed values of some cosmological parameters can be obtained assuming acceptable values for the present spatial curvature of the universe, and without fine tuning in the only parameter of the model. We also comment on possible variations of this model.

  10. On the curvature effect of thin membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duo; Jiao, Xiangmin; Conley, Rebecca; Glimm, James

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the curvature effect of a thin, curved elastic interface that separates two subdomains and exerts a pressure due to a curvature effect. This pressure, which we refer to as interface pressure, is similar to the surface tension in fluid mechanics. It is important in some applications, such as the canopy of parachutes, biological membranes of cells, balloons, airbags, etc., as it partially balances a pressure jump between the two sides of an interface. In this paper, we show that the interface pressure is equal to the trace of the matrix product of the curvature tensor and the Cauchy stress tensor in the tangent plane. We derive the theory for interfaces in both 2-D and 3-D, and present numerical discretizations for computing the quality over triangulated surfaces.

  11. Total positive curvature of circular DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper Wibeck

    2013-01-01

    molecules, e.g., plasmids, it is shown to have implications for the total positive curvature integral. For small circular micro-DNAs it follows as a consequence of Fenchel's inequality that there must exist a minimum length for the circular plasmids to be double stranded. It also follows that all circular...... micro-DNAs longer than the minimum length must be concave, a result that is consistent with typical atomic force microscopy images of plasmids. Predictions for the total positive curvature of circular micro-DNAs are given as a function of length, and comparisons with circular DNAs from the literature......The properties of double-stranded DNA and other chiral molecules depend on the local geometry, i.e., on curvature and torsion, yet the paths of closed chain molecules are globally restricted by topology. When both of these characteristics are to be incorporated in the description of circular chain...

  12. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  13. Gaussian Curvature on Hyperelliptic Riemann Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abel Castorena

    2014-05-01

    Let be a compact Riemann surface of genus $g ≥ 1, _1,\\ldots,_g$ be a basis of holomorphic 1-forms on and let $H=(h_{ij})^g_{i,j=1}$ be a positive definite Hermitian matrix. It is well known that the metric defined as $ds_H^2=\\sum^g_{i,j=1}h_{ij}_i\\otimes \\overline{_j}$ is a K\\"a hler metric on of non-positive curvature. Let $K_H:C→ \\mathbb{R}$ be the Gaussian curvature of this metric. When is hyperelliptic we show that the hyperelliptic Weierstrass points are non-degenerated critical points of $K_H$ of Morse index +2. In the particular case when is the × identity matrix, we give a criteria to find local minima for $K_H$ and we give examples of hyperelliptic curves where the curvature function $K_H$ is a Morse function.

  14. Integrating curvature: from Umlaufsatz to J^+ invariant

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzat, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Hopf's Umlaufsatz relates the total curvature of a closed immersed plane curve to its rotation number. While the curvature of a curve changes under local deformations, its integral over a closed curve is invariant under regular homotopies. A natural question is whether one can find some non-trivial densities on a curve, such that the corresponding integrals are (possibly after some corrections) also invariant under regular homotopies of the curve in the class of generic immersions. We construct a family of such densities using indices of points relative to the curve. This family depends on a formal parameter q and may be considered as a quantization of the total curvature. The linear term in the Taylor expansion at q=1 coincides, up to a normalization, with Arnold's J^+ invariant. This leads to an integral expression for J^+.

  15. Anisotropic membrane curvature sensing by antibacterial peptides

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi; Lindén, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins and peptides have an intrinsic capacity to sense and induce membrane curvature, and play crucial roles for organizing and remodeling cell membranes. However, the molecular driving forces behind these processes are not well understood. Here, we describe a new approach to study curvature sensing, by simulating the direction-dependent interactions of single molecules with a buckled lipid bilayer. We analyze three antimicrobial peptides, a class of membrane-associated molecules that specifically target and destabilize bacterial membranes, and find qualitatively different sensing characteristics that would be difficult to resolve with other methods. These findings provide new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides, which might aid the development of new antibiotics. Our approach is generally applicable to a wide range of curvature sensing molecules, and our results provide strong motivation to develop new experimental methods to track position and orientation of membrane p...

  16. Riemann curvature of a boosted spacetime geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Battista, Emmanuele; Scudellaro, Paolo; Tramontano, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The ultrarelativistic boosting procedure had been applied in the literature to map the metric of Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime into a metric describing de Sitter spacetime plus a shock-wave singularity located on a null hypersurface. This paper evaluates the Riemann curvature tensor of the boosted Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric by means of numerical calculations, which make it possible to reach the ultrarelativistic regime gradually by letting the boost velocity approach the speed of light. Thus, for the first time in the literature, the singular limit of curvature through Dirac's delta distribution and its derivatives is numerically evaluated for this class of spacetimes. Eventually, the analysis of the Kteschmann invariant and the geodesic equation show that the spacetime possesses a scalar curvature singularity within a 3-sphere and it is possible to define what we here call boosted horizon, a sort of elastic wall where all particles are surprisingly pushed away, as numerical analysis demonstrates. Thi...

  17. Anomalous Coupling Between Topological Defects and Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo; Turner, Ari M.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate a counterintuitive geometric interaction between defects and curvature in thin layers of superfluids, superconductors, and liquid crystals deposited on curved surfaces. Each defect feels a geometric potential whose functional form is determined only by the shape of the surface, but whose sign and strength depend on the transformation properties of the order parameter. For superfluids and superconductors, the strength of this interaction is proportional to the square of the charge and causes all defects to be repelled (attracted) by regions of positive (negative) Gaussian curvature. For liquid crystals in the one elastic constant approximation, charges between 0 and 4π are attracted by regions of positive curvature while all other charges are repelled.

  18. Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

  19. Perturbative Topological Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    We give a review of the application of perturbative techniques to topological quantum field theories, in particular three-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten theory and its various generalizations. To this end we give an introduction to graph homology and homotopy algebras and the work of Vassiliev and Kontsevich on perturbative knot invariants.

  20. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  1. Hypersurfaces of constant curvature in Hyperbolic space

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We show that for a very general and natural class of curvature functions, the problem of finding a complete strictly convex hypersurface satisfying f({\\kappa}) = {\\sigma} over (0,1) with a prescribed asymptotic boundary {\\Gamma} at infinity has at least one solution which is a "vertical graph" over the interior (or the exterior) of {\\Gamma}. There is uniqueness for a certain subclass of these curvature functions and as {\\sigma} varies between 0 and 1, these hypersurfaces foliate the two components of the complement of the hyperbolic convex hull of {\\Gamma}.

  2. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  3. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  4. Inflationary perturbations in no-scale theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvio, Alberto [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    We study the inflationary perturbations in general (classically) scale-invariant theories. Such scenario is motivated by the hierarchy problem and provides natural inflationary potentials and dark matter candidates. We analyse in detail all sectors (the scalar, vector and tensor perturbations) giving general formulae for the potentially observable power spectra, as well as for the curvature spectral index n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. We show that the conserved Hamiltonian for all perturbations does not feature negative energies even in the presence of the Weyl-squared term if the appropriate quantisation is performed and argue that this term does not lead to phenomenological problems at least in some relevant setups. The general formulae are then applied to a concrete no-scale model, which includes the Higgs and a scalar, ''the planckion'', whose vacuum expectation value generates the Planck mass. Inflation can be triggered by a combination of the planckion and the Starobinsky scalar and we show that no tension with observations is present even in the case of pure planckion inflation, if the coefficient of the Weyl-squared term is large enough. In general, even quadratic inflation is allowed in this case. Moreover, the Weyl-squared term leads to an isocurvature mode, which currently satisfies the observational bounds, but it may be detectable with future experiments. (orig.)

  5. Role of curvatures in determining the characteristics of a string vibrating against a doubly curved obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkirat; Wahi, Pankaj

    2017-08-01

    The motion of a string in the presence of a doubly curved obstacle is investigated. A mathematical model has been developed for a general shape of the obstacle. However, detailed analysis has been performed for a shape relevant to the Indian stringed musical instruments like Tanpura and Sitar. In particular, we explore the effect of obstacle's curvature in the plane perpendicular to the string axis on its motion. This geometrical feature of the obstacle introduces a coupling between motions in mutually perpendicular directions over and above the coupling due to the stretching nonlinearity. We find that only one planar motion is possible for our system. Small amplitude planar motions are stable to perturbations in the perpendicular direction resulting in non-whirling motions while large amplitude oscillations lead to whirling motions. The critical amplitude of oscillations, across which there is a transition in the qualitative behavior of the non-planar trajectories, is determined using Floquet theory. Our analysis reveals that a small obstacle curvature in a direction perpendicular to the string axis leads to a considerable reduction in the critical amplitudes required for initiation of whirling motions. Hence, this obstacle curvature has a destabilizing effect on the planar motions in contrast to the curvature along the string axis which stabilizes planar motions.

  6. Perturbation solution of the shape of a nonaxisymmetric sessile drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhala, Bharadwaj; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Subramanian, Venkat R; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2010-07-06

    We develop an approximate analytical solution for the shape of a nonaxisymmetric sessile drop using regular perturbation methods and ignoring gravity. We assume that the pinned, contorted triple-line shape is known and is a small perturbation of the circular footprint of a spherical cap. We obtain an analytical solution using regular perturbation methods that we validate by comparing to the numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation obtained using publicly available Surface Evolver software. In this process, we also show that the pressure inside the perturbed drop is unchanged and relate this to the curvature of the drop using the Young-Laplace equation. The rms error between the perturbation and Evolver solutions is calculated for a range of contact angles and amplitudes of triple-line perturbations. We show that the perturbation solution matches the numerical results well for a wide range of contact angles. In addition, we calculate the extent to which the drop surface is affected by triple-line contortions. We discuss the applicability of this solution to the possibility of real time hybrid experimental/computational characterization of the 3D sessile drop shapes, including obtaining local contact angle information.

  7. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz–Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behavior of the surfaces at ...

  8. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz–Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behavior of the surfaces...

  9. Geometrical Constraint on Curvature with BAO experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The spatial curvature ($K$ or $\\Omega_K$) is one of the most fundamental parameters of isotropic and homogeneous universe and has a close link to the physics of early universe. Combining the radial and angular diameter distances measured via the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) experiments allows us to unambiguously constrain the curvature. The method is primarily based on the metric theory, but not much on the theory of structure formation other than the existence of BAO scale and is free of any model of dark energy. In this paper, we estimate a best-achievable accuracy of constraining the curvature with the BAO experiments. We show that an all-sky, cosmic-variance-limited galaxy survey covering the universe up to $z>4$ enables a precise determination of the curvature to an accuracy of $\\sigma(\\Omega_K)\\simeq 10^{-3}$. When we assume a model of dark energy, either the cosmological constraint or the $(w_0,w_a)$-model, it can achieve a precision of $\\sigma(\\Omega_K)\\simeq \\mbox{a few}\\times 10^{-4}$. These fo...

  10. Spinal curvature measurement by tracked ultrasound snapshots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungi, Tamas; King, Franklin; Kempston, Michael; Keri, Zsuzsanna; Lasso, Andras; Mousavi, Parvin; Rudan, John; Borschneck, Daniel P; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring spinal curvature in adolescent kyphoscoliosis requires regular radiographic examinations; however, the applied ionizing radiation increases the risk of cancer. Ultrasound imaging is favored over radiography because it does not emit ionizing radiation. Therefore, we tested an ultrasound system for spinal curvature measurement, with the help of spatial tracking of the ultrasound transducer. Tracked ultrasound was used to localize vertebral transverse processes as landmarks along the spine to measure curvature angles. The method was tested in two scoliotic spine models by localizing the same landmarks using both ultrasound and radiographic imaging and comparing the angles obtained. A close correlation was found between tracked ultrasound and radiographic curvature measurements. Differences between results of the two methods were 1.27 ± 0.84° (average ± SD) in an adult model and 0.96 ± 0.87° in a pediatric model. Our results suggest that tracked ultrasound may become a more tolerable and more accessible alternative to radiographic spine monitoring in adolescent kyphoscoliosis.

  11. Geodesic curvature driven surface microdomain formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Melissa R; Zhou, Y C

    2017-09-15

    Lipid bilayer membranes are not uniform and clusters of lipids in a more ordered state exist within the generally disorder lipid milieu of the membrane. These clusters of ordered lipids microdomains are now referred to as lipid rafts. Recent reports attribute the formation of these microdomains to the geometrical and molecular mechanical mismatch of lipids of different species on the boundary. Here we introduce the geodesic curvature to characterize the geometry of the domain boundary, and develop a geodesic curvature energy model to describe the formation of these microdomains as a result of energy minimization. Our model accepts the intrinsic geodesic curvature of any binary lipid mixture as an input, and will produce microdomains of the given geodesic curvature as demonstrated by three sets of numerical simulations. Our results are in contrast to the surface phase separation predicted by the classical surface Cahn-Hilliard equation, which tends to generate large domains as a result of the minimizing line tension. Our model provides a direct and quantified description of the structure inhomogeneity of lipid bilayer membrane, and can be coupled to the investigations of biological processes on membranes for which such inhomogeneity plays essential roles.

  12. Local surface orientation dominates haptic curvature discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.; Sato, A.; Hayward, V.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that local surface orientation is a dominant source of information for haptic curvature perception in static conditions. We show that this dominance holds for dynamic touch, just as was shown earlier for static touch. Using an apparatus specifically developed for this purpos

  13. Einstein Hermitian Metrics of Positive Sectional Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Koca, Caner

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will prove that the only compact 4-manifold M with an Einstein metric of positive sectional curvature which is also hermitian with respect to some complex structure on M, is the complex projective plane CP^2, with its Fubini-Study metric.

  14. Curvature controlled wetting in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Mikheev, Lev V.

    1995-01-01

    . As the radius of the substrate r0→∞, the leading effect of the curvature is adding the Laplace pressure ΠL∝r0-1 to the pressure balance in the film. At temperatures and pressures under which the wetting is complete in planar geometry, Laplace pressure suppresses divergence of the mean thickness of the wetting...

  15. Riemann curvature of a boosted spacetime geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Emmanuele; Esposito, Giampiero; Scudellaro, Paolo; Tramontano, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The ultrarelativistic boosting procedure had been applied in the literature to map the metric of Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime into a metric describing de Sitter spacetime plus a shock-wave singularity located on a null hypersurface. This paper evaluates the Riemann curvature tensor of the boosted Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric by means of numerical calculations, which make it possible to reach the ultrarelativistic regime gradually by letting the boost velocity approach the speed of light. Thus, for the first time in the literature, the singular limit of curvature, through Dirac’s δ distribution and its derivatives, is numerically evaluated for this class of spacetimes. Moreover, the analysis of the Kretschmann invariant and the geodesic equation shows that the spacetime possesses a “scalar curvature singularity” within a 3-sphere and it is possible to define what we here call “boosted horizon”, a sort of elastic wall where all particles are surprisingly pushed away, as numerical analysis demonstrates. This seems to suggest that such “boosted geometries” are ruled by a sort of “antigravity effect” since all geodesics seem to refuse to enter the “boosted horizon” and are “reflected” by it, even though their initial conditions are aimed at driving the particles toward the “boosted horizon” itself. Eventually, the equivalence with the coordinate shift method is invoked in order to demonstrate that all δ2 terms appearing in the Riemann curvature tensor give vanishing contribution in distributional sense.

  16. Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature singularity

  17. Geodesic curvature driven surface microdomain formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Melissa R.; Zhou, Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are not uniform and clusters of lipids in a more ordered state exist within the generally disorder lipid milieu of the membrane. These clusters of ordered lipids microdomains are now referred to as lipid rafts. Recent reports attribute the formation of these microdomains to the geometrical and molecular mechanical mismatch of lipids of different species on the boundary. Here we introduce the geodesic curvature to characterize the geometry of the domain boundary, and develop a geodesic curvature energy model to describe the formation of these microdomains as a result of energy minimization. Our model accepts the intrinsic geodesic curvature of any binary lipid mixture as an input, and will produce microdomains of the given geodesic curvature as demonstrated by three sets of numerical simulations. Our results are in contrast to the surface phase separation predicted by the classical surface Cahn-Hilliard equation, which tends to generate large domains as a result of the minimizing line tension. Our model provides a direct and quantified description of the structure inhomogeneity of lipid bilayer membrane, and can be coupled to the investigations of biological processes on membranes for which such inhomogeneity plays essential roles.

  18. Change in corneal curvature induced by surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rij (Gabriel)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe first section deals with the mechanisms by which sutures, incisions and intracorneal contact lenses produce a change in corneal curvature. To clarify the mechanisms by which incisions and sutures produce astigmatism, we made incisions and placed sutures in the corneoscleral limbus of

  19. Level-Slope-Curvature - Fact or Artefact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lord (Roger); A.A.J. Pelsser (Antoon)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe first three factors resulting from a principal components analysis of term structure data are in the literature typically interpreted as driving the level, slope and curvature of the term structure. Using slight generalisations of theorems from total positivity, we present sufficient

  20. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  1. Perturbations of single-field inflation in modified gravity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Qiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the case of single field inflation within the framework of modified gravity theory where the gravity part has an arbitrary form f(R. Via a conformal transformation, this case can be transformed into its Einstein frame where it looks like a two-field inflation model. However, due to the existence of the isocurvature modes in such a multi-degree-of-freedom (m.d.o.f. system, the (curvature perturbations are not equivalent in two frames, so despite of its convenience, it is illegal to treat the perturbations in its Einstein frame as the “real” ones as we always do for pure f(R theory or single field with nonminimal coupling. Here by pulling the results of curvature perturbations back into its original Jordan frame, we show explicitly the power spectrum and spectral index of the perturbations in the Jordan frame, as well as how it differs from the Einstein frame. We also fit our results with the newest Planck data. Since there is large parameter space in these models, we show that it is easy to fit the data very well.

  2. Perturbations of planar algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...

  3. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  4. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  5. Perturbations and quantum relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Kandhadai, Adithya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether small perturbations can cause relaxation to quantum equilibrium over very long timescales. We consider in particular a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, which can serve as a model of a field mode on expanding space. We assume an initial wave function with small perturbations to the ground state. We present evidence that the trajectories are highly confined so as to preclude relaxation to equilibrium even over very long timescales. Cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  6. The Perturbed Puma Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-Jun; LIU Qiu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations.We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model.In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry,the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero.The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.%The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  7. Methods for Assessing Curvature and Interaction in Mixture Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hicks, Ruel D.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Szychowski, Jeffrey M.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Loeppky, Jason L.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY)

    2002-05-01

    The terms curvature and interaction traditionally are not defined or used in the context of mixture experiments because curvature and interaction effects are partially confounded due to the mixture constrain that the component proportions sum to 1.

  8. Laser triangulation measurements of scoliotic spine curvatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Dušan; Jesenšek Papež, Breda; Poredoš, Primož; Možina, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to develop a new method for differentiating between scoliotic and healthy subjects by analysing the curvatures of their spines in the cranio-caudal view. The study included 247 subjects with physiological curvatures of the spine and 28 subjects with clinically confirmed scoliosis. The curvature of the spine was determined by a computer analysis of the surface of the back, measured with a non-invasive, 3D, laser-triangulation system. The determined spinal curve was represented in the transversal plane, which is perpendicular to the line segment that was defined by the initial point and the end point of the spinal curve. This was achieved using a rotation matrix. The distances between the extreme points in the antero-posterior (AP) and left-right (LR) views were calculated in relation to the length of the spine as well as the quotient of these two values LR/AP. All the measured parameters were compared between the scoliotic and control groups using the Student's t-Test in case of normal data and Kruskal-Wallis test in case of non-normal data. Besides, a comprehensive diagram representing the distances between the extreme points in the AP and LR views was introduced, which clearly demonstrated the direction and the size of the thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures for each individual subject. While the distances between the extreme points of the spine in the AP view were found to differ only slightly between the groups (p = 0.1), the distances between the LR extreme points were found to be significantly greater in the scoliosis group, compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The quotient LR/AP was statistically significantly different in both groups (p < 0.001). The main innovation of the presented method is the ability to differentiate a scoliotic subject from a healthy subject by assessing the curvature of the spine in the cranio-caudal view. Therefore, the proposed method could be useful for human posture

  9. Exact and Approximate Quadratures for Curvature Tensor Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Torsten; Belyaev, Alexander; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Greiner, Günther; Hornegger, Joachim; Niemann, Heinrich; Stamminger, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimations of geometric properties of a surface from its discrete approximation are important for many computer graphics and geometric modeling applications. In this paper, we derive exact quadrature formulae for mean curvature, Gaussian curvature, and the Taubin integral representation of the curvature tensor. The exact quadratures are then used to obtain reliable estimates of the curvature tensor of a smooth surface approximated by a dense triangle me...

  10. Collineations of the curvature tensor in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rishi Kumar Tiwari

    2005-07-01

    Curvature collineations for the curvature tensor, constructed from a fundamental Bianchi Type-V metric, are studied. We are concerned with a symmetry property of space-time which is called curvature collineation, and we briefly discuss the physical and kinematical properties of the models.

  11. Self-Dual Manifolds with Positive Ricci Curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrun, Claude; Nayatani, Shin; Nitta, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    We prove that the connected sums CP_2 # CP_2 and CP_2 # CP_2 # CP_2 admit self-dual metrics with positive Ricci curvature. Moreover, every self-dual metric of positive scalar curvature on CP_2 # CP_2 is conformal to a metric with positive Ricci curvature.

  12. Perturbation-induced secondary flow structures due to fractured stents in arterial curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Popma, Christopher; Penna, Leanne; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-11-01

    An in vitro experimental investigation of secondary flow structures was performed downstream of a model stent that embodied a ``Type-IV'' stent fracture, i.e. complete transverse fracture of elements and element displacement (of 3 diameters). One part of the fractured stent was located in the curved region of a test section comprised of a 180-degree bent tube, and the velocity field measured with PIV. Secondary flow morphologies downstream of the stent were identified with a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm (PIVlet 1.2) using a 2D Ricker wavelet. A comparison of wavelet transformed vorticity fields of fractured and unfractured model stents is presented under physiological inflow conditions. During systolic deceleration, a breakdown in symmetry of vortical structures occurred with the unfractured stent, but not with the fractured model stent. Potential mechanisms to explain the differences in secondary flow morphologies include redirection of vorticity from the meridional plane of the bend to the normal plane and diffusion of vorticity. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  13. On a curvature-statistics theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es

    2008-08-15

    The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.

  14. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-06-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.

  15. Scalar Curvature for the Noncommutative Two Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Fathizadeh, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    We give a local expression for the {\\it scalar curvature} of the noncommutative two torus $ A_{\\theta} = C(\\mathbb{T}_{\\theta}^2)$ equipped with an arbitrary translation invariant complex structure and Weyl factor. This is achieved by evaluating the value of the (analytic continuation of the) {\\it spectral zeta functional} $\\zeta_a(s): = \\text{Trace}(a \\triangle^{-s})$ at $s=0$ as a linear functional in $a \\in C^{\\infty}(\\mathbb{T}_{\\theta}^2)$. A new, purely noncommutative, feature here is the appearance of the {\\it modular automorphism group} from the theory of type III factors and quantum statistical mechanics in the final formula for the curvature. This formula coincides with the formula that was recently obtained independently by Connes and Moscovici in their recent paper.

  16. Space-time curvature and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgaliev, I. S.; Ponomarev, V. N.

    1982-10-01

    The possibility is considered of obtaining a steady-state cosmological solution in the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory. It is found that the Einstein-Cartan equations without the cosmological constant admit a solution in the form of the static de Sitter metric for a specific value of the spin-spin gravitational interaction constant, whose introduction is required by gauge theory. It is shown that the steady-state solution might serve as a model for the pre-Friedmann stage of the expansion of the universe, when the spin-curvature interaction was comparable to the interaction between space-time curvature and energy-momentum. A value of about 10 to the -20th is obtained for the spin-spin interaction constant in the case where the de Sitter stage occurs at quantum densities (10 to the 94th g/cu cm).

  17. Effect of intrinsic curvature on semiflexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Singh, Kulveer; Sain, Anirban

    2009-11-01

    Recently many important biopolymers have been found to possess intrinsic curvature. Tubulin protofilaments in animal cells, FtsZ filaments in bacteria and double stranded DNA are examples. We examine how intrinsic curvature influences the conformational statistics of such polymers. We give exact results for the tangent-tangent spatial correlation function C(r)=⟨t̂(s).t̂(s+r)⟩ , both in two and three dimensions. Contrary to expectation, C(r) does not show any oscillatory behavior, rather decays exponentially and the effective persistence length has strong length dependence for short polymers. We also compute the distribution function P(R) of the end to end distance R and show how curved chains can be distinguished from wormlike chains using loop formation probability.

  18. Measuring Intrinsic Curvature of Space with Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabin, Mason; Becker, Maria; Batelaan, Herman

    2016-10-01

    The concept of curved space is not readily observable in everyday life. The educational movie "Sphereland" attempts to illuminate the idea. The main character, a hexagon, has to go to great lengths to prove that her world is in fact curved. We present an experiment that demonstrates a new way to determine if a two-dimensional surface, the 2-sphere, is curved. The behavior of an electric field, placed on a spherical surface, is shown to be related to the intrinsic Gaussian curvature. This approach allows students to gain some understanding of Einstein's theory of general relativity, which relates the curvature of spacetime to the presence of mass and energy. Additionally, an opportunity is provided to investigate the dimensionality of Gauss's law.

  19. Scaling up the curvature of mammalian metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eBueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A curvilinear relationship between mammalian metabolic rate and body size on a log-log scale has been adopted in lieu of thelongstanding concept of a 3/4 allometric relationship (Kolokotrones et al. 2010. The central tenet of Metabolic Ecology (ME states that metabolism at the individual level scales-up to drive the ecology of populations, communities and ecosystems. If this tenet is correct, the curvature of metabolism should be perceived in other ecological traits. By analyzing the size scaling allometry of eight different mammalian traits including basal and field metabolic rate, offspring biomass production, ingestion rate, costs of locomotion, life span, population growth rate and population density we show that the curvature affects most ecological rates and

  20. On the curvature of the real amoeba

    CERN Document Server

    Passare, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    For a real smooth algebraic curve $A \\subset (\\mathhbb{C}^*)^2$, the amoeba $\\mathcal{A} \\subset \\mathbb{R}^2$ is the image of $A$ under the map Log : $(x,y) \\mapsto (\\log |x|, \\log | y |)$. We describe an universal bound for the total curvature of the real amoeba $\\mathcal{A}_{\\mathbb{R} A}$ and we prove that this bound is reached if and only if the curve $A$ is a simple Harnack curve in the sense of Mikhalkin.

  1. Curvature Could Give Fish Fins Their Strength

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    ... maneuverable is by having the ability to generate varying amounts of force on the water when flapping a fin,” said Shreyas Mandre, an assistant professor in Brown’s School of Engineering and a co-author of the research. “We think that fish modulate curvature at the base of the fin to make it stiffer or softer, which alters the force they gene...

  2. Transformation optics, curvature and beyond (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin W.

    2016-04-01

    Although the transformation algorithm is very well established and implemented, some intriguing questions remain unanswered. 1) In what precise mathematical sense is the transformation optics algorithm `exact'? The invariance of Maxwell's equations is well understood, but in what sense does the same principle not apply to acoustics (say)? 2) Even if the fields are transformed in a way that apparently mimic vacuum perfectly, it is easy to construct very simple examples where the impedance of the transformed medium is no longer isotropic and homogeneous. This would seem to imply a fundamental shortcoming in any claim that electromagnetic cloaking has been reduced to technology. 3) Transformations are known to exist that introduce a discrepancy between the Poynting vector and the wave-vector. Does this distinction carry any physical significance? We have worked extensively on understanding a commonality between transformation theories that operates at the level of rays - being interpreted as geodesics of an appropriate manifold. At this level we now understand that the *key* problem underlying all attempts to unify the transformational approach to disparate areas of physics is how to relate the transformation of the base metric (be it Euclidean for spatial transformation optics, or Minkowskian for spacetime transformation optics) to the medium parameters of a given physical domain (e.g. constitutive parameters for electromagnetism, bulk modulus and mass density for acoustics, diffusion constant and number density for diffusion physics). Another misconception we will seek to address is the notion of the relationship between transformation optics and curvature. Many have indicated that transformation optics evinces similarities with Einstein's curvature of spacetime. Here we will show emphatically that transformation optics cannot induce curvature. Inducing curvature in an electromagnetic medium requires the equivalent of a gravitational source. We will propose a scheme

  3. Menger curvature and rectifiability in metric spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We show that for any metric space $X$ the condition \\[ \\int_X\\int_X\\int_X c(z_1,z_2,z_3)^2\\, d\\Hm z_1\\, d\\Hm z_2\\, d\\Hm z_3 < \\infty, \\] where $c(z_1,z_2,z_3)$ is the Menger curvature of the triple $(z_1,z_2,z_3)$, guarantees that $X$ is rectifiable.

  4. Gravitational curvature an introduction to Einstein's theory

    CERN Document Server

    Frankel, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This classic text and reference monograph applies modern differential geometry to general relativity. A brief mathematical introduction to gravitational curvature, it emphasizes the subject's geometric essence, replacing the often-tedious analytical computations with geometric arguments. Clearly presented and physically motivated derivations express the deflection of light, Schwarzchild's exterior and interior solutions, and the Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. A perfect choice for advanced students of mathematics, this volume will also appeal to mathematicians interested in physics. It stresses

  5. Curvature of spacetime: A simple student activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Monika; Smith, Warren; Jackson, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    The following is a description of an inexpensive and simple student experiment for measuring the differences between the three types of spacetime topology—Euclidean (flat), Riemann (spherical), and Lobachevskian (saddle) curvatures. It makes use of commonly available tools and materials, and requires only a small amount of construction. The experiment applies to astronomical topics such as gravity, spacetime, general relativity, as well as geometry and mathematics.

  6. Clustering under Perturbation Resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Balcan, Maria Florina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Bilu and Linial \\cite{BL} formalized an implicit assumption often made when choosing a clustering objective: that the optimum clustering to the objective should be preserved under small multiplicative perturbations to distances between points. They showed that for max-cut clustering it is possible to circumvent NP-hardness and obtain polynomial-time algorithms for instances resilient to large (factor $O(\\sqrt{n})$) perturbations, and subsequently Awasthi et al. \\cite{ABS10} considered center-based objectives, giving algorithms for instances resilient to O(1) factor perturbations. In this paper, we greatly advance this line of work. For the $k$-median objective, we present an algorithm that can optimally cluster instances resilient to $(1 + \\sqrt{2})$-factor perturbations, solving an open problem of Awasthi et al.\\cite{ABS10}. We additionally give algorithms for a more relaxed assumption in which we allow the optimal solution to change in a small $\\epsilon$ fraction of the points after perturbation. ...

  7. Ultrafast Drop Movements Arising from Curvature Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cunjing; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Zheng, Quanshui

    2011-01-01

    We report experimental observation of a kind of fast spontaneous movements of water drops on surfaces of cones with diameters from 0.1 to 1.5 mm. The observed maximum speed (0.22 m/s) under ambient conditions were at least two orders of magnitude higher than that resulting from any known single spontaneous movement mechanism, for example, Marangoni effect due to gradient of surface tension. We trapped even higher spontaneous movement speeds (up to 125 m/s) in virtual experiments for drops on nanoscale cones by using molecular dynamics simulations. The underlying mechanism is found to be universally effective - drops on any surface either hydrophilic or hydrophobic with varying mean curvature are subject to driving forces toward the gradient direction of the mean curvature. The larger the mean curvature of the surface and the lower the contact angle of the liquid are, the stronger the driving force will be. This discovery can lead to more effective techniques for transporting droplets.

  8. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David J.; Houser, Justin R.; Hayden, Carl C.; Sherman, Michael B.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.

    2015-07-01

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  9. Renormalized Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Crocce, M

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to study nonlinear evolution in the growth of large-scale structure, by following the dynamics of gravitational clustering as it builds up in time. This approach is conveniently represented by Feynman diagrams constructed in terms of three objects: the initial conditions (e.g. perturbation spectrum), the vertex (describing non-linearities) and the propagator (describing linear evolution). We show that loop corrections to the linear power spectrum organize themselves into two classes of diagrams: one corresponding to mode-coupling effects, the other to a renormalization of the propagator. Resummation of the latter gives rise to a quantity that measures the memory of perturbations to initial conditions as a function of scale. As a result of this, we show that a well-defined (renormalized) perturbation theory follows, in the sense that each term in the remaining mode-coupling series dominates at some characteristic scale and is subdominant otherwise. This is unlike standard perturbatio...

  10. Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Conboye, Rory; Ray, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as a fractional rate of change of the normal vector.

  11. Free-streaming radiation in cosmological models with spatial curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of spatial curvature on radiation anisotropy are examined for the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model universes. The effect of curvature is found to be very important when considering fluctuations with wavelengths comparable to the horizon. It is concluded that the behavior of radiation fluctuations in models with spatial curvature is quite different from that in spatially flat models, and that models with negative curvature are most strikingly different. It is therefore necessary to take the curvature into account in careful studies of the anisotropy of the microwave background.

  12. A curvature theory for discrete surfaces based on mesh parallelity

    KAUST Repository

    Bobenko, Alexander Ivanovich

    2009-12-18

    We consider a general theory of curvatures of discrete surfaces equipped with edgewise parallel Gauss images, and where mean and Gaussian curvatures of faces are derived from the faces\\' areas and mixed areas. Remarkably these notions are capable of unifying notable previously defined classes of surfaces, such as discrete isothermic minimal surfaces and surfaces of constant mean curvature. We discuss various types of natural Gauss images, the existence of principal curvatures, constant curvature surfaces, Christoffel duality, Koenigs nets, contact element nets, s-isothermic nets, and interesting special cases such as discrete Delaunay surfaces derived from elliptic billiards. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model: non-flat background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyerim, E-mail: hr@kasi.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We extend the fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in a Friedmann background universe to include the background curvature. The perturbation equations are presented in a gauge ready form, so any temporal gauge condition can be adopted freely depending on the problem to be solved. We consider the scalar, and vector perturbations without anisotropic stress. As an application, we analyze the equations in the special case of irrotational zero-pressure fluid in the comoving gauge condition. We also present the fully nonlinear formulation for a minimally coupled scalar field.

  14. On the Riemann Curvature Operators in Randers Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie-Rad, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Riemann curvature in Riemann-Finsler geometry can be regarded as a collection of linear operators on the tangent spaces. The algebraic properties of these operators may be linked to the geometry and the topology of the underlying space. The principal curvatures of a Finsler space (M, F) at a point x are the eigenvalues of the Riemann curvature operator at x. They are real functions κ on the slit tangent manifold TM0. A principal curvature κ(x, y) is said to be isotropic (respectively, quadratic) if κ(x, y)/F(x, y) is a function of x only (respectively, κ(x, y) is quadratic with respect to y). On the other hand, the Randers metrics are the most popular and prominent metrics in pure and applied disciplines. Here, it is proved that if a Randers metric admits an isotropic principal curvature, then F is of isotropic S-curvature. The same result is also established for F to admit a quadratic principal curvature. These results extend Shen's verbal results about Randers metrics of scalar flag curvature K = K(x) as well as those Randers metrics with quadratic Riemann curvature operator. The Riemann curvature Rik may be broken into two operators Rik and Jik. The isotropic and quadratic principal curvature are characterized in terms of the eigenvalues of R and J.

  15. Computation of constant mean curvature surfaces: Application to the gas-liquid interface of a pressurized fluid on a superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton, E J; Salamon, T R

    2007-10-01

    The interface shape separating a gas layer within a superhydrophobic surface consisting of a square lattice of posts from a pressurized liquid above the surface is computed numerically. The interface shape is described by a constant mean curvature surface that satisfies the Young-Laplace equation with the three-phase gas-liquid-solid contact line assumed pinned at the post outer edge. The numerical method predicts the existence of constant mean curvature solutions from the planar, zero curvature solution up to a maximum curvature that is dependent on the post shape, size and pitch. An overall force balance between surface tension and pressure forces acting on the interface yields predictions for the maximum curvature that agree with the numerical simulations to within one percent for convex shapes such as circular and square posts, but significantly over predicts the maximum curvature for non-convex shapes such as a circular post with a sinusoidal surface perturbation. Changing the post shape to increase the contact line length, while maintaining constant post area, results in increases of 2 to 12% in the maximum computable curvature for contact line length increases of 11 to 77%. Comparisons are made to several experimental studies for interface shape and pressure stability.

  16. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for curvature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Catarina S.; Ferreira, Marta S.; Silva, Susana O.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bierlich, Jörg; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-07-01

    A curvature sensor based on an Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer was proposed. A capillary silica tube was fusion spliced between two single mode fibers, producing an FP cavity. Two FP sensors with different cavity lengths were developed and subjected to curvature and temperature. The FP sensor with longer cavity showed three distinct operating regions for the curvature measurement. Namely, a linear response was shown for an intermediate curvature radius range, presenting a maximum sensitivity of 68.52 pm/m-1. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head produced a similar response for different curvature radii, with a sensitivity varying from 0.84 pm/°C to 0.89 pm/°C, which resulted in a small cross-sensitivity to temperature when the FP sensor was subjected to curvature. The FP cavity with shorter length presented low sensitivity to curvature.

  17. All unitary cubic curvature gravities in D dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Guellue, Ibrahim; Tekin, Bayram, E-mail: sisman@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: e075555@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: btekin@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-10-07

    We construct all the unitary cubic curvature gravity theories built on the contractions of the Riemann tensor in D-dimensional (anti)-de Sitter spacetimes. Our construction is based on finding the equivalent quadratic action for the general cubic curvature theory and imposing ghost and tachyon freedom, which greatly simplifies the highly complicated problem of finding the propagator of cubic curvature theories in constant curvature backgrounds. To carry out the procedure we have also classified all the unitary quadratic models. We use our general results to study the recently found cubic curvature theories using different techniques and the string generated cubic curvature gravity model. We also study the scattering in critical gravity and give its cubic curvature extensions.

  18. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for curvature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Catarina S.; Ferreira, Marta S.; Silva, Susana O.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bierlich, Jörg; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-12-01

    A curvature sensor based on an Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer was proposed. A capillary silica tube was fusion spliced between two single mode fibers, producing an FP cavity. Two FP sensors with different cavity lengths were developed and subjected to curvature and temperature. The FP sensor with longer cavity showed three distinct operating regions for the curvature measurement. Namely, a linear response was shown for an intermediate curvature radius range, presenting a maximum sensitivity of 68.52 pm/m-1. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head produced a similar response for different curvature radii, with a sensitivity varying from 0.84 pm/°C to 0.89 pm/°C, which resulted in a small cross-sensitivity to temperature when the FP sensor was subjected to curvature. The FP cavity with shorter length presented low sensitivity to curvature.

  19. Perturbed S3 neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unper...

  20. Cosmological perturbations in antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.

  1. Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.

  2. High order multiplication perturbation method for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文志; 黄培彦

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high order multiplication perturbation method for sin-gularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end. By the theory of singular perturbations, the singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems are first transformed into the singularly perturbed initial value problems. With the variable coefficient dimensional expanding, the non-homogeneous ordinary dif-ferential equations (ODEs) are transformed into the homogeneous ODEs, which are then solved by the high order multiplication perturbation method. Some linear and nonlinear numerical examples show that the proposed method has high precision.

  3. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-01-01

    In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, $R_c$, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of $R_c$ holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of $R_c$ dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, $\\delta P_{nad}\\equiv\\delta P-c_w^2\\delta\\rho$ where $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$, usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of $R_c$ on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfies $\\d...

  4. Extrinsic curvature induced 2-d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, K S

    1993-01-01

    Abtract: 2-dimensional fermions are coupled to extrinsic geometry of a conformally immersed surface in ${\\bf R}^3$ through gauge coupling. By integrating out the fermions, we obtain a WZNW action involving extrinsic curvature of the surface. Restricting the resulting effective action to surfaces of $h\\sqrt g=1$, an explicit form of the action invariant under Virasaro symmetry is obtained. This action is a sum of the geometric action for the Virasaro group and the light-cone action of 2-d gravity plus an interaction term. The central charges of the theory in both the left and right sectors are calculated.

  5. Variational formulas of higher order mean curvatures

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the first variational formula and its Euler-Lagrange equation for the total $2p$-th mean curvature functional $\\mathcal {M}_{2p}$ of a submanifold $M^n$ in a general Riemannian manifold $N^{n+m}$ for $p=0,1,...,[\\frac{n}{2}]$. As an example, we prove that closed complex submanifolds in complex projective spaces are critical points of the functional $\\mathcal {M}_{2p}$, called relatively $2p$-minimal submanifolds, for all $p$. At last, we discuss the relations between relatively $2p$-minimal submanifolds and austere submanifolds in real space forms, as well as a special variational problem.

  6. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  7. Curvature and shape determination of growing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial cells come in a variety of shapes, determined by the stress-bearing cell wall. Though many molecular details about the cell wall are known, our understanding of how a particular shape is produced during cell growth is at its infancy. Experiments on curved Escherichia coli grown in microtraps, and on naturally curved Caulobacter crescentus, reveal different modes of growth: one preserving arc length and the other preserving radius of curvature. We present a simple model for curved cell growth that relates these two growth modes to distinct but related growth rules—“hooplike growth” and “self-similar growth”—and discuss the implications for microscopic growth mechanisms.

  8. Curvature, zero modes and quantum statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de AstrofIsica de AndalucIa, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)

    2006-08-18

    We explore an intriguing connection between the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and the thermal baths obtained from a vacuum radiation of coherent states of zero modes in a second quantized (many-particle) theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2, 1) isometry subgroups of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit is retrieved as a (zero-curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem. (letter to the editor)

  9. Double curvature mirrors for linear concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Tamir; Ackler, Harold; Finot, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Skyline Solar's medium concentration photovoltaic system uses quasi-parabolic mirrors and one axis tracking. Improvements in levelized cost of energy can be achieved by effective management of non-uniformity of the flux line on the panels. To reduce non uniformity of the flux line due to mirror to mirror gaps, Skyline developed a dual curvature mirror that stretches the flux line along the panel. Extensive modeling and experiments have been conducted to analyze the impact of this new design and to optimize the design.

  10. Curvature sensor for ocular wavefront measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Doutón, Fernando; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio O

    2006-08-01

    We describe a new wavefront sensor for ocular aberration determination, based on the curvature sensing principle, which adapts the classical system used in astronomy for the living eye's measurements. The actual experimental setup is presented and designed following a process guided by computer simulations to adjust the design parameters for optimal performance. We present results for artificial and real young eyes, compared with the Hartmann-Shack estimations. Both methods show a similar performance for these cases. This system will allow for the measurement of higher order aberrations than the currently used wavefront sensors in situations in which they are supposed to be significant, such as postsurgery eyes.

  11. Scalar Curvature of a Causal Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Dowker, Fay

    2010-05-01

    A one parameter family of retarded linear operators on scalar fields on causal sets is introduced. When the causal set is well approximated by 4 dimensional Minkowski spacetime, the operators are Lorentz invariant but nonlocal, are parametrized by the scale of the nonlocality, and approximate the continuum scalar D’Alembertian □ when acting on fields that vary slowly on the nonlocality scale. The same operators can be applied to scalar fields on causal sets which are well approximated by curved spacetimes in which case they approximate □-(1)/(2)R where R is the Ricci scalar curvature. This can used to define an approximately local action functional for causal sets.

  12. Curvature-dependent adsorption of water inside and outside armchair carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Shulai; Schmidt, Burkhard; Paulus, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The curvature dependence of the physisorption properties of a water molecule inside and outside an armchair carbon nanotube (CNTs) is investigated by an incremental density-fitting local coupled cluster treatment with single and double excitations and perturbative triples (DF-LCCSD(T)) study. Our results show that a water molecule outside and inside (n, n) CNTs (n=4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10) is stabilized by electron correlation. The adsorption energy of water inside CNTs decreases quickly with the decrease of curvature (increase of radius) and the configuration with the oxygen pointing towards the CNT wall is the most stable one. However, when the water molecule is adsorbed outside the CNT, the adsorption energy varies only slightly with the curvature and the configuration with hydrogens pointing towards the CNT wall is the most stable one. We also use the DF-LCCSD(T) results to parametrize Lennard-Jones (LJ) force fields for the interaction of water both with the inner and outer sides of CNTs and with graphene repre...

  13. Maximal hypersurfaces and foliations of constant mean curvature in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Jerrold E.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1980-12-01

    We prove theorems on existence, uniqueness and smoothness of maximal and constant mean curvature compact spacelike hypersurfaces in globally hyperbolic spacetimes. The uniqueness theorem for maximal hypersurfaces of Brill and Flaherty, which assumed matter everywhere, is extended to spacetimes that are vacuum and non-flat or that satisfy a generic-type condition. In this connection we show that under general hypotheses, a spatially closed universe with a maximal hypersurface must be Wheeler universe; i.e. be closed in time as well. The existence of Lipschitz achronal maximal volume hypersurfaces under the hypothesis that candidate hypersurfaces are bounded away from the singularity is proved. This hypothesis is shown to be valid in two cases of interest: when the singularities are of strong curvature type, and when the singularity is a single ideal point. Some properties of these maximal volume hypersurfaces and difficulties with Avez' original arguments are discussed. The difficulties involve the possibility that the maximal volume hypersurface can be null on certain portions; we present an incomplete argument which suggests that these hypersurfaces are always smooth, but prove that an a priori bound on the second fundamental form does imply smoothness. An extension of the perturbation theorem of Choquet-Bruhat, Fischer and Marsden is given and conditions under which local foliations by constant mean curvature hypersurfaces can be extended to global ones is obtained.

  14. Isgur–Wise function in a quantum chromodynamicsinspired potential model with confinement as parent in the variationally improved perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Jyoti Hazarika; D K Choudhury

    2012-04-01

    We have recently reported the calculation of slope and curvature of Isgur–Wise function based on variationally improved perturbation theory (VIPT) in a quantum chromodynamics (QCD)-inspired potential model. In that work, Coulombic potential was taken as the parent while the linear one as the perturbation. In this work, we choose the linear one as the parent with Coulombic one as the perturbation and see the consequences.

  15. Perturbations can enhance qauntum search

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, J; Bae, Joonwoo; Kwon, Younghun

    2003-01-01

    In general, a quantum algorithm wants to avoid decoherence or perturbation, since such factors may cause errors in the algorithm. In this letter, we will supply the answer to the interesting question: can the factors seemingly harmful to a quantum algorithm(for example, perturbations) enhance the algorithm? We show that some perturbations to the generalized quantum search Hamiltonian can reduce the running time and enhance the success probability. We also provide the narrow bound to the perturbation which can be beneficial to quantum search. In addition, we show that the error induced by a perturbation on the Farhi and Gutmann Hamiltonian can be corrected by another perturbation.

  16. Nonspherical Szekeres models in the language of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Delgado Gaspar, Ismael; Germán, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We study the differences and equivalences between the nonperturbative description of the evolution of cosmic structure furnished by the Szekeres dust models (a nonspherical exact solution of Einstein's equations) and the dynamics of cosmological perturbation theory (C P T ) for dust sources in a Λ CDM background. We show how the dynamics of Szekeres models can be described by evolution equations given in terms of "exact fluctuations" that identically reduce (at all orders) to evolution equations of C P T in the comoving isochronous gauge. We explicitly show how Szekeres linearized exact fluctuations are specific (deterministic) realizations of standard linear perturbations of C P T given as random fields, but, as opposed to the latter perturbations, they can be evolved exactly into the full nonlinear regime. We prove two important results: (i) the conservation of the curvature perturbation (at all scales) also holds for the appropriate linear approximation of the exact Szekeres fluctuations in a Λ CDM background, and (ii) the different collapse morphologies of Szekeres models yields, at nonlinear order, different functional forms for the growth factor that follows from the study of redshift space distortions. The metric-based potentials used in linear C P T are computed in terms of the parameters of the linearized Szekeres models, thus allowing us to relate our results to linear C P T results in other gauges. We believe that these results provide a solid starting stage to examine the role of non-perturbative general relativity in current cosmological research.

  17. Joint development in perturbed stress fields near faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, K. D.; Rives, T.; Petti, J.-P.; Hencher, S. R.; Lumsden, A. C.

    1992-09-01

    Field evidence is presented for complex spatial and temporal perturbations of an otherwise systematic joint pattern around faults from well exposed faulted rock platforms. Joints propagating in perturbed stress fields will curve to follow the directions of the stress field trajectories. A progressive change in joint direction is observed from unperturbed regions away from faults, to strongly perturbed zones adjacent to faults. This indicates that the joint pattern can reflect perturbations of the regional stress field around faults. In the examples, the stress field perturbations are probably due to points of high friction on the fault plane which concentrate stress and distort the stress field in the surrounding rock. The corresponding joints converge at these points and are sub-parallel to the fault along the remainder of the fault plane. The possibility that a fault plane acts as a free surface contained within an elastic body is considered. In this situation the fault plane induces a rotation of the principal stress axes to become either perpendicular or parallel to the fault. The free surface model seems to explain the metre-scale curvature of joints in the vicinity of existing joints, but at the kilometre scale of a large fault plane the model becomes unrealistic unless the fault is open at the Earth's surface. Two examples are investigated from the Lias of Great Britain; at Nash Point and Robin Hood's Bay. Both comprise sub-horizontal strata of relatively homogeneous lithology and bed thickness, which provide striking examples of joints developed near faults.

  18. Asymptotic analysis of perturbed dust cosmologies to second order

    CERN Document Server

    Uggla, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies with dust and a positive cosmological constant have recently attracted considerable attention. In this paper our first goal is to compare the evolution of the first and second order perturbations by determining their asymptotic behaviour at late times in ever-expanding models. We show that in the presence of spatial curvature K or a positive cosmological constant, the density perturbation approaches a finite limit both to first and second order, but the rate of approach depends on the model, being power law in the scale factor if the cosmological constant is positive but logarithmic if it is zero and and K<0. Scalar perturbations in general contain a growing and a decaying mode. We find, somewhat surprisingly, that if the cosmological constant is positive the decaying mode does not die away, i.e. it contributes on an equal footing as the growing mode to the asymptotic expression for the density perturbation. On the other hand, the future asymptotic ...

  19. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-07-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  20. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  1. Degenerate Density Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palenik, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of $N_d$ degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X$\\alpha$ exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first through third-order energies as a function of $\\alpha$, with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  2. Large Spin Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We consider conformal field theories around points of large twist degeneracy. Examples of this are theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry and perturbations around generalised free fields. At the degenerate point we introduce twist conformal blocks. These are eigenfunctions of certain quartic operators and encode the contribution, to a given four-point correlator, of the whole tower of intermediate operators with a given twist. As we perturb around the degenerate point, the twist degeneracy is lifted. In many situations this breaking is controlled by inverse powers of the spin. In such cases the twist conformal blocks can be decomposed into a sequence of functions which we systematically construct. Decomposing the four-point correlator in this basis turns crossing symmetry into an algebraic problem. Our method can be applied to a wide spectrum of conformal field theories in any number of dimensions and at any order in the breaking parameter. As an example, we compute the spectrum of various theories ...

  3. Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.

  4. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  5. Degenerate density perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2016-09-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of Nd degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X α exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first- through third-order energies as a function of α , with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  6. Cosmological history in York time: inflation and perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Roser, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The constant mean extrinsic curvature on a spacelike slice may constitute a physically preferred time coordinate, `York time'. One line of enquiry to probe this idea is to understand processes in our cosmological history in terms of York time. Following a review of the theoretical motivations, we focus on slow-roll inflation and the freezing and Hubble re-entry of cosmological perturbations. We show how the mathematical account of these processes is distinct from the conventional account in terms of standard cosmological or conformal time. We also consider the cosmological York-timeline more broadly and contrast it with the conventional cosmological timeline.

  7. $K_{\\ell3}$ decays in Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Bijnens, Johan; Talavera, Pere

    2003-01-01

    The process $K_{\\ell3}$ is calculated to two-loop order ($p^6$) in Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) in the isospin conserved case. We use expressions suitable for use with previous work in two-loop CHPT where the order $p^4$ parameters ($L_i^r$) were determined from experiment. We point out that all the order $p^6$ parameters ($C_i^r$) that appear in the value of $f_+(0)$ relevant for the determination of $|V_{us}|$ can be determined from $K_{\\ell3}$ measurements via the slope and the curvature of the scalar form-factor.

  8. Cosmological history in York time: inflation and perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Philipp; Valentini, Antony

    2017-02-01

    The constant mean extrinsic curvature on a spacelike slice may constitute a physically preferred time coordinate, `York time'. One line of enquiry to probe this idea is to understand processes in our cosmological history in terms of York time. Following a review of the theoretical motivations, we focus on slow-roll inflation and the freezing and Hubble re-entry of cosmological perturbations. While the physics is, of course, observationally equivalent, we show how the mathematical account of these processes is distinct from the conventional account in terms of standard cosmological or conformal time. We also consider the cosmological York-timeline more broadly and contrast it with the conventional cosmological timeline.

  9. Spacetime curvature induced corrections to Lamb shift

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenting

    2012-01-01

    The Lamb shift results from the coupling of an atom with vacuum fluctuations of quantum fields, so corrections are expected to arise when the spacetime is curved since the vacuum fluctuations are modified by the presence of spacetime curvature. Here, we calculate the curvature-induced correction to the Lamb shift outside a spherically symmetric object and demonstrate that this correction can be remarkably significant outside a compact massive astrophysical body. For instance, for a neutron star or a stellar mass black hole, the correction is $\\sim$ 25% at a radial distance of $4GM/c^2$, $\\sim$ 16% at $10GM/c^2$ and as large as $\\sim$ 1.6% even at $100GM/c^2$, where $M$ is the mass of the object, $G$ the Newtonian constant, and $c$ the speed of light. In principle, we can look at the spectra from a distant compact supper-massive body to find such corrections. Therefore, our results suggest a possible way of detecting fundamental quantum effects in astronomical observations.

  10. Emergent gravity in spaces of constant curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Orlando; Haddad, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    In physical theories where the energy (action) is localized near a submanifold of a constant curvature space, there is a universal expression for the energy (or the action). We derive a multipole expansion for the energy that has a finite number of terms, and depends on intrinsic geometric invariants of the submanifold and extrinsic invariants of the embedding of the submanifold. This is the second of a pair of articles in which we try to develop a theory of emergent gravity arising from the embedding of a submanifold into an ambient space equipped with a quantum field theory. Our theoretical method requires a generalization of a formula due to by Hermann Weyl. While the first paper discussed the framework in Euclidean (Minkowski) space, here we discuss how this framework generalizes to spaces of constant sectional curvature. We focus primarily on anti de Sitter space. We then discuss how such a theory can give rise to a cosmological constant and Planck mass that are within reasonable bounds of the experimental values.

  11. Multidimensional integrable vacuum cosmology with two curvatures

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, V R; Melnikov, V N

    1996-01-01

    The vacuum cosmological model on the manifold R \\times M_1 \\times \\ldots \\times M_n describing the evolution of n Einstein spaces of non-zero curvatures is considered. For n = 2 the Einstein equations are reduced to the Abel (ordinary differential) equation and solved, when (N_1 = dim M_1, N_2 = dim M_2) = (6,3), (5,5), (8,2). The Kasner-like behaviour of the solutions near the singularity t_s \\to +0 is considered (t_s is synchronous time). The exceptional ("Milne-type") solutions are obtained for arbitrary n. For n=2 these solutions are attractors for other ones, when t_s \\to + \\infty. For dim M = 10, 11 and 3 \\leq n \\leq 5 certain two-parametric families of solutions are obtained from n=2 ones using "curvature-splitting" trick. In the case n=2, (N_1, N_2)= (6,3) a family of non-singular solutions with the topology R^7 \\times M_2 is found.

  12. Perturbative String Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ooguri, H; Ooguri, Hirosi; Yin, Zheng

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes are based on a course on string theories given by Hirosi Ooguri in the first week of TASI 96 Summer School at Boulder, Colorado. It is an introductory course designed to provide students with minimum knowledge before they attend more advanced courses on non-perturbative aspects of string theories in the School. The course consists of five lectures: 1. Bosonic String, 2. Toroidal Compactifications, 3. Superstrings, 4. Heterotic Strings, and 5. Orbifold Compactifications.

  13. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  14. Engineering curvature in graphene ribbons using ultrathin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Koslowski, Marisol; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-12-10

    We propose a method to induce curvature in graphene nanoribbons in a controlled manner using an ultrathin thermoset polymer in a bimaterial strip setup and test it via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Continuum mechanics shows that curvature develops to release the residual stress caused by the chemical and thermal shrinkage of the polymer during processing and that this curvature increases with decreasing film thickness; however, significant deformation is only achieved for ultrathin polymer films. Quite surprisingly, explicit MD simulations of the curing and annealing processes show that the predicted trend not just continues down to film thicknesses of 1-2 nm but that the curvature development is enhanced significantly in such ultrathin films due to surface tension effects. This combination of effects leads to very large curvatures of over 0.14 nm(-1) that can be tuned via film thickness. This provides a new avenue to engineer curvature and, thus, electromagnetic properties of graphene.

  15. Timelike surfaces with zero mean curvature in Minkowski 4-space

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    On any timelike surface with zero mean curvature in the four-dimensional Minkowski space we introduce special geometric (canonical) parameters and prove that the Gauss curvature and the normal curvature of the surface satisfy a system of two natural partial differential equations. Conversely, any two solutions to this system determine a unique (up to a motion) timelike surface with zero mean curvature so that the given parameters are canonical. We find all timelike surfaces with zero mean curvature in the class of rotational surfaces of Moore type. These examples give rise to a one-parameter family of solutions to the system of natural partial differential equations describing timelike surfaces with zero mean curvature.

  16. Ricci Curvature on Polyhedral Surfaces via Optimal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Loisel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correctly defining geometric objects, such as the curvature, is a hard one in discrete geometry. In 2009, Ollivier defined a notion of curvature applicable to a wide category of measured metric spaces, in particular to graphs. He named it coarse Ricci curvature because it coincides, up to some given factor, with the classical Ricci curvature, when the space is a smooth manifold. Lin, Lu and Yau and Jost and Liu have used and extended this notion for graphs, giving estimates for the curvature and, hence, the diameter, in terms of the combinatorics. In this paper, we describe a method for computing the coarse Ricci curvature and give sharper results, in the specific, but crucial case of polyhedral surfaces.

  17. Geometric and spectral consequences of curvature bounds on tessellations

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This is a chapter of a forthcoming Lecture Notes in Mathematics "Modern Approaches to Discrete Curvature" edited by L. Najman and P. Romon. It provides a survey on geometric and spectral consequences of curvature bounds. The geometric setting are tessellations of surfaces with finite and vanishing genus. We consider a curvature arising as an angular defect. Several of the results presented here have analogues in Riemannian geometry. In some cases one can go even beyond the Riemannian results ...

  18. Operation principle of a novel curvature plastic fiber optic sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yili; Liu Renqiang; Wang Shuguo

    2005-01-01

    The operation principle of a new type of intensity modulate macrobend curvature optical fiber senor was presented based on surface light scattering theory. Sensor's static and dynamic performance was investigated. This type of sensor can distinguish between positive and negative bending directions. When curvature radius is larger than 50mm, the sensor will keep good linearity. Two-dimensional shape measurement experiments using curvature sensors have been implemented.

  19. Incidence of penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the penis, characterised by ectopically positioned urethral meatus and associated anomalies (cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, penile curvature). Proximal forms of hypospadias, as severe cases, are particularly accompanied by penile curvature (chordee). Distal types are considered to be mild degrees. Objective. To determine the incidence of congenital curvature within various forms of hypospadias in order to signify preoperative and intraope...

  20. An $\\varepsilon$-regularity Theorem For The Mean Curvature Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xiaoli; Sun, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we will derive a small energy regularity theorem for the mean curvature flow of arbitrary dimension and codimension. It says that if the parabolic integral of $|A|^2$ around a point in space-time is small, then the mean curvature flow cannot develop singularity at this point. As an application, we can prove that the 2-dimensional Hausdorff measure of the singular set of the mean curvature flow from a surface to a Riemannian manifold must be zero.

  1. Sectional and Ricci Curvature for Three-Dimensional Lie Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulas for the Riemann and Ricci curvature tensors of an invariant metric on a Lie group are determined. The results are applied to a systematic study of the curvature properties of invariant metrics on three-dimensional Lie groups. In each case the metric is reduced by using the automorphism group of the associated Lie algebra. In particular, the maximum and minimum values of the sectional curvature function are determined.

  2. On the curvature of the present-day universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Thomas [Universite Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5574, 9 avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Carfora, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: buchert@obs.univ-lyon1.fr, E-mail: mauro.carfora@pv.infn.it

    2008-10-07

    We discuss the effect of curvature and matter inhomogeneities on the averaged scalar curvature of the present-day universe. Motivated by studies of averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies, we contemplate on the question of whether it is sensible to assume that curvature averages out on some scale of homogeneity, as implied by the standard concordance model of cosmology, or whether the averaged scalar curvature can be largely negative today, as required for an explanation of dark energy from inhomogeneities. We confront both conjectures with a detailed analysis of the kinematical backreaction term and estimate its strength for a multi-scale inhomogeneous matter and curvature distribution. Our main result is a formula for the spatially averaged scalar curvature involving quantities that are all measurable on regional (i.e. up to 100 Mpc) scales. We propose strategies to quantitatively evaluate the formula, and pinpoint the assumptions implied by the conjecture of a small or zero averaged curvature. We reach the conclusion that the standard concordance model needs fine tuning in the sense of an assumed equipartition law for curvature in order to reconcile it with the estimated properties of the averaged physical space, whereas a negative averaged curvature is favoured, independent of the prior on the value of the cosmological constant.

  3. Spine curve modeling for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ori; Hershkovitz, Israel; Rivlin, Ehud

    2009-01-01

    Spine curvature and posture are important to sustain healthy back. Incorrect spine configuration can add strain to muscles and put stress on the spine, leading to low back pain (LBP). We propose new method for analyzing spine curvature in 3D, using CT imaging. The proposed method is based on two novel concepts: the spine curvature is derived from spinal canal centerline, and evaluation of the curve is carried out against a model based on healthy individuals. We show results of curvature analysis of healthy population, pathological (scoliosis) patients, and patients having nonspecific chronic LBP.

  4. 3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yinhang

    2015-05-01

    The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.

  5. Evolving extrinsic curvature and the cosmological constant problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrano, Abraão J. S.; Cabral, Luis A.

    2016-10-01

    The concept of smooth deformation of Riemannian manifolds associated with the extrinsic curvature is explained and applied to the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We show that such deformation can be derived from the Einstein-Hilbert-like dynamical principle may produce an observable effect in the sense of Noether. As a result, we show how the extrinsic curvature compensates both quantitative and qualitative differences between the cosmological constant Λ and the vacuum energy {ρ }{vac} obtaining the observed upper bound for the cosmological constant problem at electroweak scale. The topological characteristics of the extrinsic curvature are discussed showing that the produced extrinsic scalar curvature is an evolving dynamical quantity.

  6. Curvature optical fiber sensor by using bend enhanced method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong ZHANG; Hairong LIU; Xinkun WU

    2009-01-01

    Deflection curvature measurement can offer a number of advantages compared with the well-established strain measurement alternative. It is able to measure thin structure; fiber has no resistance with force, which leads to a high precision. There are many kinds of curvature gauges with different operation principles. A low-cost curvature optical fiber sensor using bend enhanced method to improve its curvature measurement sensitivity was devel-oped in recent years. This sensor can distinguish between convex bending and concave bending and has a good linearity in measuring large curvature deformation. Whisper gallery ray theory and Monte Carlo simulation are new achievements by computer experiment. The operation mechanism of this curvature optical fiber sensor is presented based on light scattering theory. The attenuation is ascribed to the transmission mode changing by the curvature of the fiber, which affects the attenuation of the surface scattering. The mathematical model of relationship among light loss, bending curvature, surface roughness, and parameters of the fiber's configuration is also presented. We design different kinds of shapes of sensitive zones; each zone has different parameters. Through detecting their output optical attenuations in different curvatures and fitting the results by exponential decaying functions, the proposed model is demonstrated by experimental results. Also, we compare the experi-mental results with the theoretical analysis and discuss the sensitivity dependence on bending direction.

  7. Perturbation semigroup of matrix algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, N.; Suijlekom, W.D. van

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze the structure of the semigroup of inner perturbations in noncommutative geometry. This perturbation semigroup is associated to a unital associative *-algebra and extends the group of unitary elements of this *-algebra. We compute the perturbation semigroup for all matrix algebras.

  8. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad≡δP−cw2δρ where cw2=P˙/ρ˙, usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad=0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA, which is guaranteed if cw2=cs2, where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR inflation in which cw2=cs2=1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2=cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.

  9. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-10-01

    In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, Rc, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of Rc holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of Rc dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, δPnad ≡ δP - cw2 δρ where cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ , usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of Rc on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfy δPnad = 0 on all scales, which we call global adiabaticity (GA), which is guaranteed if cw2 = cs2 , where cs is the phase velocity of the propagation of the perturbation. A known example is the case of ultra-slow-roll (USR) inflation in which cw2 = cs2 = 1. In order to generalize USR we develop a method to find the Lagrangian of GA K-inflation models from the behavior of background quantities as functions of the scale factor. Applying this method we show that there indeed exists a wide class of GA models with cw2 = cs2, which allows Rc to grow on superhorizon scales, and hence violates the non-Gaussianity consistency condition.

  10. Differential geometry connections, curvature, and characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Loring W

    2017-01-01

    This text presents a graduate-level introduction to differential geometry for mathematics and physics students. The exposition follows the historical development of the concepts of connection and curvature with the goal of explaining the Chern–Weil theory of characteristic classes on a principal bundle. Along the way we encounter some of the high points in the history of differential geometry, for example, Gauss' Theorema Egregium and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. Exercises throughout the book test the reader’s understanding of the material and sometimes illustrate extensions of the theory. Initially, the prerequisites for the reader include a passing familiarity with manifolds. After the first chapter, it becomes necessary to understand and manipulate differential forms. A knowledge of de Rham cohomology is required for the last third of the text. Prerequisite material is contained in author's text An Introduction to Manifolds, and can be learned in one semester. For the benefit of the reader and to establ...

  11. Curvature effects in thin magnetic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P; Sheka, Denis D

    2014-06-27

    A magnetic energy functional is derived for an arbitrary curved thin shell on the assumption that the magnetostatic effects can be reduced to an effective easy-surface anisotropy; it can be used for solving both static and dynamic problems. General static solutions are obtained in the limit of a strong anisotropy of both signs (easy-surface and easy-normal cases). It is shown that the effect of the curvature can be treated as the appearance of an effective magnetic field, which is aligned along the surface normal for the case of easy-surface anisotropy and is tangential to the surface for the case of easy-normal anisotropy. In general, the existence of such a field excludes the solutions that are strictly tangential or strictly normal to the surface. As an example, we consider static equilibrium solutions for a cone surface magnetization.

  12. Coarse-grained Modeling of DNA Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Gordon S; Lequieu, Joshua P; Whitmer, Jonathan K; de Pablo, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of DNA-protein interactions is a complex process involving many important time and length scales. This can be facilitated through the use of coarse-grained models which reduce the number of degrees of freedom and allow efficient exploration of binding configurations. It is known that the local structure of DNA can significantly affect its protein-binding properties (i.e. intrinsic curvature in DNA-histone complexes). In a step towards comprehensive DNA-protein modeling, we expand the 3SPN.2 coarse-grained model to include intrinsic shape, and validate the refined model against experimental data including melting temperature, local flexibility, persistence length, and minor groove width profile.

  13. Natural curvature for manifest T-duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poláček, Martin; Siegel, Warren [C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical PhysicsState University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2014-01-08

    We reformulate the manifestly T-dual description of the massless sector of the closed bosonic string, directly from the geometry associated with the (left and right) affine Lie algebra of the coset space Poincaré/Lorentz. This construction initially doubles not only the (spacetime) coordinates for translations but also those for Lorentz transformations (and their “dual”). As a result, the Lorentz connection couples directly to the string (as does the vielbein), rather than being introduced ad hoc to the covariant derivative as previously. This not only reproduces the old definition of T-dual torsion, but automatically gives a general, covariant definition of T-dual curvature (but still with some undetermined connections)

  14. Polarized Curvature Radiation in Pulsar Magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, P F; Han, J L

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of polarized emission in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated in this paper. The polarized waves are generated through curvature radiation from the relativistic particles streaming along curved magnetic field lines and co-rotating with the pulsar magnetosphere. Within the 1/{\\deg} emission cone, the waves can be divided into two natural wave mode components, the ordinary (O) mode and the extraord nary (X) mode, with comparable intensities. Both components propagate separately in magnetosphere, and are aligned within the cone by adiabatic walking. The refraction of O-mode makes the two components separated and incoherent. The detectable emission at a given height and a given rotation phase consists of incoherent X-mode and O-mode components coming from discrete emission regions. For four particle-density models in the form of uniformity, cone, core and patches, we calculate the intensities for each mode numerically within the entire pulsar beam. If the co-rotation of relativistic particles with...

  15. Natural curvature for manifest T-duality

    CERN Document Server

    Polacek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We reformulate the manifestly T-dual description of the massless sector of the closed bosonic string, directly from the geometry associated with the (left and right) affine Lie algebra of the coset space Poincare/Lorentz. This construction initially doubles not only the (spacetime) coordinates for translations but also those for Lorentz transformations (and their dual). As a result, the Lorentz connection couples directly to the string (as does the vielbein), rather than being introduced ad hoc to the covariant derivative as previously. This not only reproduces the old definition of T-dual torsion, but automatically gives a general, covariant definition of T-dual curvature (but still with some undetermined connections).

  16. Band geometry, Berry curvature, and superfluid weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Long; Vanhala, Tuomas I.; Peotta, Sebastiano; Siro, Topi; Harju, Ari; Törmä, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    We present a theory of the superfluid weight in multiband attractive Hubbard models within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean-field framework. We show how to separate the geometric contribution to the superfluid weight from the conventional one, and that the geometric contribution is associated with the interband matrix elements of the current operator. Our theory can be applied to systems with or without time-reversal symmetry. In both cases the geometric superfluid weight can be related to the quantum metric of the corresponding noninteracting systems. This leads to a lower bound on the superfluid weight given by the absolute value of the Berry curvature. We apply our theory to the attractive Kane-Mele-Hubbard and Haldane-Hubbard models, which can be realized in ultracold atom gases. Quantitative comparisons are made to state of the art dynamical mean-field theory and exact diagonalization results.

  17. Apparent surface curvature affects lightness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knill, D C; Kersten, D

    1991-05-16

    The human visual system has the remarkable capacity to perceive accurately the lightness, or relative reflectance, of surfaces, even though much of the variation in image luminance may be caused by other scene attributes, such as shape and illumination. Most physiological, and computational models of lightness perception invoke early sensory mechanisms that act independently of, or before, the estimation of other scene attributes. In contrast to the modularity of lightness perception assumed in these models are experiments that show that supposedly 'higher-order' percepts of planar surface attributes, such as orientation, depth and transparency, can influence perceived lightness. Here we show that perceived surface curvature can also affect perceived lightness. The results of the earlier experiments indicate that perceiving luminance edges as changes in surface attributes other than reflectance can influence lightness. These results suggest that the interpretation of smooth variations in luminance can also affect lightness percepts.

  18. A Field Theory with Curvature and Anticurvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Wanas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is an attempt to construct a unified field theory in a space with curvature and anticurvature, the PAP-space. The theory is derived from an action principle and a Lagrangian density using a symmetric linear parameterized connection. Three different methods are used to explore physical contents of the theory obtained. Poisson’s equations for both material and charge distributions are obtained, as special cases, from the field equations of the theory. The theory is a pure geometric one in the sense that material distribution, charge distribution, gravitational and electromagnetic potentials, and other physical quantities are defined in terms of pure geometric objects of the structure used. In the case of pure gravity in free space, the spherical symmetric solution of the field equations gives the Schwarzschild exterior field. The weak equivalence principle is respected only in the case of pure gravity in free space; otherwise it is violated.

  19. Domain wall brane in squared curvature gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Li, Hai-Tao

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a thick braneworld model in the squared curvature gravity theory. Despite the appearance of higher order derivatives, the localization of gravity and various bulk matter fields is shown to be possible. The existence of the normalizable gravitational zero mode indicates that our four-dimensional gravity is reproduced. In order to localize the chiral fermions on the brane, two types of coupling between the fermions and the brane forming scalar is introduced. The first coupling leads us to a Schr\\"odinger equation with a volcano potential, and the other a P\\"oschl-Teller potential. In both cases, the zero mode exists only for the left-hand fermions. Several massive KK states of the fermions can be trapped on the brane, either as resonant states or as bound states.

  20. The Scalar Curvature of a Causal Set

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Dionigi M T

    2010-01-01

    A one parameter family of retarded linear operators on scalar fields on causal sets is introduced. When the causal set is well-approximated by 4 dimensional Minkowski spacetime, the operators are Lorentz invariant but nonlocal, are parametrised by the scale of the nonlocality and approximate the continuum scalar D'Alembertian, $\\Box$, when acting on fields that vary slowly on the nonlocality scale. The same operators can be applied to scalar fields on causal sets which are well-approximated by curved spacetimes in which case they approximate $\\Box - {{1/2}}R$ where $R$ is the Ricci scalar curvature. This can used to define an approximately local action functional for causal sets.

  1. Perturbative quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu

  2. Perturbative nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Silas R; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2009-01-01

    We present a new formulation of effective field theory for nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions which treats pion interactions perturbatively, and we offer evidence that the expansion converges satisfactorily to third order in the expansion, which we have computed analytically for s and d wave NN scattering. Starting with the Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW) expansion about the nontrivial fixed point corresponding to infinite NN scattering length, we cure the convergence problems with that theory by summing to all orders the singular short distance part of the pion tensor interaction. This method makes possible a host of high precision analytic few-body calculations in nuclear physics.

  3. Non-Perturbative Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2008-01-01

    The notion of renormalization is at the core of several spectacular achievements of contemporary physics, and in the last years powerful techniques have been developed allowing to put renormalization on a firm mathematical basis. This book provides a self-consistent and accessible introduction to the sophisticated tools used in the modern theory of non-perturbative renormalization, allowing an unified and rigorous treatment of Quantum Field Theory, Statistical Physics and Condensed Matter models. In particular the first part of this book is devoted to Constructive Quantum Field Theory, providi

  4. Gauge Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, R

    1993-01-01

    After an introduction to the problem of cosmological structure formation, we develop gauge invariant cosmological perturbation theory. We derive the first order perturbation equations of Einstein's equations and energy momentum ``conservation''. Furthermore, the perturbations of Liouville's equation for collisionless particles and Boltzmann's equation for Compton scattering are worked out. We fully discuss the propagation of photons in a perturbed Friedmann universe, calculating the Sachs--Wolfe effect and light deflection. The perturbation equations are extended to accommodate also perturbations induced by seeds. With these general results we discuss some of the main aspects of the texture model for the formation of large scale structure in the Universe (galaxies, clusters, sheets, voids). In this model, perturbations in the dark matter are induced by texture seeds. The gravitational effects of a spherically symmetric collapsing texture on dark matter, baryonic matter and photons are calculated in first orde...

  5. Streamline curvature and bed resistance in shallow water flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between streamline curvature and bed resistance in shallow water flow with little side constraint, as derived in 1970 by H.J. Schoemaker, is reconsidered. Schoemaker concluded that the bed resistance causes the curvature of a free streamline to grow exponentially with the distance a

  6. Constant mean curvature surfaces via integrable dynamical system

    CERN Document Server

    Konopelchenko, B G

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the equation which describes constant mean curvature surface via the generalized Weierstrass-Enneper inducing has Hamiltonian form. Its simplest finite-dimensional reduction has two degrees of freedom, integrable and its trajectories correspond to well-known Delaunay and do Carmo-Dajzcer surfaces (i.e., helicoidal constant mean curvature surfaces).

  7. Effect of Rolling Parameters on Plate Curvature during Snake Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yao; XIE Shuisheng; XIONG Baiqing; HUANG Guojie; CHENG Lei

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the plate curvature during snake rolling,FE model was constructed based on plane strain assumption.The accuracy of the FE model was verified by the comparison between the plate curvature conducted by FE model and experiment respectively.By using FE model,the effect of offset distance,speed ratio,reduction,roll radius and initial plate thickness on the plate curvature during snake rolling was investigated.The experimental results show that,a proper offsetting distance can efficiently decrease plate curvature,however an excessive offsetting distance will increase plate curvature.A larger speed ratio,reduction will cause a large plate curvature,however a larger roll radius has effect to reduce plate curvature.Plate which undergoes a larger reduction and plate with a larger initial thickness always need a larger offset distance to keep the plate the minimum plate curvature,but for a larger roll radius a smaller offset distance is needed.

  8. Systematic evaluation of a new combinatorial curvature for complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, R P; Saucan, Emil; Samal, Areejit

    2016-01-01

    We have recently introduced Forman's discretization of Ricci curvature to the realm of complex networks. Forman curvature is an edge-based measure whose mathematical definition elegantly encapsulates the weights of nodes and edges in a complex network. In this contribution, we perform a comparative analysis of Forman curvature with other edge-based measures such as edge betweenness, embeddedness and dispersion in diverse model and real networks. We find that Forman curvature in comparison to embeddedness or dispersion is a better indicator of the importance of an edge for the large-scale connectivity of complex networks. Based on the definition of the Forman curvature of edges, there are two natural ways to define the Forman curvature of nodes in a network. In this contribution, we also examine these two possible definitions of Forman curvature of nodes in diverse model and real networks. Based on our empirical analysis, we find that in practice the unnormalized definition of the Forman curvature of nodes wit...

  9. Intramanual and intermanual transfer of the curvature aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, B.J.; Duijndam, M.J.A.; Ketels, M.F.M.; Wilbers, M.T.J.M.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The existence and transfer of a haptic curvature aftereffect was investigated to obtain a greater insight into neural representation of shape. The haptic curvature aftereffect is the phenomenon whereby a flat surface is judged concave if the preceding touched stimulus was convex and vice versa. Sing

  10. On the total mean curvature of non-rigid surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Using Green's theorem we reduce the variation of the total mean curvature of a smooth surface in the Euclidean 3-space to a line integral of a special vector field and obtain the following well-known theorem as an immediate consequence: the total mean curvature of a closed smooth surface in the Euclidean 3-space is stationary under an infinitesimal flex.

  11. On complete submanifolds with parallel mean curvature in product spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fetcu, Dorel

    2011-01-01

    We prove a Simons type formula for submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector field in product spaces of type $M^n(c)\\times\\mathbb{R}$, where $M^n(c)$ is a space form with constant sectional curvature $c$, and then we use it to characterize some of these submanifolds.

  12. A Simons type formula for surfaces with parallel mean curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Fetcu, Dorel

    2011-01-01

    We prove a Simons type equation for non-minimal surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector (pmc surfaces) in $M^n(c)\\times\\mathbb{R}$, where $M^n(c)$ is an $n$-dimensional space form. Then, we use this equation in order to characterize complete non-minimal pmc surfaces with non-negative Gaussian curvature.

  13. How to obtain Transience from Bounded Radial Mean Curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    We show that Brownian motion on any unbounded submanifold P in an ambient manifold N with a pole P is transient if the following conditions are satisfied: The p-radial mean curvatures of P are sufficiently small outsidea compact set and the p-radial sectional curvatures of N are sufficiently nega...

  14. The scalar curvature problem on the four dimensional half sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ayed, M; El-Mehdi, K

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of prescribing the scalar curvature under minimal boundary conditions on the standard four dimensional half sphere. We provide an Euler-Hopf type criterion for a given function to be a scalar curvature for some metric conformal to the standard one. Our proof involves the study of critical points at infinity of the associated variational problem.

  15. Dynamics and Control of Adaptive Shells with Curvature Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Adaptive structures with controllable geometries and shapes are rather useful in many engineering applications, such as adaptive wings, variable focus mirrors, adaptive machines, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. Dynamics and feedback control effectiveness of adaptive shells whose curvatures are actively controlled and continuously changed are evaluated. An adaptive piezoelectric laminated cylindrical shell composite with continuous curvature changes is studied, and its natural frequencie...

  16. Perturbative thermodynamic geometry of nonextensive ideal classical, Bose, and Fermi gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Adli, Fereshteh; Nouri, Sahereh

    2016-12-01

    We investigate perturbative thermodynamic geometry of nonextensive ideal classical, Bose, and Fermi gases. We show that the intrinsic statistical interaction of nonextensive Bose (Fermi) gas is attractive (repulsive) similar to the extensive case but the value of thermodynamic curvature is changed by a nonextensive parameter. In contrary to the extensive ideal classical gas, the nonextensive one may be divided to two different regimes. According to the deviation parameter of the system to the nonextensive case, one can find a special value of fugacity, z^{*}, where the sign of thermodynamic curvature is changed. Therefore, we argue that the nonextensive parameter induces an attractive (repulsive) statistical interaction for zz^{*}) for an ideal classical gas. Also, according to the singular point of thermodynamic curvature, we consider the condensation of nonextensive Boson gas.

  17. Effects of Iris Surface Curvature on Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Flynn, Patrick J [ORNL; Bowyer, Kevin W [University of Notre Dame, IN; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    To focus on objects at various distances, the lens of the eye must change shape to adjust its refractive power. This change in lens shape causes a change in the shape of the iris surface which can be measured by examining the curvature of the iris. This work isolates the variable of iris curvature in the recognition process and shows that differences in iris curvature degrade matching ability. To our knowledge, no other work has examined the effects of varying iris curvature on matching ability. To examine this degradation, we conduct a matching experiment across pairs of images with varying degrees of iris curvature differences. The results show a statistically signi cant degradation in matching ability. Finally, the real world impact of these ndings is discussed

  18. Dynamics and Control of Adaptive Shells with Curvature Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Tzou

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive structures with controllable geometries and shapes are rather useful in many engineering applications, such as adaptive wings, variable focus mirrors, adaptive machines, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. Dynamics and feedback control effectiveness of adaptive shells whose curvatures are actively controlled and continuously changed are evaluated. An adaptive piezoelectric laminated cylindrical shell composite with continuous curvature changes is studied, and its natural frequencies and controlled damping ratios are evaluated. The curvature change of the adaptive shell starts from an open shallow shell (30° and ends with a deep cylindrical shell (360°. Dynamic characteristics and control effectiveness (via the proportional velocity feedback of this series of shells are investigated and compared at every 30° curvature change. Analytical solutions suggest that the lower modes are sensitive to curvature changes and the higher modes are relatively insensitive.

  19. Curvature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Catarina; Ferreira, Marta S.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bierlich, Jörg; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-05-01

    A curvature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed. A capillary tube of silica is fusion spliced between two single mode fibers, producing a Fabry-Perot cavity. The light propagates in air, when passing through the capillary tube. Two different cavities are subjected to curvature and temperature. The cavity with shorter length shows insensitivity to both measurands. The larger cavity shows two operating regions for curvature measurement, where a linear response is shown, with a maximum sensitivity of 18.77pm/m-1 for the high curvature radius range. When subjected to temperature, the sensing head produces a similar response for different curvature radius, with a sensitivity of 0.87pm/°C.

  20. On the Signal-Image Intensity-Curvature Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ciulla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical engineering problem addressed in this work is the one of finding a novel signal-image content measure called intensity-curvature functional making use of all of the second order derivatives of the model function fitted to the data. Given a signal-image made of a sequel of discrete samples and given a model function which embeds the property of second order differentiability, it is possible to quantify the content of the signal-image through a novel approach based on both of the intensity and of the total curvature of the signal-image. The signal-image is fitted with the model function. The total curvature can be calculated through the sum of all of the second order derivatives of the Hessian of the model function fitted to the data. The intensity-curvature functional is defined as the ratio between: (i the integral of the multiplication between the value of the signal modeled through an interpolation function and the total curvature of the signal-image; both of them at the temporal-spatial location of its sampling (the grid nodes and, (ii the integral of the value of the multiplication between the signal modeled through an interpolation function and the total curvature of the signal-image; both of them at any given temporal-spatial location of its re-sampling (intra-pixel location. This manuscript shows both of the formulae and the qualitative results of: the intensity-curvature functional and the intensity-curvature measures which are conceptually linked to the intensity-curvature functional. The formulations here presented make the engineering innovation. The intensity-curvature functional depends on both of the model function fitting the signal-image and the magnitude of re-sampling employed to calculate the second order derivatives of the Hessian of the model function.

  1. Haptic perception of object curvature in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Konczak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The haptic perception of the curvature of an object is essential for adequate object manipulation and critical for our guidance of actions. This study investigated how the ability to perceive the curvature of an object is altered by Parkinson's disease (PD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight healthy subjects and 11 patients with mild to moderate PD had to judge, without vision, the curvature of a virtual "box" created by a robotic manipulandum. Their hands were either moved passively along a defined curved path or they actively explored the curved curvature of a virtual wall. The curvature was either concave or convex (bulging to the left or right and was judged in two locations of the hand workspace--a left workspace location, where the curved hand path was associated with curved shoulder and elbow joint paths, and a right workspace location in which these joint paths were nearly linear. After exploring the curvature of the virtual object, subjects had to judge whether the curvature was concave or convex. Based on these data, thresholds for curvature sensitivity were established. The main findings of the study are: First, 9 out 11 PD patients (82% showed elevated thresholds for detecting convex curvatures in at least one test condition. The respective median threshold for the PD group was increased by 343% when compared to the control group. Second, when distal hand paths became less associated with proximal joint paths (right workspace, haptic acuity was reduced substantially in both groups. Third, sensitivity to hand trajectory curvature was not improved during active exploration in either group. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that PD is associated with a decreased acuity of the haptic sense, which may occur already at an early stage of the disease.

  2. Direct perturbation method for perturbed complex Burgers equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xue-Ping; Lin Ji; Yao Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    So far, Lou's direct perturbation method has been applied successfully to solve the nonlinear Schrōdinger equa-tion(NLSE) hierarchy, such as the NLSE, the coupled NLSE, the critical NLSE, and the derivative NLSE. But to our knowledge, this method for other types of perturbed nonlinear evolution equations has still been lacking. In this paper, Lou's direct perturbation method is applied to the study of perturbed complex Burgers equation. By this method, we calculate not only the zero-order adiabatic solution, but also the first order modification.

  3. Introduction to perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, M

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.

  4. Non-Gaussianities in the Cosmological Perturbation Spectrum due to Primordial Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anindya

    2011-01-01

    We investigate possible signatures of a pre-inflationary anisotropic phase in two-point and three-point correlation functions of the curvature perturbation for high-momentum modes which exit the horizon after isotropization. In this momentum regime, the early time dynamics admits a WKB description and the late time dynamics can be described in terms of a non-Bunch Davies vacuum state which encodes the information of the initial anisotropy in the background spacetime. We compute the bi-spectrum for the curvature perturbation for a canonical single-field action with and without higher derivative operators. We show that the bi-spectrum at late times, in the former case, is enhanced for a flattened triangle configuration and compute the corresponding $f_{NL}$ parameter. The angular dependence of the $f_{NL}$ parameter appears as a distinctive feature of the background anisotropy at early times.

  5. Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expan...

  6. Applications Of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mohta, V

    2005-01-01

    Effective field theory techniques are used to describe the spectrum and interactions of hadrons. The mathematics of classical field theory and perturbative quantum field theory are reviewed. The physics of effective field theory and, in particular, of chiral perturbation theory and heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory are also reviewed. The geometry underlying heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is described in detail. Results by Coleman et. al. in the physics literature are stated precisely and proven. A chiral perturbation theory is developed for a multiplet containing the recently- observed exotic baryons. A small coupling expansion is identified that allows the calculation of self-energy corrections to the exotic baryon masses. Opportunities in lattice calculations are discussed. Chiral perturbation theory is used to study the possibility of two multiplets of exotic baryons mixed by quark masses. A new symmetry constraint on reduced partial widths is identified. Predictions in the literature based ...

  7. Revisiting constraints on small scale perturbations from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the constraints on the small scale density perturbations (1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 ) from the modification of the freeze-out value of the neutron-proton ratio at the big-bang nucleosynthesis era. Around the freeze-out temperature T ˜0.5 MeV , the universe can be divided into several local patches that have different temperatures since any perturbation that enters the horizon after the neutrino decoupling has not diffused yet. Taking account of this situation, we calculate the freeze-out value in detail. We find that the small scale perturbations decrease the n -p ratio in contrast to previous works. With the use of the latest observed 4He abundance, we obtain the constraint on the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations as ΔR2≲0.018 on 1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 .

  8. Nonlinear and Perturbative Evolution of Distorted Black Holes; 2, Odd-parity Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, J; Campanelli, M; Loustó, C O; Seidel, E; Takahashi, R

    2000-01-01

    We compare the fully nonlinear and perturbative evolution of nonrotating black holes with odd-parity distortions utilizing the perturbative results to interpret the nonlinear results. This introduction of the second polarization (odd-parity) mode of the system, and the systematic use of combined techniques brings us closer to the goal of studying more complicated systems like distorted, rotating black holes, such as those formed in the final inspiral stage of two black holes. The nonlinear evolutions are performed with the 3D parallel code for Numerical Relativity, {Cactus}, and an independent axisymmetric code, {Magor}. The linearized calculation is performed in two ways: (a) We treat the system as a metric perturbation on Schwarzschild, using the Regge-Wheeler equation to obtain the waveforms produced. (b) We treat the system as a curvature perturbation of a Kerr black hole (but here restricted to the case of vanishing rotation parameter a) and evolve it with the Teukolsky equation The comparisons of the wa...

  9. Evolution of cosmological perturbations and the production of non-Gaussianities through a nonsingular bounce: Indications for a no-go theorem in single field matter bounce cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jerome; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab; Cai, Yi-Fu; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2015-09-01

    Assuming that curvature perturbations and gravitational waves originally arise from vacuum fluctuations in a matter-dominated phase of contraction, we study the dynamics of the cosmological perturbations evolving through a nonsingular bouncing phase described by a generic single scalar field Lagrangian minimally coupled to Einstein gravity. In order for such a model to be consistent with the current upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, there must be an enhancement of the curvature fluctuations during the bounce phase. We show that, while it remains possible to enlarge the amplitude of curvature perturbations due to the nontrivial background evolution, this growth is very limited because of the conservation of curvature perturbations on super-Hubble scales. We further perform a general analysis of the evolution of primordial non-Gaussianities through the bounce phase. By studying the general form of the bispectrum we show that the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL (which is of order unity before the bounce phase) is enhanced during the bounce phase if the curvature fluctuations grow. Hence, in such nonsingular bounce models with matter given by a single scalar field, there appears to be a tension between obtaining a small enough tensor-to-scalar ratio and not obtaining a value of fNL in excess of the current upper bounds. This conclusion may be considered as a "no-go" theorem that rules out any single field matter bounce cosmology starting with vacuum initial conditions for the fluctuations.

  10. Accelerated Observers, Thermal Entropy, and Spacetime Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Kothawala, Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that an accelerated observer with four-velocity ${\\bf u}_{\\rm R}$ in a curved spacetime attributes the standard Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and Unruh temperature to his "local Rindler horizon", we show that the $\\rm \\it change$ in horizon area under parametric displacements of the horizon has a very specific thermodynamic structure. Specifically, it entails information about the time-time component of the Einstein tensor: $\\bf G({\\bf u}_{\\rm R}, {\\bf u}_{\\rm R})$. Demanding that the result holds for all accelerated observers, this actually becomes a statement about the full Einstein tensor, $\\rm \\bf G$. We also present some perspectives on the free fall with four-velocity ${\\bf u}_{\\rm ff}$ across the horizon that leads to such a loss of entropy for an accelerated observer. Motivated by results for some simple quantum systems at finite temperature $T$, we conjecture that at high temperatures, there exists a universal, system-independent curvature correction to partition function and thermal entropy of...

  11. Berry curvature and various thermal Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifa

    2016-10-01

    Applying the approach of semiclassical wave packet dynamics, we study various thermal Hall effects where carriers can be electron, phonon, magnon, etc. A general formula of thermal Hall conductivity is obtained to provide an essential physics for various thermal Hall effects, where the Berry phase effect manifests naturally. All the formulas of electron thermal Hall effect, phonon Hall effect, and magnon Hall effect can be directly reproduced from the general formula. It is also found that the Strěda formula can not be directly applied to the thermal Hall effects, where only the edge magnetization contributes to the Hall effects. Furthermore, we obtain a combined formula for anomalous Hall conductivity, thermal Hall electronic conductivity and thermal Hall conductivity for electron systems, where the Berry curvature is weighted by a different function. Finally, we discuss particle magnetization and its relation to angular momentum of the carrier, change of which could induce a mechanical rotation; and possible experiments for thermal Hall effect associated with a mechanical rotation are also proposed.

  12. Characterizing repulsive gravity with curvature eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Repulsive gravity has been investigated in several scenarios near compact objects by using different intuitive approaches. Here, we propose an invariant method to characterize regions of repulsive gravity, associated to black holes and naked singularities. Our method is based upon the behavior of the curvature tensor eigenvalues, and leads to an invariant definition of a repulsion radius. The repulsion radius determines a physical region, which can be interpreted as a repulsion sphere, where the effects due to repulsive gravity naturally arise. Further, we show that the use of effective masses to characterize repulsion regions can lead to coordinate-dependent results whereas, in our approach, repulsion emerges as a consequence of the spacetime geometry in a completely invariant way. Our definition is tested in the spacetime of an electrically charged Kerr naked singularity and in all its limiting cases. We show that a positive mass can generate repulsive gravity if it is equipped with an electric charge or an angular momentum. We obtain reasonable results for the spacetime regions contained inside the repulsion sphere whose size and shape depend on the value of the mass, charge and angular momentum. Consequently, we define repulsive gravity as a classical relativistic effect by using the geometry of spacetime only.

  13. Programming curvature using origami tessellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudte, Levi H; Vouga, Etienne; Tachi, Tomohiro; Mahadevan, L

    2016-05-01

    Origami describes rules for creating folded structures from patterns on a flat sheet, but does not prescribe how patterns can be designed to fit target shapes. Here, starting from the simplest periodic origami pattern that yields one-degree-of-freedom collapsible structures-we show that scale-independent elementary geometric constructions and constrained optimization algorithms can be used to determine spatially modulated patterns that yield approximations to given surfaces of constant or varying curvature. Paper models confirm the feasibility of our calculations. We also assess the difficulty of realizing these geometric structures by quantifying the energetic barrier that separates the metastable flat and folded states. Moreover, we characterize the trade-off between the accuracy to which the pattern conforms to the target surface, and the effort associated with creating finer folds. Our approach enables the tailoring of origami patterns to drape complex surfaces independent of absolute scale, as well as the quantification of the energetic and material cost of doing so.

  14. Cosmic acceleration from matter-curvature coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaregonbadi, Raziyeh; Farhoudi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    We consider f( {R,T} ) modified theory of gravity in which, in general, the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We indicate that in this type of the theory, the coupling energy-momentum tensor is not conserved. However, we mainly focus on a particular model that matter is minimally coupled to the geometry in the metric formalism and wherein, its coupling energy-momentum tensor is also conserved. We obtain the corresponding Raychaudhuri dynamical equation that presents the evolution of the kinematic quantities. Then for the chosen model, we derive the behavior of the deceleration parameter, and show that the coupling term can lead to an acceleration phase after the matter dominated phase. On the other hand, the curvature of the universe corresponds with the deviation from parallelism in the geodesic motion. Thus, we also scrutinize the motion of the free test particles on their geodesics, and derive the geodesic deviation equation in this modified theory to study the accelerating universe within the spatially flat FLRW background. Actually, this equation gives the relative accelerations of adjacent particles as a measurable physical quantity, and provides an elegant tool to investigate the timelike and the null structures of spacetime geometries. Then, through the null deviation vector, we find the observer area-distance as a function of the redshift for the chosen model, and compare the results with the corresponding results obtained in the literature.

  15. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G., E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.

  16. Profile Curvature Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Profile curvature describes the rate...

  17. Curvature Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Curvature describes the rate of change of...

  18. Plan Curvature Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Plan curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Plan curvature describes the rate of...

  19. 3D curvature of muscle fascicles in triceps surae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Manku; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Wakeling, James M

    2014-12-01

    Muscle fascicles curve along their length, with the curvatures occurring around regions of high intramuscular pressure, and are necessary for mechanical stability. Fascicles are typically considered to lie in fascicle planes that are the planes visualized during dissection or two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound scans. However, it has previously been predicted that fascicles must curve in three-dimensional (3D) and thus the fascicle planes may actually exist as 3D sheets. 3D fascicle curvatures have not been explored in human musculature. Furthermore, if the fascicles do not lie in 2D planes, then this has implications for architectural measures that are derived from 2D ultrasound scans. The purpose of this study was to quantify the 3D curvatures of the muscle fascicles and fascicle sheets within the triceps surae muscles and to test whether these curvatures varied among different contraction levels, muscle length, and regions within the muscle. Six male subjects were tested for three torque levels (0, 30, and 60% maximal voluntary contraction) and four ankle angles (-15, 0, 15, and 30° plantar flexion), and fascicles were imaged using 3D ultrasound techniques. The fascicle curvatures significantly increased at higher ankle torques and shorter muscle lengths. The fascicle sheet curvatures were of similar magnitude to the fascicle curvatures but did not vary between contractions. Fascicle curvatures were regionalized within each muscle with the curvature facing the deeper aponeuroses, and this indicates a greater intramuscular pressure in the deeper layers of muscles. Muscle architectural measures may be in error when using 2D images for complex geometries such as the soleus.

  20. Influence of Coanda surface curvature on performance of bladeless fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Hu, Yongjun; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2014-10-01

    The unique Coanda surface has a great influence on the performance of bladeless fan. However, there is few studies to explain the relationship between the performance and Coanda surface curvature at present. In order to gain a qualitative understanding of effect of the curvature on the performance of bladeless fan, numerical studies are performed in this paper. Firstly, three-dimensional numerical simulation is done by Fluent software. For the purpose to obtain detailed information of the flow field around the Coanda surface, two-dimensional numerical simulation is also conducted. Five types of Coanda surfaces with different curvature are designed, and the flow behaviour and the performance of them are analyzed and compared with those of the prototype. The analysis indicates that the curvature of Coanda surface is strongly related to blowing performance, It is found that there is an optimal curvature of Coanda surfaces among the studied models. Simulation result shows that there is a special low pressure region. With increasing curvature in Y direction, several low pressure regions gradually enlarged, then begin to merge slowly, and finally form a large area of low pressure. From the analyses of streamlines and velocity angle, it is found that the magnitude of the curvature affects the flow direction and reasonable curvature can induce fluid flow close to the wall. Thus, it leads to that the curvature of the streamlines is consistent with that of Coanda surface. Meanwhile, it also causes the fluid movement towards the most suitable direction. This study will provide useful information to performance improvements of bladeless fans.

  1. Spacetime Curvature in terms of Scalar Field Propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Saravani, Mehdi; Kempf, Achim

    2015-01-01

    We show how quantum fields can be used to measure the curvature of spacetime. In particular, we find that knowledge of the imprint that spacetime curvature leaves in the correlators of quantum fields suffices, in principle, to reconstruct the metric. We then consider the possibility that the quantum fields obey a natural ultraviolet cutoff, for example, at the Planck scale. We investigate how such a cutoff limits the spatial resolution with which curvature can be deduced from the properties of quantum fields. We find that the metric deduced from the quantum correlator exhibits a peculiar scaling behavior as the scale of the natural UV cutoff is approached.

  2. Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.

  3. 3-manifolds with(out) metrics of nonpositive curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Leeb, B

    1994-01-01

    In the context of Thurstons geometrisation program we address the question which compact aspherical 3-manifolds admit Riemannian metrics of nonpositive curvature. We show that non-geometric Haken manifolds generically, but not always, admit such metrics. More precisely, we prove that a Haken manifold with, possibly empty, boundary of zero Euler characteristic admits metrics of nonpositive curvature if the boundary is non-empty or if at least one atoroidal component occurs in its canonical topological decomposition. Our arguments are based on Thurstons Hyperbolisation Theorem. We give examples of closed graph-manifolds with linear gluing graph and arbitrarily many Seifert components which do not admit metrics of nonpositive curvature.

  4. Geometry-specific scaling of detonation parameters from front curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    It has previously been asserted that classical detonation curvature theory predicts that the critical diameter and the diameter-effect curve of a cylindrical high-explosive charge should scale with twice the thickness of an analogous two-dimensional explosive slab. The varied agreement of experimental results with this expectation have led some to question the ability of curvature-based concepts to predict detonation propagation in non-ideal explosives. This study addresses such claims by showing that the expected scaling relationship (hereafter referred to d = 2w) is not consistent with curvature-based Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory.

  5. On Hypersurfaces with two Distinct Principal Curvatures in Space Forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bing Ye Wu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the immersed hypersurfaces in space forms $\\mathbb{N}^{n+1}(c),n≥ 4$ with two distinct non-simple principal curvatures without the assumption that the (high order) mean curvature is constant. We prove that any immersed hypersurface in space forms with two distinct non-simple principal curvatures is locally conformal to the Riemannian product of two constant curved manifolds. We also obtain some characterizations for the Clifford hypersurfaces in terms of the trace free part of the second fundamental form.

  6. Motion on constant curvature spaces and quantization using Noether symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is presented for quantizing a metric nonlinear system on a manifold of constant curvature. It makes use of a curvature dependent procedure which relies on determining Noether symmetries from the metric. The curvature of the space functions as a constant parameter. For a specific metric which defines the manifold, Lie differentiation of the metric gives these symmetries. A metric is used such that the resulting Schrödinger equation can be solved in terms of hypergeometric functions. This permits the investigation of both the energy spectrum and wave functions exactly for this system.

  7. Effect of membrane curvature on lateral distribution of membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Several membrane proteins exhibit interesting shapes that increases their preference for certain membrane curvatures. Both peripheral and transmembrane proteins are tested with respect to their affinity for a spectrum of high membrane curvatures. We generate high membrane curvatures by pulling...... membrane tubes out of Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). The tube diameter can be tuned by aspirating the GUV into a micropipette for controlling the membrane tension. By using fluorescently labled proteins we have shown that sorting of proteins like e.g. FBAR onto tubes is significantly increased...

  8. Surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector in complex space forms

    CERN Document Server

    Fetcu, Dorel

    2010-01-01

    We consider a quadratic form defined on the surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector of an any dimensional complex space form and prove that its $(2,0)$-part is holomorphic. When the complex dimension of the ambient space is equal to $2$ we define a second quadratic form with the same property and then determine those surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector on which the $(2,0)$-parts of both of them vanish. We also provide a reduction of codimension theorem and prove a non-existence result for $2$-spheres with parallel mean curvature vector.

  9. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman NNAA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab Rahman,1 Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh,1 Raymond Lee2 1Physiotherapy Programme, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2School of Applied Sciences, London South Bank University, London, UK Abstract: Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation age of 66.63 (5.16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were -46.30° (14.66° and 14.10° (10.58°, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r=-0.23, P<0.05; forced vital capacity: r=-0.32, P<0.05, quiet expiration intercostal thickness (r=-0.22, P<0.05 and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness (r=-0.21, P<0.05. The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength (r=-0.29, P<0.05 and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration (r=-0.22, P<0.05. However, respiratory rate

  10. Holomorphic Bisectional Curvatures, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2012-01-01

    Working in $D=4, N=1$ supergravity, we utilize relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures of Kahler manifolds to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. We show the following No-Go result: Affleck-Dine baryogenesis cannot be performed if the holomorphic sectional curvature at the origin is isotropic in tangent space; as a special case, this rules out spaces of constant holomorphic sectional curvature (defined in the above sense) and in particular maximally symmetric coset spaces. We also investigate scenarios where inflationary supersymmetry breaking is identified with the supersymmetry breaking responsible for mass splitting in the visible sector, using conditions of sequestering to constrain manifolds where inflation can be performed.

  11. Engineering Curvature-Induced Anisotropy in Thin Ferromagnetic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiakov, Oleg A.; Morini, Massimiliano; Vasylkevych, Sergiy; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the effect of large curvature and dipolar energy in thin ferromagnetic films with periodically modulated top and bottom surfaces on magnetization behavior. We predict that the dipolar interaction and surface curvature can produce perpendicular anisotropy which can be controlled by engineering special types of periodic surface structures. Similar effects can be achieved by a significant surface roughness in the film. We demonstrate that, in general, the anisotropy can point in an arbitrary direction depending on the surface curvature. Furthermore, we provide simple examples of these periodic surface structures to show how to engineer particular anisotropies in thin films.

  12. Curvature-driven assembly in soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Iris B; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2016-07-28

    Control over the spatial arrangement of colloids in soft matter hosts implies control over a wide variety of properties, ranging from the system's rheology, optics, and catalytic activity. In directed assembly, colloids are typically manipulated using external fields to form well-defined structures at given locations. We have been developing alternative strategies based on fields that arise when a colloid is placed within soft matter to form an inclusion that generates a potential field. Such potential fields allow particles to interact with each other. If the soft matter host is deformed in some way, the potential allows the particles to interact with the global system distortion. One important example is capillary assembly of colloids on curved fluid interfaces. Upon attaching, the particle distorts that interface, with an associated energy field, given by the product of its interfacial area and the surface tension. The particle's capillary energy depends on the local interface curvature. We explore this coupling in experiment and theory. There are important analogies in liquid crystals. Colloids in liquid crystals elicit an elastic energy response. When director fields are moulded by confinement, the imposed elastic energy field can couple to that of the colloid to define particle paths and sites for assembly. By improving our understanding of these and related systems, we seek to develop new, parallelizable routes for particle assembly to form reconfigurable systems in soft matter that go far beyond the usual close-packed colloidal structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'.

  13. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-01-18

    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  14. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  15. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  16. Stability and instability of expanding solutions to the Lorentzian constant-positive-mean-curvature flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Willie Wai-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    We study constant mean curvature Lorentzian hypersurfaces of $\\mathbb{R}^{1,d+1}$ from the point of view of its Cauchy problem. We completely classify the spherically symmetric solutions, which include among them a manifold isometric to the de Sitter space of general relativity. We show that the spherically symmetric solutions exhibit one of three (future) asymptotic behaviours: (i) finite time collapse (ii) convergence to a time-like cylinder isometric to some $\\mathbb{R}\\times\\mathbb{S}^d$ and (iii) infinite expansion to the future converging asymptotically to a time translation of the de Sitter solution. For class (iii) we examine the future stability properties of the solutions under arbitrary (not necessarily spherically symmetric) perturbations. We show that the usual notions of asymptotic stability and modulational stability cannot apply, and connect this to the presence of cosmological horizons in these class (iii) solutions. We can nevertheless show the global existence and future stability for small...

  17. Discrete gravity as a topological gauge theory with light-like curvature defects

    CERN Document Server

    Wieland, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    I present a model of discrete gravity, which is formulated in terms of a topological gauge theory with defects. The theory has no local degrees of freedom and the gravitational field is trivial everywhere except at a number of colliding null surfaces, which represent a system of curvature defects propagating at the speed of light. The underlying action is local and it is studied in both its Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation. The canonically conjugate variables on the null surfaces are a spinor and a spinor-valued two-surface density, which are coupled to a topological field theory for the Lorentz connection in the bulk. I discuss the relevance of the model for non-perturbative approaches to quantum gravity, such as loop quantum gravity, where similar variables have recently appeared as well.

  18. Discrete gravity as a topological field theory with light-like curvature defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    I present a model of discrete gravity as a topological field theory with defects. The theory has no local degrees of freedom and the gravitational field is trivial everywhere except at a number of intersecting null surfaces. At these null surfaces, the gravitational field can be singular, representing a curvature defect propagating at the speed of light. The underlying action is local and it is studied in both its Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation. The canonically conjugate variables on the null surfaces are a spinor and a spinor-valued two-surface density, which are coupled to a topological field theory for the Lorentz connection in the bulk. I discuss the relevance of the model for non-perturbative approaches to quantum gravity, such as loop quantum gravity, where similar variables have recently appeared as well.

  19. Junction conditions of cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of perturbations is studied in cosmological models which consist of two different homogeneous regions connected in a spherical shell boundary. The junction conditions for the metric perturbations and the displacements of the shell boundary are analyzed and the surface densities of the perturbed energy and momentum in the shell are derived, using Mukohyama's gauge-invariant formalism and the Israel discontinuity condition. In both homogeneous regions the perturbations of scalar, vector and tensor types are expanded using the 3-dimensional harmonic functions, but the model coupling among them is caused in the shell by the inhomogeneity. By treating the perturbations with odd and even parities separately, it is found, however, that we can have consistent displacements and surface densities for given metric parturbations

  20. Perturbations in Massive Gravity Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Crisostomi, Marco; Pilo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations for a ghost free massive gravity theory formulated with a dynamical extra metric that is needed to massive deform GR. In this formulation FRW background solutions fall in two branches. In the dynamics of perturbations around the first branch solutions, no extra degree of freedom with respect to GR ispresent at linearized level, likewise what is found in the Stuckelberg formulation of massive gravity where the extra metric isflat and non dynamical. In the first branch, perturbations are probably strongly coupled. On the contrary, for perturbations around the second branch solutions all expected degrees of freedom propagate. While tensor and vector perturbations of the physical metric that couples with matter follow closely the ones of GR, scalars develop an exponential Jeans-like instability on sub-horizon scales. On the other hand, around a de Sitter background there is no instability. We argue that one could get rid of the instabilities by introducing a mirror dark matter ...

  1. Multiplicative perturbations of local -semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chung-Cheng Kuo

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we establish some left and right multiplicative perturbation theorems concerning local -semigroups when the generator of a perturbed local -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ may not be densely defined and the perturbation operator is a bounded linear operator from $\\overline{D(A)}$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$, which can be applied to obtain some additive perturbation theorems for local -semigroups in which is a bounded linear operator from $[D(A)]$ into () such that = on $\\overline{D(A)}$. We also show that the perturbations of a (local) -semigroup $S(\\cdot)$ are exponentially bounded (resp., norm continuous, locally Lipschitz continuous, or exponentially Lipschitz continuous) if $S(\\cdot)$ is.

  2. A mean curvature estimate for cylindrically bounded submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Alias, Luis J

    2010-01-01

    We extend the estimate obtained in [1] for the mean curvature of a cylindrically bounded proper submanifold in a product manifold with an Euclidean space as one factor to a general product ambient space endowed with a warped product structure.

  3. Comment on "On curvature coupling and quintessence fine-tuning"

    CERN Document Server

    Franca, U

    2005-01-01

    In this comment, we show explicitly that the phenomenological model in which the quintessence field depends linearly on the energy density of the spatial curvature can provide acceleration for the universe, contrary to recent claims it could not.

  4. Inverse lyotropic phases of lipids and membrane curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearman, G C; Ces, O; Templer, R H; Seddon, J M [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-19

    In recent years it has become evident that many biological functions and processes are associated with the adoption by cellular membranes of complex geometries, at least locally. In this paper, we initially discuss the range of self-assembled structures that lipids, the building blocks of biological membranes, may form, focusing specifically on the inverse lyotropic phases of negative interfacial mean curvature. We describe the roles of curvature elasticity and packing frustration in controlling the stability of these inverse phases, and the experimental determination of the spontaneous curvature and the curvature elastic parameters. We discuss how the lyotropic phase behaviour can be tuned by the addition of compounds such as long-chain alkanes, which can relieve packing frustration. The latter section of the paper elaborates further on the structure, geometric properties, and stability of the inverse bicontinuous cubic phases.

  5. Curvature-based Hyperbolic Systems for General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Anderson, A; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.; Anderson, Arlen

    1998-01-01

    We review curvature-based hyperbolic forms of the evolution part of the Cauchy problem of General Relativity that we have obtained recently. We emphasize first order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems possessing only physical characteristics.

  6. Abnormalities of penile curvature: chordee and penile torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Sylvia; Palmer, Lane S

    2011-07-28

    Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position. Varying degrees of penile curvature are observed in 4-10% of males in the absence of hypospadias. Penile torsion can be observed at birth or in older boys who were circumcised at birth. Surgical management of congenital curvature without hypospadias can present a challenge to the pediatric urologist. The most widely used surgical techniques include penile degloving and dorsal plication. This paper will review the current theories for the etiology of penile curvature, discuss the spectrum of severity of congenital chordee and penile torsion, and present varying surgical techniques for the correction of penile curvature in the absence of hypospadias.

  7. Bacterial cell curvature through mechanical control of cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabeen, M.; Charbon, Godefroid; Vollmer, W.

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a key regulator of cell morphogenesis. Crescentin, a bacterial intermediate filament-like protein, is required for the curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus and localizes to the inner cell curvature. Here, we show that crescentin forms a single filamentous structure...... that collapses into a helix when detached from the cell membrane, suggesting that it is normally maintained in a stretched configuration. Crescentin causes an elongation rate gradient around the circumference of the sidewall, creating a longitudinal cell length differential and hence curvature. Such curvature...... can be produced by physical force alone when cells are grown in circular microchambers. Production of crescentin in Escherichia coli is sufficient to generate cell curvature. Our data argue for a model in which physical strain borne by the crescentin structure anisotropically alters the kinetics...

  8. Abnormalities of Penile Curvature: Chordee and Penile Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Montag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position. Varying degrees of penile curvature are observed in 4–10% of males in the absence of hypospadias. Penile torsion can be observed at birth or in older boys who were circumcised at birth. Surgical management of congenital curvature without hypospadias can present a challenge to the pediatric urologist. The most widely used surgical techniques include penile degloving and dorsal plication. This paper will review the current theories for the etiology of penile curvature, discuss the spectrum of severity of congenital chordee and penile torsion, and present varying surgical techniques for the correction of penile curvature in the absence of hypospadias.

  9. Quasi-Maxwell interpretation of the spin-curvature coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Natario, J

    2007-01-01

    We write the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations of motion for a spinning particle in a stationary spacetime using the quasi-Maxwell formalism and give an interpretation of the coupling between spin and curvature.

  10. Changes on the corneal thickness and curvature after orthokeratology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Iwane; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the corneal thickness and curvature changes after Orthokeratology contact lens wear, using the ORBSCAN II corneal topography system, corneal thickness and corneal curvature were measured on one hundred and twenty eyes of sixty patients before and after wearing the custom rigid gas permeable contact lenses for Orthokeratology. The contact lenses were specially designed for each eye. The subjects wore the orthokeratology lenses for approximately Four hours with their eyes closed. The corneal thickness of the subjects was increased on fifty-five eyes at not only the peripheral zone but also the center of the cornea. The average increase of central and peripheral corneal thickness was 18 micrometer and 22micrometer, respectively. The mean anterior curvature of corneal surface changed 1.25D. The mean posterior curvature of corneal endothelium side changed 0.75D.

  11. A compactness theorem for surfaces with Bounded Integral Curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Debin, Clément

    2016-01-01

    We prove a compactness theorem for metrics with Bounded Integral Curvature on a fixed closed surface $\\Sigma$. As a corollary, we obtain a compactification of the space of Riemannian metrics with conical singularities, where an accumulation of singularities is allowed.

  12. A Method for Wavefront Curvature Ranging of Speech Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Method for Wavefront Curvature Ranging of Speech Sources. ... A new approach for estimating the location of a speech source in a reverberant environment is presented. The approach ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Khoi; Bandi, Mahesh M; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Fish behaviour and its ecological niche require modulation of its fin stiffness. Using mathematical analyses of rayed fish fins, we show that curvature transverse to the rays is central to fin stiffness. We model the fin as rays with anisotropic bending that are connected by an elastic membrane. For fins with transverse curvature, external loads that bend the rays also splay them apart, which stretches the membrane. This coupling, between ray bending and membrane stretching, underlies the curvature-induced stiffness. A fin that appears flat may still exhibit bending-stretching coupling if the principal bending axes of adjacent rays are misaligned by virtue of intrinsic geometry, i.e. morphologically flat yet functionally curved. Analysis of the pectoral fin of a mackerel shows such functional curvature. Furthermore, as identified by our analyses, the mackerel's fin morphology endows it with the potential to modulate stiffness over a wide range.

  14. Curvature-Squared Cosmology In The First-Order Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Paper presents theoretical study of some of general-relativistic ramifications of gravitational-field energy density proportional to R - alpha R(exp 2) (where R is local scalar curvature of space-time and alpha is a constant).

  15. Curvature Control of Silicon Microlens for THz Dielectric Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cooper, Ken; Mehdi, Imran

    2012-01-01

    We have controlled the curvature of silicon microlens by changing the amount of photoresist in order to microfabricate hemispherical silicon microlens which can improve the directivity and reduce substrate mode losses.

  16. Facial landmark localization by curvature maps and profile analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippold, Carsten; Liu, Xiang; Wangdo, Kim; Drerup, Burkhard; Schreiber, Kristina; Kirschneck, Christian; Moiseenko, Tatjana; Danesh, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    .... This study wants to evaluate and present an objective method for measuring selected facial landmarks based on an analysis of curvature maps and of sagittal profile obtained by a laser-scanning method...

  17. Springback prediction of three-dimensional variable curvature tube bending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Shen; Wu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    .... The springback prediction of three-dimensional variable curvature bent tube is projected on each discrete osculating and rectifying plane, and then the three-dimensional problem can be transformed into two dimensions...

  18. Curvature Control of Silicon Microlens for THz Dielectric Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cooper, Ken; Mehdi, Imran

    2012-01-01

    We have controlled the curvature of silicon microlens by changing the amount of photoresist in order to microfabricate hemispherical silicon microlens which can improve the directivity and reduce substrate mode losses.

  19. Strong curvature singularities in quasispherical asymptotically de Sitter dust collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, S M C V

    2001-01-01

    We study the occurrence, visibility, and curvature strength of singularities in dust-containing Szekeres spacetimes (which possess no Killing vectors) with a positive cosmological constant. We find that such singularities can be locally naked, Tipler strong, and develop from a non-zero-measure set of regular initial data. When examined along timelike geodesics, the singularity's curvature strength is found to be independent of the initial data.

  20. A novel curvature-controllable steerable needle for percutaneous intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Van Khuyen; Park, Sukho; Park, Jong-Oh; Ko, Seong Young

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few decades, flexible steerable robotic needles for percutaneous intervention have been the subject of significant interest. However, there still remain issues related to (a) steering the needle's direction with less damage to surrounding tissues and (b) increasing the needle's maximum curvature for better controllability. One widely used approach is to control the fixed-angled bevel-tip needle using a "duty-cycle" algorithm. While this algorithm has shown its applicability, it can potentially damage surrounding tissue, which has prevented the widespread adoption of this technology. This situation has motivated the development of a new steerable flexible needle that can change its curvature without axial rotation, while at the same time producing a larger curvature. In this article, we propose a novel curvature-controllable steerable needle. The proposed robotic needle consists of two parts: a cannula and a stylet with a bevel-tip. The curvature of the needle's path is controlled by a control offset, defined by the offset between the bevel-tip and the cannula. As a result, the necessity of rotating the whole needle's body is decreased. The duty-cycle algorithm is utilized to a limited degree to obtain a larger radius of curvature, which is similar to a straight path. The first prototype of 0.46 mm (outer diameter) was fabricated and tested with both in vitro gelatin phantom and ex vivo cow liver tissue. The maximum curvatures measured 0.008 mm(-1) in 6 wt% gelatin phantom, 0.0139 mm(-1) in 10 wt% gelatin phantom, and 0.0038 mm(-1) in cow liver. The experimental results show a linear relationship between the curvature and the control offset, which can be utilized for future implementation of this control algorithm.

  1. Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Khoi; Yu, Ning; Bandi, Mahesh M.; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching the ...

  2. Influence of curvature on the losses of doubly clad fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuse, D

    1982-12-01

    The loss increase of the HE(11) mode of a doubly clad (depressed-index) fiber due to constant curvature is considered. The calculations presented in this paper are based on a simplified theory. We find that for typical fibers the leakage loss of the HE(11) mode begins to increase significantly when the radius of curvature of the fiber axis reaches the 1-10-cm range.

  3. No fast food for solving higher curvature gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, gravity theories with higher curvature terms have attracted considerable attentions. Due to the complicated form of the equations of motion, an effective action method, basically based on substituting a metric ansatz into the action and then replacing the original action by the resulting "effective action", is often practiced while finding solutions to such theories. We indicate via explicit example, however, that this procedure is mathematically inconsistent, thus calling for an end for using this method in analyzing higher curvature gravities.

  4. Abnormalities of Penile Curvature: Chordee and Penile Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Congenital chordee and penile torsion are commonly observed in the presence of hypospadias, but can also be seen in boys with the meatus in its orthotopic position. Varying degrees of penile curvature are observed in 4–10% of males in the absence of hypospadias. Penile torsion can be observed at birth or in older boys who were circumcised at birth. Surgical management of congenital curvature without hypospadias can present a challenge to the pediatric urologist. The most widely used surgical ...

  5. Incidence of penile curvature in various forms of hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the penis, characterised by ectopically positioned urethral meatus and associated anomalies (cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, penile curvature. Proximal forms of hypospadias, as severe cases, are particularly accompanied by penile curvature (chordee. Distal types are considered to be mild degrees. Objective. To determine the incidence of congenital curvature within various forms of hypospadias in order to signify preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of chordee as a part of hypospadias repair. Methods. The total of 454 patients with hypospadias were treated surgically in a five-year period (2001-2006. at the University Children's Hospital of Belgrade. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgeon who had treated them. Only the first group of patients was tested for chordee as a part of standard procedure and complete treatment. In both groups we analyzed the number of patients treated for penile curvature within various types of hypospadias. We also compared scores in the two groups using Fisher test and χ2-test. Results. Scanning retrospective, 104 cases (22.9% of diagnosed and surgically corrected chordee were determined. In 31.6% of patients from the first group and 11.6% of patients from the second group we diagnosed and corrected some form of penile curvature was. Chordee was significantly more frequent in the first group, regarding hypospadias in general (p<0.01, as well as distal (p<0.05 and mid shaft forms (p<0.01. Conclusion. Penile curvature is not uncommon in hypospadias. In this study we report a significantly higher frequency as related to the patients in the second group who were not tested for curvature during hypospadias treatment. This is why standard techniques in hypospadias repair should definitely include the diagnosis and surgical correction of penile curvature.

  6. Topographic mapping of biological specimens: flexure and curvature characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, William S.; Baron, Sandra F.

    2004-07-01

    Shape quantification of tissue and biomaterials can be central to many studies and applications in bioengineering and biomechanics. Often, shape is mapped with photogrammetry or projected light techniques that provide XYZ point cloud data, and shape is quantified using derived flexure and curvature calculations based on the point cloud data. Accordingly, the accuracy of the calculated curvature depends on the properties of the point cloud data set. In this study, we present a curvature variability prediction (CVP) software model that predicts the distribution, i.e., the standard deviation, of curvature measurements associated with surface topography point cloud data properties. The CVP model point cloud data input variables include XYZ noise, sampling density, and map extent. The CVP model outputs the curvature variability statistic in order to assess performance in the curvature domain. Representative point cloud data properties are obtained from an automated biological specimen video topographer, the BioSpecVT (ver. 1.02) (Vision Metrics, Inc.,). The BioSpecVT uses a calibrated, structured light pattern to support automated computer vision feature extraction software for precisely converting video images of biological specimens, within seconds, into three dimensional point cloud data. In representative sample point cloud data obtained with the BioSpecVT, sampling density is about 11 pts/mm2 for an XYZ mapping volume encompassing about 16 mm x 13.5 mm x 18.5 mm, average XY per point variability is about +/-2 μm, and Z axis variability is about +/-40 μm (50% level) with a Gaussian distribution. A theoretical study with the CVP model shows that for derived point cloud data properties, curvature mapping accuracy increases, i.e. measurement variability decreases, when curvature increases from about 30 m-1 to 137 m-1. This computed result is consistent with the Z axis noise becoming less significant as the measured depth increases across an approximately fixed XY

  7. Approximations of the Wiener sausage and its curvature measures

    CERN Document Server

    Rataj, Jan; Meschenmoser, Daniel; 10.1214/09-AAP596

    2009-01-01

    A parallel neighborhood of a path of a Brownian motion is sometimes called the Wiener sausage. We consider almost sure approximations of this random set by a sequence of random polyconvex sets and show that the convergence of the corresponding mean curvature measures holds under certain conditions in two and three dimensions. Based on these convergence results, the mean curvature measures of the Wiener sausage are calculated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations in two dimensions. The corresponding approximation formulae are given.

  8. Existence of conformal metrics on spheres with prescribed Paneitz curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ayed, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of prescribing a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n >= 5. Using tools from the theory of critical points at infinity, we provide some topological conditions on the level sets of a given function defined on the sphere, under which we prove the existence of conformal metric with prescribed Paneitz curvature.

  9. Pseudo-umbilical Biharmonic Submanifolds in Constant Curvature Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Li; ZHANG Juan

    2012-01-01

    The conjecture [1] asserts that any biharmonic submanifold in sphere has constant mean curvature.In this paper,we first prove that this conjecture is true for pseudo-umbilical biharmonic submanifolds Mn in constant curvature spaces Sn+P(c)(c > 0),generalizing the result in [1].Secondly,some sufficient conditions for pseudo-umbilical proper biharmonic submanifolds Mn to be totally umbilical ones are obtained.

  10. Curvature-driven acceleration: a utopia or a reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sudipta [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Banerjee, Narayan [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Dadhich, Naresh [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-06-21

    The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contributions from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature.

  11. Curvature driven acceleration an utopia or a reality ?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, S; Dadhich, N; Das, Sudipta; Banerjee, Narayan; Dadhich, Naresh

    2005-01-01

    The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contribution from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature.

  12. The effect of illuminant position on perceived curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, W; Johnston, A

    1996-05-01

    In shaded scenes surface features can appear either concave or convex, depending upon the viewer's judgement about the direction of the prevailing illumination. If other curvature cues are added to the image this ambiguity can be removed. However, it is not clear to what extent, if any, illuminant position exerts an influence on the perceived magnitude of surface curvature. Subjects were presented with pairs of spherical surface patches in a curvature matching task. The patches were defined by shading and texture cues. The perceived curvature of a standard patch was measured as a function of light source position. We found a clear effect of light source position on apparent curvature. Perceived curvature decreased as light source tilt increased and as light source slant decreased. We also found that the strength of this effect is determined partly by a surface's reflectance function and partly by the relative weight of the texture cue. When a specular component was added to the stimuli, the effect of light source orientation was weakened. The weight of the texture cue was manipulated by disrupting the regular distribution of texture elements. We found an inverse relationship between the strength of the effect and the weight of the texture cue: lowering the texture cue weight resulted in an enhancement of the illuminant position effect.

  13. Monolayer spontaneous curvature of raft-forming membrane lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmitzer, Benjamin; Heftberger, Peter; Rappolt, Michael; Pabst, Georg

    Monolayer spontaneous curvatures for cholesterol, DOPE, POPE, DOPC, DPPC, DSPC, POPC, SOPC, and egg sphingomyelin were obtained using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on inverted hexagonal phases (HII). Spontaneous curvatures of bilayer forming lipids were estimated by adding controlled amounts to a HII forming template following previously established protocols. Spontanous curvatures of both phosphatidylethanolamines and cholesterol were found to be at least a factor of two more negative than those of phosphatidylcholines, whose J0 are closer to zero. Interestingly, a significant positive J0 value (+0.1 1/nm) was retrieved for DPPC at 25 {\\deg}C. We further determined the temperature dependence of the spontaneous curvatures J0(T) in the range from 15 to 55 \\degC, resulting in a quite narrow distribution of -1 to -3 * 10^-3 1/nm{\\deg}C for most investigated lipids. The data allowed us to estimate the monolayer spontaneous curvatures of ternary lipid mixtures showing liquid ordered / liquid disordered phase coexistence. We report spontaneous curvature phase diagrams for DSPC/DOPC/Chol, DPPC/DOPC/Chol and SM/POPC/Chol and discuss effects on protein insertion and line tension.

  14. Non-additive compositional curvature energetics of lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodt, A.J.; Venable, R.M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface in turn govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and will thus underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. The letter describes observations from simulations of unexpected non-additive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature. PMID:27715135

  15. Nanoscale Membrane Curvature detected by Polarized Localization Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher; Maarouf, Abir; Woodward, Xinxin

    Nanoscale membrane curvature is a necessary component of countless cellular processes. Here we present Polarized Localization Microscopy (PLM), a super-resolution optical imaging technique that enables the detection of nanoscale membrane curvature with order-of-magnitude improvements over comparable optical techniques. PLM combines the advantages of polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence localization microscopy to reveal single-fluorophore locations and orientations without reducing localization precision by point spread function manipulation. PLM resolved nanoscale membrane curvature of a supported lipid bilayer draped over polystyrene nanoparticles on a glass coverslip, thus creating a model membrane with coexisting flat and curved regions and membrane radii of curvature as small as 20 nm. Further, PLM provides single-molecule trajectories and the aggregation of curvature-inducing proteins with super-resolution to reveal the correlated effects of membrane curvature, dynamics, and molecular sorting. For example, cholera toxin subunit B has been observed to induce nanoscale membrane budding and concentrate at the bud neck. PLM reveals a previously hidden and critical information of membrane topology.

  16. Solitary Wave and Wave Front as Viewed From Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Kuo; FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIANG Fu-Ming; XIN Guo-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The solitary wave and wave front are two important behaviors of nonlinear evolution equations. Geometri cally, solitary wave and wave front are all plane curve. In this paper, they can be represented in terms of curvature c(s), which varies with arc length s. For solitary wave when s →±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero, and when s = 0, the curvature c(s) reaches its maximum. For wave front, when s →±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero, and when s = 0, the curvature c(s) is still zero, but c'(s) ≠ 0. That is, s = 0 is a turning point. When c(s) is given, the variance at some point (x, y) in stream line with arc length s satisfies a 2-order linear variable-coefficient ordinary differential equation. From this equation, it can be determined qualitatively whether the given curvature is a solitary wave or wave front.

  17. Solitary Wave and Wave Front as Viewed From Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUShi-Kuo; FUZun-Tao; LIUShi-Da; LIANGFu-Ming; XINGuo-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The solitary wave and wave front are two important behaviors of nonlinear evolution equations. Geometrically, solitary wave and wave front are all plane curve. In this paper, they can be represented in terms of curvature c(s),which varies with arc length s. For solitary wave when s→±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero, and whens = 0, the curvature c(s) reaches its maximum. For wave front, when s→±∞, then its curvature c(s) approaches zero,and when s = 0, the curvature c(s) is still zero, but c'(s)≠0. That is, s = 0 is a turning point. When c(s) is given,the variance at some point (x, y) in stream line with arc length s satisfies a 2-order linear variable-coeffcient ordinary differential equation. From this equation, it can be determined qualitatively whether the given curvature is a solitary wave or wave front.

  18. Curvature recognition and force generation in phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prassler Jana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of particles by actin-powered invagination of the plasma membrane is common to protozoa and to phagocytes involved in the immune response of higher organisms. The question addressed here is how a phagocyte may use geometric cues to optimize force generation for the uptake of a particle. We survey mechanisms that enable a phagocyte to remodel actin organization in response to particles of complex shape. Results Using particles that consist of two lobes separated by a neck, we found that Dictyostelium cells transmit signals concerning the curvature of a surface to the actin system underlying the plasma membrane. Force applied to a concave region can divide a particle in two, allowing engulfment of the portion first encountered. The phagosome membrane that is bent around the concave region is marked by a protein containing an inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (I-BAR domain in combination with an Src homology (SH3 domain, similar to mammalian insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53. Regulatory proteins enable the phagocyte to switch activities within seconds in response to particle shape. Ras, an inducer of actin polymerization, is activated along the cup surface. Coronin, which limits the lifetime of actin structures, is reversibly recruited to the cup, reflecting a program of actin depolymerization. The various forms of myosin-I are candidate motor proteins for force generation in particle uptake, whereas myosin-II is engaged only in retracting a phagocytic cup after a switch to particle release. Thus, the constriction of a phagocytic cup differs from the contraction of a cleavage furrow in mitosis. Conclusions Phagocytes scan a particle surface for convex and concave regions. By modulating the spatiotemporal pattern of actin organization, they are capable of switching between different modes of interaction with a particle, either arresting at a concave region and applying force in an attempt to sever the particle

  19. Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.

  20. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  1. Density perturbations with relativistic thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Maartens, R

    1997-01-01

    We investigate cosmological density perturbations in a covariant and gauge- invariant formalism, incorporating relativistic causal thermodynamics to give a self-consistent description. The gradient of density inhomogeneities splits covariantly into a scalar part, a rotational vector part that is determined by the vorticity, and a tensor part that describes the shape. We give the evolution equations for these parts in the general dissipative case. Causal thermodynamics gives evolution equations for viswcous stress and heat flux, which are coupled to the density perturbation equation and to the entropy and temperature perturbation equations. We give the full coupled system in the general dissipative case, and simplify the system in certain cases.

  2. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  3. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...

  4. Calculation of Scale-Dependent Curvatures of Geological Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbauer, S.; Mukerji, T.; Pollard, D. D.; Hennings, P. H.

    2001-12-01

    A comparison between a spectral and a factorial kriging analysis is presented for the calculation of scale -dependent normal surface curvatures. Knowledge of scale -dependent curvatures of geological surfaces plays an important role in quantitative structural geology. Often, curvature analyses of geological surfaces, such as horizon tops, are performed to estimate the strain resulting from deformation. The final shape of the horizon, however, is a superposition of natural structures of different sizes ranging from the grain scale to the basin scale. Performing a curvature analysis on the raw data often leads to patchy, un-interpretable surface curvatures. Separating the surface curvature of the overall structure from the curvature of minor surface undulations can therefore be crucial in any quantitative structural analysis that uses the absolute value of surface curvature. The two methods are applied to a seismically mapped and depth-converted horizon of domal structures from the North Sea to investigate their applicability in a sub-surface context. For the spectral analysis the surface is transformed into a discrete frequency spectrum. When the overall curvature of the horizon is of interest, only the low-frequency components of the spectrum are used for the curvature analysis. The frequency bin width is determined such that only those frequencies that make up the overall surface structure are used, and that aliasing is minimized. The remaining high-frequency spectrum can be added back to address quantitatively the alias introduced by this filtering. In geostatistical factorial kriging analyses, the spatial covariance (variogram) is estimated from the data, and modeled as a sum of independent factors with different ranges. Short range variogram factors correspond to high frequency spectral components of the surface while long range factors contribute low frequency components. Using the modeled variogram, factorial kriging filters out the desired long range

  5. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, S.; Stebbins, A. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe. 55 refs.

  6. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  7. Review of chiral perturbation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan

    2003-11-01

    A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.

  8. Estimates and Nonexistence of Solutions of the Scalar Curvature Equation on Noncompact Manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhang Zonglao

    2005-08-01

    This paper is to study the conformal scalar curvature equation on complete noncompact Riemannian manifold of nonpositive curvature. We derive some estimates and properties of supersolutions of the scalar curvature equation, and obtain some nonexistence results for complete solutions of scalar curvature equation.

  9. Turning maneuvers in sharks: Predicting body curvature from axial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2009-08-01

    Given the diversity of vertebral morphologies among fishes, it is tempting to propose causal links between axial morphology and body curvature. We propose that shape and size of the vertebrae, intervertebral joints, and the body will more accurately predict differences in body curvature during swimming rather than a single meristic such as total vertebral number alone. We examined the correlation between morphological features and maximum body curvature seen during routine turns in five species of shark: Triakis semifasciata, Heterodontus francisci, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Hemiscyllium ocellatum. We quantified overall body curvature using three different metrics. From a separate group of size-matched individuals, we measured 16 morphological features from precaudal vertebrae and the body. As predicted, a larger pool of morphological features yielded a more robust prediction of maximal body curvature than vertebral number alone. Stepwise linear regression showed that up to 11 features were significant predictors of the three measures of body curvature, yielding highly significant multiple regressions with r(2) values of 0.523, 0.537, and 0.584. The second moment of area of the centrum was always the best predictor, followed by either centrum length or transverse height. Ranking as the fifth most important variable in three different models, the body's total length, fineness ratio, and width were the most important non-vertebral morphologies. Without considering the effects of muscle activity, these correlations suggest a dominant role for the vertebral column in providing the passive mechanical properties of the body that control, in part, body curvature during swimming. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Clinical workflow for spinal curvature measurement with portable ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanfar, Reza; Yan, Christina; Kempston, Michael; Borschneck, Daniel; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: Spinal curvature monitoring is essential in making treatment decisions in scoliosis. Monitoring entails radiographic examinations, however repeated ionizing radiation exposure has been shown to increase cancer risk. Ultrasound does not emit ionizing radiation and is safer for spinal curvature monitoring. We investigated a clinical sonography protocol and challenges associated with position-tracked ultrasound in spinal curvature measurement in scoliosis. METHODS: Transverse processes were landmarked along each vertebra using tracked ultrasound snapshots. The transverse process angle was used to determine the orientation of each vertebra. We tested our methodology on five patients in a local pediatric scoliosis clinic, comparing ultrasound to radiographic curvature measurements. RESULTS: Despite strong correlation between radiographic and ultrasound curvature angles in phantom studies, we encountered new challenges in the clinical setting. Our main challenge was differentiating transverse processes from ribs and other structures during landmarking. We observed up to 13° angle variability for a single vertebra and a 9.85° +/- 10.81° difference between ultrasound and radiographic Cobb angles for thoracic curvatures. Additionally, we were unable to visualize anatomical landmarks in the lumbar region where soft tissue depth was 25-35mm. In volunteers with large Cobb angles (greater than 40° thoracic and 60° lumbar), we observed spinal protrusions resulting in incomplete probe-skin contact and partial ultrasound images not suitable for landmarking. CONCLUSION: Spinal curvature measurement using tracked ultrasound is viable on phantom spine models. In the clinic, new challenges were encountered which must be resolved before a universal sonography protocol can be developed.

  12. Novel tilt-curvature coupling in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, M. Mert; Deserno, Markus

    2017-08-01

    On mesoscopic scales, lipid membranes are well described by continuum theories whose main ingredients are the curvature of a membrane's reference surface and the tilt of its lipid constituents. In particular, Hamm and Kozlov [Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 323 (2000)] have shown how to systematically derive such a tilt-curvature Hamiltonian based on the elementary assumption of a thin fluid elastic sheet experiencing internal lateral pre-stress. Performing a dimensional reduction, they not only derive the basic form of the effective surface Hamiltonian but also express its emergent elastic couplings as trans-membrane moments of lower-level material parameters. In the present paper, we argue, though, that their derivation unfortunately missed a coupling term between curvature and tilt. This term arises because, as one moves along the membrane, the curvature-induced change of transverse distances contributes to the area strain—an effect that was believed to be small but nevertheless ends up contributing at the same (quadratic) order as all other terms in their Hamiltonian. We illustrate the consequences of this amendment by deriving the monolayer and bilayer Euler-Lagrange equations for the tilt, as well as the power spectra of shape, tilt, and director fluctuations. A particularly curious aspect of our new term is that its associated coupling constant is the second moment of the lipid monolayer's lateral stress profile—which within this framework is equal to the monolayer Gaussian curvature modulus, κ¯ m. On the one hand, this implies that many theoretical predictions now contain a parameter that is poorly known (because the Gauss-Bonnet theorem limits access to the integrated Gaussian curvature); on the other hand, the appearance of κ¯ m outside of its Gaussian curvature provenance opens opportunities for measuring it by more conventional means, for instance by monitoring a membrane's undulation spectrum at short scales.

  13. Snakes and perturbed random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study some properties of random walks perturbed at extrema, which are generalizations of the walks considered e.g., in Davis (1999). This process can also be viewed as a version of {\\em excited random walk}, studied recently by many authors. We obtain a few properties related to the range of the process with infinite memory. We also prove the Strong law, Central Limit Theorem, and the criterion for the recurrence of the perturbed walk with finite memory.

  14. Perturbed Einstein field equations using Maple

    CERN Document Server

    De Campos, M

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the perturbed components of affine connection and Ricci tensor using algebraic computation. Naturally, the perturbed Einstein field equations for the vacuum can written. The method can be used to obtain perturbed equations of the superior order.

  15. Primordial Trispectrum from Entropy Perturbations in Multifield DBI Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xian

    2009-01-01

    We compute the leading-order contributions to the trispectrum of primordial curvature perturbation from the entropic modes in multifield DBI inflationary models. We focus on the case from exchanging one mode. We investigate four-point functions for entropy fluctuations, in which four external entropic modes exchange one adiabatic mode. In the limit of small sound speed ($c_s\\ll1$) and large transfer coefficient ($T_{\\textrm{RS}}\\gg1$), our result shows that the nonlinear parameter $\\tau_{NL}$ is of order $T^{-2}_{RS}c^{-4}_s$ in the equilateral configuration. This result implies that trispectrum from exchanging one mode is approximately the same order as from direct four-point interaction in single-field models $c^{-4}_s$, but suppressed by the large transfer coefficient $T_{\\textrm{RS}}$.

  16. Rim curvature anomaly in thin conical sheets revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin W

    2011-12-01

    This paper revisits one of the puzzling behaviors in a developable cone (d-cone), the shape obtained by pushing a thin sheet into a circular container of radius R by a distance η. The mean curvature was reported to vanish at the rim where the d-cone is supported. We investigate the ratio of the two principal curvatures versus sheet thickness h over a wider dynamic range than was used previously, holding R and η fixed. Instead of tending toward 1 as suggested by previous work, the ratio scales as (h/R)(1/3). Thus the mean curvature does not vanish for very thin sheets as previously claimed. Moreover, we find that the normalized rim profile of radial curvature in a d-cone is identical to that in a "c-cone" which is made by pushing a regular cone into a circular container. In both c-cones and d-cones, the ratio of the principal curvatures at the rim scales as (R/h)(5/2)F/(YR(2)), where F is the pushing force and Y is the Young's modulus. Scaling arguments and analytical solutions confirm the numerical results.

  17. Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoi; Yu, Ning; Bandi, Mahesh M; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-05-01

    How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching the membrane underlies the increase in stiffness. Using three-dimensional reconstruction of a mackerel (Scomber japonicus) pectoral fin for illustration, we calculate the range of stiffnesses this fin is expected to span by changing curvature. The three-dimensional reconstruction shows that, even in its geometrically flat state, a functional curvature is embedded within the fin microstructure owing to the morphology of individual rays. As the ability of a propulsive surface to transmit force to the surrounding fluid is limited by its stiffness, the fin curvature controls the coupling between the fish and its surrounding fluid. Thereby, our results provide mechanical underpinnings and morphological predictions for the hypothesis that the spanned range of fin stiffnesses correlates with the behaviour and the ecological niche of the fish. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. The behaviour of curvature functions at cusps and inflection points

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, Shohei

    2011-01-01

    At a 3/2-cusp of a given plane curve $\\gamma(t)$, both of the Euclidean curvature $\\kappa_g$ and the affine curvature $\\kappa_A$ diverge. In this paper, we show that each of $\\sqrt{|s_g|}\\kappa_g$ and $(s_A)^2 \\kappa_A$ (called the Euclidean and affine normalized curvature, respectively) at a 3/2-cusp is a smooth function of the variable $t$, where $s_g$ (resp. $s_A$) is the Euclidean (resp. affine) arclength parameter of the curve corresponding to the 3/2-cusp $s_g=0$ (resp. $s_A=0$). Moreover, we give a characterization of the behaviour of the curvature functions $\\kappa_g$ and $\\kappa_A$ at 3/2-cusps. On the other hand, inflection points are also singular points of curves in affine geometry. We give a similar characterization of affine curvature functions near generic inflection points. As an application, new affine invariants of 3/2-cusps and generic inflection points are given.

  19. Experimental measurement of the Berry curvature from anomalous transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Martin; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo; Peschel, Ulf

    2017-06-01

    The geometric properties of energy bands underlie fascinating phenomena in many systems, including solid-state, ultracold gases and photonics. The local geometric characteristics such as the Berry curvature can be related to global topological invariants such as those classifying the quantum Hall states or topological insulators. Regardless of the band topology, however, any non-zero Berry curvature can have important consequences, such as in the semi-classical evolution of a coherent wavepacket. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the wavepacket dynamics can be used to directly map out the Berry curvature. To this end, we use optical pulses in two coupled fibre loops to study the discrete time evolution of a wavepacket in a one-dimensional geometric `charge’ pump, where the Berry curvature leads to an anomalous displacement of the wavepacket. This is both the first direct observation of Berry curvature effects in an optical system, and a proof-of-principle demonstration that wavepacket dynamics can serve as a high-resolution tool for mapping out geometric properties.

  20. Curvature and Quantum Mechanics on Covariant Causal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Gudder, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    This article begins by reviewing the causal set approach in discrete quantum gravity. In our version of this approach a special role is played by covariant causal sets which we call $c$-causets. The importance of $c$-causets is that they support the concepts of a natural distance function, geodesics and curvature in a discrete setting. We then discuss curvature in more detail. By considering $c$-causets with a maximum and minimum number of paths, we are able to find $c$-causets with large and small average curvature. We then briefly discuss our previous work on the inflationary period when the curvature was essentially zero. Quantum mechanics on $c$-causets is considered next. We first introduce a free wave equation for $c$-causets. We then show how the state of a particle with a specified mass (or energy) can be derived from the wave equation. It is demonstrated for small examples that quantum mechanics predicts that particles tend to move toward vertices with larger curvature.

  1. Experimental Measurement of the Berry Curvature from Anomalous Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, Martin; Carusotto, Iacopo; Peschel, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical properties of energy bands underlie fascinating phenomena in a wide-range of systems, including solid-state materials, ultracold gases and photonics. Most famously, local geometrical characteristics like the Berry curvature can be related to global topological invariants such as those classifying quantum Hall states or topological insulators. Regardless of the band topology, however, any non-zero Berry curvature can have important consequences, such as in the semi-classical evolution of a wave packet. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time that wave packet dynamics can be used to directly map out the Berry curvature. To this end, we use optical pulses in two coupled fibre loops to study the discrete time-evolution of a wave packet in a 1D geometrical "charge" pump, where the Berry curvature leads to an anomalous displacement of the wave packet under pumping. This is both the first direct observation of Berry curvature effects in an optical system, and, more generally, the proof-of-...

  2. Representation of tactile curvature in macaque somatosensory area 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jeffrey M; Connor, Charles E; Hsiao, Steven S

    2013-06-01

    Tactile shape information is elaborated in a cortical hierarchy spanning primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). Indeed, SI neurons in areas 3b and 1 encode simple contour features such as small oriented bars and edges, whereas higher order SII neurons represent large curved contour features such as angles and arcs. However, neural coding of these contour features has not been systematically characterized in area 2, the most caudal SI subdivision in the postcentral gyrus. In the present study, we analyzed area 2 neural responses to embossed oriented bars and curved contour fragments to establish whether curvature representations are generated in the postcentral gyrus. We found that many area 2 neurons (26 of 112) exhibit clear curvature tuning, preferring contours pointing in a particular direction. Fewer area 2 neurons (15 of 112) show preferences for oriented bars. Because area 2 response patterns closely resembled SII patterns, we also compared area 2 and SII response time courses to characterize the temporal dynamics of curvature synthesis in the somatosensory system. We found that curvature representations develop and peak concurrently in area 2 and SII. These results reveal that transitions from orientation tuning to curvature selectivity in the somatosensory cortical hierarchy occur within SI rather than between SI and SII.

  3. Studying biomolecule localization by engineering bacterial cell wall curvature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars D Renner

    Full Text Available In this article we describe two techniques for exploring the relationship between bacterial cell shape and the intracellular organization of proteins. First, we created microchannels in a layer of agarose to reshape live bacterial cells and predictably control their mean cell wall curvature, and quantified the influence of curvature on the localization and distribution of proteins in vivo. Second, we used agarose microchambers to reshape bacteria whose cell wall had been chemically and enzymatically removed. By combining microstructures with different geometries and fluorescence microscopy, we determined the relationship between bacterial shape and the localization for two different membrane-associated proteins: i the cell-shape related protein MreB of Escherichia coli, which is positioned along the long axis of the rod-shaped cell; and ii the negative curvature-sensing cell division protein DivIVA of Bacillus subtilis, which is positioned primarily at cell division sites. Our studies of intracellular organization in live cells of E. coli and B. subtilis demonstrate that MreB is largely excluded from areas of high negative curvature, whereas DivIVA localizes preferentially to regions of high negative curvature. These studies highlight a unique approach for studying the relationship between cell shape and intracellular organization in intact, live bacteria.

  4. Non-Gaussianity of Large-Scale CMB Anisotropies beyond Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, N; Riotto, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    We compute the fully non-linear Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies on scales larger than the horizon at last-scattering in terms of only the curvature perturbation, providing a generalization of the linear Sachs-Wolfe effect at any order in perturbation theory. We show how to compute the $n$-point connected correlation functions of the large-scale CMB anisotropies for generic primordial seeds provided by standard slow-roll inflation as well as the curvaton and other scenarios for the generation of cosmological perturbations. As an application of our formalism, we compute the three- and four-point connected correlation functions whose detection in future CMB experiments might be used to assess the level of primordial non-Gaussianity, giving the theoretical predictions for the parameters of quadratic and cubic non-linearities f_NL and g_NL.

  5. Scalar perturbations in a Friedmann-like metric with non-null Weyl tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Grasiele B; Salim, José M

    2013-01-01

    In a previous work some of the authors have solved the Einstein equations of General Relativity for a class of metrics with constant spatial curvature, where it was found a non vanishing Weyl tensor in the presence of an energy-momentum tensor with an anisotropic pressure component. Here, we perform the perturbative analysis of this model in order to study the gravitational stability under linear scalar perturbations. For this purpose, we take the Quasi-Maxwellian formalism of General Relativity as our framework, which offers a naturally covariant and gauge-invariant approach to deal with perturbations that are directly linked to observational quantities. We also consider a generalization of the causal thermodynamics to include the effect of the non-null Weyl tensor, which introduces a "viscosity" due solely to the gravitational tidal forces.

  6. Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-09-01

    We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.

  7. Selective excitation of plasmons superlocalized at sharp perturbations of metal nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, M V; Podivilov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Sharp metal corners and tips support plasmons localized on the scale of the curvature radius -- superlocalized plasmons. We analyze plasmonic properties of nanoparticles with small and sharp corner- and tip-shaped surface perturbations in terms of hybridization of the superlocalized plasmons, which frequencies are determined by the perturbations shape, and the ordinary plasmons localized on the whole particle. When the frequency of a superlocalized plasmon gets close to that of the ordinary plasmon, their strong hybridization occurs and facilitates excitation of an optical hot-spot near the corresponding perturbation apex. The particle is then employed as a nano-antenna that selectively couples the free-space light to the nanoscale vicinity of the apex providing precise local light enhancement by several orders of magnitude.

  8. Bayesian evidence of non-standard inflation: isocurvature perturbations and running spectral index

    CERN Document Server

    Giannantonio, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian model comparison penalizes models with more free parameters that are allowed to vary over a wide range, and thus offers the most robust method to decide whether some given data require new parameters. In this paper, we ask a simple question: do current cosmological data require extensions of the simplest single-field inflation models? Specifically, we calculate the Bayesian evidence of a totally anti-correlated isocurvature perturbation and a running spectral index of the scalar curvature perturbation. These parameters are motivated by recent claims that the observed temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales is too low to be compatible with the simplest inflation models. Both a subdominant, anti-correlated cold dark matter isocurvature component and a negative running index succeed in lowering the large-scale temperature power spectrum. We show that the introduction of isocurvature perturbations is disfavored, whereas that of the running spectral index is only ...

  9. Non-gaussianity at tree- and one-loop levels from vector field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A; Lyth, David H

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectrum P_\\zeta and bispectrum B_\\zeta of the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta when the latter is generated by scalar and vector field perturbations. The tree-level and one-loop contributions from vector field perturbations are worked out considering the possibility that the one-loop contributions may be dominant over the tree level terms (both (either) in P_\\zeta and (or) in B_\\zeta) and viceversa. The level of non-gaussianity in the bispectrum, f_{NL}, is calculated and related to the level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, g_\\zeta. For very small amounts of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum, the level of non-gaussianity may be very high, in some cases exceeding the current observational limit.

  10. Curvature affects Doppler investigation of vessels: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C

    2005-01-01

    In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.

  11. Curvature-dependent surface energy and implications for nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhapadia, P.; Mohammadi, P.; Sharma, P.

    2011-10-01

    At small length scales, several size-effects in both physical phenomena and properties can be rationalized by invoking the concept of surface energy. Conventional theoretical frameworks of surface energy, in both the mechanics and physics communities, assume curvature independence. In this work we adopt a simplified and linearized version of a theory proposed by Steigmann-Ogden to capture curvature-dependence of surface energy. Connecting the theory to atomistic calculations and the solution to an illustrative paradigmatical problem of a bent cantilever beam, we catalog the influence of curvature-dependence of surface energy on the effective elastic modulus of nanostructures. The observation in atomistic calculations that the elastic modulus of bent nanostructures is dramatically different than under tension - sometimes softer, sometimes stiffer - has been a source of puzzlement to the scientific community. We show that the corrected surface mechanics framework provides a resolution to this issue. Finally, we propose an unambiguous definition of the thickness of a crystalline surface.

  12. Two-Dimensional Graphs Moving by Mean Curvature Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing Yi; LI Jia Yu; TIAN Gang

    2002-01-01

    A surface Σ is a graph in R4 if there is a unit constant 2-form ω on R4 such that initial surface, then the mean curvature flow has a global solution and the scaled surfaces converge to a self-similar solution. A surface ∑ is a graph in M1 × M2 where M1 and M2 are Riemann surfaces,surface with scalar curvature R, v0 ≥1/√2 on the initial surface, then the mean curvature flow has a global solution and it sub-converges to a minimal surface, if, in addition, R ≥ 0 it converges to a totally geodesic surface which is holomorphic.

  13. Relics of spatial curvature in the primordial non-gaussianity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clunan, Tim; Seery, David, E-mail: T.P.Clunan@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Seery@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    We study signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) induced by the presence of strong spatial curvature prior to the epoch of inflation which generated our present universe. If inflation does not last sufficiently long to drive the large-scale spatial curvature to zero, then presently observable scales may have left the horizon while spatial slices could not be approximated by a flat, Euclidean geometry. We compute corrections to the power spectrum and non-gaussianity of the CMB temperature anisotropy in this scenario. The power spectrum does not receive significant corrections and is a weak diagnostic of the presence of curvature in the initial conditions, unless its running can be determined with high accuracy. However, the bispectral non-gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} receives modifications on the largest observable scales. We estimate that the maximum signal would correspond to f{sub NL} ∼ 0.3, which is out of reach for present-day microwave background experiments.

  14. Fermi Normal Coordinates and Fermion Curvature Couplings in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    We study gravitational curvature effects in circular and radial geodesics in static, spherically symmetric space-times, using Fermi normal coordinates. We first set up these coordinates in the general case, and then use this to study effective magnetic fields due to gravitational curvature in the exterior and interior Schwarzschild, Janis-Newman-Winicour, and Bertrand space-times. We show that these fields can be large for specific parameter values in the theories, and thus might have observational significance. We discuss the qualitative differences of the magnetic field for vacuum space-times and for those seeded by matter. We estimate the magnitude of these fields in realistic galactic scenarios and discuss their possible experimental relevance. Gravitational curvature corrections to the Hydrogen atom spectrum for these space-times are also discussed briefly.

  15. Effective inhomogeneous inflation: curvature inhomogeneities of the Einstein vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchert, Thomas [Universite Lyon 1, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, 9 Avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Obadia, Nathaniel, E-mail: buchert@obs.univ-lyon1.fr, E-mail: nathaniel.obadia@ens-lyon.fr [Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2011-08-21

    We consider spatially averaged inhomogeneous universe models and argue that, already in the absence of sources, an effective scalar field arises through foliating and spatially averaging inhomogeneous geometrical curvature invariants of the Einstein vacuum. This scalar field (the 'morphon') acts as an inflaton, if we prescribe a potential of some generic form. We show that, for any initially negative average spatial curvature, the morphon is driven through an inflationary phase and leads-on average-to a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic universe model, providing initial conditions for pre-heating and, by the same mechanism, a possibly natural self-exit. (fast track communication)

  16. Quadratic Error Metric Mesh Simplification Algorithm Based on Discrete Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex and highly detailed polygon meshes have been adopted for model representation in many areas of computer graphics. Existing works mainly focused on the quadric error metric based complex models approximation, which has not taken the retention of important model details into account. This may lead to visual degeneration. In this paper, we improve Garland and Heckberts’ quadric error metric based algorithm by using the discrete curvature to reserve more features for mesh simplification. Our experiments on various models show that the geometry and topology structure as well as the features of the original models are precisely retained by employing discrete curvature.

  17. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  18. Horizontal Connection and Horizontal Mean Curvature in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Hai TAN; Xiao Ping YANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of the notion of the horizontal mean curvature which is introduced by Danielli-Garofalo-Nhieu and Pauls who recently introduced sub-Riemannian minimal surfaces in Carnot groups. This will be done by introducing a natural nonholonomic connection which is the restriction (projection) of the natural Riemannian connection on the horizontal bundle. For this nonholonomic connection and (intrinsic) regular hypersurfaces we introduce the notions of the horizontal second fundamental form and the horizontal shape operator. It turns out that the horizontal mean curvature is the trace of the horizontal shape operator.

  19. Visualizing Spacetime Curvature via Gradient Flows I: Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Kayll

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the study of the dynamics of spacetime curvature in a very real sense hide the intricacies of the nonlinear regime. Whether it be huge formulae, or mountains of numerical data, standard methods of presentation make little use of our remarkable skill, as humans, at pattern recognition. Here we introduce a new approach to the visualization of spacetime curvature. We examine the flows associated with the gradient fields of invariants derived from the spacetime. These flows reveal a remarkably rich structure, and offer fresh insights even for well known analytical solutions to Einstein's equations. This paper serves as an overview and as an introduction to this approach.

  20. Sectional Curvature Bounds in Gravity: Regularisation of the Schwarzschild Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, F P; Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2004-01-01

    A general geometrical scheme is presented for the construction of novel classical gravity theories whose solutions obey two-sided bounds on the sectional curvatures along certain subvarieties of the Grassmannian of two-planes. The motivation to study sectional curvature bounds comes from their equivalence to bounds on the acceleration between nearby geodesics. A universal minimal length scale is a necessary ingredient of the construction, and an application of the kinematical framework to static, spherically symmetric spacetimes shows drastic differences to the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity by the exclusion of spacelike singularities.

  1. Sectional curvature bounds in gravity: regularisation of the Schwarzschild singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Frederic P. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo N2J 2W9, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: fschuller@perimeterinstitute.ca; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.n.r.wohlfarth@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2004-10-18

    A general geometrical scheme is presented for the construction of novel classical gravity theories whose solutions obey two-sided bounds on the sectional curvatures along certain subvarieties of the Grassmannian of two-planes. The motivation to study sectional curvature bounds comes from their equivalence to bounds on the acceleration between nearby geodesics. A universal 'minimal length' scale is a necessary ingredient of the construction, and an application of the kinematical framework to static, spherically symmetric spacetimes shows drastic differences to the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity by the exclusion of spacelike singularities.

  2. Mixed-symmetry multiplets and higher-spin curvatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bekaert, Xavier; Francia, Dario

    2015-01-01

    We study the higher-derivative equations for gauge potentials of arbitrary mixed-symmetry type obtained by setting to zero the divergences of the corresponding curvature tensors. We show that they propagate the same reducible multiplets as the Maxwell-like second-order equations for gauge fields subject to constrained gauge transformations. As an additional output of our analysis, we provide a streamlined presentation of the Ricci-like case, where the traces of the same curvature tensors are set to zero, and we present a simple algebraic evaluation of the particle content associated with the Labastida and with the Maxwell-like second-order equations.

  3. String theory triplets and higher-spin curvatures

    CERN Document Server

    Francia, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Unconstrained local Lagrangians for higher-spin gauge theories are bound to involve auxiliary fields, whose integration in the partition function generates geometric, effective actions expressed in terms of curvatures. When applied to the triplets, emerging from the tensionless limit of open string field theory, the same procedure yields interesting alternative forms of geometric Lagrangians, whose rather simple pattern is essentially the same for bosons and fermions. This shows that higher-spin curvatures might play a role in the dynamics, regardless of whether the Fronsdal-Labastida constraints are assumed or not.

  4. String theory triplets and higher-spin curvatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, Dario, E-mail: francia@apc.univ-paris7.f [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris VII - Campus Paris Rive Gauche, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-06-07

    Unconstrained local Lagrangians for higher-spin gauge theories are bound to involve auxiliary fields, whose integration in the partition function generates geometric, effective actions expressed in terms of curvatures. When applied to the triplets, emerging from the tensionless limit of open string field theory, the same procedure yields interesting alternative forms of geometric Lagrangians, expressible for both bosons and fermions as squares of field-strengths. This shows that higher-spin curvatures might play a role in the dynamics, regardless of whether the Fronsdal-Labastida constraints are assumed or forgone.

  5. Rupture of the lesser gastric curvature after a Heimlich maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, A; Rosado, R; Ramírez, D; Medina, P; Mezquita, S; Sánchez, J

    2003-09-01

    We present a case of lesser gastric curvature injury after a Heimlich maneuver due to obstruction of the breathing tract that was repaired by laparoscopic surgery. A patient with perforation of the lesser gastric curvature as a result of closed abdominal traumatism was operated on using the laparoscopic approach with the use of four trocars as work openings. With this technique, the diagnosis was confirmed, the injury repaired, and the abdominal cavity washed. The postoperative period was favorable and the patient was released from the hospital on day 7 without any complications. Laparoscopic surgery can be technically reproduced in the treatment of gastric injury as a result of closed abdominal traumatism.

  6. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Seamus D; Hubber, David A

    2016-01-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long, initially sub-critical but accreting filaments. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length scale which is roughly 4 times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multi-wavelength density power spectrum there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispe...

  7. Physicochemical Perturbations of Phase Equilibriums

    CERN Document Server

    Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

    2010-01-01

    The alternative approach to the displacement of gas/liquid equilibrium is developed on the basis of the Clapeyron equation. The phase transition in the system with well-established properties is taken as a reference process to search for the parameters of phase transition in the perturbed equilibrium system. The main equation, derived in the framework of both classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, establishes a correlation between variations of enthalpies of evaporation, \\Delta (\\Delta H), which is induced by perturbations, and the equilibrium vapor pressures. The dissolution of a solute, changing the surface shape, and the effect of the external field of adsorbents are considered as the perturbing actions on the liquid phase. The model provides the unified method for studying (1) solutions, (2) membrane separations (3) surface phenomena, and (4) effect of the adsorption field; it leads to the useful relations between \\Delta (\\Delta H), on the one hand, and the osmotic pressures, the Donnan poten...

  8. Wall extensibility and gravitropic curvature of sunflower hypocotyls: correlation between timing of curvature and changes in extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, S. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitropic curvature results from unequal growth rates on the upper and lower sides of horizontal stems. These unequal growth rates could be due to differences in wall extensibility between the two sides. To test this, the time course of curvature of horizontal sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyls was determined and compared with the time courses of changes in Instron-measured wall extensibility (PEx) of the upper and lower epidermal layers. As gravicurvature developed, so did the difference in PEx between the upper and lower epidermis. The enhanced growth rate on the lower side during the period of maximum increase in curvature was matched by PEx values greater than those of the vertical control, while the inhibited growth rate on the upper side was accompanied by PEx values below that of the control. The close correlation between changes in growth rates and alterations in PEx demonstrates that changes in wall extensibility play a major role in controlling gravicurvature.

  9. Multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    We provide a concise review on multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations. We discuss convenient and physically meaningful bases in terms of which perturbations can be systematically studied. We give formal accounts on the gauge fixing conditions and present the perturbation action in two gauges. We also briefly review non-linear perturbations.

  10. Defining the Free-Energy Landscape of Curvature-Inducing Proteins on Membrane Bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Curvature-sensing and curvature-remodeling proteins are known to reshape cell membranes, and this remodeling event is essential for key biophysical processes such as tubulation, exocytosis, and endocytosis. Curvature-inducing proteins can act as curvature sensors as well as induce curvature in cell membranes to stabilize emergent high curvature, non-spherical, structures such as tubules, discs, and caveolae. A definitive understanding of the interplay between protein recruitment and migration, the evolution of membrane curvature, and membrane morphological transitions is emerging but remains incomplete. Here, within a continuum framework and using the machinery of Monte Carlo simulations, we introduce and compare three free-energy methods to delineate the free-energy landscape of curvature-inducing proteins on bilayer membranes. We demonstrate the utility of the Widom test-particle/field insertion methodology in computing the excess chemical potentials associated with curvature-inducing proteins on the membra...

  11. A Perturbative Window into Non-Perturbative Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Vafa, Cumrun

    2002-01-01

    We argue that for a large class of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories the effective superpotential as a function of the glueball chiral superfield is exactly given by a summation of planar diagrams of the same gauge theory. This perturbative computation reduces to a matrix model whose action is the tree-level superpotential. For all models that can be embedded in string theory we give a proof of this result, and we sketch an argument how to derive this more generally directly in field theory. These results are obtained without assuming any conjectured dualities and can be used as a systematic method to compute instanton effects: the perturbative corrections up to n-th loop can be used to compute up to n-instanton corrections. These techniques allow us to see many non-perturbative effects, such as the Seiberg-Witten solutions of N=2 theories, the consequences of Montonen-Olive S-duality in N=1* and Seiberg-like dualities for N=1 theories from a completely perturbative planar point of view in the same gauge theo...

  12. Doppler peaks from active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Coulson, D; Ferreira, P; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Coulson, David; Ferreira, Pedro

    1995-01-01

    We examine how the qualitative structure of the Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy depends on the fundamental nature of the perturbations which produced them. The formalism of Hu and Sugiyama is extended to treat models with cosmic defects. We discuss how perturbations can be ``active'' or ``passive'' and ``incoherent'' or ``coherent'', and show how causality and scale invariance play rather different roles in these various cases. We find that the existence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak unambiguously reflect these basic properties.

  13. Effective field theory of non-attractor inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhshik, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jazayeri, Sadra [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-29

    We present the model-independent studies of non attractor inflation in the context of effective field theory (EFT) of inflation. Within the EFT approach two independent branches of non-attractor inflation solutions are discovered in which a near scale-invariant curvature perturbation power spectrum is generated from the interplay between the variation of sound speed and the second slow roll parameter η. The first branch captures and extends the previously studied models of non-attractor inflation in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales and the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition is violated. We present the general expression for the amplitude of local-type non-Gaussianity in this branch. The second branch is new in which the curvature perturbation is frozen on super-horizon scales and the single field non-Gaussianity consistency condition does hold in the squeezed limit. Depending on the model parameters, the shape of bispectrum in this branch changes from an equilateral configuration to a folded configuration while the amplitude of non-Gaussianity is less than unity.

  14. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Romeo; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Pinamonti, Nicola; Rejzner, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  15. Cosmological perturbation theory and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Romeo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo TN (Italy); Fredenhagen, Klaus [II Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Hack, Thomas-Paul [Institute für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig,Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Pinamonti, Nicola [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rejzner, Katarzyna [Department of Mathematics, University of York,Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-04

    It is shown how cosmological perturbation theory arises from a fully quantized perturbative theory of quantum gravity. Central for the derivation is a non-perturbative concept of gauge-invariant local observables by means of which perturbative invariant expressions of arbitrary order are generated. In particular, in the linearised theory, first order gauge-invariant observables familiar from cosmological perturbation theory are recovered. Explicit expressions of second order quantities are presented as well.

  16. Perturbation Method for Classical Spinning Particle Motion: II. Vaidya Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the MPD equations in analytic perturbation form to the case of circular motion around a radially accreting or radiating black hole described by the Vaidya metric. Based on the formalism presented earlier, this paper explores the effects of mass accretion or loss of the central body on the overall dynamics of the orbiting spinning particle. This includes changes to its squared mass and spin magnitude due to the classical analog of radiative corrections from spin-curvature coupling. Various quantitative consequences are explored when considering orbital motion near the black hole's event horizon. An analysis on the orbital stability properties due to spin-curvature interactions is examined briefly, with conclusions in general agreement with previous work performed for the case of circular motion around a Kerr black hole.

  17. Perturbation method for classical spinning particle motion. II. Vaidya space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dinesh

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes an application of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon (MPD) equations in analytic perturbation form to the case of circular motion around a radially accreting or radiating black hole described by the Vaidya metric. Based on the formalism presented earlier, this paper explores the effects of mass accretion or loss of the central body on the overall dynamics of the orbiting spinning particle. This includes changes to its squared mass and spin magnitude due to the classical analog of radiative corrections from spin-curvature coupling. Various quantitative consequences are explored when considering orbital motion near the black hole’s event horizon. An analysis on the orbital stability properties due to spin-curvature interactions is examined briefly, with conclusions in general agreement with previous work performed for the case of circular motion around a Kerr black hole.

  18. Curvature Properties of Lorentzian Manifolds with Large Isometry Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batat, Wafaa [Ecole Normale Superieure de L' Enseignement Technique d' Oran, Departement de Mathematiques et Informatique (Algeria)], E-mail: wafa.batat@enset-oran.dz; Calvaruso, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.calvaruso@unile.it; Leo, Barbara De [University of Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica ' E. De Giorgi' (Italy)], E-mail: barbara.deleo@unile.it

    2009-08-15

    The curvature of Lorentzian manifolds (M{sup n},g), admitting a group of isometries of dimension at least 1/2n(n - 1) + 1, is completely described. Interesting behaviours are found, in particular as concerns local symmetry, local homogeneity and conformal flatness.

  19. Controlling Protein Oligomerization with Surface Curvature on the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylowicz, Marty; Dutcher, John

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the effect of surface curvature on the conformation of beta-lactoglobulin (β LG) using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy. β LG is a model interfacial protein which stabilizes oil droplets in milk and is known to undergo structural rearrangement when adsorbed onto a surface. We reliably control nanoscale surface curvature by creating close-packed monolayers of monodisperse polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with diameters of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 140 nm, which are stable in aqueous buffer. By adsorbing β LG onto these hydrophobic surfaces and collecting force-extension curves in the fluid phase we can compare the conformation of β LG on 5 different surface curvatures with that on a flat PS film. We demonstrate a transition from oligomeric to monomeric β LG as the surface curvature is increased. Histograms of contour length from fits to peaks in the force-extension curves show a single maximum near 30 nm for β LG adsorbed onto nanoparticles with diameters less than 80 nm. For the larger nanoparticles, the histogram approaches that observed for β LG adsorbed onto a flat PS film, with maxima indicative of β LG dimers and trimers.

  20. CURVATURE-DEPENDENT PARAMETERIZATION OF CURVES AND SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSTERS, M

    1991-01-01

    An efficient way of drawing parametric curves and surfaces is to approximate the curve or surface by a sequence of straight-line segments or a mesh of polygons, respectively. In such an approximation, many small line segments or polygons are needed in regions of high curvature, and fewer and larger