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Sample records for supergenera genera species

  1. The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overla

  2. The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable

  3. New genera, species, and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Chao, Ema E; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Glissomonadida is an important cercozoan order of predominantly biflagellate gliding bacterivores found largely in soil and freshwater. Their vast diversity is largely undescribed. We studied 23 mostly newly isolated strains by light microscopy and sequenced their 18S rDNA genes; nine represent new species. For two misidentified ATCC 'Heteromita triangularis' strains, we establish novel gliding genera and species: the sandonid Mollimonas lacrima, the only glissomonad forming anterior and posterior pseudopodia, and Dujardina stenomorpha, a strongly flattened member of the new family Dujardinidae. A new strain from Oxfordshire grassland soil is the first reliably identified isolate of the virtually uniflagellate, smooth-gliding glissomonad genus, AllantionSandon, 1924. Phylogenetic analysis and cytological features reveal Allantion to be a member of Allapsidae. Sandona limna and Bodomorpha prolixa from Lake Baikal and Sandona hexamutans from volcanic Costa Rican soil are described as new species. Fifteen glissomonad strains were from grassland beside Lake Baikal. We describe two as new species of Sandona (S. heptamutans and S. octamutans); the others included strains of Sandona and Allapsa species that have already been described; and three were new species of Sandona and Allapsa but these died before being described. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these new strains.

  4. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  5. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  6. An index to new genera and species of Nematoda in Zootaxa from 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhao, Zeng Qi; Wang, Jian Ming

    2013-01-01

    Of 104 papers on nematodes published in Zootaxa from 2007 to 2012, seventy five, by 136 authors from 27 countries, described eight new genera and 155 new species. A bibliographic analysis of these papers and a list of new genera and species are presented in this paper.

  7. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

  8. New records of potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Arunachal Pradesh, India: five genera and ten species

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    G. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Six genera and eleven wasp species belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are reported from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, of which five genera and 10 species are new records for the state.

  9. Description of two genera and species of late Eocene Anthropoidea from Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, E L

    1989-01-01

    In 1987 and 1988 fossils of two previously unknown genera and species of Egyptian early Tertiary Anthropoidea were discovered in the Fayum Depression of Egypt. These are much older than all other Fayum, Oligocene primates and are believed to be Eocene in age. These genera, here named Catopithecus and Proteopithecus, come from a new Fayum site, L-41, and resemble Oligopithecus from the Jebel Qatrani Formation (lower sequence) at quarry E. They are here placed with the latter in a subfamily, Ol...

  10. New genera and species of the tribe Taphurini (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Sundaland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Three new genera and five species of Taphurini from Sundaland (Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java) are described: Sundabroma including S. bimaculata sp. n. from Borneo and S. suffusca sp. n. from the Malayan Peninsula, Allobroma including A. kedenburgi (Breddin, 1905) comb. n. from Borneo a

  11. Seven new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from South America with the proposal of three new genera

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described - Cerambycinae, Sydacini: Sydax flechtmanni sp. nov. from Brazil (São Paulo; Eburiini: Ebrodacrys biffipradorum sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima; - Lamiinae, Pteropliini: Ataxia piauiensis sp. nov. from Brazil (Piuaí; Calliini: Amucallia carbonaria sp. nov. from French Guiana; A. citrina sp. nov. from Guiana. Also in Lamiinae, two new genera of Onciderini are proposed. Ubytyra gen. nov., type species U. tuberosa sp. nov. from Peru (Junin e Japi gen. nov., type species J. duartei sp. nov., from Brazil (São Paulo; Ubytyra gen. nov. can be distinguished by the sides of prothorax with long central spine rounded at apex, and this new feature among Onciderini is discussed. Japi gen. nov., is characterized by a fringe of long hairs on the inner side of antennomere III, present only in species from North and Central America, and gender comparison of these species is done and discussed. In Hemilophini, Pseudotacocha gen. nov., type species P. magnifica sp. nov. from Peru (Cuzco, are described. The new genera can be distinguished by eyes well developed, elytra with two carinae and the apices outer with short spine; a comparison with related genera is done.

  12. Comparative electrocardiography in four species of macaws (genera Anodorhynchus and Ara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, M; Enders, F; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during isoflurane anaesthesia from 52 macaws of four species of the genera Anodorhynchus and Ara in order to establish electrocardiographic reference values. The birds examined were clinically healthy macaws of the following species: hyacinth macaw (HM; Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, n = 14); green-winged macaw (GWM; Ara chloroptera, n = 11); blue-throated macaw (BTM; Ara glaucogularis, n = 15); and red-fronted macaw (RFM; Ara rubrogenys, n = 12). All ECGs were recorded using a paper speed of 50 mm/s and a calibration of 10 mm = 1 mV. Significant differences were determined between species for the heart rate, duration and amplitude of the P wave, amplitude of the T wave, and amplitude of the QRS complex, specially comparing the RFM to the other macaw species. No significant differences were found between two species of similar body weight: the HM and the GWM.

  13. New genera, species and records of Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae from sub-Saharan Africa

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    Bruno Massa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of many specimens preserved in different European museums are reported. The tribe Terpnistrini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 is resurrected. The distribution of the following species is enhanced: Pardalota asymmetrica Karsch, 1896, Diogena denticulata Chopard, 1954, Diogena fausta (Burmeister, 1838, Plangiopsis adeps Karsch, 1896, Poreuomena sanghensis Massa, 2013 and Tylopsis continua (Walker, 1869. Further, for their peculiar characteristics, two African representatives of the American genus Symmetropleura Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 are included in two new genera: Symmetrokarschia africana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878, comb. n. and Symmetroraggea dirempta (Karsch, 1889, comb. n. A new genus and species from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angustithorax spiniger gen. n., sp. n., and a new genus and species from Tanzania, Arostratum oblitum gen. n., sp. n. are described. Finally Melidia claudiae sp. n. and Atlasacris brevipennis sp. n. are described and compared with related species.

  14. Two new genera and nine new species of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa from off New Caledonia

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    Horia R. Galea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and nine new species of hydroids are described based on deep-water material collected from off New Caledonia during various expeditions of the French Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos program. Caledoniana gen. nov., provisionally included in the family Sertulariidae Lamouroux, 1812, presently comprises three new species, viz. C. alata sp. nov., C. decussata sp. nov., and C. microgona sp. nov., while an additional group of three new species, is accommodated in the new sertulariid genus Solenoscyphus gen. nov.: S. candelabrum sp. nov., S. decidualis sp. nov., and S. striatus sp. nov. Furthermore, three new species of Hincksella Billard, 1918 (family Syntheciidae Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890 are described, namely H. cornuta sp. nov., H. neocaledonica sp. nov., and H. similis sp. nov.

  15. Discovering the unknown: improving detection of novel species and genera from short reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gail L; Polikar, Robi; Caseiro, Diamantino A; Essinger, Steven D; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies enable metagenome profiling, simultaneous sequencing of multiple microbial species present within an environmental sample. Since metagenomic data includes sequence fragments ("reads") from organisms that are absent from any database, new algorithms must be developed for the identification and annotation of novel sequence fragments. Homology-based techniques have been modified to detect novel species and genera, but, composition-based methods, have not been adapted. We develop a detection technique that can discriminate between "known" and "unknown" taxa, which can be used with composition-based methods, as well as a hybrid method. Unlike previous studies, we rigorously evaluate all algorithms for their ability to detect novel taxa. First, we show that the integration of a detector with a composition-based method performs significantly better than homology-based methods for the detection of novel species and genera, with best performance at finer taxonomic resolutions. Most importantly, we evaluate all the algorithms by introducing an "unknown" class and show that the modified version of PhymmBL has similar or better overall classification performance than the other modified algorithms, especially for the species-level and ultrashort reads. Finally, we evaluate the performance of several algorithms on a real acid mine drainage dataset.

  16. Invalidation of Hyperamoeba by transferring its species to other genera of Myxogastria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Chao, Ema E; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The genus Hyperamoeba Alexeieff, 1923 was established to accommodate an aerobic amoeba exhibiting three life stages-amoeba, flagellate, and cyst. As more species/strains were isolated, it became increasingly evident from small subunit (SSU) gene phylogenies and ultrastructure that Hyperamoeba is polyphyletic and its species occupy different positions within the class Myxogastria. To pinpoint Hyperamoeba strains within other myxogastrid genera we aligned numerous myxogastrid sequences: whole small subunit ribosomal (SSU or 18S rRNA) gene for 50 dark-spored (i.e. Stemonitida and Physarida) Myxogastria (including a new "Hyperamoeba"/Didymium sequence) and a approximately 400-bp SSU fragment for 147 isolates assigned to 10 genera of the order Physarida. Phylogenetic analyses show unambiguously that the type species Hyperamoeba flagellata is a Physarum (Physarum flagellatum comb. nov.) as it nests among other Physarum species as robust sister to Physarum didermoides. Our trees also allow the following allocations: five Hyperamoeba strains to the genus Stemonitis; Hyperamoeba dachnaya, Pseudodidymium cryptomastigophorum, and three other Hyperamoeba strains to the genus Didymium; and two further Hyperamoeba strains to the family Physaridae. We therefore abandon the polyphyletic and redundant genus Hyperamoeba. We discuss the implications for the ecology and evolution of Myxogastria, whose amoeboflagellates are more widespread than previous inventories supposed, being now found in freshwater and even marine environments.

  17. Two new genera and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Pseudothelphusidae: Potamocarcinini) from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, José Luis; Álvarez, Fernando

    2013-01-09

    Two new genera, Sylvathelphusa n. gen. and Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen., and three new species, Sylvathelphusa kalebi n. sp., S. cavernicola n. sp. and Tzotzilthelphusa villarosalensis n. sp., of the tribe Potamocarcinini, family Pseudothelphusidae, are described from Chiapas, Mexico. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is characterized by a male gonopod with the marginal plate between the caudal and mesial surfaces abruptly widening distally and forming a triangular apical projection; and a mesial process as a strong, acute spine forming a 90º angle with respect to the principal axis of the gonopod. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. exhibits a male gonopod strongly bent laterally in the distal third, and a mesial surface rounded distally with acute spinules. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is similar to Potamocarcinus in gonopod morphology, in both straight and with a mesial process developed as strong tooth in a similar shape and position. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. is similar to Phrygiopilus in that the gonopods of both genera develop a supra-apical process that is a continuation of the mesial surface. The new taxa come from the Los Altos de Chiapas region and bring the total number of pseudothelphusid genera in Chiapas to 11.

  18. New genera and problematic species in African Lithosiinae (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae

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    Mario Antonio Durante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some problematic species in the subfamily Lithosiinae. Two new monospecific genera are proposed: Parafrasura gen. nov. and Palaeugoa gen. nov. The former presents the following autapomorphies: tegumen strong and large; uncus long and slightly claviform; typical scaphium-gnathos complex. The latter presents as autapomorphies the disposition of the bands of the wings pattern, and the male genitalia shape. Asura naumanni Kühne, 2005 is considered incertae sedis within Lithosiinae and Asura phaeosticta Kiriakoff, 1958 is transferred to Euproctis Hübner, [1819] (Lymantriidae (comb. nov.. 

  19. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne Gail

    2016-08-01

    sources of specimens that were the bases of new names are identified. I resolve some nomenclatural issues, acting as First Reviser. A few taxonomic opinions are published for the first time. I have been unable to resolve a small number of problematic names having both nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are changing assignment of genera to families and species to genera. Systematics may change, but the basics of nomenclature remain unchanged in face of such alterations.        All actions are in accord with the principles of nomenclature enunciated in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. These include the type concept, the Principle of Coordination, and the Principle of Priority. Nomenclatural acts include the creation of new replacement names; seven actiniarian generic names and one species name that are junior homonyms but have been treated as valid are replaced and an eighth new genus name is created. I designate type species for two genera. Except for published misspellings, names are rendered correctly according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; I have altered spelling of some species names to conform to orthographic regulations. I place several species that had been assigned to genera now considered junior synonyms in the genus to which the type species was moved; experts on these anemones should determine whether those generic placements, which follow the nomenclatural rules, are taxonomically appropriate.        This inventory can be a useful starting point in assembling the literature and trying to understand the rationale for the creation and use of names for the taxonomic matters yet to be resolved.  Some nomenclatural conundra will not be resolved until taxonomic uncertainties are. A taxonomist familiar with the animals needs to ascertain whether the published synonymies are justified. If so, the senior synonym should be used, which, in many instances, will involve determining

  20. Description of two genera and species of late Eocene Anthropoidea from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, E L

    1989-12-01

    In 1987 and 1988 fossils of two previously unknown genera and species of Egyptian early Tertiary Anthropoidea were discovered in the Fayum Depression of Egypt. These are much older than all other Fayum, Oligocene primates and are believed to be Eocene in age. These genera, here named Catopithecus and Proteopithecus, come from a new Fayum site, L-41, and resemble Oligopithecus from the Jebel Qatrani Formation (lower sequence) at quarry E. They are here placed with the latter in a subfamily, Oligopithecinae, that is ranked in the Propliopithecidae. The level of L-41 is separated from quarry E by at least one major unconformity and 47 m of section. Only a maxilla of Proteopithecus is known. Its molars and premolars resemble those of later Fayum Propliopithecus and Aegyptopithecus and do not resemble those of Apidium and Parapithecus, all of which come from the Jebel Qatrani Formation, upper sequence. The type specimen of Catopithecus confirms a lower dental formula of 2-1-2-3, as in Catarrhini. These species appear to be the oldest primates undoubtedly related to humans. Their dental anatomy points to a derivation of Anthropoidea from Eocene adapids.

  1. Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, with species revisions of eight genera

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    Hongliang Shi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedlička, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species M. laticollis, sp. n.. Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Dianella Jedlička, 1952 (junior homonym of Dianella Gude, 1913. The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam, Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India, Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand, Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China, Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China. Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825, comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedlička, 1946, comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedlička, 1935b, comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994, comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedlička, 1934, comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans

  2. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  3. Phylogeny and evolution of Planomonadida (Sulcozoa): eight new species and new genera Fabomonas and Nutomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glücksman, Edvard; Snell, Elizabeth A; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Planomonads are widespread gliding zooflagellates from marine and freshwater sediments with seven species. We cultured 13 new strains; morphology and 18S and ITS2 rDNA sequences show that 11 represent eight new species described here. The 15 species form four robust clades, corresponding to revised Planomonas and Ancyromonas and new genera Fabomonas (marine) and Nutomonas (freshwater). Fabomonas tropica differs in shape and is genetically very distant from previously known planomonads, yet ultrastructurally similar. Anterior cilium morphology maps simply onto the rDNA tree forming the basis for two revised families: Ancyromonadidae (Ancyromonas, Nutomonas) have a uniformly thin, entirely acronematic anterior cilium; Planomonadidae (Fabomonas, Planomonas micra, and new species Planomonas elongata, bulbosa, and brevis) have a more conspicuous emergent basal region of the anterior cilium of normal thickness. ITS2 secondary structure is clade-specific, differing most sharply in the main Nutomonas subclade from all marine species, being exceptionally short compared with earlier-diverging marine clades. Nutomonas longa is very distant but Nutomonas howeae subsp. lacustris differs from Nutomonas (Planomonas) howeae and limna (new combinations) mainly by ITS2 compensatory and/or hemi-compensatory mutations. Ancyromonas indica, atlantica, and kenti are genetically more distinct from Ancyromonas sigmoides (=Planomonas mylnikovi). The first soil planomonad (new Nutomonas limna subspecies) was isolated.

  4. New genera and new species of Nasutitermitinae from the Neotropical Region (Isoptera, Termitidae

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    Luiz Roberto Fontes

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new Neotropical genera of Nasutitermitinae, of the group with mandibulate soldiers, are described. Cyrilliotermes, gen. n., is related to Curvitermes and includes C. cupim, sp. n. (type species, C. jaci, sp. n., C. cashassa, sp. n., C. strictinasus (Mathews, 1977, comb, n., and C. angulariceps (Mathews, 1977, comb, n., both C. strictinasus and C. angulariceps being removed from Curvitermes. Alates and soldiers are described for C. cupim, from Brazil, and for C. cachassa, from Suriname, and soldiers for C. jaci, from Suriname; a new locality is reported for C. strictinasus. Embiratermes, gen. n., is related to Armitermes and include E. festivellus (Silvestri, 1901, comb. n. (type species, E. benjamini (Snyder, 1926, comb, n., E. brevinasus (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., E. chagresi (Snyder, 1925, comb, n., E. heterotypus Silvestri, 1901, comb, n., E. latidens (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., E. neotenicus (Holmgren, 1906, comb, n., E. silvestrii (Emerson, 1949, comb, n., E. snyderi (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., E. spissus (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., and E. transandinus (Araujo, 1977, comb, n., all removed from Armitermes. The creation of Embiratermes, besides being based on morphological characteristics of soldiers, workers and alates, is justified by the defensive behaviour of the soldiers, which is different from that of Armitermes soldiers. Ibitermes, gen. n., which seems to be related to Embiratermes, includes only I. curupira, sp. n., described from a series of soldiers and workers from Brazil. Keys based on the soldier caste are provided for the identification of the 11 genera with mandibulate soldiers of the Nasutitermitinae, and for the species of Rhynchotermes, Curvitermes and Cyrilliotermes. Curvitermes planioculus Mathews, 1977 is considered a junior synonym of C. minor (Silvestri, 1901, syn.n.

  5. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  6. Revisions of the Afrotropical genera of Argidae and species of Pampsilota Konow, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinoidea

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    Andrew D. Liston

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical fauna contains five genera of Argidae. These are keyed. New subjective synonyms, followed by the valid name in brackets, are Calarge Enslin, 1911 [Arge Schrank, 1802], Calarge africana Enslin, 1911 [Arge congrua Konow, 1907], Clyparge Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina Lepeletier & Serville, 1828], Clyparge terminalis Pasteels, 1963 [Scobina poecila (Klug, 1834], and Sterictophora [sic] afra Pasteels, 1963 [Sphacophilus afer comb. n., species inquirenda near S. monjarasi Smith & Morales-Reyes, 2015]. The type material of both C. terminalis and S. afra was probably collected in the New World, but labelled with the wrong locality “Kamerun”. An introduction of both species to Africa, not followed by long-term establishment, seems less likely. The removal of these taxa from the faunal list of the region is recommended. The nine known Afrotropical species of Pampsilota are revised, and an illustrated dichotomous identification key presented, with distribution maps for all species. Four species are here described as new to science: P. dahomeyanus Goergen, Koch & Liston, sp. n., P. nigeriae Liston & Koch, sp. n., P. tsavoensis Liston & Koch, sp. n., and P. zebra Liston & Koch, sp. n. Lectotypes are designated for Pampsilota afer Konow, 1899, and Cipdele africana Mocsáry, 1909. The immature stages and host plant of only one species are known: P. dahomeyanus on Lannea nigritana (Anacardiaceae. Its larval morphology strongly resembles that of European and North American species of Arge. We provisionally retain Pampsilota as a valid genus, although it could justifiably be treated as comprising merely a species group, or groups, within Arge.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuda, Shayle B.

    2017-03-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (Chromodorididae) are brightly coloured sea slugs that live in some of the most biodiverse and threatened coral reefs on the planet. However, the evolutionary relationships within this family have not been well understood, especially in the genus Glossodoris. Members of Glossodoris have experienced large-scale taxonomic instability over the last century and have been the subject of repeated taxonomic changes, in part due to morphological characters being the sole traditional taxonomic sources of data. Changing concepts of traditional generic boundaries based on morphology also have contributed to this instability. Despite recent advances in molecular systematics, many aspects of chromodorid taxonomy remain poorly understood, particularly at the traditional species and generic levels. In this study, 77 individuals comprising 32 previously defined species were used to build the most robust phylogenetic tree of Glossodoris and related genera using mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses verify the most recent hypothesized evolutionary relationships within Glossodoris. Additionally, a pseudocryptic and cryptic species complex within Glossodoris cincta and a pseudocryptic complex within Glossodoris pallida emerged, and three new species of Doriprismatica are identified.

  8. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  9. Anaphothrips genus-group: key to world genera, with two new species and three new records from Japan (Thysanoptera, Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Masami; Okajima, Shûji

    2017-05-29

    An identification key is provided to the 40 genera worldwide that comprise the Anaphothrips genus-group of Thripinae. Oxythrips japonicus sp.n. and Rubiothrips galii sp.n. are described from Japan, and the members of Anaphothrips genus-group from Japan are reviewed, with 15 species in eight genera. Anaphothrips swezeyi Moulton, Caprithrips insularis Beshear and C. melanophthalmus (Bagnall) are newly recorded from Japan.

  10. Mitogenomics phylogenetic relationships of the current sloth's genera and species (Bradypodidae and Megalonychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Chacón, Diego; Plese, Tinka; Schuler, Ingrid; Shostell, Joseph Mark

    2017-01-27

    We sequenced the complete mitogenome of 39 sloths (19 Bradypus variegatus, 4 B. tridactylus, 1 B. pygmaeus, 1 B. torquatus, 4 Choloepus didactylus, and 10 C. hoffmanni). A Bayesian tree (BI) indicated a temporal split between Bradypus and Choloepus around 31 million years ago (MYA, Oligocene) and the other major splits within each genera during the Miocene and Pliocene. A haplotype network (MJN) estimated a lower temporal split between the sloth genera (around 23.5 MYA). Both methods detected the ancestor of B. torquatus as the first to diverge within Bradypus (21 for BI and 19 MJN), followed by that of the ancestor of B. tridactylus. The split of B. pygmaeus from the common ancestor with B. variegatus was around 12 MYA (BI) or 4.3 MYA (MJN). The splits among the previous populations of B. variegatus began around 8 MYA (BI) or 3.6 MYA (MJN). The trans-Andean population was the first to diverge from the remaining cis-Andean populations of B. variegatus. The genetic differentiation of the trans-Andean B. variegatus population relative to the cis-Andean B. variegatus is similar to that found for different species of sloths. The mitogenomic analysis resolved the differentiation of C. hoffmanni from the C. didactylus individuals of the Guiana Shield. However, one C. didactylus from the Colombian Amazon specimen was inside the C. hoffmanni clade. This could be the first example of possible natural hybridization in the Amazon of both Choloepus taxa or the existence of un-differentiable phenotypes of these two species in some Amazonian areas.

  11. Bolivian Rhinotragini VIII: new genera and species related to Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O.S. Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 is redescribed. Four new, closely related genera are described. Panamapoda gen. nov., with P. panamensis (Giesbert, 1996; Paraphygopoda gen nov., with Paraphygopoda nappae sp. nov., P. albitarsis (Klug, 1825, P. viridimicans (Fisher, 1952, and, provisionally, P. longipennis (Zajciw, 1963; Para melitta gen. nov., with Paramelitta wappesi sp. nov., and P. aglaia (Newman, 1840; and Phygomelitta gen. nov., with one species, P. triangularis (Fuchs, 1961. All the species are illustrated (including genitalia; and keys to the genera, and their species, are provided.

  12. Species delimitation in the reef coral genera Echinophyllia and Oxypora (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) with a description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Terraneo, Tullia I; Baird, Andrew H; Payri, Claude; Benzoni, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    Scleractinian corals are affected by environment-induced phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific morphological variation caused by genotype. In an effort to identify new strategies for resolving this taxonomic issue, we applied a molecular approach for species evaluation to two closely related genera, Echinophyllia and Oxypora, for which few molecular data are available. A robust multi-locus phylogeny using DNA sequence data across four loci of both mitochondrial (COI, ATP6-NAD4) and nuclear (histone H3, ITS region) origin from 109 coral colonies was coupled with three independent putative species delimitation methods based on barcoding threshold (ABGD) and coalescence theory (PTP, GMYC). Observed overall congruence across multiple genetic analyses distinguished two traditional species (E. echinoporoides and O. convoluta), a species complex composed of E. aspera, E. orpheensis, E. tarae, and O. glabra, whereas O. lacera and E. echinata were indistinguishable with the sequenced loci. The combination of molecular species delimitation approaches and skeletal character observations allowed the description of two new reef coral species, E. bulbosa sp. n. from the Red Sea and E. gallii sp. n. from the Maldives and Mayotte. This work demonstrated the efficiency of multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and recently developed molecular species delimitation approaches as valuable tools to disentangle taxonomic issues caused by morphological ambiguities and to re-assess the diversity of scleractinian corals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Species delimitation in the reef coral genera Echinophyllia and Oxypora (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) with a description of two new species

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2016-09-09

    Scleractinian corals are affected by environment-induced phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific morphological variation caused by genotype. In an effort to identify new strategies for resolving this taxonomic issue, we applied a molecular approach for species evaluation to two closely related genera, Echinophyllia and Oxypora, for which few molecular data are available. A robust multi-locus phylogeny using DNA sequence data across four loci of both mitochondrial (COI, ATP6-NAD4) and nuclear (histone H3, ITS region) origin from 109 coral colonies was coupled with three independent putative species delimitation methods based on barcoding threshold (ABGD) and coalescence theory (PTP, GMYC). Observed overall congruence across multiple genetic analyses distinguished two traditional species (E. echinoporoides and O. convoluta), a species complex composed of E. aspera, E. orpheensis, E. tarae, and O. glabra, whereas O. lacera and E. echinata were indistinguishable with the sequenced loci. The combination of molecular species delimitation approaches and skeletal character observations allowed the description of two new reef coral species, E. bulbosa sp. n. from the Red Sea and E. gallii sp. n. from the Maldives and Mayotte. This work demonstrated the efficiency of multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and recently developed molecular species delimitation approaches as valuable tools to disentangle taxonomic issues caused by morphological ambiguities and to re-assess the diversity of scleractinian corals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

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    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  15. A molecular phylogeny of Acronychia, Euodia, Melicope and relatives (Rutaceae) reveals polyphyletic genera and key innovations for species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Marc S; Wen, Jun; Wagner, Warren L

    2014-10-01

    We present the first detailed phylogenetic study of the genus Melicope, the largest genus of the Citrus family (Rutaceae). The phylogenetic analysis sampled about 50% of the 235 accepted species of Melicope as well as representatives of 26 related genera, most notably Acronychia and Euodia. The results based on five plastid and nuclear markers have revealed that Acronychia, Euodia and Melicope are each not monophyletic in their current circumscriptions and that several small genera mainly from Australia and New Caledonia need to be merged with one of the three genera to ensure monophyly at the generic level. The phylogenetic position of the drupaceous Acronychia in relation to Melicope, which has capsular or follicular fruits, remains unclear and Acronychia might be a separate genus or a part of Melicope. The seed coats of Melicope, Acronychia and related genera show adaptations to bird-dispersal, which might be regarded as key innovations for species radiations. Euodia and its relatives, which lack these adaptations, include only about 20 species while the Melicope-Acronychia group consists of about 340 species. The drupaceous genera Comptonella, Dutaillyea, Picrella and Sarcomelicope are nested within Melicope and need to be merged with Melicope. The expanded genus is a prime example of the artificial classification system of Engler, who defined Rutaceous subfamilies mainly based on gynoecial and fruit characters.

  16. Phylogeny and evolution of apusomonadida (protozoa: apusozoa): new genera and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E

    2010-10-01

    Apusomonadida (Apusomonas; Amastigomonas) are understudied gliding zooflagellates. We divide Amastigomonas into five genera, three new: Podomonas; Manchomonas; Multimonas. Microscopy and 18S rDNA sequences establish three new marine species (Podomonas magna; P. capensis; Multimonas media) and a new cyst-forming non-marine species from the surface of ivy leaves (Thecamonas oxoniensis). We consider the soil and freshwater Amastigomonas debruynei, caudata, and borokensis generically distinct from marine Thecamonas. We establish the new combination Multimonas marina (formerly Cercomonas or Amastigomonas). We studied by DIC microscopy and 18S rDNA sequencing three strains microscopically indistinguishable from marine Thecamonas trahens and argue that marine strains of almost identical sequence and appearance (visible largely acronematic cilia) were previously misidentified as Am. debruynei. We argue that 'Amastigomonas sp.' ATCC50062, whose 18S rRNA was sequenced previously and whose complete genome is being sequenced, is T. trahens. We include electron micrographs of T. aff. trahens, P. capensis and magna; ultrastructural cytoskeletal differences between P. capensis, Thecamonas, and Manchomonas (=Amastigomonas) bermudensis comb. n. allow novel functional interpretations of apusomonad evolution. On 18S rDNA trees Apusomonas and Manchomonas form a robust clade (Apusomonadinae), but Thecomonas trahens, T. oxoniensis, Multimonas, and Podomonas all branch deeply but unstably. Apusomonadida and Planomonas are weakly sister to opisthokonts.

  17. Western Hemisphere Zuphiini: descriptions of Coarazuphium whiteheadi, new species, and Zuphioides, new genus, and classification of the genera (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ball

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on small samples (exemplars analyzed with morphological methods, including detailed descriptions and illustrations, this study treats primarily the Zuphium genus-group in the Western Hemisphere, which comprises two precinctive genera: Coarazuphium Gnaspini, Vanin & Godoy, 1998 (type species Parazuphium tessai Godoy & Vanin, 1990 and Zuphioides gen. n. (type species Zuphium mexicanum Chaudoir, 1863. The genus Coarazuphium includes six troglobitic species from Brazilian caves, and one probably hypogaeic (troglophilic species from the mountains of Oaxaca, in Mexico (C. whiteheadi, sp. n., type locality, ridge top, in western Oaxaca, Mexico, at 2164 m, 35 km north of San Pedro Juchatengo, 16.462N, 97.010W. The epigaeic genus Zuphioides includes 23 species, with its geographical range extended from Neotropical temperate Argentina in southern South America, northward through the tropics to north temperate southeastern Canada, in the Nearctic Region. Keys are provided to the species of Coarazuphium and to the genera of Western Hemisphere Zuphiini.

  18. Pamphagidae (Orthoptera: Caelifera) of North Africa: key to genera and the annotated check-list of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    At least 95 species of Pamphagidae belonging to 17 genera are known in North Africa. Taxonomic status is fairly known, with some exception, mainly due to scarcity of available specimens of some genera in museums and collections. In this paper, the author proposes a new key to genera and reports the annotated list of all the known species, based on specimens examined in different European museums. Concerning the subfamily Thrinchinae, he proposes to consider only the following species of the genus Tmethis: T. cisti, T. harterti new status, T. maroccanus and T. pulchripennis. He also considers Neotmethis bidentatus synonym of T. harterti, and the three newly described species of the genus Tuarega as synonyms of T. insignis. In addition, he proposes to remove Batrachotettix elephas from the synonyms of T. insignis, because its description consents to establish that it belongs to a South African Porthetinae, not to a Thrinchinae. With regard to the subfamily Pamphaginae, the author recognizes the presence in North Africa of three tribes, until now containing 90 species: Finotiini, Pamphagini and Euryparyphini; Amigus is definitively considered a valid genus within the tribe Pamphagini, with the only species A. nigroadspersus. Additionally, he proposes a new key to species of the genus Paracinipe. He considers Paracinipe theryi as a valid species; previously it has been listed as subspecies of P. dolichocera. He also establishes that Acinipe calabra of Italy is the same taxon living in North Africa. Further, he describes Euryparyphes rungsi new species from Middle Atlas, and Paraeumigus lopezi new species from West Morocco, and synonymizes Eunapiodes granosus rungsi with E. atlantis. Finally, he reports biometric data of the genera Tmethis, Paracinipe, Paraeumigus and Eunapiodes.

  19. Re-examining the phylogeny of clinically relevant Candida species and allied genera based on multigene analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsui, Clement K M; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Robert, Vincent; Meyer, Wieland

    Yeasts of the artificial genus Candida include plant endophytes, insect symbionts, and opportunistic human pathogens. Phylogenies based on rRNA gene and actin sequences confirmed that the genus is not monophyletic, and the relationships among Candida species and allied teleomorph genera are not

  20. New Australian hygrobatids (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae), with the description of two new genera and three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two new genera of the water mite family Hygrobatidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) are described from Australia, Ioannibates gen. nov. and Pseudoaustraliobates gen. nov.. In addition, three new species are described, Ioannibates papillosus sp. nov., Pseudoaustraliobates flindersi sp. nov. and the second spe

  1. Notes on asian Cremastochiliform genera, with descriptions of two new species (Coleoptera: Cetoniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.

    1977-01-01

    A key to the Asian cremastochiliform genera is given. Three synonymies are emphasized: Clinterocera Motschulsky (= Callynomes Westwood); Campsiura Hope (= Macroma Gory & Percheron); Spilophorus Schaum (= Pseudospilophorus Kraatz). A new synonymy is: Periphanesthes Kraatz (= Bonsiella Ruter). The aut

  2. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Paul M; Wild, Alexander L; Whitfield, James B

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H

  3. The Doryctinae (Braconidae of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marsh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H

  4. Three novel myxobolid species of genera Henneguya and Myxobolus (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from marine fish in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Kamata, Yoichi; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2012-08-01

    Myxosporean genera Henneguya and Myxobolus (Bivalvulida: Myxobolidae) are closely related in morphology and molecular phylogeny, speciose with approximately 1,000 nominal species. The majority of them are recorded from freshwater fish worldwide, and few are known from marine fish. In this study, three myxobolid spp. are described from marine fish around Japan. Two novel Henneguya spp., Henneguya ogawai sp. n. and Henneguya yokoyamai sp. n., are described from two black sea breams (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) fished in the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan. Plasmodia of the former species were localized in the esophageal or intestinal wall, and those of the latter species were in the wall of the gall bladder and peritoneum. Spore development in plasmodia of these two species was synchronous. The spore body of H. ogawai sp. n. was 11.0 (8.9-12.2) μm in length, 6.9 (6.3-7.5) μm in width, 5.9 (5.2-6.6) μm in thickness, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, 10.0 (8.4-12.7) μm long; total spore length, 21.1 (19.2-23.4) μm. It contained two polar capsule, 4.3 (3.8-5.2) × 1.9 (1.4-2.3) μm. The spore body of H. yokoyamai sp. n. was 11.0 (10.1-13.7) μm in length, 7.1 (6.6-7.5) μm in width, and 5.6 (4.5-6.4) μm in thickness, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, 14.1 (10.8-17.0) μm long; total spore length, 25.0 (21.9-29.2) μm. It contained two polar capsules, 3.7 (3.1-4.2) × 2.0 (1.8-2.4) μm. A novel Myxobolus sp., Myxobolus machidai sp. n., is described from a spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus) fished in the Sea of Japan, off Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Plasmodia were embedded in the esophageal wall. Its round spore was small in size, 9.0 (8.1-9.4) μm in length, 7.8 (7.5-8.3) μm in width, and 5.5 (5.1-6.0) μm in thickness. It contained two polar capsules, 3.5 (3.2-3.8) × 2.3 (2.2-2.5) μm. Spore development in a plasmodium was asynchronous. Nucleotide sequencing of the small

  5. Overview of the Ferdina-like Goniasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) including a new subfamily, three new genera and fourteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Christopher L

    2017-05-25

    Recent assignment of some goniasterid-like Ophidiasteridae into the Goniasteridae has led to further re-evaluation of other ophidiasterids as possible goniasterids. This led to the discovery of new genera and species supported by a distinctive set of characteristics which support a new subfamily, the Ferdininae, a group originally outlined by Marsh and Price (1991) within the Goniasteridae. The historical Ophidiasteridae is paraphyletic and includes several nominal ophidiasterid genera (e.g., Fromia, Neoferdina, etc.). Newly described material has led to the inclusion of six genera,within this group, of which three, Bathyferdina n. gen., Eosaster n. gen., and Kanakaster n. gen., are newly described. Fourteen new species in five genera are described. This includes Bathyferdina aireyae n. gen., n. sp., Eosaster nadiae n. gen., n. sp., Ferdina mena n. sp., Kanakaster balutensis n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster convexus n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster discus n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster larae n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster plinthinos n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster solidus n. gen., n. sp., Neoferdina annae n. sp., Neoferdina antigorum, n. sp., Neoferdina momo, n. sp., Neoferdina oni, n. sp., and Paraferdina plakos, n. sp. Identification keys, synopses, and description of these taxa are included.

  6. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies, and a key to genera of Neotropical Lasiopteridi unplaced to tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J; Etienne, Jean

    2015-10-12

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, new genus, Anapeza Gagné, new genus, and Pellacara Gagné, new genus, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.; Anapeza tumida Gagné, new species, and Pellacara postica, new species, were both reared from Psychotria mapourioides DC. The three new genera belong to Lasiopteridi but are unassigned to tribe. A key to the adult stage of these and 23 other Neotropical genera of unplaced Lasiopteridi whose adults are known is provided.

  7. Polyphyly and hidden species among Hawai'i's dominant mesophotic coral genera, Leptoseris and Pavona (Scleractinia: Agariciidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Daniel G; Forsman, Zac H; Toonen, Robert J; Leicht, Sarah J; Kahng, Samuel E

    2013-01-01

    Widespread polyphyly in stony corals (order Scleractinia) has prompted efforts to revise their systematics through approaches that integrate molecular and micromorphological evidence. To date, these approaches have not been comprehensively applied to the dominant genera in mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) because several species in these genera occur primarily at depths that are poorly explored and from which sample collections are limited. This study is the first integrated morphological and molecular systematic analysis of the genera Leptoseris and Pavona to examine material both from shallow-water reefs (60 m). Skeletal and tissue samples were collected throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago between 2-127 m. A novel mitochondrial marker (cox1-1-rRNA intron) was sequenced for 70 colonies, and the micromorphologies of 94 skeletons, plus selected type material, were analyzed. The cox1-1-rRNA intron resolved 8 clades, yet Leptoseris and Pavona were polyphyletic. Skeletal micromorphology, especially costal ornamentation, showed strong correspondence and discrete differences between mitochondrial groups. One putative new Leptoseris species was identified and the global depth range of the genus Pavona was extended to 89 m, suggesting that the diversity of mesophotic scleractinians has been underestimated. Examination of species' depth distributions revealed a pattern of depth zonation: Species common in shallow-water were absent or rare >40 m, whereas others occurred only >60 m. These patterns emphasize the importance of integrated systematic analyses and more comprehensive sampling by depth in assessing the connectivity and diversity of MCEs.

  8. Additional notes on species of the Asian genera Endocomis, Horsfieldia, and Knema (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Notes are given on various taxa in the Asian genera Endocomia, Horsfieldia, and Knema of the family Myristicaceae. Newly described taxa are Horsfieldia penangiana subsp. obtusifolia, H. perangusta, and Knema emmae, K. krusemaniana, K. kunstleri subsp. leptophylla, K. longepilosa, and K. ridsdaleana.

  9. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  10. Polyphyly and hidden species among Hawaiʻi’s dominant mesophotic coral genera, Leptoseris and Pavona (Scleractinia: Agariciidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Zac H.; Toonen, Robert J.; Leicht, Sarah J.; Kahng, Samuel E.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread polyphyly in stony corals (order Scleractinia) has prompted efforts to revise their systematics through approaches that integrate molecular and micromorphological evidence. To date, these approaches have not been comprehensively applied to the dominant genera in mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) because several species in these genera occur primarily at depths that are poorly explored and from which sample collections are limited. This study is the first integrated morphological and molecular systematic analysis of the genera Leptoseris and Pavona to examine material both from shallow-water reefs (60 m). Skeletal and tissue samples were collected throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago between 2–127 m. A novel mitochondrial marker (cox1-1-rRNA intron) was sequenced for 70 colonies, and the micromorphologies of 94 skeletons, plus selected type material, were analyzed. The cox1-1-rRNA intron resolved 8 clades, yet Leptoseris and Pavona were polyphyletic. Skeletal micromorphology, especially costal ornamentation, showed strong correspondence and discrete differences between mitochondrial groups. One putative new Leptoseris species was identified and the global depth range of the genus Pavona was extended to 89 m, suggesting that the diversity of mesophotic scleractinians has been underestimated. Examination of species’ depth distributions revealed a pattern of depth zonation: Species common in shallow-water were absent or rare >40 m, whereas others occurred only >60 m. These patterns emphasize the importance of integrated systematic analyses and more comprehensive sampling by depth in assessing the connectivity and diversity of MCEs. PMID:24032091

  11. Polyphyly and hidden species among Hawaiʻi’s dominant mesophotic coral genera, Leptoseris and Pavona (Scleractinia: Agariciidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Luck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Widespread polyphyly in stony corals (order Scleractinia has prompted efforts to revise their systematics through approaches that integrate molecular and micromorphological evidence. To date, these approaches have not been comprehensively applied to the dominant genera in mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs because several species in these genera occur primarily at depths that are poorly explored and from which sample collections are limited. This study is the first integrated morphological and molecular systematic analysis of the genera Leptoseris and Pavona to examine material both from shallow-water reefs (60 m. Skeletal and tissue samples were collected throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago between 2–127 m. A novel mitochondrial marker (cox1-1-rRNA intron was sequenced for 70 colonies, and the micromorphologies of 94 skeletons, plus selected type material, were analyzed. The cox1-1-rRNA intron resolved 8 clades, yet Leptoseris and Pavona were polyphyletic. Skeletal micromorphology, especially costal ornamentation, showed strong correspondence and discrete differences between mitochondrial groups. One putative new Leptoseris species was identified and the global depth range of the genus Pavona was extended to 89 m, suggesting that the diversity of mesophotic scleractinians has been underestimated. Examination of species’ depth distributions revealed a pattern of depth zonation: Species common in shallow-water were absent or rare >40 m, whereas others occurred only >60 m. These patterns emphasize the importance of integrated systematic analyses and more comprehensive sampling by depth in assessing the connectivity and diversity of MCEs.

  12. Description of four new genera and five new species of cicadas from New Caledonia (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Quentin

    2017-03-13

    The four endemic new genera Paulaudalna gen. nov., Bispinalta gen. nov., Melanesiana gen. nov. and Strepuntalna gen. nov. are described from New Caledonia. The genus Paulaudalna includes two new species: Paulaudalna marginata sp. nov., as type species, and Paulaudalna amieuensis sp. nov. The genus Bispinalta is described from the new species Bispinalta caledonica sp. nov., and comes from bushy forest at summit of pic Ouitchambo at Boulouparis. The genus Melanesiana is described from the new species Melanesiana kataouii sp. nov., that is found in bushy forest at massif du Kepeto (Pouembout). The genus Strepuntalna is represented by the new species Strepuntalna. renaudetii sp. nov., and is encountered in bushy forest of south and central chain. Except Paulaudalna amieuensis, male calling songs of the new species are described from field recordings.

  13. Four Species of Oribatid Mites (Acari: Oribatida from Central and Southern Mongolia, with Notes on the Genera Montizetes and Zachvatkinibates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badamdorj Bayartogtokh

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work four species of oribatid mites from central and southern parts of Mongolia are studied, and two of them, namely Zachvatkinibates mongolicus sp. nov. and Montizetes serratus sp. nov. are described as new to science. Two other species, Kunstella foveolata Krivolutsky and Liebstadia pannonica(Wil1mann are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and the latter species is reported for the first time from Asia. Description of new and redescription of known species, and data on geographic distribution of known species are given. Anew combination, Montizetes tianshanensis (Wen comb. nov. is proposed. Identification keys to the world species of the genera Zachvatkinibates and Montizetes are provided.

  14. Myrmecophilous rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) associated with Aenictus hodgsoni (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Thailand, with description of two new genera and three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Munetoshi; Komatsu, Takashi; Katayama, Yuji; Song, Xiao-Bin; Sakchoowong, Watana

    2014-05-19

    Three species of rove beetles (subfamily Aleocharinae) were collected from colonies of Aenictus hodgsoni Forel, 1901 in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. They are classified into three genera, including two new genera, and described herein as: Aenictobia siamensis Maruyama, sp. n. (tribe Aenictoteratini), Aenictosymbia cornuta Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Lomechusini) and Aenictoxenides mirabilis Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Pygostenini). The systematic positions of the new genera are discussed.

  15. Review of the genera Paulomanus Young, 1952 and Beamerana Young, 1952 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) with description of a new species from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, María Inés; Paradell, Susana L; Dietrich, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical microleafhopper genera Paulomanus and Beamerana are redescribed based on study of type material and newly collected specimens. Paulomanus is recorded for the first time from Argentina and a new species, P. falciformis n. sp., is described. Detailed morphological description and illustration of the new species and a key to males of the known species of Paulomanus are provided. A key to genera of the New World Empoascini is also provided.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the phytosanitary risk associated with some coniferous species and genera for the spread of pine wood nematode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission requested the Panel on Plant Health to deliver a scientific opinion on the phytosanitary risk of plants (other than fruits and seeds) of Pinus pinea and of the genera Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria and Juniperus for the spread of pine wood nematode (PWN) via movement of infested...... plants or untreated plant products or by supporting natural spread of PWN in conjunction with European species of the vector. The Panel analysed the data submitted by Portugal regarding surveys on the Tróia Peninsula where P. pinaster and P. pinea co-occur, and the related laboratory results of Naves et...

  17. A checklist of the New World species of Tillinae (Coleoptera: Cleridae), with an illustrated key to genera and new country records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F; Leavengood, John M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-12-21

    This checklist presents the distribution of the checkered beetle subfamily Tillinae (Coleoptera: Cleridae) in the New World. Information for 164 species and 2 subspecies from 11 genera is included. The data are based on an extensive survey of material collected throughout the Americas, descriptions of new species, a number of revisionary works, data from museum specimens, as well as unpublished checklists. Cymatodera, the most speciose tilline genus in the New World, has its greatest diversity in Mexico where 100 of the 134 recognized species are known to occur. Remaining genera inhabiting the New World and corresponding species numbers are: Araeodontia, 5 species; Barrotillus, 1 species; Bogcia, 2 species; Bostrichoclerus, 1 species; Callotillus, 5 species; Cylidrus, 1 species; Cymatoderella, 3 species; Lecontella, 3 species; Monophylla, 4 species; and Onychotillus, 5 species. An illustrated key to the genera of the New World Tillinae is provided. Forty-eight new country records are given for 35 species. References are presented for all species listed. Distribution maps for all New World genera are provided and locality data is presented for selected species.

  18. Palpimanid spiders from Guyana: new species of the genera Fernandezina and Otiothops (Araneae, Palpimanidae, Otiothopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grismado Cristian J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the spider family Palpimanidae from Guyana are described: Fernandezina takutu, the first species of this genus known from this country andOtiothops giralunas, that seems to be the sister species of O. goloboffi Grismado, 1996 from northwestern Argentina.

  19. A new species of spider fly in the genus Sabroskya Schlinger from Malawi, with a key to Acrocerinae world genera (Diptera, Acroceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Shaun L; Gillung, Jéssica P

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we diagnose the genus Sabroskya Schlinger, 1960 and describe Sabroskya schlingerisp. n. from Malawi. We also provide dichotomous keys to species of Sabroskya and to world genera of the subfamily Acrocerinae, both extant and extinct.

  20. A new species of Furculanurida (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Ivory Coast, with comments on related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Serge Demeango; Tano, Yao; Deharveng, Louis

    2014-10-29

    A new species of Pseudachorutinae, Furculanurida emucronata sp. nov., is described from Lamto in the Ivory Coast. It differs from all known Pseudachorutinae species by the presence of a strong lateral tooth on the claw of leg I, and from other species of the genus Furculanurida by the absence of a mucro. It is provisionally assigned to the genus Furculanurida which is redefined accordingly. The heterogeneity of the genus is stressed, and its relationships with Arlesiella, Kenyura, Pseudachorutes and Stachorutes are discussed.

  1. A synopsis of the species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida) parasitising Indian fishes and a revised dichotomous key to myxosporean genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2012-01-01

    A synopsis of 131 nominal species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) reported from India is presented. For each species, the relevant morphometric and morphological data are indicated, as well as the host(s), site(s) of infection within the host and locality data. A revised dichotomous key of 59 genera of the class Myxosporea has also been included. This key incorporates 10 additional genera to that proposed in 1991 by Lom & Dyková.

  2. Aleutian Ancorinidae (Porifera, Astrophorida): Description of three new species from the genera Stelletta and Ancorina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2014-06-30

    Two new species of the genus Stelletta and one new species of Ancorina are described from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and compared to congeners of the region. This is the first record of the genus Ancorina in the North Pacific Ocean. Stelletta ovalae Tanita 1965 is also reported for the first time from the Bering Sea and Alaska. 

  3. Scale evolution, sequence phylogeny, and taxonomy of thaumatomonad Cercozoa: 11 new species and new genera Scutellomonas, Cowlomonas, Thaumatospina and Ovaloplaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoble, Josephine M; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We describe 11 new species of Thaumatomonadida using light and electron microscopy and rDNA gene sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2). We found clear distinctions between major clades in molecular and morphological traits that support now splitting Thaumatomastix into three genera: new marine genera Ovaloplaca (oval plate-scales) and Thaumatospina (triangular plate-scales), both with distinctive radially-symmetric bobbin-based spine-scales, restricting Thaumatomastix to freshwater species with putatively non-homologous eccentric-spine scales and thicker triangular plate-scales. New genus Scutellomonas lacks spine-scales, having oval plate-scales with deeply-dished upper tier as in Ovaloplaca, with which it forms a clade having short/absent anterior cilium. Cowlomonas gen. n. is possibly naked. We describe two new Allas species, two new Thaumatomonas, and one new Reckertia species, and transfer R. hindoni to Thaumatomonas. Triangular-scaled Reckertia has varied plate-scales and ciliary scales. Thaumatomonas rDNA trees reveal two clades: zhukovi/seravini (predominantly triangular scales); coloniensis/oxoniensis/lauterborni/constricta/solis (scales mostly oval). We hypothesise that the ancestor of Thaumatomonadidae had radially-symmetric bobbin-based spine-scales and triangular plate-scales, bobbin-based spine-scales being lost in one lineage and eccentric-spine scales evolving in Thaumatomastix. Bobbin-based spine-scales arguably evolved from triangular plate-scales and single-tier ciliary scales (Ovaloplaca and Reckertia only) from plate-scale rudiments. We present a unified scheme for scale evolution and development in Imbricatea.

  4. Checklist of American sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae: genera, species, and their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Helena Fernandes Shimabukuro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are dipteran insects of medical importance because many species are involved in the transmission of pathogens between human and non-human animals. A total of 530 American species of sand flies is presented in an updated checklist, along with their author(s and year of publication using the classification by Galati (1995, 2003. Distribution by country is also provided.

  5. Unexpectedly Diverse Mesorhizobium Strains and Rhizobium leguminosarum Nodulate Native Legume Genera of New Zealand, while Introduced Legume Weeds Are Nodulated by Bradyrhizobium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Bevan S.; Turner, Susan J.; Silvester, Warwick B.; Park, Duck-Chul; Young, John M.

    2004-01-01

    The New Zealand native legume flora are represented by four genera, Sophora, Carmichaelia, Clianthus, and Montigena. The adventive flora of New Zealand contains several legume species introduced in the 19th century and now established as serious invasive weeds. Until now, nothing has been reported on the identification of the associated rhizobia of native or introduced legumes in New Zealand. The success of the introduced species may be due, at least in part, to the nature of their rhizobial symbioses. This study set out to address this issue by identifying rhizobial strains isolated from species of the four native legume genera and from the introduced weeds: Acacia spp. (wattles), Cytisus scoparius (broom), and Ulex europaeus (gorse). The identities of the isolates and their relationship to known rhizobia were established by comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA, atpD, glnII, and recA gene sequences. Maximum-likelihood analysis of the resultant data partitioned the bacteria into three genera. Most isolates from native legumes aligned with the genus Mesorhizobium, either as members of named species or as putative novel species. The widespread distribution of strains from individual native legume genera across Mesorhizobium spp. contrasts with previous reports implying that bacterial species are specific to limited numbers of legume genera. In addition, four isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. In contrast, all sequences from isolates from introduced weeds aligned with Bradyrhizobium species but formed clusters distinct from existing named species. These results show that native legume genera and these introduced legume genera do not have the same rhizobial populations. PMID:15466541

  6. Discovering the Unknown: Improving Detection of Novel Species and Genera from Short Reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail L. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    “unknown” class and show that the modified version of PhymmBL has similar or better overall classification performance than the other modified algorithms, especially for the species-level and ultrashort reads. Finally, we evaluate theperformance of several algorithms on a real acid mine drainage dataset.

  7. An updated index to genera, species, and infraspecific taxa of Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.I.T.; Rainer, H.; Lobao, A.Q.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Annonaceae form the most diverse family within the Magnoliales. In 1990 an Index to generic names of Annonaceae was published and in 1994 an Index to Neotropical species of Annonaceae was compiled. Especially the latter proved an immensely useful tool for Neotropical botanists. Here, we present an u

  8. Revisions of Ruizodendron and Pseudephedranthus (Annonaceae including a new species and an overview of most up-to-date revisions of Neotropical Annonaceae genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Erkens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present revisions of the Neotropical genera Ruizodendron and Pseudephedranthus (Annonaceae. Ruizodendron includes a single species R. ovale. Pseudephedranthus now comprises two species, with the description of the new species P. enigmaticus sp. nov. extending the range of the genus beyond the Upper Rio Negro region of Brazil (Amazonas and adjacent Venezuela (P. fragrans, to include Guyana, Suriname, and the Brazilian state of Pará. An overview is provided of current revisions of Neotropical Annonaceae genera that will aid in accessing proper species information for this frequently encountered tropical rain forest family.

  9. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  10. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  11. Catalogue of genera and their type species in the mite Suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, R B

    2015-06-11

    This paper provides details of 300 genus-group names in the suborder Uropodina, including the superfamilies Microgynioidea, Thinozerconoidea, Uropodoidea, and Diarthrophalloidea. For each name, the information provided includes a reference to the original description of the genus, the type species and its method of designation, and details of nomenclatural and taxonomic anomalies where necessary. Twenty of these names are excluded from use because they are nomina nuda, junior homonyms, or objective junior synonyms. The remaining 280 available names appear to include a very high level of subjective synonymy, which will need to be resolved in a future comprehensive revision of the Uropodina.

  12. Cerviconema cygneum and Papuadorus amplus, two new genera and species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida from high altitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrássy, I.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of dorylaimid nematodes each representing a new genus are described and illustrated. Cerviconema gen. n., with C. cygneum sp. n. from Bolivia as type, belongs to the family Paraxonchiidae and is characterized by the strongly tapered neck, small head, simple and medium-long odontostyle, short cylindrus, paired gonads, transverse vulva and conoid tail. Papuadorus gen. n., with P. amplus sp. n. from Papua New Guinea as type, belongs to the family Nordiidae and can be characterized by the long and slender odontostyle, rod-like odontophore, amphidelphic genital organ, longitudinal vulva, great number of contiguous supplements and conoid tail.

  13. Medicago truncatula gene responses specific to arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions with different species and genera of Glomeromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoumou, M; van Tuinen, D; Chatagnier, O; Arnould, C; Brechenmacher, L; Sanchez, L; Selim, S; Gianinazzi, S; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V

    2007-05-01

    Plant genes exhibiting common responses to different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and not induced under other biological conditions have been sought for to identify specific markers for monitoring the AM symbiosis. A subset of 14 candidate Medicago truncatula genes was identified as being potentially mycorrhiza responsive in previous cDNA microarray analyses and exclusive to cDNA libraries derived from mycorrhizal root tissues. Transcriptional activity of the selected plant genes was compared during root interactions with seven AM fungi belonging to different species of Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora, or Scutellospora, and under widely different biological conditions (mycorrhiza, phosphate fertilization, pathogenic/beneficial microbe interactions, incompatible plant genotype). Ten of the M. truncatula genes were commonly induced by all the tested AM fungal species, and all were activated by at least two fungi. Most of the plant genes were transcribed uniquely in mycorrhizal roots, and several were already active at the appressorium stage of fungal development. Novel data provide evidence that common recognition responses to phylogenetically different Glomeromycota exist in plants during events that are unique to mycorrhiza interactions. They indicate that plants should possess a mycorrhiza-specific genetic program which is comodulated by a broad spectrum of AM fungi.

  14. Physical mapping of 18S and 5S genes in pelagic species of the genera Caranx and Carangoides (Carangidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobina, U P; Bertollo, L A C; Bello Cioffi, M; Molina, W F

    2014-11-14

    In Carangidae, Caranx is taxonomically controversial because of slight morphological differences among species, as well as because of its relationship with the genus Carangoides. Cytogenetic data has contributed to taxonomic and phylogenetic classification for some groups of fish. In this study, we examined the chromosomes of Caranx latus, Caranx lugubris, and Carangoides bartholomaei using classical methods, including conventional staining, C-banding, silver staining for nuclear organizer regions, base-specific fluorochrome, and 18S and 5S ribosomal sequence mapping using in situ hybridization. These 3 species showed chromosome numbers of 2n = 48, simple nuclear organizer regions (pair 1), and mainly centromeric heterochomatin. However, C. latus (NF = 50) and C. bartholomaei (NF = 50) showed a structurally conserved karyotype compared with C. lugubris (NF = 54), with a larger number of 2-armed chromosomes. The richness of GC-positive heterochromatic segments and sites in 5S rDNA in specific locations compared to the other 2 species reinforce the higher evolutionary dynamism in C. lugubris. Cytogenetic aspects shared between C. latus and C. bartholomaei confirm the remarkable phylogenetic proximity between these genera.

  15. [A new technique for the study of thoracic sclerites of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) allowing correct identification of genera and species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2012-01-01

    A new technique for the study of the external morphology of thoracic sclerites of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) is elaborated. According to this method, the shape of sclerites and the location of setal and scale bases can be examined under a scanning electron or an optical microscopes even in cases when setae or scales are lost. The method can be recommended for the damaged material, as it often happens while sample collecting. The bases of setae differ significantly from those of scales in the size of the orifice in the socket. The diameter of setal bases usually exceeds 100 microns, while the diameter of scale bases is about 30 microns. The analysis of the structure of sclerites (and the disposition of setae and scales on the sclerites) taken from the different specimens of one species will allow describing intraspecific variations of the given complex of morphological characters. The comparison of species from different genera of family Culicidae, as well as the comparison of closely related species, will presumably help evaluating the diagnostic value of thoracic sclerites as morphological characters.

  16. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  17. Description of two new genera and two new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) from the Northeastern Congolian Lowland Forests Ecoregion (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ingo

    2014-12-17

    The genera Dianfosseya gen. nov. and Janegoodallia gen. nov. and their single species D. leakeyi sp. nov. and J. davenporti sp. nov. are both described from Isiro, north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central Africa (Afrotropical Region). Wing pattern and male genitalia of the new species are depicted and notes on the habitat are presented.

  18. Possible genetic reproductive isolation between two tilapiine genera and species: Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Fa; Zhao, Yan; Fan, Wu-Jiang; Cai, Wan-Qi; Xu, Ying-Fang

    2011-10-01

    Successful crossbreeding between Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron to produce a commercial hybrid has been difficult. The karyotypes and isoenzyme of these two species and their reciprocal hybrids (O. niloticus female × S. melanotheron male, S. melanotheron female × O. niloticus male, the last not included in the isoenzyme study) were investigated via metaphase chromosomes obtained from head kidney cells and electropherogram of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes from the liver, kidney, white muscle, heart, and eye balls. The diploid chromosome number (2n=44) and the fundamental number (NF=50) of the four tilapia genotypes were the same. However, the karyotype of O. niloticus had three pairs of sub-metacentric (sm), twelve pairs of sub-telocentric (st), and seven pairs of telocentric (t) chromosomes, while S. melanotheron had one pair of metacentric (m), two pairs of sm, 12 pairs of st, and seven pairs of t chromosomes. The reciprocal hybrids both showed a mixed karyotype range between their parents: 0.5 pair of m, 2.5 pairs of sm, 12 pairs of st, and seven pairs of t chromosomes. In view of the electropherogram of isozymes, only the LDH of the kidney showed significant clear bands, with five bands in O. niloticus, three bands in S. melanotheron, and duplicated six bands in the hybrids. The bands varied depending on their activities and mobilities. We considered that the differences in karyotype and isoenzyme were related to the genetic mechanism for post-mating isolation, and provided some additional basic genetic background of their taxonomy.

  19. Neriidae (Diptera: Schizophora) of the Brazilian Amazon: new records of genera and species, and key to species

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Filho, Fernando S.; Maria C. Esposito

    2008-01-01

    The present study brings together survey data from collection in several localities in the Brazilian Amazon and specimens from the Entomological Collection of Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG-Belém). The flies were collected over organic decomposing matter (bananas and bovine meat) baits. The genus Odontoloxozus Enderlein, with the species Odontoloxozus peruanus Hennig, is recorded from Brazil for the first time. The species Glyphidops (Glyphidops) flavipes (Widemann), G. (Oncopsia) flavifr...

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF GROUND BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE IN SPECIES AND GENERA USING ASC-ANALYSIS OF THEIR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a huge number of the organisms inhabiting our planet, insects make 70%, being the most numerous of the invertebrate animal classes numbering more than 2 million types. It is difficult to find such place where it would be impossible to meet representatives of this huge class. They completely took over the entire environment - water, the land, air. For them, it is the common characteristic: complex instincts, omnivorous, high fecundity, and for some of them – a public way of life. Insects can be found at tremendous heights, reaching the level of 5000 meters, and they inhabit the desert where it practically never rains, not to mention the absence of any vegetation. Deep caves where no sunlight, nor the conditions for food and existence of living organisms — it is also the habitat of insects, they can be found far beyond the Arctic circle, and even on many Islands of Antarctica, where in addition to lifeless rock, it would seem that there is nothing else. Among insects, one of the largest and most numerous families are the ground beetles (Carabidae. They subtly respond to changes in soil and vegetation, hydrothermal and micro-climatic conditions of the environment, which makes them a convenient model subject to various environmental and Zoological researches. Ground beetles belong to a large number of genera and species, often difficult to see, in this regard, we use many different signs to diagnose. We have taken into consideration the coloration, body shape, external structure, surface structure, size, and arrangement of the genitals and chaetotaxy. Due to the fact, that the number of ground beetles is enormous, and, using their appearance, it is very difficult to determine their generic identity, there is a need of automation of the identification process, due to which we require a special mechanism that would increase the accuracy of these insects. In the previous work of the authors (http://ej.kubagro.ru/2016/05/pdf/01.pdf we

  1. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  2. A key to the genera and species of the transversely-dividing Flabellidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia, Flabellidae), with a guide to the literature, and the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    The transversely-dividing flabellids consist of five genera (Truncatoflabellum, Placotrochides, Blastotrochus, Placotrochus, and Falcatoflabellum) and 45 species. A dichotomous key is provided for these five genera as well as the species of the genus Truncatoflabellum and Placotrochides, the other three genera being monotypic. A tabular key is also provided for the 38 species of Truncatoflabellum. Two new combinations are suggested (Truncatoflabellum gambierense and Truncatoflabellum sphenodeum) and two new species are described (Truncatoflabellum duncani and Truncatoflabellum mozambiquensis). All but one species are illustrated and accompanied by their known distribution and a guide to the pertinent literature for the species. New records of 19 of the 45 species are listed. The transversely-dividing flabellids range from the Middle Eocene to the Recent at depths of 2-3010 m, and constitute 60% of the 65 known extant species of transversely-dividing Scleractinia.

  3. Two new genera and three new species of subterranean cyclopoids (Crustacea, Copepoda) from New Zealand, with redescription of Goniocyclops silvestris Harding, 1958

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanovic, T.

    2005-01-01

    A small collection of copepod samples from several wells in the Canterbury region, South Island, was examined. It contained a few cosmopolitan cyclopoid species, three interesting harpacticoids, as well as two new cyclopoid genera. The latter are presented in this paper, together with a

  4. Review of the millipede family Trichopolydesmidae in the Oriental realm (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, with descriptions of new genera and species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Golovatch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Oriental Region, the large, basically Northern Hemisphere family Trichopolydesmidae is shown to currently comprise 18 genera and 43 species. Based mainly on gonopod structure, all of them, as well as the whole family, are (rediagnosed, including five new genera and seven new species. These new taxa are keyed, also being the first to be described from Indochina in general and from Vietnam in particular: Aporodesmella gen. n., with three species: A. securiformis sp. n. (the type species, A. similis sp. n. and A. tergalis sp. n., as well as the following four monotypic genera: Deharvengius gen. n., with D. bedosae sp.n., Gonatodesmus gen. n., with G. communicans sp. n., Helicodesmus gen. n., with H. anichkini sp.n., and Monstrodesmus gen. n., with M. flagellifer sp. n. In addition, Cocacolaria hauseri Hoffman, 1987, hitherto known only from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea, is redescribed based on material from Vanuatu whence it is recorded for the first time. One of the new genera, Gonatodesmus gen. n., provides a kind of transition or evolutionary bridge between Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae, thus reinforcing the assignment of these two families to the single superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea.

  5. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  6. Description of new species of Phanodermopsis (Enoplida, Phanodermatidae) with key to genera of family Phanodermatidae and pictorial key to Phanodermopsis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Julia K; Trebukhova, Yulia A; Pavlyuk, Olga N

    2015-10-16

    A new representative of the family Phanodermatidae, Phanodermopsis nana sp. n., is described. The new species is found in the Sea of Japan and characterized by its small body size, long anterior sensilla and short tail. The new species differs from P. ingrami in body length (~ 7000 µm in P. ingrami vs ~ 3000 µm in P. nana sp. n.). The De Man's ratios (a, b, c) are smaller in P. nana sp. n. and the outer labial setae are longer (1 corresponding body diameter) than in P. ingrami (1/2 corresponding body diameter). The vulva is more posterior in P. ingrami (V% = 58-61%) than in P. nana sp. n. (V% = 51-58%). A dichotomous key to the 9 valid genera of Phanodermatidae and a pictorial key to species of Phanodermopsis are provided. The length of the spicules is proposed as the main differentiating feature for distinguishing Phanodermopsis and Crenopharynx species. Phanodermopsis longisetae Chitwood, 1936 which has extremely long spicules (5.2 anal body diameters) is transferred to the genus Crenopharynx.

  7. Biogeography and evolutionary diversification in one of the most widely distributed and species rich genera of the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Jason T; Markey, Adrienne S; Swenson, Nathan G; Keeley, Sterling C

    2016-01-01

    The historical biogeography of many lineages-of both terrestrial and marine ocean habitats-remains poorly investigated even though remote ocean habitat covers approximately 66% of the Earth's surface. One such lineage with poorly understood biogeographic affinities across vast ocean habitat is the genus Coprosma (Rubiaceae) with numerous species, and a widespread and disjunct distribution among the far-flung insular localities of multiple Pacific Islands. Here, the first taxonomically robust phylogeny for Coprosma s.s. was dated using molecular clock techniques and indicated Coprosma s.s. diverged from its sister genus Nertera likely during or shortly after the Oligocene Marine Transgression of New Zealand. Diversification of the five major clades identified occurred in New Zealand during the Miocene, which was then followed by multiple independent dispersals from New Zealand to various localities in many directions. The pattern of Coprosma's distribution in the Pacific appears stochastic both temporally and spatially, but evolution of an orange to red fruit colour prior to nearly all inferred dispersals hints at endozoochory by birds. The number of inferred long-distance dispersals of Coprosma s.s. (>30), and number of repeated dispersals to the same insular locality from unrelated Coprosma s.s. sublineages (>8) is perhaps the most currently known for a remote Pacific-centred genus investigated to date. A New Zealand origin for a Pacific-wide dispersal of taxa is not novel, but the manner in which the temporal and spatial distribution for Coprosma s.s. was achieved contributes to a novel understanding of the historical biogeography of widespread Pacific genera that have origins in the Southern Hemisphere.

  8. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Fernandez-Triana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new species and five species of Microplitis previously described from Mesoamerica. In ACG, all Microplitis were reared exclusively from Sphingidae, while all Snellenius were reared from Noctuoidea (Noctuidae and Erebidae. All of the wasp species with known host records are unambiguously specialists, parasitizing one or a few related hosts. Biological information (wasp cocoon and caterpillar hosts in the Neotropical region seems to differ from similar data reported in previous works for the Oriental region -but more studies on the world fauna are needed. Although the distinction between these two genera has been controversial, we consider that the available evidence, although not conclusive, suggests that these two genera are best kept as separate (based on the presence of at least a partial epicnemial carina in Snellenius, which is absent in Microplitis. The following 28 species, all authored by Fernández-Triana & Whitfield, are described as species nova: Microplitis adrianguadamuzi, M. alexanderrojasi, M. francopupulini, M. hebertbakeri, M. jorgehernandezi, Snellenius billburgeri, S. bobdressleri, S. donstonei, S. felipechavarriai, S. gerardoherrerai, S. irenebakerae, S. isidrochaconi, S. johnkressi, S. jorgecampabadali, S. jorgegomezlauritoi, S. josesarukhani, S. kerrydresslerae, S. lucindamcdadeae, S. luisdiegogomezi, S. mariakuzminae, S. mariamartachavarriae, S. phildevriesi, S. quiricojimenezi, S. robertoespinozai, S. sandyknappae, S. velvaruddae, S. vickifunkae, S. warrenwagneri.

  9. Taxonomic Reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. McCord

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Relationships among turtle species loosely categorized within the South American genus Phrynops are explored. Three once recognized genera (Batrachemys, Mesoclemmys and Phrynops that were demoted to subgenera, and then synonymized with Phrynops, are demonstrated to warrant full recognition based on morphometric analysis, skull osteology, and mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequencing. Mesoclemmys is resurrected from the synonymy of Phrynops as a monotypic genus including M. gibba. The genus Rhinemys, previously a synonym of Phrynops, is resurrected for the species R. rufipes. Ranacephala gen. nov. is described to inciude the species R hogei. The genus Batrachemys is resurrected from the synonymy of Phrynops and inciudes B. dahli, B. nasuta B. raniceps, B. tuberculata, and B. zuliae. The taxon vanderhaegei is placed in Bufocephala gen. nov. The genus Phrynops is redefined to include the taxa P. geoffroanus, P. hilarii, P. tuberosus and P.williamsi. Ciadistic analysis of morphological data supports this taxonomy. A new species of Batrachemys is described from the western Amazon region, and is distinguished by having facial markings in juveniles, a relatively wide head, and a flattened shell. The new species, B. heliostemma sp. nov., is sympatric with and most similar to the recently resurrected form Batrachemys raniceps in the upper Amazonian region of Peru and adjacent Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia. Lastly, morphometric data from living and museum specimens of all species of Batrachemys are presented.Se investigaron las afinidades entre las especies de tortugas agrupadas casualmente dentro del género suramericano Phrynops. Tres géneros anteriormente reconocidos (Batrachemys, Mesoclemmys, y Phrynops, que fueron subsecuentemente colocados como sub-géneros, y luego puestos bajo sinonimia de Phrynops, se reconocen ahora como géneros válidos basándose en análisis morfométrico, osteología craneal y de secuencias génicas, nucleares y

  10. The snake family Psammophiidae (Reptilia: Serpentes): phylogenetics and species delimitation in the African sand snakes (Psammophis Boie, 1825) and allied genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher M R; Barker, Nigel P; Villet, Martin H; Broadley, Donald G; Branch, William R

    2008-06-01

    This study constitutes the first evolutionary investigation of the snake family Psammophiidae--the most widespread, most clearly defined, yet perhaps the taxonomically most problematic of Africa's family-level snake lineages. Little is known of psammophiid evolutionary relationships, and the type genus Psammophis is one of the largest and taxonomically most complex of the African snake genera. Our aims were to reconstruct psammophiid phylogenetic relationships and to improve characterisation of species boundaries in problematic Psammophis species complexes. We used approximately 2500 bases of DNA sequence from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, and 114 terminals covering all psammophiid genera and incorporating approximately 75% of recognised species and subspecies. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted primarily in a Bayesian framework and we used the Wiens/Penkrot protocol to aid species delimitation. Rhamphiophis is diphyletic, with Rhamphiophis acutus emerging sister to Psammophylax. Consequently we transfer the three subspecies of Rhamphiophis acutus to the genus Psammophylax. The monotypic genus Dipsina is sister to Psammophis. The two species of Dromophis occupy divergent positions deeply nested within Psammophis, and we therefore relegate Dromophis to the synonymy of Psammophis. Our results allow division of the taxonomically problematic Psammophis 'sibilans' species complex into two monophyletic entities, provisionally named the 'phillipsii' and 'subtaeniatus' complexes. Within these two clades we found support for the status of many existing species, but not for a distinction between P.p. phillipsii and P. mossambicus. Additionally, P. cf. phillipsii occidentalis deserves species status as the sister taxon of P. brevirostris.

  11. Revisions of the genera Lurama Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with the descriptions of three new Ulmara species and a new genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Andean genera Lurama Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara Schaus, 1928 are revised. Lurama poses difficulty for revision due to lost male genitalia of the types of both described species. Ulmara conjuncta sp. n., Ulmara azurula sp. n., and Ulmara dombroskiei sp. n. are described as new in the genus Ulmara. A lectotype is designated for Lurama quindiuna Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara rotunda (Dognin, 1916). A new monotypic genus, Cunicumara gen. n., which is externally similar to Ulmara, is described to include the new species Cunicumara anae sp. n. from low elevations of Bolivia and Paraguay. Male genital morphology does not support a close association of Cunicumara with Lurama or Ulmara. The latter two genera, however, are closely related based on similarities of male genitalia and biogeography. PMID:27594799

  12. A new genus and species of gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae) from Hormozgan Province with a revised key to gekkonid genera of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei-Mahroo, Barbod; Ghaffari, Hanyeh; Anderson, Steven C

    2016-05-10

    We describe a new genus and species of gekkonid from two gravid specimens which were found within Koh-e Homag Protected Area, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. The genus Parsigecko gen. nov. can be distinguished from other genera of Middle East Gekkonidae by a combination of the following characteristics: digits not dilated, dorsal tail covered with small scales without any tubercles or keels, having two strong keeled and pointed scales on each side of each annulus. Parsigecko ziaiei sp. nov. is a ground-dwelling lizard. The new species was found in the Zagros Mountain forest steppe patch with scattered wild pistachio trees and mountain almond shrubs surrounded by South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert habitat in the south of Iran. The genus is the 13th gekkonid genus known from Iran, and the only gekkonid genus endemic to the Zagros Mountains. A key to the genera of the Gekkonidae in Iran is provided.

  13. Study on the Tribe Ochyromerini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from East Asia I, Descriptions of New Species of the Genera Endaeus and Endaenidius

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Katsura

    1995-01-01

    This is the first part of our systematic study on the tribe Ochyromerini (=Endaeini) from East Asia with descriptions of 28 new species of the weevils in the genera Endaeus Schoenherr and Endaenidius Morimoto as follows: Endaeus albolineatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus niger sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus zonatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus robustus sp. nov. (Thailand), Endaeus longipes sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus formosanus sp. nov. (Taiwan), Endaeus elongatus sp. nov. (Taiwan),...

  14. Three new genera and six new species of lecanicephalideans (Cestoda) from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from northern Australia and Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K R; Jensen, K; Caira, J N

    2012-02-01

    New lecanicephalidean cestodes inhabiting the spiral intestine were investigated in 4 of the 6 known species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman. Hosts examined consisted of 5 specimens of Aetomylaeus vespertilio from northern Australia, 5 of Aetomylaeus maculatus from Borneo, 10 of Aetomylaeus nichofii sensu stricto from Borneo, and 7 of Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 from northern Australia. As a result of these new collections, 3 new genera and 6 new species of lecanicephalideans are formally described. Aetomylaeus vespertilio hosted the new genera and species Collicocephalus baggioi n. gen., n. sp. and Rexapex nanus n. gen., n. sp., as well as Aberrapex weipaensis n. sp. Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii sensu stricto hosted 3 new species of the novel genus Elicilacunosus , with the former eagle ray hosting Elicilacunosus sarawakensis n. sp. and the latter hosting both Elicilacunosus dharmadii n. sp. and Elicilacunosus fahmii n. sp. No new lecanicephalideans were described from A. cf. nichofii 2. Collicocephalus n. gen. is conspicuously unique among the genera of its order in possessing a large, retractable apical organ that, in cross-section, is transversely oblong, rather than round. Rexapex n. gen. is distinctive in its possession of an apical organ that bears 18 papilliform projections around its perimeter, and Elicilacunosus n. gen. is unlike any other known lecanicephalidean, or eucestode, in its possession of a region of musculo-glandular tissue along the midline of the dorsal and ventral surfaces of its proglottids, manifested externally as a tandem series of depressions. Among other features, A. weipaensis n. sp. differs from its congeners in its lack of post-ovarian vitelline follicles. All 6 new species were each restricted to a single species of Aetomylaeus . These records formally establish species of Aetomylaeus as hosts of lecanicephalideans. A summary of cestodes of myliobatid rays is presented.

  15. A review of the Geocoridae of Mexico (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea), with descriptions of four new species, new distributional records, and a key to the known subfamilies, tribes, genera and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-10-06

    The family Geocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) from Mexico is revised. Two subfamilies, one tribe, four genera, and fifteen species are treated in detail and descriptions or redescriptions are provided for all. Four new species of Geocoris are described: G. cervantesi (from Baja California), G. coahuilensis (from Coahuila), G. nuevoleonensis (from Nuevo Leon), and G. signoretae (from Aguascalientes, Hidalgo, and Puebla). The subspecies Geocoris thoracicus wickhami (Montandon) is considered a junior synonym of the nominal species G. thoracicus (Fieber). Key to subfamilies, tribes, genera and species recorded from Mexico are included. New distributional records for all of the previously known species are added. Isthmocoris slevini (Van Duzee) and I. tristis (Stål) are recorded for the first time from Mexico. Notes on the biology of most of the species are included. Color dorsal habitus photos, as well as drawings of the paramere, are included to aid in the identification of the species.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the phytosanitary risk associated with some coniferous species and genera for the spread of pine wood nematode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission requested the Panel on Plant Health to deliver a scientific opinion on the phytosanitary risk of plants (other than fruits and seeds) of Pinus pinea and of the genera Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria and Juniperus for the spread of pine wood nematode (PWN) via movement of infested...... of the small P. pinea sample. Hence, the conclusion that P. pinea is not a host plant for PWN is not supported by the data submitted, principally because of low statistical confidence arising from the few P. pinea trees present. Moreover, the limited presence of P. pinea in the study areas means...... potentially allowing PWN transmission to trees by this route. The available information regarding the genera Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria and Juniperus as potential hosts of Monochamus spp. and PWN suggests overall a low susceptibility to PWN or its vectors; the uncertainty concerning PWN is high and would...

  17. New Spirinia and Stygodesmodora species (Nematoda, Spiriniinae from the Southwest Pacific, and a revision of the related genera Spirinia, Chromaspirina and Perspiria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leduc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the family Desmodoridae are described from the upper continental slope of New Zealand, Southwest Pacific, and the genera Spirinia, Chromaspirina and Perspiria are revised. Spirinia verecunda sp. nov. is characterised by a short, stout body, cuticle covered in minute, hair-like structures, unispiral amphideal aperture and cryptospiral amphideal fovea, buccal cavity with small dorsal tooth and minute subventral teeth, eight oblong glands surrounding anterior portion of pharynx, large sperm cells, spicules with weak capitulum, and the absence of precloacal supplements. Stygodesmodora confusa sp. nov. is characterised by a relatively short body, spiral amphids with 1.2–1.4 turns, cephalic setae situated at or slightly posterior to mid-level of amphid, and males with four precloacal supplements consisting of short setae on wide bases. Like other species of the genus, S. confusa sp. nov. is characterised by an annulated head region, but in some specimens the cuticle annulations are restricted to the dorsal and ventral sides of the head. S. confusa sp. nov. shows similarities with species of other desmodorid genera (i.e., Echinodesmodora, Bolbonema, but can be differentiated from them by the presence of an annulated head region and amphideal plates. The genera Spirinia, Chromaspirina and Perspiria have very similar morphologies and differ mainly in the size and structure of the buccal cavity (Spirinia vs Chromaspirina or the shape of the tail and placement of the amphids relative to the cuticle annulations (Spirinia vs Perspiria; their diagnoses are clarified and some nomenclatural changes are proposed to eliminate overlap in the definitions of these genera.

  18. Four new species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) from China and Japan, and description of the pupal morphology of the genera Corythoxestis, Eumetriochroa, Guttigera, and Metriochroa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Huang, Guo-hua; Nakamura, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Four new leaf mining Oecophyllembiinae (Gracillariidae) species are described from China and Japan: Metriochroa symplocosella sp. nov. (host plants: Symplocos anomala, S. sumuntia, Symplocaceae) from China, Guttigera schefflerella sp. nov. (host plant: Schefflera octophylla, Araliaceae), Eumetriochroa araliella sp. nov. (host plants: Dendropanax trifidus, Evodiopanax innovans, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides and Fatsia japonica, Araliaceae) and Corythoxestis tricalysiella sp. nov. (host plant: Tricalysia dubia, Rubiaceae) from Japan. Corythoxestis sunosei (Kumata, 1998) is recorded from new host plants: Adinapilulifera and Mussaenda parviflora, Rubiaceae, from Japan. The female adult and pupal morphologies, life history and host plant of the genus Guttigera are described for the first time. Pupae of seven species of four genera: Corythoxestis, Eumetriochroa, Guttigera, and Metriochroa, are described for the first time. We provide morphological diagnostic differences between species and genera of Oecophyllembiinae and Phyllocnistis. Our preliminary data suggest that Oecophyllembiinae species have three valuable pupal diagnostic characters: 1) cocoon cutter with unique lateral processes or setae on the clypeus, 2) tergal spines with only a pair of dorsal setae, and 3) cremaster with more than two pairs of caudal processes, while Phyllocnistis species possess 1) cocoon cutter without lateral processes or setae on clypeus, 2) tergal spines with a pair of dorsal setae and dorsal hooks, and 3) cremaster with only a pair of caudal processes.

  19. A new species of Heliocephala from Mexico with an assessment of the systematic positions of the anamorph genera Heliocephala and Holubovaniella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, Gabriela Heredia; Ruiz, Rafael F Castañeda; Mota, Rosa María Arias; Hérnandez, Cinthya I Becerra; Gómez, Sergio; Bogale, Mesfin; Untereiner, Wendy A

    2011-01-01

    During a study of the microfungi on decaying leaves collected in México we encountered a fungus sharing features of the anamorph genera Heliocephala and Holubovaniella. This hyphomycete resembled Hol. elegans in possessing obclavate to fusiform, three-septate, rostrate phragmoconidia, but it can be distinguished by its much shorter, branched, determinate conidiophores. Unlike members of genus Heliocephala, which also possess determinant conidiophores, the phragmoconidia of this taxon are short-rostrate and have not been observed to germinate iteratively. Prompted by the discovery of this hyphomycete, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among species of Heliocephala and Holubovaniella. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned species of Heliocephala and Holubovaniella in the Dothideomycetes and identified Stomiopeltis betulae (Micropeltididaceae) as their closest relative. These results also indicated that Heliocephala and Holubovaniella are closely related taxa. Based on these findings and the similarity of the developmental and morphological characters of species of Heliocephala and Holubovaniella, we recognize these genera as synonymous and describe a new species, Heliocephala triseptata. A dichotomous key to the species of Heliocephala is provided.

  20. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, Susana; Arribas, Paula; Bilton, David T; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae). Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation) was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium) was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1)). In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1)) across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1), respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1), comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels occupied by

  1. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae. Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1. In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1 across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels

  2. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 9. The relations of Australasian Ypsiloncyphon species to their Asian congeners, additions, mainly to Petrocyphon and Prionocyphon, and a key to Australian genera of Scirtinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2016-03-02

    The endemic Australasian species of Ypsiloncyphon are the sister group of the combined Asian species groups 1, 2, and 4. The description of the type species, Y. chlorizans (Klausnitzer), is supplemented by details of male and female genitalia. New species are described and illustrated in several genera: Austrocyphon scissus n. sp., Leptocyphon abnormis n. sp., Petrocyphon bonang n. sp., P. lacteus n. sp., P. televisionarius n. sp., Prionocyphon bidentatus n. sp., P. cacatua n. sp., P. laurae n. sp., P. neboissi n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., P. uncatus n. sp., and P. urbanus n. sp. Genus Prionocyphon is distinguished from Oriental genera with similar antennal modifications. However, a synapomorphy of Prionocyphon as presently understood is not known. Supplementary information on various species in the aforementioned genera and in Pachycyphon and Calvarium is provided. A key to the genera of adult Australian Scirtidae: Scirtinae is presented.

  3. Checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Oncholaimidae) of the world: genera, species, distribution, and reference list for taxonomists and ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Adoncholaiminae is one of the seven subfamilies in the free-living aquatic nematode family Oncholaimidae. Nematodes in Adoncholaiminae are found from various water environment of the world. However, a checklist of all Adoncholaiminae species including full literature, especially information of experimental (not taxonomic) works, has not been updated for more than 40 years. New information A revised checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae of the world is provided. It contains 31 valid and 13 invalid species names in four genera with synonyms, collection records, and full literature from 1860's to 2015 for each species. A literature survey of total 477 previous papers was conducted in this work, and 362 of them are newly added to checklist. PMID:26929708

  4. Dialeurolonga re-defined (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): with a new genus and species from India, two new genera from Australia, and discussion of host-correlated puparial variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Ramamurthy, V V

    2013-02-25

    Aleuropositus Dubey gen. n., Australeurodes Dubey gen. n. and Septemaleurodes Dubey gen. n. are proposed with their respective type species as A. sinus Dubey sp. n. from India, D. operculobata Martin & Carver from Australia, and D. swainei Martin from Australia. A. sinus sp. n. is described from Kerala, India, illustrated with line drawings, microphotographs and SEM images. The puparia are asymmetric in taxonomic characters and shape, and variation in puparia associated with a single host is discussed. A generic diagnosis of Dialeurolonga is provided based on SEM study of the type species, D. elongata. Australian species placed in this genus have puparial characteristics that distinguish them from Afrotropical assemblages, and are here referred to two new genera.

  5. Revision of Thisiomorphus Pic (Coleoptera: Mycteridae: Eurypinae) with descriptions of eleven new species from Central and South America and a key to genera of Neotropical Eurypinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Darren A

    2016-03-22

    The Neotropical eurypine genus Thisiomorphus is revised, based on external structural features of adults. Twelve species are recognized, including the following eleven new species (type areas in parentheses): T. festivus (Panama, Colón Prov.), T. osaensis (Costa Rica, Puntarenas Prov.), T. davidsoni (Brazil, Chapada), T. inaequalis (Ecuador, Napo Prov.), T. caeruleus (Panama, Panamá Prov.), T. brasiliensis (Brazil, Amazonas), T. solisi (Costa Rica, Guanacaste Prov.), T. andrewsi (Panama, Chiriquí Prov.), T. bolivianus (Bolivia, Santa Cruz Dept.), T. curticornis (Ecuador, Sucumbíos Prov.), and T. convergens (Brazil, Pará). A key to the 13 described eurypine genera of Central and South American is provided, along with a key to species of Thisiomorphus. The keys are supplemented with images of habitus and selected structural features, and maps of known distributions are provided.

  6. Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers to identify species in the Agrostis complex (Poaceae) and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Zapiola; Richard C. Cronn; Carol A. Mallory-Smith

    2010-01-01

    We needed a reliable way to identify species and confirm potential interspecific and intergeneric hybrids in a landscape-level study of gene flow from transgenic gylphosate-resistant Agrostis stolonifera (Poaceae) to compatible relatives. We developed 12 new polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers to aid in identifying species recipient of...

  7. The genera of Hyphomycetes – 2011 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, K.A.; Gams, W.

    2012-01-01

    This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana

  8. Taxonomic review of the genera Micridium Motschulsky, 1869 and Micridina Johnson, 1969 (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae) with eleven new species including the first records from South America and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Michael

    2017-03-10

    The six recognised species of the genus Micridium Motschulsky, 1869: M. vittatum (Motschulsky, 1845) M. halidaii (Matthews, 1868), M. angulicolle (Fairmaire, 1858), M. lineatum (Le Conte, 1863). M. rhodeanum (Casey, 1924) and M. groehni Polilov & Perkovsky, 2004 are reviewed and eleven new species: M. attenboroughi sp.n., M. boliviense sp.n., M. elegans sp. n., M. foveatum sp.n., M. inornatum sp.n., M. johnsoni sp.n., M. newtoni sp.n., M. oweni sp.n., M. proprium sp.n., M. quadridens sp.n. and M. thayerae sp.n. are added. The new species are the first records of the genus from South America and Madagascar. The morphological characteristics separating Micridium from other genera in the tribe Ptiliini are discussed and the genus synonymised with the closely related monotypic genus Micridina Johnson, 1969 with its single species M. hilli Johnson, 1969. The synonymy of Dilinium Casey, 1924 with Micridium is confirmed and the type species D. rhodeanum Casey, 1924 re-described. Micridium groehni, described from a single specimen in Baltic amber, does not appear to belong to Micridium as defined here. A key to the new species is provided.

  9. Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttika Suwannasai

    Full Text Available Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI, we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1 Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2 Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3 Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in

  10. Geometric and morphometric analysis of fish scales to identity genera, species and populations case study: the Cyprinid family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Narjes Tabatabei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fish scale to identity species and population is a rapid, safe and low cost method. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using geometric and morphometric methods in fish scales for rapid identification of species and populations and compare the efficiency of applying few and/or high number of landmark points. For this purpose, scales of one population of Luciobarbus capito, four populations of Alburnoides eichwaldii and two populations of Rutilus frisii kutum, all belonging to cyprinid family, were examined. On two-dimensional images of the scales 7 and 23 landmark points were digitized in two separate times using TpsDig2, respectively. Landmark data after generalized procrustes analysis were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA and Cluster Analysis. The results of both methods (using 7 and 23 landmark points showed significant differences of the shape of scales among the three species studied (P0.05. The results also showed that few number of landmarks could display the differences between scale shapes. According to the results of this study, it could be stated that the scale of each species had unique shape patterns which could be utilized as a species identification key.

  11. Additions to the genera Asterolibertia and Cirsosia (Asterinaceae, Asterinales), with particular reference to species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, André Luiz; Inácio, Carlos Antonio; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Dianese, José Carmine

    2016-06-01

    Four new Asterolibertia species and a new variety of Cirsosia splendida, all found on native Cerrado plants, belonging to three host families are described, illustrated and named as: A. bahiensis sp. nov. on Erythroxylum sp. (Erythroxylaceae); A. barrinhensis sp. nov. on Diospyros burchellii (Ebenaceae); A. campograndensis sp. nov. on Hirtella glandulosa (Chrysobalanaceae); A. parinaricola sp. nov. on Parinari obtusifolia (Chrysobalanaceae); and Cirsosia splendida var. laevigata var. nov., showing both sexual and asexual morphs, on H. glandulosa and H. gracilipes (Chrysobalanaceae). Finally, A. licaniae is reported on a new host, H. gracilipes. Keys to all the known species of Asterolibertia and Cirsosia are included.

  12. Review of Canadian species of the genera Gnathusa Fenyes, Mniusa Mulsant & Rey and Ocyusa Kraatz (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P; Langor, David W; Bourdon, Caroline; Hammond, H E James; Pohl, Greg R; Godin, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Four species of Gnathusa Fenyes (G. alfacaribou Klimaszewski & Langor, G. caribou Lohse, G. eva Fenyes, and G. tenuicornis Fenyes) occur in the Nearctic and in Canada. Three species of Ocyusa Kraatz (O. asperula Casey, O. californica Bernhauer, O. canadensis Lohse), and three species of Mniusa Mulsant and Ray (M. minutissima (Klimaszewski & Langor), M. yukonensis (Klimaszewski & Godin), and M. odelli Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.), are known from the Nearctic and all but O. californica occur in Canada. The recently described Gnathusa minutissima Klimaszewski and Langor and Ocyusa yukonensis Klimaszewski and Godin, are transferred here to the genus Mniusa Mulsant & Rey. New provincial and state records are reported for: G. eva (Alberta), G. tenuicornis (Alberta, Oregon, and New Brunswick), O. canadensis (New Brunswick and Newfoundland), M. minutissima (New Brunswick), and M. yukonensis (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and British Columbia). The female of M. yukonensis was discovered and is illustrated for the first time. The genus Mniusa is reported for the first time from Canada and represents the first confirmed generic record for North America. Keys for identification of all Canadian species, images of body and genital structures, maps showing distribution mainly in Canada, and new bionomics data are provided.

  13. Voracious male spiders that kill adult females of their own species (genera Walckenaeria, Diplostyla, Neriene, Meta, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the popular belief that adult female spiders often kill and eat their adult male partners in the context of copulation, we present a few instances of adult male spiders killing and eating adult females of their own species in the laboratory. However, in line with the popular belief,

  14. Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia (Verbenaceae and Tagetes (Asteraceae genera in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mauricio Herrera-Moreno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides (accessions CA-90 and CA-93, Lippia alba (accession CA-300 and Tagetes zypaquirensis (accession CA-247 and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana (accession CA-10, in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. The factors evaluated were the substrate (fine coconut fiber (FCF; fine coconut fiber: coal slag 1:1 (FCFCS; fine coconut fiber: coal slag: river sand 1:1:1 (FCFCSRS and IBA hormone concentration (0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1. Germination tests of seeds of the accession CA-10 were carried out in Petri dishes with 50 seeds per dish, with three replicates in controlled conditions and constant temperature (25°C, humidity (90% and total darkness. In general, the accessions CA-90, CA-93, CA-300 and CA-247 showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2,000 mg L-1 IBA. L. alba and T. zypaquirensis responded better than L. origanoides to the treatments. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. T. caracasana seeds had a relatively short germination time (less than three weeks and relatively high germination under controlled laboratory and greenhouse conditions (70 and 60%, respectively; these percentages are high relative to wild species of the same genus, meaning this method of seed propagation is appropriate for this wild species

  15. Comparative physical mapping of 18S rDNA in the karyotypes of six leafcutter ant species of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Gisele Amaro; Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; das Graças Pompolo, Silvia

    2017-06-16

    Leafcutter ants of the Atta and Acromyrmex genera are important plagues in different cultures. Cytogenetic data on chromosome number, morphology, and chromosomal banding pattern are only available for 17 species of leafcutter ants. Molecular cytogenetic data for the detection of ribosomal genes by the FISH technique are scarce, and only 15 Neotropical ant species have been studied. This study aimed to physically map the 18S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) of six leafcutter ants belonging to the genera Atta and Acromyrmex using FISH. The results were compared with data on the fluorochrome CMA3 currently available for these species. All analyzed species presented the 18S rDNA on one pair of chromosomes. In Acromyrmex subterraneus molestans and Ac. aspersus, FISH signals were observed in the terminal region of the short arm of the largest subtelocentric pair, while in Atta bisphaerica, A. laevigata, and A. sexdens, FISH signals were observed in the interstitial region of the long arm of the fourth metacentric pair. In Acromyrmex striatus, 18S rDNA was located in the interstitial region of the second metacentric pair. The karyotypic formula for Ac. aspersus was 2n = 38 (8m + 10sm + 16st + 4a), representing the first report in this species. The observed 18S rDNA regions in A. laevigata, A. sexdens, A. bisphaerica, Ac. aspersus, and Ac. subterraneus molestans corresponded to the CMA3(+) bands, while in Ac. striatus, several GC-rich bands and one pair of 18S rDNA bands were observed. No differential bands were visible using the DAPI fluorochrome. Karyotype uniformity with previously studied Atta spp. was also observed at the level of molecular cytogenetics using 18S rDNA FISH. A difference in the size of the chromosomal pair carrying the 18S rDNA gene was observed in Ac. striatus (2n = 22) and Atta spp. (2n = 22) highlighting the dissimilarity between these species. The results from the present study contribute to the description of 18S rDNA clusters in

  16. 'Species' from two different butterfly genera combined into one: description of a new genus of Euptychiina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae with unusually variable wing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Victor Lucci Freitas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sepona Freitas and Barbosa, gen. nov. is proposed for the Neotropical satyrine butterfly species Euptychia punctataWeymer, 1911 and its junior subjective synonyms Euptychia griseolaWeymer, 1911 and Taygetis indecisa Ribeiro, 1931. The new genus has a distinctive wing pattern and shape of the valvae in the male genitalia, the latter being a unique autapomorphy within the subtribe Euptychiina. Based on molecular data, this genus is not sister to any other single euptychiine genus, instead appearing as the sister to all remaining genera in the Taygetis clade. The present paper illustrates the complexity of the taxonomy of Euptychiina, and the importance of using different sources of evidence in taxonomic studies.

  17. A new species of Lesticus Dejean, 1828 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea and a key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Kipling Will; David Kavanaugh

    2012-01-01

    Lesticus finisterrae (Carabidae: Pterostichini) sp. n. (type locality: Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea), is described and characters to differentiate it from other “Trigonotomi” species are given. A key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of the island, including all genera of Morionini, Cratocerini, Drimostomatini, Abacetini, Loxandrini and Pterostichini, is provided. The genus Rhytisternus (Pterostichini) is for the first time reported from New Guinea, represented ...

  18. Molecular phylogenies confirm the presence of two cryptic Hemimycale species in the Mediterranean and reveal the polyphyly of the genera Crella and Hemimycale (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Leire; Agell, Gemma

    2017-01-01

    -Mediterranean Hemimycale also suggest that Hemimycale arabica fit in a separate genus. On the other hand, the Atlanto-Mediterranean Crellidae appeared in 18S and 28S phylogenies as a sister group of the Atlanto-Mediterranean Hemimycale. Moreover, what was known up to now as Hemimycale columella, is formed by two cryptic species with contrasting bathymetric distributions. Some small but consistent morphological differences allow species distinction. Conclusions A new family (Hemimycalidae) including the genus Hemimycale and the two purported new genera receiving C. cyathophora and Hemimycale arabica might be proposed according to our phylogenetic results. However, the inclusion of additional Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTUs) appears convenient before taking definite taxonomical decisions. A new cryptic species (Hemimycale mediterranea sp. nov.) is described. Morphologically undifferentiated species with contrasting biological traits, as those here reported, confirm that unidentified cryptic species may confound ecological studies.

  19. The feather mites of the hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin (Müller) (Aves: Opisthocomiformes), with the description of two new genera and six new species (Acari: Analgoidea, Pterolichoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2015-10-30

    Six new species and two new genera of feather mites are described from the hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin (Müller) (Opisthocomiformes: Opisthocomidae) in Brazil: Gymnolichus lacrimosus sp. n., G. latihumeralis sp. n. (Xolalgidae), Temnalges hoazin sp. n., T. atelodiscus sp. n. (Psoroptoididae), Ciganalichus boasfilhoi gen. n., sp. n., and Hoazinacarus anisosetus gen. n., sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Illustrations of two previously known species, Opisthocomacarus umbellifer (Trouessart, 1899) and Stakyonemus hystrix (Trouessart, 1899) are provided. We show that the hoatzin bears a much richer feather mite fauna than previously thought and presently includes eight mite species from three families: Xolalgidae, Psoroptoididae (Analgoidea) and Pterolichidae (Pterolichoidea). They represent two morpho-ecological groups: (1) mites inhabiting the wing and tail feathers, and (2) mites living in downy and body contour feathers. We hypothesize that these mites represent a native feather mite fauna of the hoatzin, inherited from its ancestors and existing on this bird for a long time. The controversial and unresolved relationships of this bird with other bird taxa are briefly discussed in the light of the new acarofauna discovered.

  20. Cytogenetic relationships among Citrullus species in comparison with some genera of the tribe Benincaseae (Cucurbitaceae) as inferred from rDNA distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Peng; Wu, Yun-Xiang; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Yan; Lü, Xing-Ming; Wang, Ji-Ming; Xu, Yong; Li, Zong-Yun; Han, Yong-Hua

    2016-04-18

    Comparative mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is an excellent tool to determine cytogenetic relationships among closely related species. In this study, the number and position of 5S and 45S rDNA loci in all Citrullus species and subspecies were determined. The cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, C. colocynthis and C. naudinianus (or Acanthosicyos naudinianus) had two 45S rDNA loci and one 5S rDNA locus which was located syntenic to one of the 45S rDNA loci. C. ecirrhosus and C. lanatus subsp. lanatus had one 45S rDNA locus and two 5S rDNA loci, each located on a different chromosome. C. rehmii had one 5S and one 45S rDNA locus positioned on different chromosomes. The distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA in several species belonging to other genera in Benincaseae tribe was also investigated. The distribution pattern of rDNAs showed a great difference among these species. The present study confirmed evolutionary closeness among cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus and C. colocynthis. Our result also supported that C. lanatus subsp. lanatus was not a wild form of the cultivated watermelon instead was a separate crop species. In addition, present cytogenetic analysis suggested that A. naudinianus was more closely related to Cucumis than to Citrullus or Acanthosicyos, but with a unique position and may be a link bridge between the Citrullus and the Cucumis.

  1. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  2. A new species of Lesticus Dejean, 1828 (Coleoptera, Carabidae from the Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea and a key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling Will

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lesticus finisterrae (Carabidae: Pterostichini sp. n. (type locality: Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea, is described and characters to differentiate it from other “Trigonotomi” species are given. A key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of the island, including all genera of Morionini, Cratocerini, Drimostomatini, Abacetini, Loxandrini and Pterostichini, is provided. The genus Rhytisternus (Pterostichini is for the first time reported from New Guinea, represented by the likely adventive species Rhytisternus laevis (Macleay. The previously unknown male of Stegazopteryx ivimkaensis Will (Drimostomatini is described.

  3. A new species of Lesticus Dejean, 1828 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea and a key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Kipling; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lesticus finisterrae (Carabidae: Pterostichini) sp. n. (type locality: Finisterre Range, Papua New Guinea), is described and characters to differentiate it from other “Trigonotomi” species are given. A key to the genera of pterostichine-like Harpalinae of the island, including all genera of Morionini, Cratocerini, Drimostomatini, Abacetini, Loxandrini and Pterostichini, is provided. The genus Rhytisternus (Pterostichini) is for the first time reported from New Guinea, represented by the likely adventive species Rhytisternus laevis (Macleay). The previously unknown male of Stegazopteryx ivimkaensis Will (Drimostomatini) is described. PMID:23275749

  4. Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; Shaw, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (Heerz ecmahlasp. n. and Heerz macrophthalmasp. n.), Lissopsius Marsh (Lissopsius pacificussp. n. and Lissopsius jalisciensissp. n.) and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (Ondigus cuixmalensissp. n.) are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, 2(nd) and 3(rd) domain regions) DNA sequence data.

  5. Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaldivar-Riveron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (H. ecmahla sp. n. and H. macrophthalma sp. n., Lissopsius Marsh (L. pacificus sp. n. and L. jalisciensis sp. n. and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (O. cuixmalensis sp. n. are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (28S, 2nd and 3rd domain regions DNA sequence data.

  6. A remarkable new species of the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei) from Ecuador, with observations on the taxonomy of the New World genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro

    2016-05-03

    A new ricinuleid species, Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov., is described based on a male specimen from Northwest Ecuador (Esmeraldas, Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul, Estación Biológica Bilsa). This species is unique among all Cryptocellus in having very large longitudinal carapacial translucent areas together with a markedly incrassate femur of leg II. Representing only the second species of the order described from Ecuador, C. chimaera sp. nov. is assigned to the magnus species-group of Cryptocellus Westwood, 1874. Cryptocellus chimaera sp. nov. is remarkable, for its morphology resembles that of Cryptocellus magnus Ewing, 1929, especially with regard to the male copulatory apparatus, although both resemble Pseudocellus Platnick, 1980, due to the presence of diffuse longitudinal carapacial translucent areas. Along with the new species description, a comparative diagnosis and supplementary images are provided for C. magnus. Based on direct observations of some species belonging to the five species-groups of Cryptocellus, we discuss on the occurrence of different morphologies of carapacial translucent areas within the genus. We deem it important to continue the survey of morphological characters, especially within Cryptocellus, in order to increase our understanding of the species-groups and to unravel their relationships.

  7. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speciation traits of paramere, paraproct and aedeagus were applied to find initial split criteria with fine structure analysis in order to prepare diverged trait matrices for delimiting phylogenetic incipient species of unsettled limnephilid taxa in the early stages of reproductive isolation. A brief history is presented how this phenotypic taxonomic tool of the speciation traits was discovered and applied in caddisfly taxonomy. The theoretical basis was elaborated for the phenotypic speciation trait by reviewing several relevant topics in the sciences of taxonomy, molecular genetics and phylogenetics. Perspectives of integrative taxonomy is discussed in context of phenotype versus genotype, immensely complex phenotype versus phenomic challenge, taxonomic impediment versus genetic expedient, taxonomic adaptation of genetic vocabulary versus genetic sophistication and virtualization, New Systematics of Huxley and Mayr versus New Taxonomy of Wheeler. Debates on magic trait, speciation phenotype, speciation trait and super traits are discussed concluding that evolution works with phenotype and why the cryptic species concept is irrelevant. Briefly summarized how speciation traits evolve in sexual selection, through accelerated reproductive isolation with genital evolution through sex-limited speciation traits, including minor sex chromosomes. Why neutral molecular markers are blind compared to the adaptive speciation traits sensitized by fine structure analysis and backed by the potential of high-tech and high-throughput phenotyping and cyber-infrastructure broadly accessible and fed by computable phenotype descriptions. What sort of genetics could really help taxonomy to describe biodiversity of the over 100 million unknown taxa? Collecting new and re-examining old type materials deposited in various collections, the following taxonomic actions were elaborated by speciation traits. Drusus bolivari new species complex has been erected with

  8. Development, cross-species/genera transferability of novel EST-SSR markers and their utility in revealing population structure and genetic diversity in sugarcane

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Ram K.

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) with complex polyploid genome requires a large number of informative DNA markers for various applications in genetics and breeding. Despite the great advances in genomic technology, it is observed in several crop species, especially in sugarcane, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers are limited. Now-a-days EST-SSR markers are preferred to genomic SSR (gSSR) as they represent only the functional part of the genome, which can be easily associated with desired trait. The present study was taken up with a new set of 351 EST-SSRs developed from the 4085 non redundant EST sequences of two Indian sugarcane cultivars. Among these EST-SSRs, TNR containing motifs were predominant with a frequency of 51.6%. Thirty percent EST-SSRs showed homology with annotated protein. A high frequency of SSRs was found in the 5\\'UTR and in the ORF (about 27%) and a low frequency was observed in the 3\\'UTR (about 8%). Two hundred twenty-seven EST-SSRs were evaluated, in sugarcane, allied genera of sugarcane and cereals, and 134 of these have revealed polymorphism with a range of PIC value 0.12 to 0.99. The cross transferability rate ranged from 87.0% to 93.4% in Saccharum complex, 80.0% to 87.0% in allied genera, and 76.0% to 80.0% in cereals. Cloning and sequencing of EST-SSR size variant amplicons revealed that the variation in the number of repeat-units was the main source of EST-SSR fragment polymorphism. When 124 sugarcane accessions were analyzed for population structure using model-based approach, seven genetically distinct groups or admixtures thereof were observed in sugarcane. Results of principal coordinate analysis or UPGMA to evaluate genetic relationships delineated also the 124 accessions into seven groups. Thus, a high level of polymorphism adequate genetic diversity and population structure assayed with the EST-SSR markers not only suggested their utility in various applications in genetics and genomics in

  9. The genera of Hyphomycetes - 2011 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, K A; Gams, W

    2011-12-01

    This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana (Pleosporales), and two endophytic genera, the sterile Periglandula (Clavicipitaceae), and the hyaline, sympodial Micronematobotrys (Pyronemataceae). Slow-growing, morphologically-reduced, darkly pigmented fungi continue to be the source of new taxa, including the new genus Atramixtia (Dothioraceae). Eight new genera of darkly pigmented chlamydospore-like anamorphs were described from marine or subtidal environments (Glomerulispora, Halozoön, Hiogispora, Matsusporium, Moheitospora, Moleospora, Moromyces), mostly associated with subclades of the Lulworthiales. Several genera that are morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distinct from genera of the Capnodiales (Pseudopassalora, Scleroramularia) were introduced, as well as segregates from the classical concepts of Alternaria (Sinomyces), Chalara and Phialophora (Brachyalara, Infundichalara, Lasiadelphia), and Paecilomyces (Purpureocillium for the former Paecilomyces lilacinus complex). In addition, in anticipation of the new nomenclatural rules, newly configured formerly-teleomorph genera were proposed as segregates from classical hyphomycete genera in the Hypocreales, namely Acremonium (Cosmospora), Fusarium (Cyanonectria, Dialonectria, Geejayessia, Macroconia, Stylonectria), and Volutella (Pseudonectria) and the Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, Penicillium (Talaromyces for the former Penicillium subg. Biverticillium). Standardized generic mini-diagnoses are provided for the accepted new genera, along with details of distribution, substrates, numbers of new species and phylogenetic affinities within the Dikarya. GenBank accession numbers for ITS DNA-barcodes are provided where available. New information on generic

  10. A review of the genera and species of the Bomolochidae (Crustacea, Copepoda), including the description of some old and new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoolt, W.

    1962-01-01

    During a recent survey of Pacific psammophilous and phycophilous copepods an isolated female Bomolochus was found, the identification of which, in absence of its host, proved to be particularly troublesome. It became necessary to check the descriptions of all species of the genus Bomolochus Von Nord

  11. New World Pouzozlia and Boehmeria (Urticaceae): a new species and new generic record for Paraguay, Pouzolzia amambaiensis, and additional observations on already described species of both genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The paper supplements a revision of the New World species of Boehmeria and Pouzozia published by the authors in 1996. Pouzolzia amambaiensis sp. nov. is described from recent material from Paraguay near the border with Brazil and represents a new generic record for Paraguay. Also recorded...

  12. Freshwater nematodes of the genera Thornenema and Mesodorylaimus from the Kruger National Park with a diagnostic species compendium for South African species of the genus Mesodorylaimus (Nematoda: Dorylaimida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete descriptions are given of Mesodorylaimus potus Heyns, 1963, a new record for the Kruger National Park and M. aegypticus (Andrassy, 1958 recorded here for the first time from South Africa. Additional information and new distribution records are given for Mesodorylaimus sp. cf paralitoralis (Basson & Heyns, 1974 and Thornenema haldum (Thome, 1939. A compendium is also presented for the 17 recognized Mesodorylaimus species from South Africa.

  13. The gastrointestinal helminths of Rattus niobe (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of two new genera and three new species (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, L R

    2016-05-31

    Cestodes, to be identified elsewhere, the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis and 15 species of nematode including 2 new genera, a new species and 2 putative new species from the families Heligmonellidae and Oxyuridae, as well as juveniles and a putative heligmonellid that could not be fully identified, were collected from the digestive tracts of 34 Rattus niobe (Muridae: Murinae: Rattini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The ascaridid, Toxocara mackerrasae, the chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi, the heterakid Heterakis sp., the spirurids Protospirura kaindiensis and P. muricola the subulurid Subulura andersoni and the trichurids Eucoleus sp. and Trichuris muris have been reported previously from endemic Rattus spp. Syphacia (Syphacia) niobe n. sp. was distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a round cephalic plate, the lack of cervical and lateral alae, a longer male tail and an attenuated female tail. Nugininema titokis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 10-17 ridges orientated subfrontally at mid body and 2 right ventral ridges hypertrophied anteriorly. Rodentanema aenigma n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe 6-7 ridges at mid body not symmetrical in relation to frontal axis. Species richness of the nematode assemblage was similar to that reported for Rattus leucopus in Papua New Guinea, with about 90% of possible species found as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Species composition included 6 species unique to R. niobe and 7 species reported from at least one other species of Rattus indigenous to New Guinea, as well as juvenile worms, probably ascaridids.

  14. Systematics of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae) with a description of Mikeiinae, new subfamily, and two new genera and three new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new systematics of Australian Thrasorinae is proposed herein. The genus Mikeius is transferred from Thrasorinae to Mikeiinae Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar n. subf and M. clavata Pujade-Villar & Restrepo-Ortiz n. sp. is described. Two new genera of Thrasorinae are erected: Cicatrix Paretas-Martí...

  15. Updated keys to the genera in the subfamilies of Cyclocoelidae Stossich, 1902, including a reconsideration of species assignments, species keys and the proposal of a new genus in Szidatitreminae Dronen, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronen, Norman O; Blend, Charles K

    2015-12-08

    Keys to the six subfamilies, 22 genera within subfamilies and 128 species recognized within the Cyclocoelidae are provided. Lists of species in each genus are provided, along with taxonomic summaries that include type host, type locality, additional hosts, additional localities, previously proposed synonyms, and remarks for each species. The following synonymies are proposed: Cyclocoelum mutabile (Zeder, 1800)-Syn. C. microstomum (Creplin, 1929); Cyclocoelum leidyi Harrah, 1922-Syn. C. cuneatum Harrah, 1922; Cyclocoelum mehrotrai Sinha & Sahay, 1975-Syn. C. mathuri Jain, 1984; Selfcoelum allahabadi (Khan, 1935) n. comb.-Syns. Cyclocoelum agamprasadi Jain, 1983, Cyclocoelum erythropis Khan, 1935 and Cyclocoelum indicum Khan, 1935; Selfcoelum obliquum (Harrah, 1921) n. comb.-Syn. Cyclocoelum mehrii Khan, 1935; Uvitellina adelphus (Johnston, 1917)-Syn. Cyclocoelum (Uvitellina) dollfusi Tseng, 1930; Uvitellina kaniharensis (Gupta, 1958)-Syn. U. indica Siddiqi & Jairajpuri, 1962; Uvitellina simile (Stossich, 1902) n. comb.-Syn. U. magniembria Witenberg, 1923; Uvitellina vanelli (Rudolphi, 1819)-Syns. U. keri Yamaguti, 1933 and U. tageri Yamaguti, 1933; Wardianum triangulare (Harrah, 1922)-Syn. Wardianum catoptrophori Dronen, 2007; Haematotrephus limnodromi Dronen, Gardner & Jiménez, 2006-Syn. H. selfi Dronen, Gardner & Jiménez, 2008; and Hyptiasmus arcuatus (Brandes, 1892 of Stossich, 1902)-Syn. H. coelonodus Witenberg, 1923. Based on the lack of adequate descriptive information, Cyclocoelum cornu (Zeder, 1800); Cyclocoelum crenulatum (Rudolphi, 1809); Haematotrephus nigropunctatum (von Linstow, 1883) n. comb.; Haematotrephus robustus Ukoli, 1968; Hyptiasmus californicus (Wootton, 1966); and Hyptiasmus vigisi Savinov, 1960 are considered to be species inquirendae. Hyptiasmus witenbergi Tret'iakova, 1940 (described in a dissertation) is considered to be a nomen nudum. Comparative tables containing measurements, morphometric percentages and morphometric ratios for

  16. New species in the genus Thagria Melichar from the Oriental and Australian regions, with a revised key to genera and species and a synoptic catalogue of the genus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, M W

    2013-01-01

    The following 21 new species of Thagria from the Oriental and Australian regions are described, illustrated and photographed: T. aenigmatis, sp. nov., T. asperitas sp. nov., T. biretrorsa sp. nov., T. colorata, sp. nov., T. coniunctionis, sp. nov., T. constanti, sp.nov., T. fidelitas sp. nov., T. freytagi sp. nov., T. intorta sp. nov., T. iuxta, sp. nov., T. lobata sp. nov., T. longicatilla sp. nov., T. malenovskyi sp. nov., T. oldfieldi, sp. nov., T. paraunca, sp. nov., T. quadrimaculata, sp. nov., T. quadrispinosa sp. nov., T. trimaculata sp. nov., T. unibasispinosa, sp. nov.; T. unica sp. nov. and T. viraktamathi, sp. nov. Thagria bidentata Xu & Kuoh 1998, preoccupied by Thagria bidentata Nielson 1982 is renamed herein Thagria xui nom. nov. Thagria multicalcara Nielson is suppressed junior synonym of Coelidia inscripta Walker. Thagria hongdoensis Kwon & Lee is suppressed junior synonym of resurrected Coelidia satsumensis Matsumura. Cambodia is a new record for T. longistyla Freytag. Laos is a new record for T. acrodens Freytag, T. boulardi Nielson, T.emeiensis Zhang, T. fuscoscuta Zhang, T. janssoni Nielson, T. obrienae Nielson and T. ungulata Nielson. Vietnam is a new record for T. grandis Nielson and T. marissae Nielson. Intra-inter specific variation involving 6 closely related species (melichari species complex) in Southeast Asia is discussed. Morphology and taxonomic value of the dorsal connective, revised key to species and genera in Thagriini and an updated synoptic catalogue of the genus are also presented. Problematical species in the genus Thagria are reviewed. Distribution of 235 known species and the relationship between clypellus configuration and geographical origin are given.

  17. Redescription and molecular phylogeny of the type species for two main metopid genera, Metopus es (Müller, 1776) Lauterborn, 1916 and Brachonella contorta (Levander, 1894) Jankowski, 1964 (Metopida, Ciliophora), based on broad geographic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, William; Rotterova, Johana; Čepička, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Metopid ciliates occupy terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats worldwide, playing important roles as predominant consumers of bacteria, flagellates, algae, and diatoms in hypoxic environments. Metopus and Brachonella are the most species-rich metopid genera, however most of their species have not been studied by modern methods Here, we report the morphologic, morphometric and molecular characterization, and phylogeny of Metopus es and Brachonella contorta, both types of their respective genera, collected in a broad global sampling effort. Five strains of M. es and three strains of B. contorta were studied in detail, providing the first correlation of morphology, morphometrics, and 18S rRNA gene sequencing for both. We submitted 29 new 18S rRNA gene sequences to GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses yielded trees of similar topology. A strongly supported Metopus es clade is sister to the Brachonella contorta clade. Our analysis shows genus Metopus is not monophyletic. The monophyly of Brachonella cannot yet be determined due to lack of sequences for other species of this genus in molecular databases. Both species appear to have a global distribution. Metopus es was not found in Africa, probably reflecting low sampling effort. Strains of both species showed low 18S rRNA gene sequence divergence despite wide geographic separation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera

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    Varpu Vahtera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included.

  19. Reassessment of the taxonomic structure of the diazotrophic genus Azoarcus sensu lato and description of three new genera and new species, Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, B; Hurek, T

    2000-03-01

    The taxonomic structure of members of the genus Azoarcus sensu lato was reassessed in a polyphasic approach. Two species, Azoarcus communis and Azoarcus indigens, three unnamed species containing diazotrophs associated with Kallar grass roots (groups C, D) and a group of strains (E) isolated from fungi were analysed. They were compared by PAGE analyses of cellular proteins, genomic fingerprints, morphological and nutritional features to new isolates from rice roots. All strains within groups C, D and E containing 5-12 isolates showed group-specific cell and colony morphology and carbon source utilization patterns, with exception of the obligately microaerobic strain BS20-3, a member of group C. All strains, with this exception, also had almost indistinguishable electrophoretic protein patterns and genomic fingerprints generated with tDNA-directed primers, suggesting they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analyses of almost complete 16S rDNA sequences carried out with three different algorithms (neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) revealed that Azoarcus sensu lato is not monophyletic. Groups C, D and E formed three distinct lineages located between the Azoarcus/Thauera and the Rhodocyclus clusters. Phylogenetic distances between groups C, D and E were as large as between other genera (93-94% sequence similarity). This suggested they have the rank of three different genera. Since it was possible to differentiate them from each other and other related bacteria by phenotypic features, three new genera with one type species each are proposed: Azovibrio restrictus gen. nov., sp. nov., Azospira oryzae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Azonexus fungiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

  20. 安徽地花菌属一新记录种——绵地花菌%A New Record Species of Albatrellus Confluens Genera in Anhui: Albarellus ovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓民; 王松华; 高青海; 何华奇

    2012-01-01

    A kinds of wild edible fungi from Yuexi County of Anhui Province was identified. The reaults showed that the edible fungi was Alba-trellus ovinus(Schaeff. :Fr. )Kotl. & Pouzar of albatrellus confluens genera, it's the new record species in Anhui Province.%对采自安徽省岳西县的一种野生食用菌进行了鉴定.结果表明,该食用菌为地花菌属的绵地花菌,是安徽省新纪录种.

  1. New species of the genera Foenomorpha Szépligeti (Cenocoeliinae) and Chelonus Panzer (Cheloninae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), from French Guiana, Suriname, and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Foenomorpha Szépligeti, 1904, are described (F. rufa spec. nov. from Brazil and F. senlura spec. nov. from French Guiana). A key to the known species is added and notes on the other two species are added. Foenomorpha filicornis (Cameron, 1887) is a new combination for Ce

  2. New species of the genera Foenomorpha Szépligeti (Cenocoeliinae) and Chelonus Panzer (Cheloninae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), from French Guiana, Suriname, and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Foenomorpha Szépligeti, 1904, are described (F. rufa spec. nov. from Brazil and F. senlura spec. nov. from French Guiana). A key to the known species is added and notes on the other two species are added. Foenomorpha filicornis (Cameron, 1887) is a new combination for

  3. Intragenomic variation in the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA of species of the genera Culex and Lutzia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Tavares Vesgueiro; Bruna Demari-Silva; Rosely dos Santos Malafronte; Maria Anice Mureb Sallum; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

    2011-01-01

    Culex is the largest genus of Culicini and includes vectors of several arboviruses and filarial worms. Many species of Culex are morphologically similar, which makes their identification difficult, particularly when using female specimens. To aid evolutionary studies and species distinction, molecular techniques are often used. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from 16 species of the genus Culex and one of Lutzia were used to assess their genom...

  4. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A

    2015-03-24

    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given.

  5. Annotations on the genera Triscolia, Megascolia and Scolia (Hymenoptera, Scoliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betrem, J.G.; Chester Bradley, J.

    1964-01-01

    This communication has been divided in three sections. Section A deals with the types of some taxa belonging to the genera Triscolia, Megascolia and Scolia; section B deals with the species of the genera Triscolia and Megascolia; a third section dealing with the species of the genus Scolia will be p

  6. Description of a new western Atlantic species of Argeia Dana with a proposed new subfamily for this and related genera (Crustacea Isopoda, Bopyridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Recently, material representing an undescribed species of the genus Argeia Dana in the western Atlantic, the first record of that genus from this ocean, became available to me. The previous records of Argeia are of 4 species in the Pacific, including one whose range extends around the e

  7. Notes on the genera Exasticolus van Achterberg (Homolobinae) and Orgilus Haliday (Orgilinae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with the description of three new species from French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Among the collected material from the Kaw Montains, French Guiana, a new species of the genus Exasticolus van Achterberg, 1979 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae: E. thirionae spec. nov.) and two new species of the genus Orgilus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae: O. podus spec. no

  8. A review of Canadian and Alaskan species of the genera Clusiota Casey and Atheta Thomson, subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P; Sikes, Derek; Bourdon, Caroline; Labrecque, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    This paper treats 13 species of the subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey of Atheta Thomson and 3 species of the genus Clusiota Casey in Canada and Alaska. We report here 4 species new to science, and 3 new provincial records. The following species are new to science: Atheta (Microdota) curtipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) formicaensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) macesi Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., and Clusiota grandipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The new provincial records are: Atheta (Microdota) pseudosubtilis Klimaszewski & Langor, new to AB, and Atheta (Microdota) subtilis (Scriba), an adventive Palaearctic species new to North America, first reported in LB and NB. The two Clusiota Casey species are reviewed, and their distribution is revised. A female Clusiota impressicollis was discovered in Ontario and is illustrated here for the first time. A key to all Canadian species of the subgenus Microdota and genus Clusiota are provided. Atheta (Microdota) holmbergi Bernhauer and Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke are transferred here to the subgenus Dimetrota Mulsant & Rey.

  9. A taxonomic index, with names of descriptive authorities of termite genera and species: an accompaniment to Biology of Termites: A Modern Synthesis (Bignell DE, Roisin Y, Lo N, Editors. 2011. Springer, Dordrecht. 576 pp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, D E; Jones, D T

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Termites: A Modern Synthesis (Bignell DE, Roisin Y, Lo N, (Editors), Springer, Dordrecht, 576pp, ISBN 978-90-481-3976-7, e-ISBN 978-90-481-3977-4, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-3977-4) was published in 2011. With the agreement of the publishers, we give a taxonomic index of the book comprising 494 termite entries, 103 entries of other multicellular animal species mentioned as associates or predators of termites, with 9 fungal, 60 protist, and 64 prokaryote identities, which are listed as termite symbionts (sensu stricto). In addition, we add descriptive authorities for living (and some fossil) termite genera and species. Higher taxonomic groupings for termites are indicated by 25 code numbers. Microorganisms (prokaryotes, protists, and fungi) are listed separately, using broad modern taxonomic affiliations from the contemporary literature of bacteriology, protozoology, and mycology.

  10. Review of the Indo-West Pacific ophidiid genera Sirembo and Spottobrotula (Ophidiiformes, Ophidiidae), with description of three new species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen; Schwarzhans, Werner; Uiblein, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Currently, three of the seven described species of Sirembo Bleeker, 1858 and both species of Spottobrotula Cohen & Nielsen, 1978 are considered valid. The present revision is based on 73 specimens of Sirembo known from the Red Sea to Japan and southwards to off northwestern Australia and northern...... Spottobrotula amaculata Cohen & Nielsen, 1982 is transferred to Sirembo. While newly caught specimens can easily be identified by their colour pattern, preserved material requires identification based on meristic and morphometric characters. Three new species are herein described, Sirembo wami, Spottobrotula...

  11. Key to the genera of the Palaearctic Oxytorinae, with the description of three new genera (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossem, van G.

    1990-01-01

    A revised key to the Palaearctic genera of the subfamily Oxytorinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is given. Three new genera are described: Pantomima gen. nov. (type-species: Pantomima festata spec. nov.), Fetialis gen. nov. (type.-species: Fetialis alacris spec. nov.), and Epitropus gen. nov. (type-

  12. New genera of philopotine spider flies (Diptera, Acroceridae with a key to living and fossil genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Gillung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two new genera of philopotine Acroceridae: Schlingeriella irwini gen. et sp. n. (New Caledonia and Quasi fisheri gen. et sp. n. (Mexico. The Baltic amber species Eulonchiella eocenica Meunier, 1912 is rediagnosed and a neotype designated based on a newly discovered specimen. We also provide a dichotomous key to the world genera of Philopotinae, both living and fossil.

  13. Two new Otoplanid species (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Proseriata) of the genera Orthoplana Steinböck, 1932 and Postbursoplana Ax, 1956 from the Tuscan coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meini, Gianluca

    2015-04-16

    Two new species of marine flatworms, collected on the sandy shores of Tuscany, are described. These species exhibit the morphological characteristics of the subfamilies Otoplaninae and Parotoplaninae ("Turbellaria", Otoplanidae), but clearly differ from other described species. Orthoplana lunae sp. nov., is characterized by a body length of 1.4-1.6 mm, distinctive features of the testes and vitellaries, the male sclerotic apparatus composed of a median stylet (48-49 μm long), and 19 spines (17-44 μm long). Postbursoplana donoraticensis sp. nov., is characterized by a body length of 1.6-1.8 mm, the distribution of testes and vitellaries, the male sclerotic apparatus composed of 10 spines (46-70 μm). This new species has a greater body length relative to other species in this genus. They were collected along the sandy shores at low water mark at Partaccia (Marina di Massa, Ligurian Sea, Italy) and Marina di Donoratico (Livorno, Ligurian Sea, Italy), respectively.

  14. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  15. New deep-sea free-living marine nematodes from the Sea of Japan: the genera Siphonolaimus and Halichoanolaimus (Nematoda: Chromadorea) with keys to species identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Julia; Trebukhova, Yulia; Pavlyuk, Olga

    2015-01-16

    In deep-sea sediments from the Sea of Japan, two new species, Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp. n. and Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n., were found and described. Siphonolaimus japonicus sp. n. is characterized by having short anterior sensillae, body length of 3670-4500 μm, buccal cavity with axial spear, and length of the spicules. Halichoanolaimus brandtae sp.n is characterized by the number of amphideal rings, long spicules, five precloacal supplements and by having a long cylindrical part of the tail. Keys to species level are provided. 

  16. When forms meet genes: revision of the scleractinian genera Micromussa and Homophyllia (Lobophylliidae) with a description of two new species and one new genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrigoni, R.; Benzoni Danwei Huang, Hironobu Fukami, Chaolun Allen Chen, Michael L. Berumen, Mia Hoogenboom, Damian P. Thomson, Bert W. Hoeksema, Ann F. Budd, Yuna Zayasu, Tullia I. Terraneo, Yuko F. Kitano, Andrew H. Baird F.; Huang, D.; Fukami, H.; Chen, C.A.; Berumen, M.L.; Hoogenboom, M.; Thomson, D.P.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Budd, A.F.; Zayasu, Y.; Terraneo, T.I.; Kitano, Y.F.; Baird, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The scleractinian family Lobophylliidae is undergoing a major taxonomic revision thanks to the combination of molecular and morphological data. In this study, we investigate the evolutionary relationships and the macro- and micromorphology of six nominal coral species belonging to two of the nine mo

  17. Review of the genera Hishimonus Ishihara and Litura Knight(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from the Indian subcontinent with description of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viraktamath, C A; Murthy, H V Anantha

    2014-04-03

    This paper deals with 21 species of Hishimonus Ishihara and two species of Litura Knight from the Indian subcontinent. The following new species are described: Hishimonus acuminatus sp. nov. (India: Mizoram), H. distinctus sp. nov. (India: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Sri Lanka), H. dwipae sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), H. longisetosus sp. nov. (India: Karnataka), H. spicans sp. nov. (India: Karnataka), H. thapai sp. nov. (Nepal), H. zeylanicus sp. nov. (Sri Lanka), and Litura triangula sp. nov. (India: Karnataka). Hishimonus versicolor Subba Rao & Ramakrishnan is removed from the genus Hishimonus and two new combinations namely, Hishimonus apricus (Melichar) comb. nov. (formerly in the genus Eutettix) and Litura tripunctatus (Li) comb. nov. (formerly in the genus Hishimonus) and a new name Hishimonus knightiella nom. nov. for Hishimonus apricus Knight 1970a, not Distant 1908 is proposed. H. gillespiei Dai, Fletcher & Zhang, H. pallidus Dai, Fletcher & Zhang, H. dividens Knight, H. aberrans Knight, H. concavus Knight, H. arcuatus Knight and Litura unda Knight are new records for India. All the taxa are described and new taxa are illustrated. Keys to identification of the species of Hishimonus and Litura found in the Indian subcontinent are also provided along with list of known host plants.

  18. Intragenomic variation in the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA of species of the genera Culex and Lutzia (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesgueiro, Fabiana Tavares; Demari-Silva, Bruna; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2011-02-01

    Culex is the largest genus of Culicini and includes vectors of several arboviruses and filarial worms. Many species of Culex are morphologically similar, which makes their identification difficult, particularly when using female specimens. To aid evolutionary studies and species distinction, molecular techniques are often used. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from 16 species of the genus Culex and one of Lutzia were used to assess their genomic variability and to verify their applicability in the phylogenetic analysis of the group. The distance matrix (uncorrected p-distance) that was obtained revealed intragenomic and intraspecific variation. Because of the intragenomic variability, we selected ITS2 copies for use in distance analyses based on their secondary structures. Neighbour-joining topology was obtained with an uncorrected p-distance. Despite the heterogeneity observed, individuals of the same species were grouped together and correlated with the current, morphology-based classification, thereby showing that ITS2 is an appropriate marker to be used in the taxonomy of Culex.

  19. Intragenomic variation in the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA of species of the genera Culex and Lutzia (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Tavares Vesgueiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Culex is the largest genus of Culicini and includes vectors of several arboviruses and filarial worms. Many species of Culex are morphologically similar, which makes their identification difficult, particularly when using female specimens. To aid evolutionary studies and species distinction, molecular techniques are often used. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA from 16 species of the genus Culex and one of Lutzia were used to assess their genomic variability and to verify their applicability in the phylogenetic analysis of the group. The distance matrix (uncorrected p-distance that was obtained revealed intragenomic and intraspecific variation. Because of the intragenomic variability, we selected ITS2 copies for use in distance analyses based on their secondary structures. Neighbour-joining topology was obtained with an uncorrected p-distance. Despite the heterogeneity observed, individuals of the same species were grouped together and correlated with the current, morphology-based classification, thereby showing that ITS2 is an appropriate marker to be used in the taxonomy of Culex.

  20. On the “Coccodus” lindstroemi species complex (Pycnodontiformes, Gladiopycnodontidae from the marine Late Cretaceous of Lebanon, with the description of two new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Taverne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The osteology of “Coccodus” lindstroemi is studied in detail and it is demonstrated that this species does not belong to the genus Coccodus, but is a rather primitive member of the pycnodontiform family Gladiopycnodontidae. Indeed, the snout of “Coccodus” lindstroemi is elongated in a rostrum formed by the prefrontal and the premaxilla. This rostrum extends beyond the lower jaw level. The toothless premaxilla is sutured by its upper margin to the lower margin of the long and broad prefrontal. The pectoral fin is lost and replaced by a pectoral spine which articulates on the cleithrum. A long nuchal spine resting on the dermosupraoccipital is present. The body is entirely covered by scales that are flake-like in the abdominal region and scute-like in the caudal region. Joinvillichthys gen. nov. is thus erected with “Coccodus” lindstroemi as the type species. It is also shown that specimens with dumpier head and body, usually ranged in “Coccodus” lindstroemi, represent another species of the same genus for which the taxon Joinvillichthys kriweti gen. et sp. nov. is created. Specimens sometimes considered as possible juveniles of “Coccodus” lindstroemi form a distinctive new genus and species of gladiopycnodontid fish, Pankowskichthys libanicus gen. et sp. nov. Pankowskichthys differs from Joinvillichthys by many osteological structures.

  1. Corallovexiidae, a new family of transformed copepods endoparasitic in reef corals with two new genera and ten new species from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1975-01-01

    Quite a few endoparasitic copepods are known from Indo-Pacific stony corals, but not a single species has so far been recorded from the West Indies. Intensive search in the past few decades has even supported the prevailing opinion that West Indian stony corals are devoid of endoparasitic copepods,

  2. Geographic patterns of endemic seed plant genera diversity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shengbin Chen; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yu Fang; Zhenji Li

    2011-01-01

    Endemism describes the phenomenon that the distribution of individual species/taxa is critically restricted to a specific region. Seed plant genera endemic to China (endemic genera) are those with their main geographic distribution range within the borders of China. The geographic patterns of endemic genera can not only guide conservation planning, but these organisms are also important biological resources. We gath-ered data of 173 localities on environmental and spatial factors, and regiona...

  3. Five new species of freshwater crabs of the genera Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, S K; Thackeray, T; Khaire, A

    2016-02-23

    Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp. is separated from its congeners mainly by its long anterolateral margin of the carapace and short terminal article of the G1. Besides, the colour pattern (deep pink carapace and chelipeds, orange ambulatory legs) of G. splendida n. sp. is exceptional among its congeners. Gubernatoriana alcocki n. sp. is unique among species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 due to its inwardly curved tip of the terminal article of the G1. The stout and cone-shaped terminal article of the G1 of G. thackerayi n. sp. is characteristic among its congeners. In addition, G. thackerayi n. sp. has a unique colouration amongst congeners (violet-red carapace and ambulatory legs, orange-red chelipeds). Gubernatoriana waghi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the quadrate-shaped carapace, narrow frontal margin, pointed tips of the cheliped fingers, short terminal article of the G1 and very short or vestigial terminal article of the male second pleopod (G2). The body colour (burnt orange carapace and ivory coloured chelipeds and ambulatory legs) of G. waghi n. sp. is also important to distinguish live crabs of the genus. Key to the species of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana is provided.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437 and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the “basal” position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Shi, Jisen

    2016-07-07

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437) and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the "basal" position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  6. Novel associations between rhizobial populations and legume species within the genera Lathyrus and Oxytropis grown in the temperate region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Fifty rhizobial isolates of Lathyrus and Oxytropis collected from northern regions of China were studied in their genotypic characterization based upon analyses of ARDRA, 16S-23S IGS PCR-RFLP, TP-RAPD, MLEE, sequences of 16S rDNA gene and housekeeping genes of atpD, recA and glnII. The results demonstrated that most of the Lathyrus rhizobia belonged to Rhizobium and most of the Oxytropis rhizobia belonged to Sinorhizobium. A novel group of Rhizobium sp. I and S. meliloti were identified as the main microsymbionts respectively associated with Lathyrus and Oxytropis species in the collection area, which were new associations between rhizobia and the mentioned hosts. This study also provides new evidence for biogeography of rhizobia.

  7. Novel associations between rhizobial populations and legume species within the genera Lathyrus and Oxytropis grown in the temperate region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI XinHua; HAN LiLi; WANG EnTao; JIANG Feng; LIU YiHai; CHEN WenXin

    2009-01-01

    Fifty rhizobial isolates of Lathyrus and Oxytropis collected from northern regions of China were studied in their genotypic characterization based upon analyses of ARDRA, 16S-23S IGS PCR-RFLP, TP-RAPD, MLEE, sequences of 16S rDNA gene and housekeeping genes of atpD, recA and glnll. The results demonstrated that most of the Lathyrus rhizobia belonged to Rhizobium and most of the Oxytropis rhizobia belonged to Sinorhizobium. A novel group of Rhizobium sp. I and S. meliloti were identified as the main microsymbionts respectively associated with Lathyrus and Oxytropis species in the collection area, which were new associations between rhizobia and the mentioned hosts. This study also provides new evidence for biogeography of rhizobia.

  8. Identification key to the genera of marine rotifers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaneto, D; De Smet, W.H.; Melone, G.

    2008-01-01

    A dichotomous key to rotifers is presented for the 28 Families and 66 Genera that have been reported from saline systems of both marine and inland waters. Information is provided on general identification and papers dealing more particularly with certain Families and Genera. A succinct overview of the species found in saline habitats is given for each genus.

  9. Descrições de novas espécies, chaves para identificação e notas sobre os gêneros Sphagoeme Aurivillius, Aleiphaquilon Martins e Gigantotrichoderes Tippmann (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae Descriptions of new species, keys to identification and notes on the genera Sphagoeme Aurivillius, Aleiphaquilon Martins and Gigantotrichoderes Tippmann (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R Martins

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available New species described from Brazil: Sphagoeme acuta (Minas Gerais and Aleiphaquilon rugosum (Rio Grande do Sul. Key to the species of the genera Sphagoeme Aurivillius (Oemini; Aleiphaquilon Martins (Callidiopini and Gigantotrichoderes Tippmann (Trachiderini, Torneutina are presented. G. flabellicomis (Zajciw, 1965 is revalidaled.

  10. Genetic and toxinological characterization of North Atlantic strains of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis and allelopathic interactions with toxic and non-toxic species from the genera Prorocentrum, Coolia and Gambierdiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José Mariano; Bañuelos, Rosa Mª; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf. ovata contained ovatoxins-a, b, c and e, while only ovatoxin-d was found in O .sp. "Lanzarote-type"), mixed with species of three benthic dinoflagellate genera (Coolia, Prorocentrum and Gambierdiscus), isolated from the same area (North East Atlantic, Canary Islands). In a first experiment, the potential allelopathic effects on growth rates were followed, in mixed cultures of Coolia monotis (a non toxic species) exposed to the clarified medium and to cells of O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata. Growth delayed in C. monotis was observed specially in clarified medium, while the O. sp. "Lanzarote-type" strain attained much lower densities in mixed cultures. In a second experiment, we examined the potential effects of clarified media from O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata on the adherence capacity in two toxic species (Prorocentrum hoffmannianum and Gambierdiscus excentricus). Contrasting effects were found: a significant increase of adherence capacity in P. hoffmannianum vs attachment decline in G. excentricus, that experienced also severe deleterious effects (cell lysis). Our results suggest the existence of weak to moderate allelopathic interactions between the studied organisms, although the outcome is dependent on the species involved.

  11. Ortholog identification in genera of high genetic diversity and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    In the era of high-throughput sequencing, comparative genomics is vastly used in the discovery of genetic diversity between species, but also in defining the core and pan genome of single species to whole genera. Current comparative approaches are implementing ortholog identification to establish...... genome annotations, gene or protein evolutions or defining functional features in individual species and groups....

  12. Debroyerella gen. nov. and Ulladulla gen. nov., two new lysianassoid genera (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, J K; Kilgallen, N M

    2015-02-19

    Two new genera and a new species of lysianassoid amphipods are described. Debroyerella gen. nov. is described for three Antarctic species previously assigned to the genus Cheirimedon. Ulladulla gen. nov. is described to accommodate the new species U. selje, from Australian waters. Diagnostic descriptions are given for the genera and all species are described in full.

  13. Genera of the human lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2003-01-01

    Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. These specimens are described as having morphological traits that justify placing them in the family Hominidae while creating a new genus for the classification of each. The discovery of these fossils pushed backward by >2 million years the date of the oldest hominids known. Only two or three hominid genera, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo, had been previously accepted, with Paranthropus considered a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors. Two questions arise from the classification of the newly discovered fossils: (i) Should each one of these specimens be placed in the family Hominidae? (ii) Are these specimens sufficiently distinct to justify the creation of four new genera? The answers depend, in turn, on the concepts of what is a hominid and how the genus category is defined. These specimens seem to possess a sufficient number of morphological traits to be placed in the Hominidae. However, the nature of the morphological evidence and the adaptation-rooted concept of what a genus is do not justify the establishment of four new genera. We propose a classification that includes four well defined genera: Praeanthropus, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, plus one tentative incertae sedis genus: Sahelanthropus. PMID:12794185

  14. The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Prous

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent phylogenetic studies on Nematinae based on DNA sequences have shown extensive incongruencies with current nomenclature of genus-group taxa. Here, we expand previous DNA sequence datasets based on three genes (CoI, Cytb, and EF-1α, to include a fourth (NaK and more genera. The analyses largely confirm the previous findings, particularly the existence of two well-supported large clades, Euura and Pristiphora, together comprising more than 75% of the species of Nematinae. Basal relationships within these two clades remain poorly resolved, mirroring the difficulties in delimiting genera based on morphology. In addition, a moderately supported small clade, Nematus, is found. The relationships between the Euura, Pristiphora, and Nematus clades are uncertain. Therefore, to stabilize the nomenclature we treat these clades as genera. This taxonomic treatment results in numerous new combinations of species names. The following synonymies are proposed for the available genus-group names. Synonyms of Euura Newman, 1837: Cryptocampus Hartig, 1837, Euura Agassiz, 1848, Pontania Costa, 1852, syn. n., Epitactus Förster, 1854, syn. n., Amauronematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocneme Konow, 1890, syn. n., Pachynematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocnema Schulz, 1906, syn. n., Holcocnemis Konow, 1907, syn. n., Pteronidea Rohwer, 1911, syn. n., Pontopristia Malaise, 1921, syn. n., Brachycoluma Strand, 1929, syn. n., Decanematus Malaise, 1931, syn. n., Pikonema Ross, 1937, syn. n., Phyllocolpa Benson, 1960, syn. n., Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966, syn. n., Gemmura E.L. Smith, 1968, Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985, syn. n., Larinematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Polynematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Bacconematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Alpinematus Lacourt, 1996, syn. n., Epicenematus Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Kontuniemiana Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Lindqvistia Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Luea Wei and Nie, 1998, syn. n., and Tubpontania Vikberg, 2010, syn. n. Synonyms

  15. Distribution of Pacific Phanerogam genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1993-01-01

    The following is a tabulated list of all Pacific Phanerogam genera. A similar list was published as an appendix to my “Plant geography of the Pacific” (1971). The latter has, in the meantime, become obsolete by new records and changed taxonomic concepts. The new list is here presented in a more cond

  16. Keys to the genera of Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Maas, P.J.M.; Meinke, S.; Johnson, D.M.; Kessler, P.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification keys are provided for all genera currently recognized in Annonaceae. Separate keys are presented for the Neotropics (34 genera), Africa-Madagascar (40 genera) and Asia-Australasia (42 genera). These keys are based on a combination of vegetative and fertile characters. (c) 2012 The Lin

  17. Estudios palinológicos de especies argentinas de los géneros Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis y Monvillea (Cactaceae, Cactoideae Palynological studies in Argentina species of the genera Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis and Monvillea (Cactaceae, Cactoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Lattar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología del polen de 19 especies pertenecientes a cinco géneros (Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis y Monvillea de la subfamilia Cactoideae (Cactaceae en Argentina, fueron descriptas usando microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido: Cereus aethiops Haw., C. argentinensis Britton & Rose, C. forbesii Otto ex C.F.Först., C. haenkeanus F.A.C. Weber ex K. Schum., C. stenogonus K. Schum., C. uruguayanus R. Kiesling; Cleistocactus baumannii (Lem. Lem., C. hyalacanthus (K. Schum. Gosselin, C. smaragdiflorus (F.A.C. Weber Britton & Rose; Denmoza rhodacantha (Salm-Dyck Britton & Rose; Echinopsis ancistrophora Speg., E. aurea Britton & Rose, E. leucantha (Gillies ex Salm-Dyck Walp., E. mamillosa Gürke, E. oxygona (Lynk Zucc., E. rhodotricha K. Schum., E. tubiflora (Pfeiff. & Zucc., Monvillea cavendischii (Monv. Britton & Rose y M. spegazzinii (F.A.C. Weber Britton & Rose. Los granos de polen de las especies analizadas son estenopalínicos, principalmente tricolpados, subesferoidales a prolatos, con téctum microperforado, espinulado, microespinulado o nanoespinulado. Encontrándose pequenas diferencias en forma y tamano. Se determinaron dos tipos polínicos: Polen Tipo Cereus argentinensis y Polen Tipo Echinopsis mamillosa. Se presenta una clave para identificar y distinguir los tipos citados.Pollen grains morphology of nineteen species belonging to five genera (Cereus, Cleistocactus, Denmoza, Echinopsis and Monvillea of the subfamily Cactoideae (Cactaceae in Argentina, are described using optical and scanning electron microscopy: Cereus aethiops Haw., C. argentinensis Britton & Rose, C. forbesii Otto ex C.F.Först., C. haenkeanus F.A.C. Weber ex K. Schum., C. stenogonus K. Schum., C. uruguayanus R. Kiesling; Cleistocactus baumannii (Lem. Lem., C. hyalacanthus (K. Schum. Gosselin, C. smaragdiflorus (F.A.C. Weber Britton & Rose; Denmoza rhodacantha (Salm-Dyck Britton & Rose; Echinopsis ancistrophora Speg., E

  18. Laboulbeniales on millipedes: the genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Sergi; Enghoff, Henrik; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S

    2014-01-01

    The genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) parasitizing millipedes (Diplopoda) are reviewed. We describe four new species: D. lusitanipodos parasitic on Lusitanipus from Portugal and on Cyphocallipus from Spain, D. veneris on Lusitanipus from Portugal, T. botryandrus on Leptoiulus from Italy and T. rossii on Ophyiulus, Leptoiulus and Typhloiulus from Italy. Diplopodomyces veneris is a dimorphic species, with different morphotypes growing on the male copulatory organs and on the surroundings of the female gonopore respectively. The type species of both genera also have been studied, their descriptions are revised and a neotype for T. manfrediae is designated. New records from Italy are given for D. callipodos and T. manfrediae.

  19. Revision of the Neotropical genera Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum, and Unonopsis (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.; Vermeer, M.

    2007-01-01

    (Annonaceae). The closeness of these three genera was expressed by Fries when he placed them in his (informal) Unonopsis group (Fries, 1959), and the close relationship is supported by more recent phylogenetic research as well. Four species are recognized in Bocageopsis and two species in Onychopeta

  20. Genera of the human lineage

    OpenAIRE

    Cela-Conde, C J; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2003-01-01

    Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. These specimens are described as having morphological traits that justify placing them in the family Hominidae while creating a new genus for the classification of each. The discovery of these fossils pushed backward by >2 million years the date of the oldest h...

  1. Two genera and five species newly recorded in Zhejiang Province,China%浙江省植物分布2新记录属和5新记录种(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊先华; 吴庆玲; 陈贤兴; 胡仁勇; 吴玉南; 丁炳扬

    2013-01-01

    Summary Two genera,Boerhavia L.(Nyctaginaceae) and H yptis Jacq.(Lamiaceae),together with five species,Boerhavia repens L.(Nyctaginaceae),Dimeria falcata Hack.(Poaceae),H yptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.(Lamiaceae),Limnophila rugosa Merr.(Scrophulariaceae),Lolium rigidum Gaudin (Poaceae),are reported as new distributive records to Zhejiang Province of China.The voucher specimens of B.repens,H. suaveolens and L.rigidum are all preserved in Herbarium of Wenzhou University (WZU),and the voucher specimen of D.falcata is preserved in Herbarium of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University(ZJFC),and that of L.rugosa is preserved in Herbarium of Wenzhou University(WZU)and Herbarium of Zhejiang Museum of Natural History (ZJM).These discoveries enrich the content of flora in Zhejiang and provide fundamental materials for studying the plants of Zhejiang.%报道了浙江省植物分布2新记录属和5新记录种.其中,2新记录属为黄细心属 Boerhavia L.(紫茉莉科Nyctaginaceae)和山香属 H yptis Jacq.(唇形科 Lamiaceae),5新记录种为匍匐黄细心 Boerhavia repens L.(紫茉莉科)、镰形觿茅 Dimeria falcata Hack.(禾本科 Poaceae)、山香 H yptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.(唇形科)、大叶石龙尾 Limnophila rugosa Merr.(玄参科 Scrophulariaceae)和硬直黑麦草 Lolium rigidum Gaudin(禾本科).匍匐黄细心、山香和硬直黑麦草的凭证标本保存于温州大学植物标本室,镰形觿茅的凭证标本保存于浙江农林大学植物标本室,而大叶石龙尾在温州大学植物标本室和浙江自然博物馆植物标本室均有保存.它们在浙江的发现丰富了浙江植物区系的内容,为浙江植物研究提供了基础资料.

  2. Phylogeny of Helianthus and related genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Edward E.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetic studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Helianthus, although several problems remain to be resolved. Molecular data have resolved problems with the circumscription of Helianthus. Its sister group is Phoebanthus, a narrowly distributed genus of two species from the state of Florida. The sister group to the Helianthus-Phoebanthus clade is a diverse set of taxa that occurs in Mexico and South America. These include species now classified as part of the paraphyletic Viguiera as well as such distinctive genera as Tithonia, Simsia, Pappobolus, Scalesia, Lagascea, and Alvordia. Incongruence between results based on chloroplast and nuclear-based data sets suggests that hybridization has been involved in the evolutionary history of this group. The nearest outgroup to the clade containing Helianthus is composed of members of Viguiera sect. Maculatae, which are trees and shrubs of Mexico. Other basally diverging groups in the subtribe Helianthinae to which Helianthus belongs are primarily woody members now classified in Viguiera from Mexico and nearby areas. Within Helianthus, divergence appears to be recent, based on an overall lack of divergence between species. The chloroplast-based tree suggests that Helianthus includes four phylogenetic lineages, whereas the nuclear ITS sequence data suggests that the perennial species are paraphyletic relative to the rest of the genus, with basally diverging branches consisting of species confined to the southeastern US. Because there is a lack of divergence among many groups of species, more variable markers will be required to resolve fully relationships within Helianthus.

  3. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-10-28

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.).

  4. Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of 'fire millipedes' (Diplopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wesener

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new genera and 37 new species of Spirobolida are described: Corallobolus cruentus gen. n., sp. n., Sanguinobolus maculosus gen. n., sp. n., Colossobolus semicyclus gen. n., sp. n., C. oblongopedus sp. n., C. giganteus sp. n., C. minor sp. n., C. litoralis sp. n., C. aculeatus sp. n., C. pseudoaculeatus sp. n., Zehntnerobolus gen. n., Flagellobolus pauliani gen. n., sp. n., Riotintobolus mandenensis gen. n., sp. n., R. minutus sp. n., R. aridus sp. n., R. anomalus sp. n., Pseudocentrobolus aureus gen. n., sp. n., P. vohibasiensis sp. n., Granitobolus endemicus gen. n., sp. n., G. andohahelensis sp. n., Caprobolus andringitra gen. n., sp. n., Alluviobolus laticlavius gen. n., sp. n., A. tsimelahy sp. n., A. antanosy sp. n., Ostinobolus rufus gen. n., sp. n., O. stellaris sp. n., O. montanus sp. n., O. subterraneus sp. n., and Hylekobolus brachiosauroides gen. n., sp. n., H. rufus sp. n., H. griseus sp. n., H. albicollaris sp. n., H. goodmani sp. n., H. montanus sp. n., H. analavelona sp. n., H. latifrons sp. n., H. andasibensis sp. n., H. marojejy sp. n., H. anjanaharibe sp. n. All genera and species are endemic to Madagascar. Hylekobolus belongs to the family Spirobolellidae, while all other Malagasy genera of Spirobolida belong to the Pachybolidae. Among them, only Zehntnerobolus gen. n. is based on a previously described species: Spirobolus rubripes de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897, whereas the remaining 11 new genera altogether contain (a total of 37 new species. Three of the new genera are large-bodied “fire millipedes” (>100 mm long with striking red/black colour patterns. The new discoveries increase the number of endemic Malagasy genera of Spirobolida more than fivefold (from 3 to 15. The number of endemic species recorded from Madagascar has more than doubled (to 61. Body length of the new species varies greatly (between 23 and 170 mm. Keys to all Malagasy Spirobolida families, genera, as well as the newly described species

  5. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

  6. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macotulio Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

  7. Expanding diversity in the mantis shrimps: two new genera from the eastern and western Pacific (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Van Der Wal

    Full Text Available Abstract Squillidae is the largest family in the Stomatopoda, with 47 genera to date. Phylogenetic analyses have shown Squilla Fabricius, 1787 and Oratosquilla Manning, 1968 to be para- or polyphyletic. Two poorly documented species within these genera, Squilla parva Bigelow, 1891 (eastern Pacific and Oratosquilla kempi (Schmitt, 1931 (western Pacific are not closely related to the respective type species of the genera in which they are currently placed. We herein redescribe S. parva and O. kempi based on type and other material, and propose two new genera for their reception, increasing the number of squillid genera to 49.

  8. Revision of the Old World genera Panthea Hübner, [1820] 1816 and Pantheana Hreblay, 1998 with description two new species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae). Revision of Pantheinae, contribution IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S

    2013-12-12

    The Old World species of the genus Panthea Hübner [1820] 1816 are revised. The article contains the description of two new species Panthea fuscogrisea sp. n. and Panthea florianii sp. n. from continental China and re-description of two species P. roberti Joannis 1928 and P. grisea Wileman, 1919 with illustration of male and female genitalia. Diphthera hoenei Draudt, 1950 (syn. n.) is synonymised with P. roberti Joannis 1928. The species Panthea ronnyi Thony, 1996 is excluded from the genus Panthea. Lectotypes for Diphthera hoenei and Panthea roberti are designated. The genus includes five species in the Old World, distributed mainly in Sino-Himalayan subregion of the Palaearctic. A checklist of species of the genus Panthea is presented. The little-known genus Pantheana Hreblay, 1998 with the sole species Pantheana yangzisherpana Hreblay, 1998 is reviewed. The imagines, male and female genitalia of all Old World species of Panthea and Pantheana are illustrated.

  9. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  10. A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

  11. A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David General

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%, including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided.

  12. Affinities among living dormouse genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Storch

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper focuses on relationships among the living Palaearctic myoxid genera, excluding the African hystricomorphous graphiurines. Features of the dental occlusal pattern, skull, enamel ultrastructure of the lower incisors, muscles of mastication (in particular, the ptergoids, external male genital morphology, and auditory region are reviewed. A working hypothesis of possible evolutionary relationships among myoxids and a new classification of Seleviniinae (including Selevinia, Chaetocauda, and Myomimus are proposed. Most characters closely group Eliomys with Dryomys (= Dryomyinae and Myoxus with Glirulus (= members of Glirinae. The Seleviniinae are considered most primitive and Muscardinus most advanced among living dormice. Riassunto Affinità tra i generi viventi di Mioxidi - Questo lavoro è incentrato sulle relazioni esistenti tra i generi paleartici viventi di Mioxidi, con esclusione dei Grafiurini Istricomorfi africani. Vengono riesaminati caratteri quali: pattern di occlusione dentale, cranio, ultrastruttura dello smalto degli incisivi inferiori, muscoli della masticazione (in particolare gli pterigoidei, morfologia genitale esterna maschile e regione auditiva. Vengono proposte una ipotesi di lavoro delle possibili relazioni evolutive tra i Mioxidi ed una nuova classificazione dei Seleviniinae (che includono Selevinia, Chaetocauda e Myomimus. Molti caratteri raggruppano Eliomys con Dryomys (= Dryomyinae e Myoxus con Glirulus (= Glirinae. I Seleviniinae sono considerati i più primitivi e Muscardinus il più avanzato tra i Mioxidi viventi.

  13. Unravelling Mycosphaerella: do you believe in genera?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, M.J.; Hunter, G.C.; Burgess, T.I.; Andjic, V.; Barber, P.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Many fungal genera have been defined based on single characters considered to be informative at the generic level. In addition, many unrelated taxa have been aggregated in genera because they shared apparently similar morphological characters arising from adaptation to similar niches and convergent

  14. Review of the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter, emendation of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato, proposal to reclassify selected species of the genus Arthrobacter in the novel genera Glutamicibacter gen. nov., Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov., Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov., Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov., and emended description of Arthrobacter roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter is discussed, from its first description in 1947 to the present state. Emphasis is given to intrageneric phylogeny and chemotaxonomic characteristics, concentrating on quinone systems, peptidoglycan compositions and polar lipid profiles. Internal groups within the genus Arthrobacter indicated from homogeneous chemotaxonomic traits and corresponding to phylogenetic grouping and/or high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities are highlighted. Furthermore, polar lipid profiles and quinone systems of selected species are shown, filling some gaps concerning these chemotaxonomic traits. Based on phylogenetic groupings, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and homogeneity in peptidoglycan types, quinone systems and polar lipid profiles, a description of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and an emended description of Arthrobacter roseus are provided. Furthermore, reclassifications of selected species of the genus Arthrobacter into novel genera are proposed, namely Glutamicibacter gen. nov. (nine species), Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov. (six species), Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov. (two species), Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. (six species) and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov. (ten species).

  15. The evolution of CMA bands in Citrus and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis.

  16. The phylogenetic relationships of the hat-shaped ascospore-forming, nitrate-assimilating Pichia species, formerly classified in the genus Hansenula Sydow et Sydow, based on the partial sequences of 18S and 26S ribosomal RNAs (Saccharomycetaceae): the proposals of three new genera, Ogataea, Kuraishia, and Nakazawaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y; Maeda, K; Mikata, K

    1994-07-01

    The twenty-seven strains of the hat-shaped ascospore-forming, nitrate-assimilating species, formerly classified in the genus Hansenula, of the genus Pichia were examined for their 18S and 26S rRNA partial base sequencings. All the strains examined were separate phylogenetically from the type strain of P. membranaefaciens (type species of genus Pichia). Based on the sequence data obtained [by number of base differences (five or more) with P. anomala and base sequences on fingerprint segment] in the 18S rRNA partial base sequences, these species were divided into seven groups. Group I, including P. anomala (identical to H. anomala, type species of genus Hansenula), P. canadensis, P. muscicola, P. silvicola, P. subpelliculosa, P. americana, P. bimundalis, P. ciferrii, P. syndowiorum, P. bispora, and P. fabianii, corresponded to the genus Hansenula Sydow et Sydow. Groups II and III were comprised of P. capsulata and P. holstii, respectively. Group IV included P. angusta, P. minuta var. minuta, P. minuta var. nonfermentans, P. philodendra, P. glucozyma, and P. henricii. Groups V, VI, and VII included P. jadinii, P. petersonii, and P. dryadoides, respectively. The nitrate assimilation-negative species, P. wickerhamii was phylogenetically distant from P. membranaefaciens. The seven groupings are discussed phylogenetically and taxonomically. For Groups IV, II, and III, the three new genera were proposed as Ogataea, Kuraishia, and Nakazawaea, respectively, with the type species, O. minuta (identical to P. minuta), K. capsulata (identical to P. capsulata), and N. holstii (identical to P. holstii).

  17. [Crepidula beklemishevi gen. et sp. n. and Dimeiospora palustris gen. et sp. n. (Microspora: Amblyosporidae)--new microsporidian genera and species from blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the south of the western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, A V; Pankova, T F; Issi, I V

    2003-01-01

    Microsporidia parasitizing the adipose body of mosquito larvae of Anopheles beklemishevi and Aedes punctor has been studied. Two new genera of microsporidia are described based on lightmicroscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of spores and sporogony stages. The spore wall of Crepidula beklemishevi gen. n. et sp. n. is formed by two-membrane exospore, thick exospore, bilayer endospore and thin plasmolemma. Spores with single nucleus, polar filament anisofilar, with 6-7 coils (2+ 4-5), polaroplast consisting of three parts: macrochelicoidal, microhelicoidal and lamellar. Fixed spores 4.2 +/- 0.22 x 2 +/- 0.01 microns. The sporogony of Dimeiospora palustris gen. et. n. results in spore formation of two different types. Spores of the first type are oviform, with thick wall, single-nuclear, 6.1 x 4.9 microns. Spore wall with three layers, about 370 nm. Exospore electron-dense, subexospore moderately electrondense. Exospore and subexospore irregularly pleated on the almost spore surface and slightly thinner on anterior end only. Endospore electron-translucent. Polar filament anisofilar, with 9 coils (3 + 6). Polaroplas consists of three parts: lamellar, fine bubbled, and coarse bubbled. Spores of the second type broad-ovate, with apical pole narrower, distal pole concave, 4.6 x 3.7 microns. Spore wall with three layer, 355 nm. Exospore on the apical end irregularly pleated, consists of thin electrondense exospore, subexospore of variable electron density, endospore electron-translucent. Polar filament anisofilar, with 13 coils (3 + 10). Polaroplast has two parts: lamellar and vesicular.

  18. Evaluation of DNA barcodes in Codonopsis (Campanulaceae) and in some large angiosperm plant genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is expected to be one of the most promising tools in biological taxonomy. However, there have been no agreements on which core barcode should be used in plants, especially in species-rich genera with wide geographical distributions. To evaluate their discriminatory power in large genera, four of the most widely used DNA barcodes, including three plastid regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), were tested in seven species-rich genera (Ficus, Pedicularis, Rhodiola, Rhododendron,Viburnum, Dendrobium and Lysimachia) and a moderate size genus, Codonopsis. All of the sequences from the aforementioned seven large genera were downloaded from NCBI. The related barcodes for Codonopsis were newly generated in this study. Genetics distances, DNA barcoding gaps and phylogenetic trees of the four single barcodes and their combinations were calculated and compared in the seven genera. As for single barcode, nrITS has the most variable sites, the clearest intra- and inter-specific divergences and the highest discrimination rates in the seven genera. Among the combinations of barcodes, ITS+matK performed better than all the single barcodes in most cases and even the three- and four-loci combinations in the seven genera. Therefore, we recommend ITS+matK as the core barcodes for large plant genera. PMID:28182623

  19. Description of Kuraishia piskuri f.a., sp. nov., a new methanol assimilating yeast and transfer of phylogenetically related Candida species to the genera Kuraishia and Nakazawaea as new combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new anamorphic yeast Kuraishia piskuri, f.a., sp. nov. is described for three strains that were isolated from insect frass from trees growing in Florida, USA (type strain, NRRL YB-2544, CBS 13714). Species placement was based on phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene sequences for the D1/D2 domai...

  20. Biodiversidade flavonoídica e aspectos farmacológicos em espécies dos gêneros Ouratea e Luxemburgia (Ochnaceae Flavonoidic biodiversiy and pharmacologic aspects in the species of the Ouratea and Luxemburgia genera (Ochnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano R. Suzart

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the flavonoids and biflavonoids found in species of Ouratea and Luxemburgia as chemical markers that serve to detect the difference between these taxa according to the linkage between the flavonoidal units. A rational nomenclature is proposed and the pharmacological potencial is discussed.

  1. TAXONOMIC REVISIONS OF MORPHOLOGICALLY SIMILAR SPECIES FROM TWO EUGLENOID GENERA: EUGLENA (E. GRANULATA AND E. VELATA) AND EUGLENARIA (EU. ANABAENA, EU. CAUDATA, AND EU. CLAVATA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnkowska-Ishikawa, Anna; Milanowski, Rafał; Triemer, Richard E; Zakryś, Bożena

    2012-06-01

    The establishment of epitypes (together with the emended diagnoses) for three species of Euglenaria Karnkowska, E. W. Linton et Kwiatowski [Eu. anabaena (Mainx) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; Eu. caudata (Hübner) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton; and Eu. clavata (Skuja) Karnkowska et E. W. Linton] and two species of Euglena Ehrenberg [E. granulata (Klebs) Schmitz and E. velata Klebs] was achieved due to literature studies, verification of morphological diagnostic features (cell size, cell shape, number of chloroplasts, the presence of mucocysts), as well as molecular characters (SSU rDNA). Now all these species are easy to identify and distinguish, despite their high morphological similarity, that is, spindle-shaped (or cylindrically spindle-shaped) cells and parietal, lobed chloroplasts with a single pyrenoid, accompanied by bilateral paramylon caps located on both sides of the chloroplast. E. granulata is the only species in this group that has spherical mucocysts. E. velata is distinguished by the largest cells (90-150 μm) and has the highest number of chloroplasts (>30). Eu. anabaena has the fewest chloroplasts (usually 3-6), and its cells are always (whether the organism is swimming or not) spindle-shaped or cylindrically spindle-shaped, in contrast to the cells of Eu. clavata, which are club-shaped (clavate) while swimming and only after stopping change to resemble the shape of a spindle or a cylindrical spindle; Eu. clavata has numerous chloroplasts (15-20). Eu. caudata is characterized by asymmetrical spindle-shaped (fusiform) cells, that is, with an elongated rear section and a shorter front section; the number of chloroplasts normally ranges from 7 to 15.

  2. Comparative genomics of bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and related probiotic genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David; Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    2012-01-01

    Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4...... Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic......- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature...

  3. Two new Nirvanini genera from China (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Dai, Wu; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Two new Nirvanini genera, Decursusnirvana gen. nov. (type species: Decursusnirvana fasciiformis sp. nov.) and Sinonirvana gen. nov. (type species: Sinonirvana hirsuta sp. nov.), including two new species, D. fasciiformis sp. nov. and S. hirsuta, sp. nov. from China are described. One new combination, Decursusnirvana excelsa (Melichar) n. comb., is also proposed. Decursusnirvana most closely resembles Oniella Matsumura, but it may be distinguished from the latter by the aedeagus lacking an atrium and with the shaft with its basal half straight and apical half strongly curved ventrally, with a pair of processes. Sinonirvana gen. nov is similar to Decursusnirvana gen. nov., differs from the latter as follows: head more elongate with anteclypeus much broader and not extended beyond margin of gena. Also, the pygofer lobe is solid (not divided in two places like the latter) and the subgenital plate has numerous long, fine setae. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations of all three species are given and a key to all male species in two genera is also provided. 

  4. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I

    2015-09-18

    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef.

  5. Précisions sur certains genres d'ostracodes non-marins du crétacé inférieur ("cocobeach" du Gabon et description de quelques nouvelles espèces Details on Some Lower Cretaceous (Cocobeach Non-Marine Ostracod Genera from Gabon and Description of Some New Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Klasz I.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des Ostracodes du puissant ensemble de sédiments à dominance lacustre du Crétacé inférieur du Gabon et du Congo, connu sous le nom de Cocobeach, a permis de dégager certains caractères de quelques genres d'Ostracodes, qui ne figurent pas dans leurs descriptions originales. Cinq espèces nouvelles ont été décrites. The study of Ostracods in the thick sequence, which is composed predominantly of Lower Cretaceous lacustrine deposits in Gabon and the Congo and referred to as Cocobeach, has led to the recognition of some characteristics not mentioned in the original descriptions of some Ostracod genera. These characteristics are discussed and five new species are described.

  6. Identification and phylogeny of some species of the genera Sporidiobolus and Rhodotorula using analysis of the 5.8s rDNA gene and two ribosomal internal transcribed spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the problems encountered in routine morphological and physiological procedures that are used in yeast identification, DNA-based methods have recently been developed. In the present study, l66 yeast strains were isolated from several apple and citrus cultivars. After analysis by basic morphological methods, the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the isolates were amplified separately, and the isolates were grouped based on fragment size polymorphism (FSP of the amplicons. By comparing the electrophoretic patterns of the PCR products with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, species were identified as Rhodotorula. For precise and final identification, the ITS-PCR products were subjected to sequencing followed by Blast analysis. As a result, eight isolates were identified as belonging to the Rhodotorula genus, of which five were identified as R. mucilaginosa and three as R. glutinis, and one as a Sporidiobolus. We conclude that the method PCR-FSP, in combination with other approaches, is useful for the identification of yeast species.

  7. Network topology reveal high connectance levels and few key microbial genera within soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoeli eLupatini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have a central role in soil global biogeochemical process, yet specific microbe-microbe relationships are largely unknown. Analytical approaches as network analysis may shed new lights in understanding of microbial ecology and environmental microbiology. We investigated the soil bacterial community interactions through cultivation-independent methods in several land uses common in two Brazilian biomes. Using correlation network analysis we identified bacterial genera that presented important microbial associations within the soil community. The associations revealed nonrandomly structured microbial communities and clusters of operational taxonomic units (OTUs that reflected relevant bacterial relationships. Possible keystone genera were found in each soil. Irrespective of the biome or land use studied only a small portion of OTUs showed positive or negative interaction with other members of the soil bacterial community. The more interactive genera were also more abundant however, within those genera, the abundance was not related to taxon importance as measured by the Betweenness Centrality. Most of the soil bacterial genera were important to the overall connectance of the network, whereas only few genera play a key role as connectors, mainly belonged to phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Finally it was observed that each land use presented a different set of keystone genera and that no keystone genus presented a generalized distribution. Taking into account that species interactions could be more important to soil processes than species richness and abundance, especially in complex ecosystems, this approach might represent a step forward in microbial ecology beyond the conventional studies of microbial richness and abundance.

  8. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-06-27

    eggs. Haplopodini Günther, 1953 is re-established (rev. stat.) and comprises almost exclusively Caribbean genera previously placed in Hesperophasmatini by Bradley & Galil (1977) or Cranidiini by Zompro, (2004). Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938, Diapherodes Gray, 1835, Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 and Paracranidium Brock, 1998 were misplaced in Cranidiini and are transferred to Haplopodini. On the basis of numerous morphological characters of the insects and eggs Hesperophasmatini is removed from Pseudophasmatidae: Xerosomatinae and re-transferred to its previous position in the subfamily Cladomorphinae sensu lato. A detailed newdiagnosis of Hesperophasmatini is presented, but is only provisional since the true diversity is as yet only fractionally known. The lack of a gula distinguishes Hesperophasmatini from all other tribes. The genus Laciphorus Redtenbacher, 1908 is removed from Hesperophasmatini and transferred to Diapheromeridae: Diapheromerinae: Diapheromerini. The new tribe Pterinoxylini n. trib. is established to contain only the type-genus Pterinoxylus Audinet-Serville, 1838. It is closely related and perhaps the sister taxon of Hesperophasmatini, with which it shares the presence of rough sensory areas on the probasisternum and profurcasternum. It differs from Hesperophasmatini and Haplopodini by the presence of a tympanal region (= stridulatory organ) in the alae of females and the alveolar eggs, which possess peripheral opercular and polar structures. Haplopodini is likely to be the sister group of Pterinoxylini n. trib. + Hesperophasmatini.        The tribe Haplopodini rev. stat. is revised at the species level and comprises eight almost exclusively Caribbean genera, four of which are newly described. All eight genera now contained in Haplopodini are described in detail, differentiated from their closest relatives and their relationships and systematic position within Haplopodini are discussed. Keys and maps showing their distributions are presented

  9. Anatomía de especies mexicanas de los géneros Phoradendron y Psittacanthus, endémicos del Nuevo Mundo Anatomy of Mexican species of the genera Phoradendron and Psittacanthus, endemic to the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Gómez-Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phoradendron y Psittacanthus habitan exclusivamente en América y agrupan plantas hemiparásitas. El conocimiento de la anatomía de especies mexicanas es escaso y son varias en las que no ha sido tratada. Este trabajo describe la anatomía de 5 especies de los géneros que arriba se mencionan a partir de cortes con micrótomo, a mano libre, macerados y diafanizados. Se hicieron pruebas histoquímicas en material fresco. Entre las especies existen caracteres comunes. La arquitectura foliar se describe como venación actinódroma reticulada y venas laterales con las vénulas modificadas en traqueidas dilatadas. Anatómicamente, la hoja mostró estomas paracíticos y mesofilo isobilateral. Las drusas son abundantes en pecíolo y lámina de Phoradendron. El tallo presenta los vasos del xilema en hileras radiales, el parénquima cortical y la médula contienen drusas y braquiesclereidas. El polen es esférico o triangular y tricolporado. Psittacanthus se distingue porque debajo del ovario se desarrolla un tejido de células con paredes engrosadas y lignificadas y el fruto contiene una viscina conspicua. Los cristales prismáticos, la cutícula rugosa, la peridermis con tejido suberoso y los haces vasculares en el exocarpo, no se habían descrito anteriormente. Las astroesclereidas cristalíferas, el córtex heterogéneo, el epitelio cuticular y la cutícula estriada que citan otros autores, no se observaron. Las substancias pécticas y los compuestos fenólicos tienen mayor presencia en Psittacanthus.Phoradendron and Psittacanthus only grow in America and they include hemiparasitic plants. The anatomy of Mexican species is partial and some of them had not anatomically been studied. The vegetative and reproductive anatomy of 5 species was described as seen in slides obtained through microtome, by free hand, and macerated and clarified tissues. Histochemistry tests on fresh material were made. The leaves have paracytic stomata, reticulate

  10. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences Relações filogenéticas entre espécies de Bacillus e gêneros relacionados baseadas em sequencias 16S rDNA

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    Mi Sun Wei Wang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neigh-borjoining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups.Árvores utilizando os métodos de neighbor-joining, máxima parcimônia, evolução mínima, máxima verossimilhança e bayesiana, construídas baseadas em seqüências de rDNA 16S de 181 linhagens-tipo de espécies de Bacillus e taxa relacionados, mostraram a formação de nove grupos filogenéticos. A análise filogenética mostrou que Bacillus não é um grupo monofilético. B. subtilis se colocou no Grupo 1. Grupos 4, 6 e 8, respectivamente, consistiram de bacilos termofílicos, halofílicos ou halotolerantes e alcalifílicos. Grupos 2, 4 e 8 consistindo de espécies de Bacillus e gêneros relacionados demonstraram que o sistema taxonômico corrente não concorda perfeitamente com as árvores evolucionárias por rDNA 16S. A posição de Caryophanaceae e Planococcaceae no Grupo 2 sugere

  12. Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene. Se

  13. Two new genera of Nanophyidae with six desmomeres (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new genus Lyalia is described in Nanophyidae and three species are included in it: Lyalia curvata sp. n. (Vietnam, L. robusta (Pic, 1921, comb. n. (from Nanophyes (Java, Bali, Laos and L. albolineata (Pajni & Bhateja, 1982, comb. n. (from Ctenomerus (India: Assam. Ctenomerus lagerstroemiae G. A. K. Marshall, 1923 is a syn. n. of L. robusta. Thus, the genus Ctenomerus Schoenherr, 1843 is restricted to the Afrotropical Realm. Kantohia gen. n. is erected for Kantohia taiwana (Kantoh & Kojima, 2009 (from Shiva (Taiwan. A key to the Nanophyinae genera with six desmomeres is presented.

  14. Revision of Notoglanidium and related genera (Siluriformes: Claroteidae) based on morphology and osteology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerinckx, Tom; Vreven, Emmanuel; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Adriaens, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Apart from the well-demarcated genera Auchenoglanis and Parauchenoglanis, Auchenoglanidinae, one of the two sub-families of the African catfish family Claroteidae, suffers from poor resolution at the generic level. For the remaining genera, Notoglanidium, Liauchenoglanis, Platyglanis and Anaspidoglanis, generic discriminations are rudimentary. In addition, several included species are poorly defined and barely represented in scientific collections. Until now, no study has included morphological data for all currently known species, and for many species osteological data were non-existent. Molecular data for most species are lacking as well. Here, a comprehensive account of the morphology and osteology is given of all species included in these four genera. Using computed tomography (CT scanning) as well as clearing and staining, osteological characters were combined with biometric, meristic and other morphological data to revise the status of these genera and included species. Morphological and osteological data, submitted to a phylogenetic analysis, agree with metric and meristic data that all Liauchenoglanis, Platyglanis and Anaspidoglanis cannot be discerned from Notoglanidium; their genus and type species descriptions fail to be distinguished from Notoglanidium. Here their synonymy is proposed, resulting in a single valid genus, including nine species of which the validity is confirmed. A key to the genus and included species, as well as a diagnosis and description for each of them, are provided.

  15. DNA barcoding and phylogenetic relationships of genera Picoides and Dendrocopos (Aves: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z H; Tu, F Y; Liao, X J

    2015-12-28

    Picoides and Dendrocopos are two closely related genera of woodpeckers (family Picidae), and members of these genera have long been the subjects of phylogenetic debate. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is a powerful marker for the identification and phylogenetic study of animal species. In the present study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of 21 species from the two genera, and 222 variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. The average interspecific genetic distance was more than 20 times higher than the average intraspecific genetic distance. The neighbor-joining method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, and all of the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades. Picoides arcticus was the first to split from the lineage, and the other species were grouped into two divergent clades. The results of this study indicated that the COI genetic data did not support the monophyly of Picoides and Dendrocopos.

  16. New angiosperm genera from cretaceous sections of northern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. I.; Herman, A. B.; Shchepetov, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous floras of northern Asia represented by the Antibes flora of the Chulym-Yenisei area of West Siberia, Kaivayam flora of northwestern Kamchatka, and Grebenka flora of the Anadyr River basin in Chukotka are reviewed. These floras characterize the Late Cretaceous Siberian-Canadian Paleofloristic Region, where they developed in humid warm temperate climatic environments. Two new angiosperm genera are described: genus Chachlovia P. Alekseev et Herman with species C. kiyensis P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and C. dombeyopsoida (Herman) Herman, comb. nov. and genus Soninia Herman et Shczepetov with species S. asiatica P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and S. integerrima Herman et Shczepetov, sp. nov. The species Chachlovia kiyensis and Soninia asiatica were characteristic components of the Antibes flora. Chachlovia dombeyopsoida and Soninia integerrima were constituents of the Kaivayam and Grebenka floras, respectively.

  17. 尼罗罗非鱼和萨罗罗非鱼遗传生殖隔离的初步证据%Possible genetic reproductive isolation between two tilapiine genera and species: Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思发; 赵岩; 范武江; 蔡完其; 许映芳

    2011-01-01

    Successful crossbreeding between Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron to produce a commercial hybrid has been difficult.The karyotypes and isoenzyme of these two species and their reciprocal hybrids (O.niloticus ♀ × S.melanotheron (♂),S.melanotheron ♀ × O.niloticus (♂),the last not included in the isoenzyme study) were investigated via metaphase chromosomes obtained from head kidney cells and electropherogram of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes from the liver,kidney,white muscle,heart,and eye balls.The diploid chromosome number (2n=44) and the fundamental number (NF=50) of the four tilapia genotypes were the same.However,the karyotype of O.niloticus had three pairs of sub-metacentric (sm),twelve pairs of sub-telocentric (st),and seven pairs of telocentric (t) chromosomes,while S.melanotheron had one pair of metacentric (m),two pairs of sm,12 pairs of st,and seven pairs of t chromosomes.The reciprocal hybrids both showed a mixed karyotype range between their parents:0.5 pair of m,2.5 pairs of sm,12 pairs of st,and seven pairs of t chromosomes.In view of the electropherogram of isozymes,only the LDH of the kidney showed significant clear bands,with five bands in O.niloticus,three bands in S.melanotheron,and duplicated six bands in the hybrids.The bands varied depending on their activities and mobilities.We considered that the differences in karyotype and isoenzyme were related to the genetic mechanism for post-mating isolation,and provided some additional basic genetic background of their taxonomy.%罗非鱼类(Tilapiini)含3个属70余种,种间和属间颇易人工杂交,但尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)和萨罗罗非鱼(Sarotherodon melanotheron)人工杂交难度大,产苗概率甚低,要获得数量足够的可用于生产的杂交子代相当困难.该文对这两种鱼及其正交(O.niloticus♀× Smelanotheron(♂))和反交(S.melanotheron♀×O.niloticus(♂))子代的头肾细胞的核型进行了比较.此外,采用

  18. Three new genera of rhinebothriidean cestodes from stingrays in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N; Healy, Claire J; Marques, Fernando P L; Jensen, Kirsten

    2017-04-04

    Three genera of rhinebothriideans, previously referred to as New genus 1, New genus 2 and New genus 4, are erected in the the Anthocephaliidae. New genus 1 is established as Divaricobothrium gen. n., with Divaricobothrium tribelum sp. n. as its type species; Echeneibothrium trifidum Shipley et Hornell, 1906 is transferred to the genus as Divaricobothrium trifidum (Shipley et Hornell, 1906) comb. n. This genus is unique among rhinebothriidean genera in bearing bothridia that are posteriorly deeply divided into two lobes with facial loculi but no apical sucker, and a vagina that extends to near the anterior margin of the proglottid. Its species parasitise Indo-Pacific members of the genera Brevitrygon Last, Naylor et Manjaji-Matsumoto, Maculabatis Last, Naylor et Manjaji-Matsumoto and Pateobatis Last, Naylor et Manjaji-Matsumoto. New genus 2 is established as Barbeaucestus gen. n., with Barbeaucestus jockuschae sp. n. as its type species; Barbeaucestus ralickiae sp. n. is also described. Anthobothrium sexorchidum Williams, 1964 and Rhinebothrium shipleyi Southwell, 1912 are transferred to the genus as Barbeaucestus sexorchidus (Williams, 1964) comb. n. and Barbeaucestus shipleyi (Southwell, 1912) comb. n., respectively. This genus is unique among rhinebothriidean genera in that its bothridia are substantially wider than long, bear an apical sucker and at least one row of two or more facial loculi in their anterior half. Its species parasitise the genera Neotrygon Castelnau and Taeniura Müller et Henle. New genus 4 is established as Sungaicestus gen. n. with transfer of Rhinebothrium kinabatanganensis Healy, 2006, as Sungaicestus kinabatanganensis (Healy, 2006) comb. n., as its type species. Among the genera of its order, this genus most closely resembles Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890, however, despite the original description, the bothridia were found to bear, rather than lack, apical suckers. This monotypic genus is known only from the freshwater stingray Urogymnus

  19. Four new genera of the subfamily Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Indo-Australian region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1992-01-01

    Four new genera of Braconinae (Braconidae) are described and illustrated from the IndoAustralian region: Acampyloneurus gen. nov. (type species: Campyloneurus aruensis Shenefelt, 1978) from Aru, Arubracon gen. nov. (type species: Bracon basalis Smith, 1859) from Aru, Floralibracon gen. nov. (type sp

  20. Linyphiidae (Araneae) from Ivory coast, with the description of three new genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jocqué, R.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen species of Linyphiidae were collected in Ivory Coast. Of the Erigoninae, three genera with four species are described as new, viz., Pachydelphus banco n. gen. n. sp. (♂ ♀), Pachydelphus tonqui n. sp. ( 9 ), Deelemania manensis n. gen. n. sp. (♂ ♀), and Eburnella avocalis n. gen. n. sp. (♂

  1. Four new genera of Braconinae and Rogadinae from the Oriental region (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1989-01-01

    Three new genera of the Braconinae and one new genus of the Rogadinae (Braconidae) from the Oriental region are described and fully illustrated. Acrocerilia (type-species: A. pachynervis spec. nov. from the Philippines, parasite of cocoa-moth), Cordibraco (type-species: C. setorae spec. nov. from Sa

  2. Taxonomic considerations on the genera Moneuptychia Forster and Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Dias

    Full Text Available Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, the type species of Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, is compared to Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, the type species of Carminda Dias, 1998. The male genitalia and wing design patterns of these species are dealt with. Some additional data from other species from both genera are also presented. The morphological comparisons carried out in this study indicate that Carminda is not a junior synonym of Moneuptychia. Thus, Carminda is revalidated.

  3. Global diversity and phylogeny of pelagic shrimps of the former genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with definition of eight new genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2014-01-01

    We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological...

  4. Seagrass Ecosystem Services and Their Variability across Genera and Geographical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina; Barbier, Edward B.; Creed, Joel C.

    2016-01-01

    Threats to and loss of seagrass ecosystems globally, impact not only natural resources but also the lives of people who directly or indirectly depend on these systems. Seagrass ecosystems play a multi-functional role in human well-being, e.g. food through fisheries, control of erosion and protection against floods. Quantifying these services reveals their contributions to human well-being and helps justify seagrass conservation. There has been no comprehensive assessment as to whether seagrass ecosystem services are perceived to vary over the globe or amongst genera. Our study compiles the most complete list of ecosystem services provided by seagrasses so far, including bioregional- and genus-specific information from expert opinion and published studies. Several seagrass ecosystem services vary considerably in their (known) provision across genera and over the globe. Seagrasses genera are clearly not all equal with regard to the ecosystem services they provide. As seagrass genera are not evenly distributed over all bioregions, the presence of an ecosystem service sometimes depends on the genera present. Larger sized seagrass genera (e.g. Posidonia, Enhalus) are perceived to provide more substantial and a wider variety of ecosystem services than smaller species (e.g. Halophila, Lepilaena). Nevertheless, smaller species provide important services. Our findings point out data gaps, provide new insight for more efficient management and recommend caution in economic valuation of seagrass services worldwide. PMID:27732600

  5. Genome sizes for all genera of Cycadales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, B J M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content (2C) is reported for all genera of the Cycadales, using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Nuclear DNA content ranges from 24 to 64 pg in cycads. This implies that the largest genome contains roughly 40 × 10(9) more base pairs than the smallest genome. The narrow range in nuclear DNA content within a genus is remarkable for such an old group. Furthermore, 42 of the 58 plants measured, covering five genera, have 18 chromosomes. They vary from 36.1 to 64.7 pg, covering the whole range of genome sizes (excluding the genome of Cycas). Hence, their does not seem to be a correlation between genome size and the number of chromosomes.

  6. Malayan species of the genera Aphroditella, Hermione, Laetmonice and Aphrogenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1916-01-01

    Genus APHRODITELLA Roule 1). Mc Intosh 2) in 1885 first described a minute Aphroditean-worm from the West-Indian abyss, the ventral bristles of which are „ densely pilose almost to the terminal hook and provided with a spur as in Laetmatonice" (Aphrod. intermedia); two years thereafter Ehlers 3)

  7. Global diversity and phylogeny of pelagic shrimps of the former genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with definition of eight new genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2014-01-01

    species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia...

  8. First genome size estimations for some eudicot families and genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome size diversity in angiosperms varies roughly 2400-fold, although approximately 45% of angiosperm families lack a single genome size estimation, and therefore, this range could be enlarged. To contribute completing family and genera representation, DNA C-Values are here provided for 19 species from 16 eudicot families, including first values for 6 families, 14 genera and 17 species. The sample of species studied is very diverse, including herbs, weeds, vines, shrubs and trees. Data are discussed regarding previous genome size estimates of closely related species or genera, if any, their chromosome number, growth form or invasive behaviour. The present research contributes approximately 1.5% new values for previously unreported angiosperm families, being the current coverage around 55% of angiosperm families, according to the Plant DNA C-Values Database.

    La diversidad del tamaño del genoma en angiospermas es muy amplia, siendo el valor más elevado aproximadamente unas 2400 veces superior al más pequeño. Sin embargo, cerca del 45% de las familias no presentan ni una sola estimación, por lo que el rango real podría ser ampliado. Para contribuir a completar la representación de familias y géneros de angiospermas, este estudio contribuye con valores C para 19 especies de 16 familias de eudicoticotiledóneas, incluyendo los primeros valores para 6 familias, 14 géneros y 17 especies. La muestra estudiada es muy diversa, e incluye hierbas, malezas, enredaderas, arbustos y árboles. Se discuten los resultados en función de estimaciones previas del tamaño del genoma de especies o géneros estrechamente relacionados, del número de cromosomas, la forma de crecimiento o el comportamiento invasor de las especies analizadas. El presente estudio contribuye aproximadamente en un 1,5% de nuevos valores para familias de angiospermas no estudiadas previamente, de las que actualmente existe información para el 55%, según la base de datos

  9. Genera of euophryine jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), with a combined molecular-morphological phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Maddison, Wayne P

    2015-03-27

    Morphological traits of euophryine jumping spiders were studied to clarify generic limits in the Euophryinae and to permit phylogenetic classification of genera lacking molecular data. One hundred and eight genera are recognized within the subfamily. Euophryine generic groups and the delimitation of some genera are reviewed in detail. In order to explore the effect of adding formal morphological data to previous molecular phylogenetic studies, and to find morphological synapomorphies, eighty-two morphological characters were scored for 203 euophryine species and seven outgroup species. The morphological dataset does not perform as well as the molecular dataset (genes 28S, Actin 5C; 16S-ND1, COI) in resolving the phylogeny of Euophryinae, probably because of frequent convergence and reversal. The formal morphological data were mapped on the phylogeny in order to seek synapomorphies, in hopes of extending the phylogeny to include taxa for which molecular data are not available. Because of homoplasy, few globally-applicable morphological synapomorphies for euophryine clades were found. However, synapomorphies that are unique locally in subclades still help to delimit euophryine generic groups and genera. The following synonyms of euophryine genera are proposed: Maeotella with Anasaitis; Dinattus with Corythalia; Paradecta with Compsodecta; Cobanus, Chloridusa and Wallaba with Sidusa; Tariona with Mopiopia; Nebridia with Amphidraus; Asaphobelis and Siloca with Coryphasia; Ocnotelus with Semnolius; Palpelius with Pristobaeus; Junxattus with Laufeia; Donoessus with Colyttus; Nicylla, Pselcis and Thianitara with Thiania. The new genus Saphrys is erected for misplaced species from southern South America.

  10. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Špakaitė, Ina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania. The detailed research of freshwater and terrestrial Nostoc and Desmonostoc species provided new data on taxonomy, biology and ecology of these cyanobacteria and the overall diversity of algae in Lithuania. 20 Nostoc species and two intraspecific taxa, and 18 taxa to the Nostoc genus level were identified. Twelve Nostoc species and intraspecifi...

  11. Eurycormus – Eurypoma, two Jurassic actinopterygian genera with mixed identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arratia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Three Late Jurassic actinopterygian species are commonly placed in the genus Eurycormus: E. egertoni, E. grandis and E. speciosus. A detailed comparison supports an earlier assignment to two different genera, Eurycormus Wagner, 1863 (speciosus and Eurypoma Huxley, 1866 (E. egertoni and E. grande. Systematically, the two genera are only distantly related; Eurycormus belongs to the Teleosteomorpha, whereas Eurypoma is a halecomorph closely related to or a member of the Caturoidea within the Amiiformes. Drei oberjurassische Actinopterygier-Arten, egertoni, grandis und speciosus, werden gewöhnlich zur Gattung Eurycormus gestellt. Ein detaillierter Vergleich der drei Arten bestätigt eine frühere Zuordnung zu zwei verschiedenen Gattungen, Eurycormus Wagner, 1863 (speciosus und Eurypoma Huxley, 1866 (E. egertoni und E. grande, die zwei höheren Taxa innerhalb der Neopterygii zugeordnet werden: Eurycormus zu den Teleosteomorpha und Eurypoma zu den Amiiformes innerhalb der Halecomorphi, möglicherweise nahe oder innerhalb der Caturoidea. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600016

  12. Pollen Morphology of Eight Genera of the Subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) from Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na-Na LIN; Hong WANG; De-Zhu LI; Stephen BLACKMORE

    2005-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 28 species and one variety representing eight genera of the subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. The pollen grains are usually radically symmetrical, isopolar, and tricolporate. The shape varies from spheroidal to subprolate in equatorial view and is three-lobed circular in polar view. Based on exine sculpturing observed under SEM, the pollen grains can be divided into three types: (i) type Ⅰ, with macrogranulate sculpture; (ii) type Ⅱ, with a finely granulate sculpture; and (iii) type Ⅲ, with spiny sculpture.The palynological data showed that the Macroclinidium Maxim. was remarkably distinguished from those of the other seven genera. The variation of pollen characteristics within the Mutisiinae in Asia is little at species level, but it proves some useful information for studying the relationships among genera and it has an important significance in further understanding the evolutionary history of Mutisiinae.

  13. Lineages in Nectriaceae: re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo LOMBARD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genera with cylindrocarpon-like asexual morphs are important pathogens of various herbaceous and woody plant hosts globally. Recent multi-gene studies of this generic complex indicated that the genus Ilyonectria is paraphyletic. The present study was therefore initiated to re-evaluate the generic status of Ilyonectria and at the same time address some taxonomic irregularities in the genera Cylindrodendrum and Neonectria. Using multi-gene DNA data and morphological comparisons, the genus Dactylonectria is introduced with 10 new combinations, several of which were previously treated in Ilyonectria. Two new species, D. hordeicola and D. pinicola, are also described. Furthermore, one new combination is provided in the genus Cylindrodendrum, and three new combinations in the genus Neonectria, for species previously treated in the genera Acremonium, Cylindrocarpon, Nectria and Neonectria. The aquatic genus Heliscus is reduced to synonymy under Neonectria. 

  14. Generalized Penner models to all genera

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørn, Jan; Kristjansen, C F

    1994-01-01

    We give a complete description of the genus expansion of the one-cut solution to the generalized Penner model. The solution is presented in a form which allows us in a very straightforward manner to localize critical points and to investigate the scaling behaviour of the model in the vicinity of these points. We carry out an analysis of the critical behaviour to all genera addressing all types of multi-critical points. In certain regions of the coupling constant space the model must be defined via analytical continuation. We show in detail how this works for the Penner model. Using analytical continuation it is possible to reach the fermionic 1-matrix model. We show that the critical points of the fermionic 1-matrix model can be indexed by an integer, $m$, as it was the case for the ordinary hermitian 1-matrix model. Furthermore the $m$'th multi-critical fermionic model has to all genera the same value of $\\gamma_{str}$ as the $m$'th multi-critical hermitian model. However, the coefficients of the topological...

  15. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Vinckier, S.; Lens, F.; Schols, P.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    • The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. • A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. • I

  16. On two hollinid ostracode genera from the Upper Carboniferous of Northwestern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bless, M.J.M.

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes some features of the carapace of two hollinid ostracode genera: Hollinella and Jordanites. The carapace of these ostracodes consists essentially of the same layers as modern ostracodes, with exception of the velar structures. A survey on the ontogeny of species of Hollinella and

  17. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  18. Reproduction involving spermatophores in four bivalve genera of the superfamily Galeommatoidea commensal with holothurians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Kato, Makoto; Kosuge, Takeharu

    2005-01-01

    Spermatophores consisting of a mass of mature sperm encapsulated within a solid, inflexible wall are described from five species of the genera Anisodevonia, Entovalva and Devonia, and obviously also occur in Cycladoconcha. The spermatophores are attached to the gill lamellae in the suprabranchial...

  19. Florae Malesianae Precursores XXXIV. Notes on some genera of Celastraceae in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1963-01-01

    There is a great diversity of opinion regarding the interpretation of the genera and some species in the former Hippocrateaceae. If one reads the comprehensive and detailed revision of the New World Hippocrateaceae by A. C. Smith (Brittonia 3, 1940, 341—555), one may have an impression of it. For

  20. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 3. The genera Dioclea, Luzonia, and Macropsychanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1998-01-01

    The genera Dioclea Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Luzonia Elmer, and Macropsychanthus Harms are briefly discussed. Keys to the species and notes to various taxa are given. Dioclea decandra Amshoff is proposed as a new name for Macropsychanthus ferrugineus Merr. Macropsychanthus lauterbachii Harms is lectoty

  1. Pollen of Sarawakodendron (Celastraceae) and some related genera, with notes on techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1969-01-01

    1. A simple technique for acetolysis of small quantities of polliniferous (herbarium) material is described and notes on pollen photomicrography are presented. 2. Pollen grains of Sarawakodendron and six related genera, consisting of twenty-nine mostly Malesian species, have been examined and record

  2. Redefining common endophytes and plant pathogens in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chen; Verkley, Gerard J.M.; Sun, Guangyu; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.

    2016-01-01

    Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. B

  3. Drought meets acid: Three new genera in a dothidealean clade of extremotolerant fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Ruisi, S.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Ruibal, C.; De Leo, F.; Urzi, C.; Onofri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species

  4. Elliptic Genera and 3d Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, Nathan; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Cheng, Miranda C.N.; /Amsterdam U., Inst. Math.; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Moore, Gregory W.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Paquette, Natalie M.; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2016-03-30

    We describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K3, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.

  5. Three New Monotypic Genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyuk, Sergii Y; Lőkös, Lászlo; Kim, Jung A; Kondratiuk, Anna S; Jeong, Min Hye; Jang, Seol Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-09-01

    Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed.

  6. A multilocus phylogeny of New World jay genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Elisa; Peterson, A Townsend

    2007-02-01

    We studied phylogenetic relationships of the New World Jays (NWJs) based on DNA sequences from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Sampling included at least two individuals from each of the seven NWJ genera and four outgroups of closely related corvids, as well as six of the 16 Cyanocorax species (including two representatives of the previously recognized "Cissilopha"). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses for individual genes and a combined dataset. The combined phylogenetic analysis supports the basal position of Cyanolyca to all other NWJs, a (Cyanocorax (Calocitta, Psilorhinus)) clade, and a ((Cyanocitta, Aphelocoma) Gymnorhinus) clade that agrees with a novel morphological synapomorphy uniting Cyanocitta and Aphelocoma. Within Cyanocorax, C. yncas (former "Xanthoura") is basal to a split among former "Cyssilopha" species and the rest of the Cyanocorax species. To explore implications for the historical biogeography of the NJWs, we used Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis, which indicated that NWJs originated either in Mesoamerica or North America+Mesoamerica, with South American NWJs dispersing three times independently from Mesoamerica.

  7. Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind

    2014-03-22

    The family Geminiviridae includes plant-infecting circular single-stranded DNA viruses that have geminate particle morphology. Members of this family infect both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and have a nearly global distribution. With the advent of new molecular tools and low-cost sequencing, there has been a significant increase in the discovery of new geminiviruses in various cultivated and non-cultivated plants. In this communication, we highlight the establishment of three new genera (Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus) to accommodate various recently discovered geminiviruses that are highly divergent and, in some cases, have unique genome architectures. The genus Becurtovirus has two viral species, Beet curly top Iran virus (28 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps) and Spinach curly top Arizona virus (1 isolate; unknown vector), whereas the genera Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus each have a single assigned species: Eragrostis curvula streak virus (6 isolates; unknown vector) and Turnip curly top virus (20 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps), respectively. Based on analysis of all of the genome sequences available in public databases for each of the three new genera, we provide guidelines and protocols for species and strain classification within these three new genera. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  8. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  9. The tropical African legume Scorodophloeus clade includes two undescribed Hymenostegia segregate genera and Micklethwaitia, a rare, monospecific genus from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinder, B. A.; Saslis-Lagoudakis, H.; Wieringa, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae accommodates approximately 2250 species in 171 genera which traditionally are placed in four tribes: Caesalpinieae, Cassieae, Cercideae and Detarieae. The monophyletic tribe Detarieae includes the Amherstieae subclade which contains about 55 genera. Our knowledge......, and the previously unsampled rare monospecific genus Micklethwaitia from Mozambique. Zenkerella is suggested as a possible sister genus to the Scorodophloeus clade. © 2013 South African Association of Botanists....

  10. Revised taxonomy of Phoma and allied genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.

    2012-01-01

     The anamorphic genus Phoma includes many important plant pathogens. The identification of Phoma species based on studies in pure culture is difficult and time consuming and the in vitro characters are often variable. Moreover, the present classification of Phoma species
    into sections is

  11. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  12. Three new anascosporic genera of the Saccharomycotina: Danielozyma gen. nov., Deakozyma gen. nov. and Middelhovenomyces gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2014-05-01

    Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α and RNA polymerase II, subunits B1 and B2. The new taxa are: Deakozyma gen. nov., type species Deakozyma indianensis sp. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-1937, CBS 12903); Danielozyma gen. nov., type species Danielozyma ontarioensis comb. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-1246, CBS 8502); D. litseae comb. nov. (type strain NRRL YB-3246, CBS 8799); Middelhovenomyces gen. nov., type species Middelhovenomyces tepae comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17670, CBS 5115) and M. petrohuensis comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17663, CBS 8173).

  13. Exploration and Inventory of Araceae Genera in Silui Mountain and Uluisimbone Forest, Kolaka Regency, South-East Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAMANTYO TRI ADI NUGROHO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The island of Sulawesi has been highlighted as a globally important conservation area, across a range of evaluation criteria. Collection rates on the Sulawesi island are the lowest among in Indonesia area. Taxonomic study also has been limited, with most experts reporting large numbers of undescribed species. The research of Araceae diversity in Sulawesi is subject which in general has not been studied critically. The main purpose of this research is concerned to inventory the diversity of Araceae genera. The exploration was conducted in each location used exploring method. The Araceae genera in Silui mountain and Uluisimbone forest consist of 30 numbers, 24 species and 14 genera, including into 3 sub families (Aroideae, Monsteroideae and Photoideae. Mostly Araceae were found at humid location, the river flows. Schismatoglottis calyptrata Zoll.&Mor. and Aglaonema simplex Bl. are dominant species for terrestrial Araceae, where as Scindapsus spp. and Pothoidium spp. are dominant species for climbing Araceae.

  14. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages belonging to Pleosporales that were found previously in semiarid sandy grasslands. For molecular phylogenetic studies seven loci (ITS, partial 18S nrRNA, 28S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, transcription-elongation factor 1- α and ß -tubulin genes) were amplified and sequenced. Based on morphology and the resulting molecular phylogeny these isolates were found to represent three novel genera within the Pleosporales, namely Aquilomyces, Flavomyces and Darksidea, with eight novel species. Molecular data revealed that monotypic Aquilomyces belongs to Morosphaeriaceae, monotypic Flavomyces represents an incertae sedis lineage related to Massarinaceae, and Darksidea, with six new species, is allied to the Lentitheciaceae. During this study we tested numerous conditions to induce sporulation, and managed for the first time to induce several DSE to form their sexual morphs.

  15. A plastid DNA phylogeny of Dasymaschalon (Annonaceae) and allied genera: Evidence for generic non-monophyly and the parallel evolutionary loss of inner petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Thomas, D.C.; Su, Y.; Meinke, S.; Chatrou, L.W.; Saunders, R.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Dasymaschalon and the closely related genera Desmos, Friesodielsia and Monanthotaxis together comprise ca. 170 species of trees, shrubs and woody climbers distributed in tropical Africa and tropical Asia. These genera form the desmoid clade, which, because of the presence of diverse flower and fruit

  16. A plastid DNA phylogeny of Dasymaschalon (Annonaceae) and allied genera: Evidence for generic non-monophyly and the parallel evolutionary loss of inner petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Thomas, D.C.; Su, Y.; Meinke, S.; Chatrou, L.W.; Saunders, R.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Dasymaschalon and the closely related genera Desmos, Friesodielsia and Monanthotaxis together comprise ca. 170 species of trees, shrubs and woody climbers distributed in tropical Africa and tropical Asia. These genera form the desmoid clade, which, because of the presence of diverse flower and fruit

  17. A revised generic arrangement for the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, with definitions for the valid genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T

    2014-09-04

    The generic arrangement of the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae) is revised and the genus Pteromylaeus Garman, 1913 is placed into the synonymy of Aetomylaeus Garman, 1908. Definitions are provided for the three valid genera, Aetobatus, Aetomylaeus and Myliobatis, and nomenclatural issues are discussed. Aetobatus differs from the latter two genera in having: a deeply notched nasal curtain, both jaws with a single row of chevron-shaped teeth, broadly rounded pectoral-fin free rear tips, pectoral fins separate from rostral lobe and joining head at level of eye. Aetomylaeus differs from the other two genera in having: pectoral fins separate from rostral lobe and joining head below level of eye, and stinging spine absent or present (usually not well developed when present). Myliobatis differs from the other two genera in having the pectoral fins joined to the rostral lobe by a subocular ridge. A list of valid species is provided, including a list of junior synonyms. Myliobatis australis Macleay, 1881 from southern Australia is placed into the synonymy of the previously considered endemic New Zealand species, M. tenuicaudatus Hector, 1877.

  18. New genera of Fungi—VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, Rolf

    1962-01-01

    The genus Pseudohiatula, based on hymeniform structure of epicutis with interspersed dermatocystidia or trichodermial-palisadic structure without dermatocystidia, contains species, all belonging in the same tribus (Marasmieae), but does not seem to be sufficiently homogeneous to be maintained sensu

  19. Skeletal morphology of two controversial Poecilosclerid genera (Porifera, Demospongiae): Discorhabdella and Crambe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M.; Uriz, M. J.

    1996-09-01

    The genera Discorhabdella and Crambe are characterized by bearing uncommon spicule types, i.e. pseudoastrose acanthostyles and sphaeroclones, respectively. They have traditionally been considered to be unrelated taxa, but the present reexamination made evident that an important amount of skeletal features are shared by both. Some of these morphological features, such as the ornamentation on the point of the ectosomal subtylostyles, are reported for the first time. The study also revealed that a tuberose nature of the tyles of the main choanosomal megascleres could be a common ancestral condition in both genera. The morphology of the multi-toothed anchorate chelae showed a gradual transition across the species, suggesting that the morphological diversity in chelae was generated in these genera through a “palmate-anchorate-arcuate” evolutionary sequence. However, the forward or backward direction of this sequence remained unclear from the available evidence. Important levels of skeletal variability were found to affect many of the skeletal characters, especially in the genus Crambe. In some cases, this variability transgressed the limits theoretically defining a species, making evident that the traditional procedure just based on comparison of the skeletons becomes unreliable when tackling the taxonomy of these genera. Most of the skeletal variability seemed to correspond to genetic polymorphisms, except in the case of C. acuata. In this taxon, the skeletal variability could be a result of the existence of a cryptic species, originated by a misconceived synonymy between C. acuata and C. chelastra. Besides the skeletal variability, the obscure taxonomic meaning of many skeletal features favored the existence of conflicting taxonomic proposals for the suprageneric location of these genera, depending on the author’s criteria. This study made evident that any subsequent attempt of phylogenetic inference should be based on an unweighted analysis of the available

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wood, A.R.; Shin, H.D.; Summerell, B.A.; Alfenas, A.C.; Cumagun, C.J.R.; Grohenewald, J.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which anew classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of

  1. Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wood, A.R.; Shin, H.D.; Summerell, B.A.; Alfenas, A.C.; Cumagun, C.J.R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which a new classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of

  2. Six simple guidelines for introducing new genera of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else C. Vellinga; Thomas W. Kuyper; Joe Ammirati; Dennis E. Desjardin; Roy E. Halling; Alfredo Justo; Thomas Læssøe; D. Jean Lodge; P. Brandon Matheny; Andrew S. Methven; Pierre-Arthur Moreau; Gregory M. Mueller; Michael E. Noordeloos; Jorinde Nuytinck; Clark L. Ovrebo; Annemieke Verbeken

    2015-01-01

    We formulate five guidelines for introducing new genera, plus one recommendation how to publish the results of scientific research. We recommend that reviewers and editors adhere to these guidelines. We propose that the underlying research is solid, and that the results and the final solutions are properly discussed. The six criteria are: (1) all genera that are...

  3. Major range extensions for two genera of the parasitoid subtribe Facitorina, with a new generic synonymy (Braconidae, Rogadinae, Yeliconini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Buntika A.; Quicke, Donald L. J.; Shreevihar, Santhosh; Ranjith, Avunjikkattu Parambil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genera Conobregma van Achterberg and Facitorus van Achterberg are recorded from the Afrotropical region and the Indian subcontinent, respectively, for the first time, and two new species are described and illustrated: Conobregma bradpitti Quicke & Butcher, sp. n. from South Africa and Facitorus nasseri Ranjith & Quicke, sp. n. from India. Conobregma bradpitti sp. n. is intermediate between Conobregma which was described originally from the New World, and Asiabregma Belokobylskij, Zaldivar-Riverón & Maetô, which was coined for the S. E. Asian and East Palaearctic (Japanese) species described under the name Conobregma, plus more recently discovered taxa, but the differences between these genera are few and slight. Of the four previously proposed diagnostic characters for separating Asiabregma from Conobregma, the new species shares two with each, and therefore, the two genera are formally synonymised. Facitorus was previously known only from the East Palaearctic region and from S. E. Asia (Japan, Nepal, Taiwan and Vietnam). PMID:27199598

  4. [Metabolites of Toxigenic Fungi in Lichens of Genera Alectoria, Bryoria, Evernia, Pseudevernia, and Usnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2015-01-01

    Complexes of mycotoxins in fruticose lichens of 14 species belonging to five genera of the family Parmeliaceae were characterized by size, composition, and content of individual components. It was shown that species of the genus Bryoria always contain five mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin, mycophenolic acid, citrinin, emodin, and alternariol). In Evernia and Pseudevernia, this list is supplemented with zearalenone, diacetoxyscirpenol, and cyclopiazonic acid or fumonisins. It was noted that Alectoria and Usnea are distinguished by a peculiar set of toxic metabolites and occupy an intermediate position according to their number. The similarities and distinctions of the mycotoxin profile in species belonging to the same genus and in specimens from different habitats are discussed.

  5. RFLP analysis of mtDNA from six platyrrhine genera: phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, M; Alvarez, D

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the phylogenetic relationships of 10 species of platyrrhine primates using RFLP analysis of mtDNA. Three restriction enzymes were used to determine the restriction site haplotypes for a total of 276 individuals. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony was employed to construct phylogenetic trees. We found close phylogenetic relationships between Alouatta, Lagothrix and Ateles. We also found a close relationship between Cebus and Aotus, with Saimiri clustering with the atelines. Haplotype diversity was found in four of the species studied, in Cebus albifrons, Saimiri sciureus, Lagothrix lagotricha and Ateles fusciceps. These data provide additional information concerning the phylogenetic relationships between these platyrrhine genera and species.

  6. Reproduction involving spermatophores in four bivalve genera of the superfamily Galeommatoidea commensal with holothurians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Kato, Makoto; Kosuge, Takeharu

    2005-01-01

    Spermatophores consisting of a mass of mature sperm encapsulated within a solid, inflexible wall are described from five species of the genera Anisodevonia, Entovalva and Devonia, and obviously also occur in Cycladoconcha. The spermatophores are attached to the gill lamellae in the suprabranchial...... chamber in which these species brood the eggs. The ultrastructure of the monomorphic sperm of Anisodevonia ohshimai shows many similarities to the euspermatozoa of species of Pseudopythina and Barrimysia (families Kellidae and Montacutidae). Entovalva sp. A and sp. B Jenner and McCrary, 1967...

  7. On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongting Luo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it’s summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae.We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000 belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus within Panicoideae (Poaceae) reveal two new genera of tropical grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christian; Snak, Cristiane; Schnadelbach, Alessandra Selbach; van den Berg, Cássio; Oliveira, Reyjane Patrícia

    2015-12-01

    Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are two tropical grass genera distributed mostly in the Americas, characterized by the presence of rachilla appendages in the shape of convex swellings, scars or wings at the base of the upper anthecium. However, recent studies have shown that rachilla appendages arose several times independently in several groups within Paniceae and Paspaleae (Panicoideae). Thus, this study aimed to assess the monophyly of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus and their relationship to other genera of Paniceae and Paspaleae, especially those including species with rachilla appendages. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the cpDNA regions ndhF, rpl16, trnH-(rps19)-psbA, trnL-trnF, trnS-(psbZ)-trnG, and the rDNA ITS region included 29 of the 39 known species of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus, 23 of which were sampled for the first time. The multiple loci analyses indicated that Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are polyphyletic in their current circumscriptions, with species in four distinct lineages within subtribe Paspalinae, each one characterized by a single type of rachilla appendage. Thus, Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are each circumscribed in a narrow sense, and the other two lineages excluded from them are proposed as the new genera Hildaea and Oedochloa, resulting in 15 new combinations and the restablishment of I. oplismenoides Munro ex Döll.

  9. Broadly reactive aptamers targeting bacteria belonging to different genera using a sequential toggle cell-SELEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Young; Nguyen, Dung; Hong, Seok Won; Kim, Byoung Chan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional cell-SELEX aims to isolate aptamers to a single unique target bacteria species. We propose a method to isolate single-stranded DNA aptamers that have broad reactivity to multiple bacterial targets belonging to different genera. The key of the proposed method is that targets of interest are changed sequentially at each SELEX round. The general scheme was examined using six bacteria from different genera, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (four gram-negative and two gram-positive bacteria). In the first round of SELEX, the DNA library was incubated with E. coli and amplicons bound to E. coli were separated. The amplicons were sequentially separated by incubation with E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, C. freundii, B. subtilis, and S. epidermidis at each SELEX. The amplicons obtained using the last bacterial species were incubated again with the first bacterial species and this loop was repeated two more times. We refer to this method as sequential toggle cell-SELEX (STC-SELEX). The isolated aptamers had dissociation constants of 9.22–38.5 nM and had no affinity to other bacteria that were not included in STC-SELEX. These results demonstrate the potential to isolate aptamers with broad affinity to bacterial taxa in different genera. PMID:28272554

  10. Broadly reactive aptamers targeting bacteria belonging to different genera using a sequential toggle cell-SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Young; Nguyen, Dung; Hong, Seok Won; Kim, Byoung Chan

    2017-03-08

    Conventional cell-SELEX aims to isolate aptamers to a single unique target bacteria species. We propose a method to isolate single-stranded DNA aptamers that have broad reactivity to multiple bacterial targets belonging to different genera. The key of the proposed method is that targets of interest are changed sequentially at each SELEX round. The general scheme was examined using six bacteria from different genera, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (four gram-negative and two gram-positive bacteria). In the first round of SELEX, the DNA library was incubated with E. coli and amplicons bound to E. coli were separated. The amplicons were sequentially separated by incubation with E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, C. freundii, B. subtilis, and S. epidermidis at each SELEX. The amplicons obtained using the last bacterial species were incubated again with the first bacterial species and this loop was repeated two more times. We refer to this method as sequential toggle cell-SELEX (STC-SELEX). The isolated aptamers had dissociation constants of 9.22-38.5 nM and had no affinity to other bacteria that were not included in STC-SELEX. These results demonstrate the potential to isolate aptamers with broad affinity to bacterial taxa in different genera.

  11. New littoral, shelf, and bathyal Paratanaidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from New Zealand, with descriptions of three new genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Graham J; Bamber, Roger N

    2013-01-01

    Three new genera, Acallocheirus, Aparatanais, and Penteparatanais, and seven new species of the paratanaid subfamily Paratanaidinae are described from New Zealand. New records of three previously known species Atemtanais taikaha, Paratanais paraoa, and P. tara, are also given. Paratanais denticulatus, P. intermedius, P. malignus, P. spinanotandus,and P. vicentetis are transferred to Aparatanais. A key is given to all paratanaidin genera and the NZ Paratanais species. In NZ waters, paratanaids are now known from the littoral zone to 908 m in the bathyal regions of the Chatham Rise and Hikurangi Margin, several of the offshore species being recorded in bryozoan mats. All but one appear to be endemic but may have sibling species elsewhere, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. Supplementary notes are given on two Australian species P. maleficus and P. perturbatius that clarify their description and diagnostic characters.

  12. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Shaun L

    2011-05-04

    Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs

  13. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915, comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914, comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: A. albimanis (Kröber, comb. n., A. albitarsa Mann, A. boharti sp. n., A. divisa (Walker, A. dolichorhyncha sp. n., A. glossa sp. n., A. imitans (White, comb. n., A. irwini Winterton, A. melanophaeos sp. n., A. miaboolya sp. n., A. minuta sp. n., A. minutoides sp. n., A. notomelas sp. n., A. novayamarna sp. n., A. rostrata Kröber, A. semirufa Mann, A. westralica sp. n., A. yalgoo sp. n. and A. yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: P. chauncyvallis sp. n., P. fascipennis (Kröber, P. kampmeierae sp. n., P. kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD format to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs for each, c links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links

  14. Isolation and identification of the genera Acetobacter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Key words: Mnazi, palm wine, acetic acid bacteria, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter. INTRODUCTION ..... acid cycle in Gluconobacter, the genera is unable to oxidize most organic acids such as acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic ...

  15. Cytogenetics of Eupemphix nattereri Steindachner,1863 (Anura: Leiuperidae) and karyotypic similarity with species of related genera: taxonomic implications%纳特竖蟾(无尾目:滑背蟾科) 的细胞遗传、与相关属物种的核型相似性并兼论其分类地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando ANANIAS; André Luis BOMBEIRO; Catia Donizete Brunaikovics da SILVA; Ana Paula Zampieri SILVA; Célio Fernando Baptista HADDAD; Sanae KASAHARA

    2007-01-01

    variation between the homologs in some specimens.Since the heteromorphism occurred in specimens from the three localities and in both male and female collected in one of them,at present,the possibility of geographical karyotypic variation and of cytologically differentiated sex chromosomes was ruled out,due to the small sample size.An increased amount in the centromeric heterochromatin of the chromosome 11 was seen,but only in specimens from one of the localities.CMA3 staining revealed some GC-rich repetitive regions,whereas with DAPI no particular bright AT-rich site was detected.BrdU replication banding was obtained for the first time,but karyotypic comparisons with leiuperids of related genera were based on standard stained chromosomes.The karyotype of Eupemphix nattereri is indistinguishable of those presented by the representatives of Physalaemus signifer group analyzed so far.Moreover,the species is karyologically very close to the species of Pleurodema Tschudi,1838,so that our cytogenetic data agree with the proposal based on morphological characters of including Eupemphix nattereri,Pleurodema diplolister (Peters,1870) and P.brachyops (Cope,1869) in the same clade[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(2):285-293,2007].

  16. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  17. A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Harry T; Wanke, Stefan; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2012-06-01

    This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.

  18. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Nieukerken

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; S. schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae in Argentina, Misiones; S. costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and S. intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; S. molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species O. conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species N. gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000, comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877, comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002, comb. n. Three specimens are briefly described, but

  19. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n

  20. New genera for two poorly-known millipeds from Bahia (Polydesmida: Chelodesmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Hoffman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two chelodesmid millipeds described by Brölemann (1903 from the interior of Bahia have not been reported for over 100 years despite their large size and bright coloration. Originally described as Leptodesmus gounellei and Leptodesmus carminatus, neither species is referable to Leptodesmus as currently defined nor any other established genus. Both have been studied from the type specimens, and are here designated the type species of two new genera, Plectrogonodesmus for gounellei and Baianassa for carminatus. Diagnostic characters are illustrated for both taxa. Intergeneric relationships are at present not evident, and are not suggested pending better understanding of the chelodesmid fauna of eastern Brazil.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G

    2004-05-01

    The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x

  2. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Rojkoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, A. (Eugeaphinis, is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: A. (Eugeaphinis bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; A. (Eugeaphinis bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; A. (Eugeaphinis garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe; and A. (Eugeaphinis deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres.

  3. Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabath, Niv; Goldberg, Emma E; Glick, Lior; Einhorn, Moshe; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Ming, Ray; Otto, Sarah P; Vamosi, Jana C; Mayrose, Itay

    2016-02-01

    Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious and nondioecious species. We then applied a probabilistic approach that accounts for differential speciation, extinction, and transition rates between states to examine whether there is an association between dioecy and lineage diversification. We found a bimodal distribution, whereby dioecious lineages exhibited higher diversification in certain genera but lower diversification in others. Additional analyses did not uncover an ecological or life history trait that could explain a context-dependent effect of dioecy on diversification. Furthermore, in-depth simulations of neutral characters demonstrated that such bimodality is also found when simulating neutral characters across the observed trees. Our analyses suggest that - at least for these genera with the currently available data - dioecy neither consistently places a strong brake on diversification nor is a strong driver.

  4. The Madagascan endemic myrmicine ants related to Eutetramorium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): taxonomy of the genera Eutetramorium Emery, Malagidris nom. n., Myrmisaraka gen. n., Royidris gen. n., and Vitsika gen. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Barry; Fisher, Brian L

    2014-04-24

    The monophyletic group of myrmicine ant genera related to Eutetramorium is described and its taxonomy is documented. The group is endemic in Madagascar and contains five genera: Eutetramorium Emery, 1899 (3 species, 1 of which is new); Malagidris nom. n., a replacement name for Brunella Forel, 1917, junior homonym of Brunella Smith, G.W. 1909 (Crustacea) (6 species, 5 of which are new); Myrmisaraka gen. n. (2 species, both new); Royidris gen. n. (15 species, 11 of which are new); Vitsika gen. n. (14 species, all of which are new). Keys to the worker caste are provided for all genera, and provisional keys to known males are given for Malagidris and Vitsika.

  5. Investigation of sporulation in the Desulfotomaculum genus: a genomic comparison with the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Vecchia, Elena; Visser, Michael; Stams, Alfons J M; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-12-01

    The genus Desulfotomaculum, belonging to the Firmicutes, comprises strictly anaerobic and endospore-forming bacteria capable of dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These microorganisms are metabolically versatile and are widely distributed in the environment. Spore formation allows them to survive prolonged environmental stress. Information on the mechanism of sporulation in Desulfotomaculum species is scarce. Herein, this process was probed from a genomic standpoint, using the Bacillus subtilis model system as a reference and clostridial sporulation for comparison. Desulfotomaculum falls somewhere in between the Bacillus and Clostridium in terms of conservation of sporulation proteins. Furthermore, it showcased the conservation of a core regulatory cascade throughout genera, while uncovering variability in the initiation of sporulation and the structural characteristics of spores from different genera. In particular, while in Clostridium species sporulation is not initiated by a phosphorelay, Desulfotomaculum species harbour homologues of the B. subtilis proteins involved in this process. Conversely, both Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum species conserve very few B. subtilis structural proteins, particularly those found in the outer layers of the spore. Desulfotomaculum species seem to share greater similarity to the outer layers of Clostridium difficile. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Unraveling a new lineage of Hydrobiidae genera (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea from the Ponto-Caspian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delicado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses of the highly diverse (non-marine aquatic gastropod family Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865 have revealed seven main lineages, most of which represent subfamilies. The subfamily Pseudamnicolinae Radoman, 1977, and specifically the genus Pseudamnicola Paulucci, 1878 (mainly inhabiting western and central Mediterranean regions, contributes substantially to this hydrobiid richness. Most of its congeners have been described in terms of their shell and penis features, which are of limited diagnostic value. Hence, the taxonomic status of some Pseudamnicola species needs to be revised, particularly of those inhabiting marginal regions, such as the Ponto-Caspian domain, largely occupied by the subfamily Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882. Here we present a molecular phylogeny including species of both subfamilies along with extended morphological descriptions to confirm assignments of the Iranian species Pseudamnicola zagrosensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009; Sarkia kermanshahensis Glöer & Pešić, 2009 (originally within Pseudamnicola and P. saboori Glöer & Pešić, 2009. Our COI-based tree rejects these assignments suggesting a new potential lineage, sister to the pyrgulinid species, and comprising three genera: Shadinia Akramowski, 1976, Intermaria gen. nov. and Persipyrgula gen. nov. These genera differ molecularly by 3.6%–8.5%, and are diagnosable by penis, female genitalia and radula features. Our findings evidence the high morphological variability of pyrgulinid species and provide insight into the origins and evolution of the freshwater Ponto-Caspian fauna.

  7. Revision of some Hybosorine Genera from the Indo-Malayan Subregion: Microphaeochroops, Microphaeolodes, Mimocoelodes, Pantolasius and Phaeochridius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Hybosorinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Hybosorine genera Microphaeochroops Pic, Microphaeolodes Kuijten, Mimocoelodes Pic, Pantolasius Lansberge and Phaeochridius Lansberge is given. Microphaeochroops nigrosetosus, Microphaeochroops varius, Microphaeolodes mulumontis and Pantolasius bandaharae are proposed as new species, and Microphaeolodes as a new genus. Lectotypes are designated for Microphaeochroops peninsularis Arrow, Phaeochridius derasus (Harold) and Phaeochridius haroldi Fairmaire. Phaeochridiu...

  8. Reproductive strategies in female polar and deep-sea bobtail squid genera Rossia and Neorossia (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Nigmatullin, Ch. M.; Hoving, H. J. T.; Onsoy, B.; Salman, A.; Zumholz, K.; Shevtsov, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Female reproductive features have been investigated in five polar and deep-sea bobtail squid genera Rossia and Neorossia (R. macrosoma, R. moelleri, R. pacifica, N.c. caroli and N.c. jeannae). These species are characterized by asynchronous ovary maturation, very large eggs (> 10% ML), fecundity of

  9. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M. B.; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimón, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B; Cooney, Jakki C.; Kagawa, Todd F.; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P.; Paul Ross, R.; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E.; Felis, Giovanna E.; de Vos, Willem M.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Caufield, Page W.; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species. PMID:26415554

  10. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M B; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimón, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B; Cooney, Jakki C; Kagawa, Todd F; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P; Paul Ross, R; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E; Felis, Giovanna E; de Vos, Willem M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Caufield, Page W; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W

    2015-09-29

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species.

  11. A three-parameter model for classifying anurans into four genera based on advertisement calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Fitch, William Tecumseh

    2013-01-01

    The vocalizations of anurans are innate in structure and may therefore contain indicators of phylogenetic history. Thus, advertisement calls of species which are more closely related phylogenetically are predicted to be more similar than those of distant species. This hypothesis was evaluated by comparing several widely used machine-learning algorithms. Recordings of advertisement calls from 142 species belonging to four genera were analyzed. A logistic regression model, using mean values for dominant frequency, coefficient of variation of root-mean square energy, and spectral flux, correctly classified advertisement calls with regard to genus with an accuracy above 70%. Similar accuracy rates were obtained using these parameters with a support vector machine model, a K-nearest neighbor algorithm, and a multivariate Gaussian distribution classifier, whereas a Gaussian mixture model performed slightly worse. In contrast, models based on mel-frequency cepstral coefficients did not fare as well. Comparable accuracy levels were obtained on out-of-sample recordings from 52 of the 142 original species. The results suggest that a combination of low-level acoustic attributes is sufficient to discriminate efficiently between the vocalizations of these four genera, thus supporting the initial premise and validating the use of high-throughput algorithms on animal vocalizations to evaluate phylogenetic hypotheses.

  12. 18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species.

  13. 18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Fiore-Donno

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species.

  14. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)-A Revision of the World Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recent revised generic classification of the tribe Epilachnini (Szawaryn et al. 2015), all 27 genera are re-described, diagnosed, illustrated, and included in an identification key. The following nomenclatural changes are made: Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850, Epilachna (Cleta) Mulsant 1850, Solanophila Weise 1898, Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993, and Epilachna (Uniparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993 are removed from synonymy of Epilachna Chervolat 1837. The subgenus Cleta of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Cleta Mulsant 1850 stat. nov.; the subgenus Uniparodentata of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 stat. nov. Chazeauiana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna sahlbergi Mulsant 1850), and Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna nigrolimbata Thomson 1875) are synonymized here under the name Cleta Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna eckloni Mulsant 1850)-new synonyms; Fuerschia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781) is synonymized with Solanophila Weise 1898 (type species, Epilachna gibbosa Crotch 1874)-new synonym; Ryszardia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna decipiens Crotch 1874) and Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao, 1993 (type species, Epilachna yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984) are synonymized under the name Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (type species, Epilachna paramagna Pang and Mao 1979)-new synonyms. Henosepilachna (Elateria) Fürsch 1964 (type species: Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794) is removed from synomyms of Henosepilachna Li 1961 [type species, Coccinella sparsa Herbst 1786 (=Coccinella vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 1775)] and is synonymized here with Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (type species: Coccinella similis Thunberg 1781)-new synonym. Coccinella flavofasciata Laporte 1840, Epilachna aequatorialis Gordon 1975, E. bizonata Crotch 1874, E. convergens Crotch 1874, E. cruciata Mulsant

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the comb-footed spider subfamily Spintharinae (Araneae, Araneoidea, Theridiidae), with generic diagnoses and a key to the genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Barrón, César G; Rosas, María V; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano

    2013-01-01

    The monophyly of Spintharinae is supported in agreement with previous analysis of Theridiidae by Agnarsson and Arnedo et al. We study the relationships of the genera within Spintharinae. Fourteen species in the genera Chrosiothes, Episinus, Spintharus, Steninops, and Thwaitesia constituted the ingroup, while five species from the genera Euryopis and Dipoena (Hadrotarsinae), as well as Latrodectus and Steatoda (Latrodectinae), served as outgroup taxa. The character matrix included 49 morphological characters. Parsimony analyses using several character weighting strategies supported the monophyly of Spintharinae with Stemmops as sister to a clade that includes the remaining ingroup taxa. Chrosiothes emerged as sister to Episinus + Spintharus + Thwaitesia which formed a polytomy. The equally weighted, successive weighted, and preferred implied weight topologies, were all logically consistent. A key to the genera of Spintharinae and diagnoses for each genus are given.

  16. Exploring the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient: Contrasting the sister fern genera Phegopteris and Pseudophegopteris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald SCHNEIDER; Li-Juan HE; Jeannine MARQUARDT; Li WANG; Jochen HEINRICHS; Sabine HENNEQUIN; Xian-Chun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the latitudinal biodiversity gradient has been studied using various approaches.Here,we employ a comparative phylogenetic approach to infer evidence for the hypothesis that differences in diversification rates are one of the main factors contributing to the assembly of this gradient.We infer the phylogeny of the two sister genera Phegopteris and Pseudophegopteris.The two genera are distinct in their species richness (4 vs.20 spp.) and their preferences to temperate to subtropical (Phegopteris) or tropical climates (Pseudophegopteris).Using sequences of three plastid DNA regions,we confirm the monophyly of each genus and infer the inter-and intra-generic phylogenetic differentiation of the sister clades.We recover evidence for distinct net-diversification rate between the two genera,which may be caused either by a higher extinction risk of temperate Phegopteris or a higher speciation rate of tropical Pseudophegopteris.We discuss our results in the context of our current knowledge on the speciation processes of ferns.We conclude on the crucial influence of other factors such as the rise of the Himalaya on the diversification of these fems.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Nyctaginaceae: taxonomy, biogeography, and characters associated with a radiation of xerophytic genera in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Norman A; Manos, Paul S

    2007-05-01

    The four o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) has a number of genera with unusual morphological and ecological characters, several of which appear to have a "tendency" to evolve repeatedly in Nyctaginaceae. Despite this, the Nyctaginaceae have attracted little attention from botanists. To produce a phylogeny for the Nyctaginaceae, we sampled 51 species representing 25 genera (of 28-31) for three chloroplast loci (ndhF, rps16, rpl16, and nrITS) and included all genera from North America. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods were used to reconstruct the phylogeny for the family. The family is neotropical in origin. A radiation of woody taxa unites Pisonia and Pisoniella with the difficult tropical genera Neea and Guapira, which also form a clade, though neither appears to be monophyletic. This group is sister to a clade containing Bougainvillea, Belemia, and Phaeoptilum. A dramatic radiation of genera occurred in the deserts of North America. The tribe Nyctagineae and its subtribes are paraphyletic, due to over-reliance on a few homoplasious characters, i.e., pollen morphology and involucre presence. Two notable characters associated with the desert radiation are cleistogamy and edaphic endemism on gypsum soils. We discuss evolutionary trends in these traits in light of available data about self-incompatibility and gypsum tolerance in Nyctaginaceae.

  18. Symbiotic effectiveness of rhizobial mutualists varies in interactions with native Australian legume genera.

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    Peter H Thrall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interactions between plants and beneficial soil organisms (e.g. rhizobial bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi are models for investigating the ecological impacts of such associations in plant communities, and the evolution and maintenance of variation in mutualisms (e.g. host specificity and the level of benefits provided. With relatively few exceptions, variation in symbiotic effectiveness across wild host species is largely unexplored. METHODS: We evaluated these associations using representatives of several legume genera which commonly co-occur in natural ecosystems in south-eastern Australia and an extensive set of rhizobial strains isolated from these hosts. These strains had been previously assigned to specific phylotypes on the basis of molecular analyses. In the first of two inoculation experiments, the growth responses of each host species was evaluated with rhizobial strains isolated from that species. The second experiment assessed performance across genera and the extent of host specificity using a subset of these strains. RESULTS: While host growth responses to their own (sympatric isolates varied considerably, rhizobial phylotype was a significant predictor of symbiotic performance, indicating that bacterial species designations on the basis of molecular markers have ecological importance. Hosts responded in qualitatively different ways to sympatric and allopatric strains of rhizobia, ranging from species with a clear preference for their own strains, to those that were broad generalists, through to species that grew significantly better with allopatric strains. CONCLUSION: Theory has focused on trade-offs between the provision of benefits and symbiont competitive ability that might explain the persistence of less beneficial strains. However, differences in performance among co-occurring host species could also drive such patterns. Our results thus highlight the likely importance of plant community structure in

  19. Cassini's Compositae genera: A nomenclatural and taxonomic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.; Greuter, W.; Hind, D.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Work on the Global Compositae Checklist has highlighted uncertainties and errors in the nomenclatural parameters of many genera and subgenera described by Henri Cassini. Problems concern rank (subgenus vs. genus); type designation; correct place of valid publication; alternative names; and other

  20. Notes on the genera Asterolibertia and Cirsosia (Fungi: Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This gives an account of the genera Asterolibertia and Cirsosia. Former genus belongs to Asterinaceae and the latter to Lembosiaceae. The genus Asterolibertia represents 34 taxa on 29 host plants distributed among 15 families. While, the genus Cirsosia represents 5 taxa on 4 host plants distributed among 3 families.

  1. On slope genera of knotted tori in the 4-space

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Shicheng

    2011-01-01

    In this note, we investigate genera for the slopes of a knotted torus in the 4-sphere analogous to the genus of a classical knot. We compare various formulations of this notion, and use this notion to study the extendable subgroup of the mapping class group of the knotted torus.

  2. Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Beaver

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.

  3. Revision of the Oriental genera of Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae with an emphasis on Thailand and interactive keys to genera published in three different formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sharkey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The genera of Oriental Agathidinae are revised and a fully illustrated dichotomous key is presented. New generic concepts are proposed for Bassus Fabricius, 1804 and Hypsostypos Baltazar, 1963. Bassus is restricted to a clade with an Old World distribution and the remaining members are divided amongst the resurrected genera Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, and Therophilus Wesmael, 1837. The concept of Hypsostypos is restricted and the new genus Amputostypos Sharkey, gen. n. is proposed to include species formerly included in Hypsostypos that do not have raised antennal bases. Troticus Brullé, 1846 is reported from the Oriental region for the first time. Eighteen genera are recognized for Thailand and neighboring areas, i.e., Agathis Latreille, 1804, Amputostypos, Aneurobracon Brues, 1930, Bassus, Biroia Szépligeti, 1900, Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894, Camptothlipsis, Coccygidium Saussure, 1892, Cremnops Förster, 1862, Disophrys Förster, 1862, Earinus Wesmael, 1837, Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900, Gryochus Enderlein, 1920, Hypsostypos, Lytopylus Förster, 1862, Therophilus, Cremnoptoides van Achterberg & Chen, 2004, and Troticus. Identification keys to the genera are provided as a standard textual dichotomous key, as well as online keys in three different formats (conventional dichotomous, DELTA/Intkey, Lucid, and MX to enable users to choose their prefered platform and to allow direct comparisons of the technologies for producing online keys. Publication of underlying data (data matrices, character states table, and images under the OpenDataCommons license (ODbl (http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/ for DELTA/Intkey files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.1.ik, primary DELTA files (10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.2.ik Lucid3 (LIF3 and Lucid SDD key data files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.3.ik and MX MySQL database files (doi: 10.3897/zookeys.21.271.app.4.ik allows future workers to edit keys and to add newly

  4. Each flying fox on its own branch: a phylogenetic tree for Pteropus and related genera (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francisca C; Giannini, Norberto P; Simmons, Nancy B; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2014-08-01

    Pteropodidae is a diverse Old World family of non-echolocating, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats that includes the flying foxes (genus Pteropus) and allied genera. The subfamily Pteropodinae includes the largest living bats and is distributed across an immense geographic range from islands in East Africa to the Cook Islands of Polynesia. These bats are keystone species in their ecosystems and some carry zoonotic diseases that are increasingly a focus of interest in biomedical research. Here we present a comprehensive phylogeny for pteropodines focused on Pteropus. The analyses included 50 of the ∼63 species of Pteropus and 11 species from 7 related genera. We obtained sequences of the cytochrome b and the 12S rRNA mitochondrial genes for all species and sequences of the nuclear RAG1, vWF, and BRCA1 genes for a subsample of taxa. Some of the sequences of Pteropus were obtained from skin biopsies of museum specimens including that of an extinct species, P. tokudae. The resulting trees recovered Pteropus as monophyletic, although further work is needed to determine whether P. personatus belongs in the genus. Monophyly of the majority of traditionally-recognized Pteropus species groups was rejected, but statistical support was strong for several clades on which we based a new classification of the Pteropus species into 13 species groups. Other noteworthy results emerged regarding species status of several problematic taxa, including recognition of P. capistratus and P. ennisae as distinct species, paraphyly of the P. hypomelanus complex, and conspecific status of P. pelewensis pelewensis and P. p. yapensis. Relationships among the pteropodine genera were not completely resolved with the current dataset. Divergence time analysis suggests that Pteropus originated in the Miocene and that two independent bursts of diversification occurred in the Pleistocene in different regions of the Indo-Pacific realm.

  5. The genera Cosmopterix Hübner and Pebobs Hodges in the New World with special attention to the Neotropical fauna (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genera Cosmopterix Hübner, [1825] and Pebobs Hodges, 1978 (Cosmopterigidae) of the New World are revised, for the Neotropical fauna for the first time. A total of 102 species is recognized and 49 species are described as new: Cosmopterix adrastea spec. nov., C. amalthea spec. nov., C. ananke

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) and cross amplification in other genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miz, R B; Tacuatiá, L O; Cidade, F W; de Souza, A P; Bered, F; Eggers, L; de Souza-Chies, T T

    2016-09-16

    Recent phylogenetic studies on Sisyrinchium strongly suggest that species classified in section Hydastylus and section Viperella belong to a single group of plants in recent adaptive radiation (Clade IV). These species neither present clear morphological differentiation among them nor show clear identification using DNA barcode markers. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers compatible for representative species of both sections to ensure variability that could be revealed by SSR markers. Therefore, microsatellite primers were isolated and characterized for Sisyrinchium palmifolium and S. marchioides. In addition, transferability of the developed primers was tested in Iridoideae, primarily in closely related species of Sisyrinchium. Sixteen microsatellite loci were developed from enriched genomic libraries, of which ten were polymorphic. GST values indicated higher differentiation among subpopulations of S. palmifolium than those from S. marchioides. Major transferability was obtained using primers isolated from S. marchioides. All primers exhibited higher rates of cross-amplification for species belonging to Clade IV of Sisyrinchium, as well as to the genera Calydorea and Herbertia. These developed microsatellite markers can be used as an efficient tool for characterization of genetic variability in species belonging to Iridoideae, as well as for studies on population dynamics, genetic structure, and mating system in other Sisyrinchium species.

  7. A taxonomic framework for cable bacteria and proposal of the candidate genera Electrothrix and Electronema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Bjerg, Jesper T; Bøggild, Andreas; Yang, Tingting; Kjeldsen, Kasper U; Schramm, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Cable bacteria are long, multicellular filaments that can conduct electric currents over centimeter-scale distances. All cable bacteria identified to date belong to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and have not been isolated in pure culture yet. Their taxonomic delineation and exact phylogeny is uncertain, as most studies so far have reported only short partial 16S rRNA sequences or have relied on identification by a combination of filament morphology and 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization with a Desulfobulbaceae-specific probe. In this study, nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences of 16 individual cable bacteria filaments from freshwater, salt marsh, and marine sites of four geographic locations are presented. These sequences formed a distinct, monophyletic sister clade to the genus Desulfobulbus and could be divided into six coherent, species-level clusters, arranged as two genus-level groups. The same grouping was retrieved by phylogenetic analysis of full or partial dsrAB genes encoding the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. Based on these results, it is proposed to accommodate cable bacteria within two novel candidate genera: the mostly marine "Candidatus Electrothrix", with four candidate species, and the mostly freshwater "Candidatus Electronema", with two candidate species. This taxonomic framework can be used to assign environmental sequences confidently to the cable bacteria clade, even without morphological information. Database searches revealed 185 16S rRNA gene sequences that affiliated within the clade formed by the proposed cable bacteria genera, of which 120 sequences could be assigned to one of the six candidate species, while the remaining 65 sequences indicated the existence of up to five additional species.

  8. 下口鲶寄生单殖吸虫中国一新纪录属及一新种和一新纪录种的记述%One new Chinese record genera(Ancyrocephalidae) and one new species and one new recorded of monogenea parasiting on gills of Hypostomus plecostomus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 黄茜春

    2012-01-01

    记述了锚首虫科Ancyrocephalidae单殖吸虫中国一新纪录属及一新种和一新纪录种,即异茎虫属Heteropriapulus(Jogunoori,Kritsky & Venkatanarasaiah,2004)Kritsky,2007,简单异茎虫Heteropriapulus simplex sp.nov.,异突异茎虫Heteropriapulus heterotylus(Jogunoori,Kritsky & Venkatanarasaiah,2004) Kritsky,2007.该新种的支持器为简单的直片状,与本属唯一已知种——异突异茎虫复杂的支持器不同.文中对新种和新纪录属种做了新的形态描述并给出特征图.%Heteropriapulus ( Jogunoori, Kritsky & Venkatanarasaiah, 2004) Kritsky, 2007 (Monogenea, Ancyroceph-alidae) is reported in China for the first time, with the description of one new species and one new recorded species parasitized on gills of Heteropriapulus simplex sp. Nov. , and Heteropriapulus heterotylus( Jogunoori, Kritsky & Venkatanarasaiah, 2004) Kritsky, 2007. The supporting apparatus of new species is simple straight flake, different from the complicated supporting apparatus of H. Heterotylus, the only known species of the genus. The morphology and features of Heteropriapulus, H. Heterotylus and new species are described in the present study.

  9. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  10. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

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    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  11. Pollen storages in nests of bees of the genera Partamona, Scaura and Trigona (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    André Rodrigo Rech

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bees and angiosperms established a mutualistic relationship along the evolutionary time. The aim of this study is to contribute for the understanding of this relation analyzing pollen stored by stingless bees colonies distributed along the Rio Negro. Fourteen species of Meliponini from the genera Partamona, Scaura, and Trigona were studied with regard to the content of pollen pots. The pollen material was removed from the pollen pots, homogenized, and prepared according to the usual acetolysis technique. The overlap of the trophic niche and the grouping of species by similarity of niches was calculated. The identification revealed 78 pollen types belonging to 36 families, being 37 types attractive and 16 considered as promoters of a temporary specialization event. With the results, it was possible to indicate a list of important plants for meliponiculture in the Amazon.

  12. Synopsis of the genera Nesaea and Ammannia (Lythraceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Immelman

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The genera  Nesaea Commers. ex H.B.K. and  Ammannia L. in southern Africa, which comprises Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, were revised. In  Nesaea, 27 species (seven new, four varieties and one new form were recognized.  Ammannia was revised using the DECORANA computer program, and four species were recognized. Keys to the taxa are presented, as well as synonymy (restricted to the region, diagnoses and descriptions o f new taxa, and notes on distribution, taxonomy and nomenclature. The following taxa are new:  Nesaea alata Immelman,  N. angustifolia Immelman.  N. cymosa Immelman,  N. minima Immelman.  N. sagittifolia (Sond. Koehne var.  ericiformis Koehne forma swaziensis Immelman.  N. saluta Immelman, N. wardii Immelman and  N. zambatidis Immelman.

  13. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, α-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food.

  14. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  15. Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leo; Toon, Alicia; Schirtzinger, Erin E; Wright, Timothy F

    2011-06-01

    The platycercine parrots of Australia, usually recognized as the Platycercinae or Platycercini, are the broad-tailed parrots and their allies typified by the rosellas Platycercus spp. Debate concerning their circumscription has most recently centerd on the position of four genera, Neophema, Neopsephotus, Pezoporus and Psittacella, the last two having never been adequately included in sequence-based analyses. We use broad taxon sampling, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data from seven independent loci (two linked mitochondrial loci and six nuclear loci), and both gene tree and species tree approaches to reconstruct phylogenies and so determine the systematic placement all four genera. Analyses of two data sets, one of 48 taxa and five loci and one of 27 taxa and the same five plus three additional loci produced broadly congruent and consistently well-resolved phylogenies. We reject placement of any of these four genera within core platycercines. Pezoporus is closely allied to Neophema and Neopsephotus. These three genera are the likely sister group to core platycercines and we advocate their recognition as a subfamily. Psittacella is the sole extant representative of a lineage that branched very early in the history of Australo-Papuan parrot fauna and is not closely related to any of the mostly south-east Asian and Indonesian psittaculine taxa with which it is more often linked. We present a revised view of the extraordinary phylogenetic, phenotypic and ecological diversity that is the adaptive radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots. Finally, our analyses highlight the likely paraphyly of Mayr's (2008) Loricoloriinae.

  16. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  17. Analysis of whole chloroplast genomes from the genera of the Clauseneae, the curry tribe (Rutaceae, Citrus family).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Vikram S; Appelhans, Marc S; Johnson, Gabriel; Carlsen, Monica; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-11

    The Clauseneae (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is a tribe in the Citrus family that, although economically important as it contains the culinary and medicinally-useful curry tree (Bergera koenigii), has been relatively understudied. Due to the recent significant taxonomic changes made to this tribe, a closer inspection of the genetic relationships among its genera has been warranted. Whole genome skimming was used to generate chloroplast genomes from six species, representing each of the four genera (Bergera, Clausena, Glycosmis, Micromelum) in the Clauseneae tribe plus one closely related outgroup (Merrillia), using the published plastome sequence of Citrus sinensis as a reference. Phylogenetically informative character (PIC) data were analyzed using a genome alignment of the seven species, and variability frequency among the species was recorded for each coding and non-coding region, with the regions of highest variability identified for future phylogenetic studies. Non-coding regions exhibited a higher percentage of variable characters as expected, and the phylogenetic markers ycf1, matK, rpoC2, ndhF, trnS-trnG spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer proved to be among the most variable regions. Other markers that are frequently used in phylogenetic studies, e.g. rps16, atpB-rbcL, rps4-trnT, and trnL-trnF, proved to be far less variable. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned sequences were conducted using Bayesian inference (MrBayes) and Maximum Likelihood (RAxML), yielding highly supported divisions among the four genera.

  18. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  19. Elliptic Genera of Symmetric Products and Second Quantized Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    In this note we prove an identity that equates the elliptic genus partition function of a supersymmetric sigma model on the $N$-fold symmetric product $M^N/S_N$ of a manifold $M$ to the partition function of a second quantized string theory on the space $M \\times S^1$. The generating function of these elliptic genera is shown to be (almost) an automorphic form for $O(3,2,\\Z)$. In the context of D-brane dynamics, this result gives a precise computation of the free energy of a gas of D-strings inside a higher-dimensional brane.

  20. Elliptic Genera of Symmetric Products and Second Quantized Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    In this note we prove an identity that equates the elliptic genus partition function of a supersymmetric sigma model on the N-fold symmetric product of a manifold M to the partition function of a second quantized string theory on the space . The generating function of these elliptic genera is shown to be (almost) an automorphic form for . In the context of D-brane dynamics, this result gives a precise computation of the free energy of a gas of D-strings inside a higher-dimensional brane.

  1. New Combinations in the Genera Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lodderomyces and Wingea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Van der Walt and Van Kerken (1959 and Van der Walt (1965. 1966, 1967 introduced several non-valid combinations in the genera  Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lodderomyces and Wingea by omitting to list relevant basionyms according to the requirements of Article 33 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. As these combinations, however, have been adopted in the new taxo­nomic treatise edited by Lodder (1970, they are now validated in conformance with the requirements of the Code.

  2. New Combinations in the Genera Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lodderomyces and Wingea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van der Walt

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Van der Walt and Van Kerken (1959 and Van der Walt (1965. 1966, 1967 introduced several non-valid combinations in the genera  Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Lodderomyces and Wingea by omitting to list relevant basionyms according to the requirements of Article 33 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. As these combinations, however, have been adopted in the new taxo­nomic treatise edited by Lodder (1970, they are now validated in conformance with the requirements of the Code.

  3. Parallel molecular routes to cold adaptation in eight genera of New Zealand stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alice B; Dunning, Luke T; Sinclair, Brent J; Buckley, Thomas R

    2015-09-10

    The acquisition of physiological strategies to tolerate novel thermal conditions allows organisms to exploit new environments. As a result, thermal tolerance is a key determinant of the global distribution of biodiversity, yet the constraints on its evolution are not well understood. Here we investigate parallel evolution of cold tolerance in New Zealand stick insects, an endemic radiation containing three montane-occurring species. Using a phylogeny constructed from 274 orthologous genes, we show that stick insects have independently colonized montane environments at least twice. We compare supercooling point and survival of internal ice formation among ten species from eight genera, and identify both freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance in separate montane lineages. Freeze tolerance is also verified in both lowland and montane populations of a single, geographically widespread, species. Transcriptome sequencing following cold shock identifies a set of structural cuticular genes that are both differentially regulated and under positive sequence selection in each species. However, while cuticular proteins in general are associated with cold shock across the phylogeny, the specific genes at play differ among species. Thus, while processes related to cuticular structure are consistently associated with adaptation for cold, this may not be the consequence of shared ancestral genetic constraints.

  4. New Records Of The Dipteran Genera Triphleba (Phoridae And Prosphyracephala (Diopsidae In Rovno And Baltic Ambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkovsky E. E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran insects constitute 51 % among arthropods of the Rovno Amber. There are 99 species and 23 genera of the Diptera described from the Rovno Amber; however, to date only 32 species are shared with the Baltic Amber fauna, including two species that are treated in this paper. Triphleba schulmanae Brown, 2003 (Phoridae, originally described from the Baltic Amber, is recorded in the Rovno Amber for the first time and its amended description is supplied. Genus Prosphyracephala Hennig, 1965 (Diopsidae, earlier known from the Baltic and Saxonian ambers, the Upper Eocene of Ruby River (Montana, USA and the Lower Oligocene of Céreste (France, is recorded in the Rovno Amber for the first time. Prosphyracephala aff. succini (Loew, 1873 is the first diopsid record from Ukraine. A second specimen of Prosphyracephala kerneggeri Kotrba, 2009 is found in the Baltic amber; the complete wing venation is described for the first time for this species. Vast majority of the Old World Diopsidae are strictly thermophilous. In fact, all of them but the five species of brevicornis group of Sphyracephala Say (three Palearctic and two Nearctic ones frequent tropic and the warmest subtropic areas, however the thermophilous Diopsidae are known in the New World neither in past nor in contemporary fauna.

  5. Revisão de Elbella Evans e gêneros afins (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae) Revision of Elbella Evans and related genera (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Pyrrhopyginae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke,Olaf H.H.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study of the genera Microceris Watson, 1893, Elbella Evans, 1951, Parelbella. gen.n. (type species: Hesperia polyzona [Latreille, 1824]), Pseudocroniades. gen.n. (type species: Ericides (sic) machaon Westwood, [1852]) and Protelbella, gen.n. (type species: Pyrrhopyga (sic) alburna Mabille, 1891), a natural group of the Pyrrhopyginae, here called "Elbella Complex", is presented. The following are spp.n. and sspp.n.: Elbella intersecta paraensis, Brazil: Pará; Elbella intersecta ru...

  6. Systematics and Phylogeny of Holarctic Genera of Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera, Heteroneura: Monotrysia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    1986-01-01

    A revised classification of the Holarctic genera of Nepticulidae is provided. Eight genera belonging to the nominal subfamily are recognised and redefined. They are Enteucha Meyrick (= Johanssonia Borkowski, Artaversala Davis, Oligoneura Davis), Stigmella Schrank (including Astigmella Puplesis), Sim

  7. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  8. Patterns of diversification in islands: A comparative study across three gecko genera in the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, Joan; Morales, Hernán E; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Sindaco, Roberto; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In this study we used the complete fauna of geckos of the Socotra Archipelago to test whether the three gecko genera co-occurring in the islands (Pristurus, Hemidactylus and Haemodracon) produced similar outcomes of morphological and climatic diversification. To test this, we produced a time-calibrated tree of 346 geckos including all 16 endemic species of the archipelago and 26 potential close-relatives in the continent. Our dating estimates revealed that most of the diversity of geckos in the archipelago was the consequence of in situ diversification. However not all genera shared similar patterns of diversification. While in Hemidactylus and Haemodracon this involved great differences in body size and low levels of climatic diversification (mostly involving sympatric distributions), an opposite pattern appeared in Pristurus in which most of the diversification involved shifts in climatic envelopes (mostly involving allopatric and parapatric distributions) but almost no size differentiation. Consistently with this, Pristurus was the only genus in which rates of size diversification in islands were substantially lower than in the continent. This illustrates how different groups can greatly differ in their patterns of intra-island diversification and highlights the importance of taxon-dependent factors at determining different patterns of diversification in the same insular context.

  9. 中国派盾螨科三新纪录属及三新种记述(蜱螨亚纲:革螨股)%THREE NEWLY RECORDED GENERA WITH THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE FAMILY PARHOLASPIDAE FROM CHINA(ACARI:GAMASINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立名; 晏建章

    2001-01-01

    记述派盾螨科3新种:武汉派盾螨Parholaspis wuhanensis sp.nov.,亚弧讷派螨Neparholaspis subarcuatus sp.nov.和湖北真派螨Euparholaspulus hubeiensis sp.nov.。三属均为中国首次记录。%1 Parholaspis wuhanensis sp.nov. (Figs.1-15)   The genus newly recorded in China.   Adult.♀ Body average 1?132?μm long×678?μm wide,♂ av.988?μm long×597?μm wide,with a anterior projection and rough surface.Dorsal shield covers greater part of dorsum.Dorsal setae broad,lanceolate or sickle-shaped.Tritosternum well developed,with broad base and two strongly pilose laciniae.In female,sternal shield bears 3 pairs of setae;metasternal setae on small and circular metasternalia;lateral margins of genital shield concave at posterior part,with one pair of setae;length of ventro-anal shield subequal to its width,with 4 pairs of broad preanal setae;peritreme with many small projections,reaching to interior margin of coxa I anteriorly;metapodal shields narrow.In male,holoventral shield with 9 pairs of setae except for perianal setae,of which sternal and metasternal setae normal in shape,genital and ventral setae broad.In both sexes,Ad situated before level of anterior margin of anus,shorter than anus,PA subequal to Ad in length;tectum with a long smooth median extension,and with several short projections on each side;chela longer than corniculus,its structure is shown in Figs.5 and 9;legs with broad setae and needle-like setae,tarsus I with neither claw nor pulvillus.Femur Ⅱ of male with a large spur.   The new species near to Parholaspis meridionalis Ishikawa,1980,but in the new species body with anterior projection,length of ventro-anal shield subequal to its width,preanal setae 4 pairs,movable digit of chela with 4 large teeth;however in the latter species body without anterior projection,ventro-anal shield wider than long,preanal setae 5 pairs,chela with 3 large teeth on movable digit.   Holotype ♀,paratypes 1 ♀,2 ♂♂ and 1

  10. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsideabahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsideabaranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideadominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidearileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideataeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsideatexensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsideatransversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsideavariabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsusballi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsuscomplicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsideaconsimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsusnigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsusrufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsusclavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsusdivaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsusfusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicorismyrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeustexanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsisbejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsiscunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsisquercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsideabrailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsideacuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsideadimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsideafuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA

  11. Two new cave-dwelling genera of short-tailed whip-scorpions from Brazil (Arachnida: Schizomida: Hubbardiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new genera of short-tailed whip-scorpions are described based on material from Brazilian iron ore and canga caves in the Carajás region, Pará, Brazil. Naderiore gen. nov. with a single species N. carajas sp. nov. and also monotypic Cangazomus gen. nov. (type species C. xikrin sp. nov.. The relationships of the two new genera with previously described genera are discussed. Naderiore most closely resembles Adisomus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000, Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008 and Calima Moreno-González & Villarreal, 2012, and can be distinguished from them by Dm3 modified as macrosetae in the male flagellum. Cangazomus most closely resembles Naderiore , Adisomus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000, and Piaroa Villarreal, Tourinho & Giupponi, 2008. It differs from all of them by the presence of two pairs of ramified spermathecal lobes, each composed of a differentiated stalk and distoterminal ramified bulbs, chitinized arch without anterior branch and notched lateral tip, pedipalps unarmed and not sexually dimorphic, and the male flagellar setae Dm3 as a microsetae.

  12. Genetic diversity and host specificity varies across three genera of blood parasites in ducks of the Pacific Americas Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew B.; Smith, Matthew M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Ramey, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Birds of the order Anseriformes, commonly referred to as waterfowl, are frequently infected by Haemosporidia of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon via dipteran vectors. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene from parasites of these genera detected in six species of ducks from Alaska and California, USA to characterize the genetic diversity of Haemosporidia infecting waterfowl at two ends of the Pacific Americas Flyway. In addition, parasite Cytb sequences were compared to those available on a public database to investigate specificity of genetic lineages to hosts of the order Anseriformes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Haemoproteus Cytb sequences was lower than was detected for Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon parasites. Although waterfowl are presumed to be infected by only a single species of Leucocytozoon, L. simondi, diversity indices were highest for haplotypes from this genus and sequences formed five distinct clades separated by genetic distances of 4.9%–7.6%, suggesting potential cryptic speciation. All Haemoproteus andLeucocytozoon haplotypes derived from waterfowl samples formed monophyletic clades in phylogenetic analyses and were unique to the order Anseriformes with few exceptions. In contrast, waterfowl-origin Plasmodium haplotypes were identical or closely related to lineages found in other avian orders. Our results suggest a more generalist strategy for Plasmodiumparasites infecting North American waterfowl as compared to those of the generaHaemoproteus and Leucocytozoon.

  13. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarath Baicharoen

    Full Text Available Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  14. Locational diversity of alpha satellite DNA and intergeneric hybridization aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates genera of small apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicharoen, Sudarath; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Duangsa-ard, Kwanruen; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Domae, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae) in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes.

  15. Genomic organization and dynamics of repetitive DNA sequences in representatives of three Fagaceae genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sofia; Ribeiro, Teresa; Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2012-05-01

    Oaks, chestnuts, and beeches are economically important species of the Fagaceae. To understand the relationship between these members of this family, a deep knowledge of their genome composition and organization is needed. In this work, we have isolated and characterized several AFLP fragments obtained from Quercus rotundifolia Lam. through homology searches in available databases. Genomic polymorphisms involving some of these sequences were evaluated in two species of Quercus, one of Castanea, and one of Fagus with specific primers. Comparative FISH analysis with generated sequences was performed in interphase nuclei of the four species, and the co-immunolocalization of 5-methylcytosine was also studied. Some of the sequences isolated proved to be genus-specific, while others were present in all the genera. Retroelements, either gypsy-like of the Tat/Athila clade or copia-like, are well represented, and most are dispersed in euchromatic regions of these species with no DNA methylation associated, pointing to an interspersed arrangement of these retroelements with potential gene-rich regions. A particular gypsy-sequence is dispersed in oaks and chestnut nuclei, but its confinement to chromocenters in beech evidences genome restructuring events during evolution of Fagaceae. Several sequences generated in this study proved to be good tools to comparatively study Fagaceae genome organization.

  16. Bacterial communities associated with four ctenophore genera from the German Bight (North Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenjin; Gerdts, Gunnar; Peplies, Jörg; Wichels, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Intense research has been conducted on jellyfish and ctenophores in recent years. They are increasingly recognized as key elements in the marine ecosystem that serve as critical indicators and drivers of ecosystem performance and change. However, the bacterial community associated with ctenophores is still poorly investigated. Based on automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, we investigated bacterial communities associated with the frequently occurring ctenophore species Mnemiopsis leidyi, Beroe sp., Bolinopsis infundibulum and Pleurobrachia pileus at Helgoland Roads in the German Bight (North Sea). We observed significant differences between the associated bacterial communities of the different ctenophore species based on ARISA patterns. With respect to bacterial taxa, all ctenophore species were dominated by Proteobacteria as revealed by pyrosequencing. Mnemiopsis leidyi and P. pileus mainly harboured Gammaproteobacteria, with Marinomonas as the dominant phylotype of M. leidyi. By contrast, Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter were the most abundant Gammaproteobacteria in P. pileus. Beroe sp. was mainly dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, particularly by the genus Thalassospira. For B. infundibulum, the bacterial community was composed of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in equal parts, which consisted of the genera Thalassospira and Marinomonas. In addition, the bacterial communities associated with M. leidyi display a clear variation over time that needs further investigation. Our results indicate that the bacterial communities associated with ctenophores are highly species- specific. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) 4. Two new genera, Austrocyphon and Tasmanocyphon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The related new genera Austrocyphon and Tasmanocyphon are erected for 42 small Australian marsh beetles resembling members of the genus Cyphon Paykull in habitus. They are distinguished from Cyphon. Only males are known of most species but for two of them larvae and pupae are also available. Austrocyphon species occur in all Australian Federal States, and one species is Australasian and shared with Papua New Guinea. The following species are included: Austrocyphon acaciae sp. n., A. aculeatus sp. n., A. acustropicus sp. n., A. adelaidae (Blackburn), A. asper sp. n., A. bidens sp. n., A. bifidus sp. n., A. charon sp. n., A. crinitus (Klausnitzer), A. curvispina, sp. n., A. deserticola sp. n., A. doctus (Lea), A. enigmaticus sp. n., A. excisus sp. n., A. fenestratus (Blackburn), A. flagellifer sp. n., A. furcatus sp. n., A. hamatus sp. n., A. harpago sp. n., A. leptophallus sp. n., A. linguatus sp. n., A. lobatus sp. n., A. neptunus sp. n., A. noctua sp. n., A. ovensensis (Blackburn), A. papilio sp. n., A. perdoctus sp. n., A. pictus (Blackburn), A. quadridens sp. n., A. quinquespinosus sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. setifer sp. n., A. spiculifer sp. n., A. stylatus sp. n., A. stylifer sp. n., A. submersus sp. n., A. tinea sp. n., A. tomweiri sp. n., A. tribulator sp. n., A. tropicus sp. n., A. unguiculatus sp. n., A. wattsi sp. n.Tasmanocyphon is endemic to Tasmania, and only the adult male is known. The genus is monotypic, including only T. heideae, sp. n.

  18. [Metabolites of Toxigenic Fungi in Lichens of the Genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2015-01-01

    The component composition of mycotoxin complexes is characterized in foliose lichens of the genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria. The interspecies differences in the genus Peltigera are expressed by the number of metabolites detected, from seven in P. aphthosa to three in P. canina, P. didactyla, P. praetextata, and P. rufescens. In Nephroma arcticum eight mycotoxins occurred regularly, with mycophenolic acid in especially high quantities in comparison with other lichens. In Umbilicaria, of six permanent components the content of alternariole is the highest, and in Xanthoria the content of emodine is the highest. Variation of the quantitative content of mycotoxins in general and of species of lichens is discussed, as is expansion of the background spectrum of these metabolites in collections from different territories.

  19. Isolation of fungi belonging to the genera Geotrichum and Trichosporum from human dermal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, A; De Uribe, L

    1976-08-30

    Isolates of Geotrichum and Trichosporum spp. obtained from patients with a variety of dermal lesions were studied. Among 2,202 cases examined, microorganisms of these genera were recovered from 100 (4,5%); there were 38 isolated of Geotrichum- and 62 of Trichosporum- spp. Most isolations were obtained from nails: 52 cases. The species most frequently found were T. beigelii (25 cases) and G. candidum (30 cases). In 50 of the patients, these fungi were isolated in pure culture, in an additional 40 Trichosporum spp. were found. Mixed cultures with C. albicans were observed in 28 patients, with other Candida spp. in 16 and with dermatophytes in 6. Among the patients whose isolations occurred in pure cultures, the number of colonies recovered was large in 20 cases, 1 with Geotrichum candidum - 19 with Trichosporum (16 T. beigelii, 3 T. capitatum). The relationship between the isolated yeast-like fungi and the dermal lesion was considered to be direct in these 20 patients.

  20. A taxonomic framework for cable bacteria and proposal of the candidate genera Electrothrix and Electronema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru;

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are long, multicellular filaments that can conduct electric currents over centimeter-scale distances. All cable bacteria identified to date belong to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and have not been isolated in pure culture yet. Their taxonomic delineation and exact......RNA gene sequences of 16 individual cable bacteria filaments from freshwater, salt marsh, and marine sites of four geographic locations are presented. These sequences formed a distinct, monophyletic sister clade to the genus Desulfobulbus and could be divided into six coherent, species-level clusters......, arranged as two genus-level groups. The same grouping was retrieved by phylogenetic analysis of full or partial dsrAB genes encoding the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. Based on these results, it is proposed to accommodate cable bacteria within two novel candidate genera: the mostly marine “Candidatus...

  1. 十字花科58属94种野生植物种子脂肪酸组分分析%Fatty Acid Analysis of the Seed Oil in a Germplasm Collection of 94 Species in 58 Genera of Brassicaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小芹; 庞慧; 郭建林; 彭斌; 自明明; 杭悦宇

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and their correlation with other quality traits in a germplasm collection of 94 species in 58 genu-ses of Brassicaceae were analyzed by the gas chromatography. The results showed that there were 13 kinds of main fatty acid components in seed oil. Their average contents were ranked from high to low as linolenic, erucic, linoleic, and oleic acids. There existed 10 pairs with extremely significant positive correlation between palmitics acid, and stearic acid, 11 pairs with extremely significant negative correlation between linolenic acid and erucic acid, 6 pairs with significant positive correlation between palmitic acid and linoleic acid, 4 pairs with, significant negative correlation between oleic acid and linolenic acid. As correlation coefficients reflecting the degree of relationship between some fatty acid pairs were relatively low, in these fatty acid pairs, only part or very few species were consistent with the corresponding relationship, or even none showed consistency with the relationship among 19 species with the highest or lowest fatty acid content. Some excellent gertnplasms were found with good development potentiality and application prospect, comprehensively as high oleic acid (L fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, etc. ) , high linoleic acid (O. Violaceus L. 0. E. Schulz, etc. ), zero erucic acid ( M. Africana ( Linnaeus) R. Brown, etc. ) , low linolenic acid (L. Annua L. , etc. ) , high oleic acid and low linolenic acid ( C. Hispanica L. , etc. ). High oleic acid and low erucic acid (O. Violaceus L. O. E. Schulz, etc. ) germplasms meeting the standard of edible oil and high erucic acid ( H. Rapa L , etc. ), and high linolenic acid (S. Eurycarpa ( Maxim. ) Botsch. Var. Brevistipes Y. C. Lan et T. Y. Cheo, etc. ) germplasms had important industrial uses. This study also laid a theoretical foundation for further exploration.%利用气相色谱法对十字花科58属94种野生植物种子进行了脂肪酸组分及含量测定,并对

  2. Historical relationships of three enigmatic phasianid genera (Aves: Galliformes) inferred using phylogenomic and mitogenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Hosner, Peter A; Liang, Bin; Braun, Edward L; Kimball, Rebecca T

    2017-04-01

    The phylogeny of the Phasianidae (pheasants, partridges, and allies) has been studied extensively. However, these studies have largely ignored three enigmatic genera because of scarce DNA source material and limited overlapping phylogenetic data: blood pheasants (Ithaginis), snow partridges (Lerwa), and long-billed partridges (Rhizothera). Thus, phylogenetic positions of these three genera remain uncertain in what is otherwise a well-resolved phylogeny. Previous studies using different data types place Lerwa and Ithaginis in similar positions, but the absence of overlapping data means the relationship between them could not be inferred. Rhizothera was originally described in the genus Perdix (true partridges), although a partial cytochrome b (CYB) sequence suggests it is sister to Pucrasia (koklass pheasant). To identify robust relationships among Ithaginis, Lerwa, Rhizothera, and their phasianid relatives, we used 3692 ultra-conserved element (UCE) loci and complete mitogenomes from 19 species including previously hypothesized relatives of the three focal genera and representatives from all major phasianid clades. We used DNA extracted from historical specimen toepads for species that lacked fresh tissue in museum collections. Maximum likelihood and multispecies coalescent UCE analyses strongly supported Lerwa sister to a large clade which included Ithaginis at its base, and also including turkey, grouse, typical pheasants, tragopans, Pucrasia, and Perdix. Rhizothera was also in this clade, sister to a diverse group comprising Perdix, typical pheasants, Pucrasia, turkey and grouse. Mitogenomic genealogies differed from UCEs topologies, supporting a sister relationship between Ithaginis and Lerwa rather than a grade. The position of Rhizothera using mitogenomes depended on analytical choices. Unpartitioned and codon-based analyses placed Rhizothera sister to a tragopan clade, whereas a partitioned DNA model of the mitogenome was congruent with UCE results. In all

  3. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanhua; Ericson, Per G P; Lei, Fumin; Gebauer, Axel; Kaiser, Martin; Helbig, Andreas J

    2006-07-01

    The snow finch complex (Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) has its center of distribution on the Tibetan plateau, with six out of seven species in the genera occurring there. Phylogenetic relationships among these six species of three genera have been studied based on DNA sequence data obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin gene. The results support monophyly of the snow finch complex group and three major evolutionary lineages are recognized. The first clade consists of ruficollis, blanfordi, and davidiana. These three taxa are sometimes placed in their own genus, Pyrgilauda, and the DNA data supports this. The three taxa nivalis, henrici, and adamsi have traditionally been placed in the genus Montifringilla, and they group together strongly in the present analysis. The results further suggest that nivalis and adamsi are more closely related to each other than are nivalis and henrici, despite that the latter two are often regarded as conspecific. The third distinct lineage within the snow finch complex consists of taczanowskii, which has been placed its own genus, Onychostruthus. This taxon has a basal position in the phylogenetic tree and is sister to all other snow finches. We estimated that taczanowskii split from the other taxa between 2 and 2.5 mya, i.e., about the time for the most recent uplift of the Tibetan plateau, "the Tibet movement", 3.6-1.7 mya. Cladogenesis within the Montifringilla and Pyrgilauda clades seems to be contemporary with the second phase of "Tibet movement" at 2.5 mya and the third phase at 1.7 mya and "Kunhuang movement" in 1.5-0.6 mya. The dramatic climatic and ecological changes following from the uplift of the Tibetan plateau, together with the cyclic contraction and expansion of suitable habitats during the Pleistocene, are probably the most important factors for the cladogenesis in snow finch complex.

  4. Sebaran Genera Nematoda Nonparasit Tumbuhan pada Kopi Arabika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Widowati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the diversity, and population abundance of non plant parasitic nematodes in the soil of Arabica coffee. The samples were taken from healthy and infected plants (those that have infection symptoms. The  research area taken at coffee plantation in blok I, II, III, IV, Bentaan, and VI at Afdeling Plalangan Blawan’s estate, Bondowoso, East Java. From each block ten plants were taken, five each for healthy and infected plants. Analysis of nematode population was done by whitehead tray technique modification method. Identification was done based on the characteristic of non- parasitic nematode. The results showed that the genera of non-parasitic nematodes found include Dorylaimus, Rhabditis, Aphelenchus, Acrobeles, and Mononchus. The non-parasitic nematodes population were found to be higher in healthy, rather than on the infected plants soil. The genus Rhabditis population in healthy plant was 86.61 nematodes/ 100 ml of soil, while in infected plants was 56.01 nematodes/100 ml of soil. The genus Dorylaimus population in healthy plant was 49.9 nematodes/100 ml of soil, while in infected plants was 95.6 nematodes/100 ml of soil. The genus Mononchus population in healthy plant was 53.00 nematodes/100 ml of soil, while in infected plants was 37.65 nematodes/ 100 ml of soil. The genera of Aphelenchus and Acrobeles populations were 98.28 nematodes/100 ml and 0.0792/100 ml of soil, respectively. Non-parasitic nematodes were more abundant in healthy soil than in infected soil.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman genera serta kelimpahan nematoda nonparasit pada tanah pertanaman kopi Arabika. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pengambilan sampel tanah yang diambil pada tanaman sehat dan tanaman yang menunjukkan gejala sakit terserang nematoda. Lahan pertanaman yang diamati Afdeling Plalangan, Kebun Blawan, Bondowoso, Jawa Timur. Masing-masing blok diambil sepuluh tanaman, mencakup lima tanaman sehat dan lima tanaman

  5. Revision of the family Chalcididae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) from Vietnam, with the description of 13 new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narendran, T.C.; Achterberg, van C.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 16 genera and 68 species of Chalcididae of Vietnam are taxonomically treated. Thirteen new species are described; the remaining 55 species are keyed, redescribed or provided with a diagnosis. Among these 37 species and eleven genera are recorded for the first time from Vietnam. The

  6. Seasonal water stress tolerance and habitat associations within four neotropical tree genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraloto, Christopher; Morneau, François; Bonal, Damien; Blanc, Lilian; Ferry, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    provides an explanation for the regional coexistence of these species pairs. We suggest that specialization to seasonally flooded habitats may explain patterns of adaptive radiation in many tropical tree genera and thereby provide a substantial contribution to regional tree diversity.

  7. Iranotrichia gen. n., a new genus of Scenopinidae (Diptera) from Iran, with a key to window fly genera of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Shaun L; Gharali, Babak

    2011-01-01

    An unusual new genus of Scenopinidae, Iranotrichia gen. n., comprising two newly discovered species (Iranotrichia insolitasp. n. and Iranotrichia nigrasp. n.), is described from Iran. Iranotrichiagen. n. are scenopinine window flies with a habitus reminiscent of certain bee fly genera (Bombyliidae), based on colouration and elongate mouthparts and antennae. The phylogenetic placement of this distinctive new genus is discussed and a dichotomous key to world genera is presented. The genus name Kelseyananom. n. is proposed to replace Caenoneura Kröber, 1924, which was found to be preoccupied by Thomson (1870: 270) (Hymenoptera) and Kirby (1890: 136) (Odonata).

  8. Iranotrichia gen. n., a new genus of Scenopinidae (Diptera from Iran, with a key to window fly genera of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Winterton

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An unusual new genus of Scenopinidae, Iranotrichia gen. n., comprising two newly discovered species (I. insolita sp. n. and I. nigra sp. n., is described from Iran. Iranotrichia gen. n. are scenopinine window flies with a habitus reminiscent of certain bee fly genera (Bombyliidae, based on colouration and elongate mouthparts and antennae. The phylogenetic placement of this distinctive new genus is discussed and a dichotomous key to world genera is presented. The genus name Kelseyana nom. n. is proposed to replace Caenoneura Kröber, 1924, which was found to be preoccupied by Thomson (1870: 270 (Hymenoptera and Kirby (1890: 136 (Odonata.

  9. The cranial osteology and feeding ecology of the metriorhynchid crocodylomorph genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the late Jurassic of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary 'lateral plates'; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger 'type' that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller 'type' that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item, while

  10. A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S; Blaimer, Bonnie B; Fisher, Brian L

    2016-02-02

    The classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae is revised to reflect findings from a recent molecular phylogenetic study and complementary morphological investigations. The existing classification is maintained as far as possible, but some tribes and genera are redefined to ensure monophyly. Eleven tribes are recognized, all of which are strongly supported as monophyletic groups: Camponotini, Formicini, Gesomyrmecini, Gigantiopini, Lasiini (= Prenolepidii syn. n.), Melophorini (= Myrmecorhynchini syn. n.; = Notostigmatini syn. n.), Myrmelachistini stat. rev. (= Brachymyrmicini syn. n.), Myrmoteratini, Oecophyllini, Plagiolepidini, and Santschiellini stat. rev. Most of the tribes remain similar in content, but the generic composition of Lasiini, Melophorini, and Plagiolepidini is changed substantially. Species that have been placed in the genus Camponotus belong to three separate lineages. To ensure monophyly of this large, cosmopolitan genus we institute the following changes: Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex, both former subgenera of Camponotus, are elevated to genus level (stat. rev.), and two former genera, Forelophilus and Phasmomyrmex, are demoted to subgenus status (stat. n. and stat. rev., respectively) under Camponotus; two erstwhile subgenera of Phasmomyrmex, Myrmorhachis and Myrmacantha, become junior synonyms (syn. n.) of Camponotus (Phasmomyrmex); and the Camponotus subgenus Myrmogonia becomes a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Colobopsis. Dinomyrmex, represented by a single species from southeast Asia, D. gigas, is quite distinctive, but Camponotus and Colobopsis exhibit more subtle differences, despite being well separated phylogenetically. We identify morphological features of the worker caste that are broadly useful for distinguishing these two genera. Colobopsis species on the islands of New Caledonia and Fiji-regions with few native Camponotus species-tend to exceed these diagnostic bounds, but in this case regionally applicable character differences can

  11. The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark T.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; de Andrade, Marco Brandalise; Desojo, Julia B.; Beatty, Brian L.; Steel, Lorna; Fernández, Marta S.; Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruiz-Omeñaca, Jose Ignacio; Schoch, Rainer R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary ‘lateral plates’; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes). Conclusions/Significance The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger ‘type’ that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller ‘type’ that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item), while Dakosaurus

  12. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genera Sparassis and Hericium cause wood decay. In the forests of Serbia and Montenegro 4 species are identified in the genus Sparassis, and 3 species in the genus Hericium. These fungi develop on physiologically weakened trees, recently killed trees and branch litter (windthrows, broken trees, logs, thick branches. Especially great damage in the stands of Pinus species can be caused by the fungus Sparassis crispa. This fungus colonizes the living trees through the root and causes the brown cubical rot of wood. The rot then spreads from the root to the heartwood and gradually occupies the lower, economically the most valuable part of the tree. In the young phase, the fruiting bodies of all the identified species are edible. Sparassis crispa and Hericium erinaceus excel by their nutritive value and today (in some countries they are even artificially cultivated.

  13. Evolution of bindin in the pantropical sea urchin Tripneustes: comparisons to bindin of other genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, K S; Lessios, H A

    2003-02-01

    Bindin, a sea urchin sperm protein, mediates sperm-egg attachment and membrane fusion and is thus important in species recognition and speciation. Patterns of bindin variation differed among three genera that had been studied previously. In two genera of the superorder Camarodonta, Echinometra and Strongylocentrotus, both of which contain sympatric species, bindin is highly variable within and between species; a region of the molecule evolves at high rates under strong positive selection. In Arbacia, which belongs to the superorder Stirodonta and whose extant species are all allopatric, bindin variation is low, and there is no evidence of positive selection. We cloned and sequenced bindin from Tripneustes, a sea urchin that belongs to the Camarodonta but whose three species are found in different oceans. Worldwide sampling of bindin alleles shows that the bindin of Tripneustes (1) contains the highly conserved core characteristic of all other bindins characterized to date, (2) has an intron in the same position, and (3) has approximately the same length. Its structure is more like that of bindin from other camarodont sea urchins than to bindin from the stirodont ARBACIA: The resemblances to other camarodonts include a glycine-rich repeat structure upstream of the core and lack of a hydrophobic domain 3' of the core, a characteristic of Arbacia bindin. Yet the mode of evolution of Tripneustes bindin is more like that of Arbacia. Differences between bindins of the Caribbean Tripneustes ventricosus and the eastern Pacific T. depressus, separated for 3 my by the Isthmus of Panama, are limited to four amino acid changes and a single indel. There are no fixed amino acid differences or indels between T. depressus from the eastern Pacific and T. gratilla from the Indo-Pacific. Bindin of Tripneustes, like that of Arbacia, also shows no evidence of diversifying selection that would manifest itself in a higher proportion of amino acid replacements than of silent nucleotide

  14. Hard and soft anatomy in two genera of Dondersiidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Solenogastres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M

    2012-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here.

  15. A review of scuttle fly genera of Israel (Diptera: Phoridae), with new records and an identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovski, Mike B

    2016-07-08

    A brief review of Israeli scuttle flies is given. The following genera are new records for the country: Arabiphora, Billotia, Chonocephalus, Menozziola, Phalacrotophora, Pseudacteon, Psyllomyia, and Puliciphora. Eighteen species-Arabiphora tenuifemorata, Chonocephalus depressus, Conicera floricola, Conicera similis, Gymnophora integralis, Gymnophora perpropinqua, Megaselia scalaris, Megaselia stigmatica, Menozziola schmitzi, Metopina formicomendicula, Phalacrotophora beuki, Phalacrotophora fasciata, Phora limpida, Phora tincta, Psyllomyia braunsi, Puliciphora rufipes, Spiniphora bergenstammi, and Tubicera lichtwardi-are added to the list of 56 phorid species previously known from Israel. Two species, Conicera similis and Megaselia scalaris, are recorded in association with the summer truffle Tuber aestivum commercially grown in northern Israel. The status of the Afrotropical Phora congolensis Beyer, 1965 is designated as nomen dubium. A lapsius calami, which led to an erroneous generic attribution of Metopina braueri in the paper on Israeli Metopina (Mostovski, 2016), is noted here. An identification key to the Israeli genera of scuttle flies, as well as notes on recognition and/or biology of individual species, are provided.

  16. Phalangopsidae crickets from Tropical Africa (Orthoptera, Grylloidea), with descriptions of new taxa and an identification key for African genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2015-04-22

    New Phalangopsidae crickets are described from tropical Africa, including three new genera and ten new species: Afrophaloria Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Afrophaloria amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Afrophaloria apiariensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Afrophaloria hempae Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria gabonensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria nigricornis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Kameruloria trimaculata Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Phasmagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Phasmagryllus elegans Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, Upupagryllus Desutter-Grandcolas, n.gen., Upupagryllus subalatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., type species, and Upupagryllus alatus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp. All these taxa, except Paragryllodes amani Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., belong to the subfamily Phaloriinae. The subfamily is redefined, to take into account their morphological (apterous taxa) and ecological (straminicolous taxa) diversity. A key for phalangopsid African genera is proposed, and the status of Larandeicus Chopard, 1937 briefly discussed.

  17. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ješovnik, Ana; González, Vanessa L; Schultz, Ted R

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-farming ("attine") ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6-66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly suggests that the

  18. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Yi, Zhenzhen; Xu, Dapeng; Clamp, John C; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

  19. Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety. Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

  20. Hebeloma species associated with Cistus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberhardt, U.; Beker, H.J.; Vila, J.; Vesterholt, J.; Llimona, X.; Gadjieva, R.

    2009-01-01

    The genus Hebeloma has a number of species highly specific to Cistus and others that occur with several host genera. This paper discusses the species of Hebeloma that appear to be ectomycorrhizal with Cistus, judging from their occurrence when Cistus is the only available host. The previously

  1. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae with resurrections of the genera Stigmatomma and Xymmer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available In a male-based revision of ants of the subfamily Amblyoponinae from the Southwest Indian Ocean islands (SWIO: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, and Seychelles, we explore and reconsider male morphological characters that distinguish genera within the group. Our investigation redefines Amblyopone Erichson sensu Brown (1960, here referred to as Amblyopone sensu lato, into three genera: Xymmer Santschi stat. rev.,Amblyopone sensu stricto, Stigmatomma Roger stat. rev. All species names under Amblyopone s. l. reassign into Xymmer and Amblyopone s. s., which are small, well-defined genera, and Stigmatomma, a large group with a generic delimitation that still needs further refinement. Based on a study of male mandible characters and our scenario for mandibular evolution of the worker caste within Amblyopone s. l, we conclude that Amblyopone s. s. nests outside of XMAS (Xymmer+Mystrium+Adetomyrma+Stigmatomma clade. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Xymmer as comb. rev.: muticus. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Stigmatomma as comb. rev.: amblyops, armigerum, bellii, bierigi, bruni, celata, chilense, denticulatum, elongatum, emeryi, feae, impressifrons, luzonicum, minuta, normandi, oregonense, pallipes, quadratum, reclinatum, rothneyi, santschii, saundersi, silvestrii, zwaluwenburgi; as comb. nov.: agostii, annae, besucheti, boltoni, caliginosum, cleae, crenatum, degeneratum, egregium, electrinum, eminia, exiguum, falcatum, ferrugineum, fulvidum, gaetulicum, gingivalis, glauerti, gnoma, gracile, groehni, heraldoi, lucidum, lurilabes, monrosi, mystriops, noonadan, octodentatum, ophthalmicum, orizabanum, papuanum, pertinax, pluto, punctulatum, rubiginoum, sakaii, smithi, trigonignathum, trilobum, wilsoni, zaojun, and testaceum. A male-based key to the genera of Malagasy amblyoponine ants, their diagnoses, and a discussion of the evolution of the morphological character of males in the

  2. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with resurrections of the genera Stigmatomma and Xymmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Masashi; Fisher, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    In a male-based revision of ants of the subfamily Amblyoponinae from the Southwest Indian Ocean islands (SWIO: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, and Seychelles), we explore and reconsider male morphological characters that distinguish genera within the group. Our investigation redefines Amblyopone Erichson sensu Brown (1960), here referred to as Amblyopone sensu lato, into three genera: Xymmer Santschi stat. rev.,Amblyopone sensu stricto, Stigmatomma Roger stat. rev. All species names under Amblyopone s. l. reassign into Xymmer and Amblyopone s. s., which are small, well-defined genera, and Stigmatomma, a large group with a generic delimitation that still needs further refinement. Based on a study of male mandible characters and our scenario for mandibular evolution of the worker caste within Amblyopone s. l, we conclude that Amblyopone s. s. nests outside of XMAS (Xymmer+Mystrium+Adetomyrma+Stigmatomma) clade. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Xymmer as comb. rev.: muticus. The following names are transferred from Amblyopone s. l. to Stigmatomma as comb. rev.: amblyops, armigerum, bellii, bierigi, bruni, celata, chilense, denticulatum, elongatum, emeryi, feae, impressifrons, luzonicum, minuta, normandi, oregonense, pallipes, quadratum, reclinatum, rothneyi, santschii, saundersi, silvestrii, zwaluwenburgi; as comb. nov.: agostii, annae, besucheti, boltoni, caliginosum, cleae, crenatum, degeneratum, egregium, electrinum, eminia, exiguum, falcatum, ferrugineum, fulvidum, gaetulicum, gingivalis, glauerti, gnoma, gracile, groehni, heraldoi, lucidum, lurilabes, monrosi, mystriops, noonadan, octodentatum, ophthalmicum, orizabanum, papuanum, pertinax, pluto, punctulatum, rubiginoum, sakaii, smithi, trigonignathum, trilobum, wilsoni, zaojun, and testaceum. A male-based key to the genera of Malagasy amblyoponine ants, their diagnoses, and a discussion of the evolution of the morphological character of males in the subfamily are

  3. Habitat preference of Zoantharia genera depends on host sponge morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies about sponge-zoanthid symbioses have been focused on understanding the specificity of the association, rather thantesting what are the characteristics that make the host suitable to be colonized. For the first time it is investigated whether the ZoanthariaParazoanthus and Epizoanthus preference is related to the host sponge morphology (shape and mechanical resistance. Materials andmethods. Sponges were categorized according to their shape and mechanical resistance. The presence/absence of zoanthids was recordedin 1,068 sponges at San Andres Island, and their habitat preference was evaluated using indices and confidence intervals. Results. 85Parazoanthus colonies (78% of the total associations and 24 Epizoanthus colonies (22% were associated to sponges (10.2% in total.Parazoanthus uses branched and compressible sponges although prefers encrusting and fragile sponges, while Epizoanthus showes theopposite pattern, it can inhabit encrusting and fragile sponges but prefers branched and compressible sponges. Conclusion. These resultsindicated that sponge morphology is an important trait in zoanthid habitat selection. On the other hand, the similarity in the habitat used byzoanthids suggests the possibility of inter-generic competition if common resources are limited in time and space, while the differentialhabitat preference allows the competitive coexistence of both genera.

  4. A new family and four new genera in Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Davis, William J

    2015-01-01

    Many chytrid phylogenies contain lineages representing a lone taxon or a few organisms. One such lineage in recent molecular phylogenies of Rhizophydiales contained two marine chytrids, Rhizophydium littoreum and Rhizophydium aestuarii. To better understand the relationship between these organisms, we increased sampling such that the R. littoreum/R. aestuarii lineage included 10 strains of interest. To place this lineage in Rhizophydiales, we constructed a molecular phylogeny from partial nuc 28S rDNA D1-D3 domains (28S) of these and 80 additional strains in Rhizophydiales and examined thallus morphology and zoospore ultrastructure of our strains of interest. We also analyzed sequences of the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS) of our 10 strains of interest to assess sequence similarity and phylogenetic placement of strains within the lineage. The 10 strains grouped together in three well supported clades: (i) Rhizophydium littoreum+Phlyctochytrium mangrovei, (ii) three strains of Rhizophydium aestuarii and (iii) five previously unidentified strains. Light microscopic observations revealed four distinct thallus morphologies, and zoospore ultrastructural analyses revealed four distinct constellations of ultrastructural features. On the bases of morphological, ultrastructural and molecular evidence we place these strains in the new family Halomycetaceae and four new genera (Halomyces, Paludomyces, Ulkenomyces, Paranamyces) in Rhizophydiales. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Descriptions of some new genera and species of Phytophagous Coleoptera contained in the Leyden Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacoby, Martin

    1887-01-01

    Black; head and thorax impunctate; elytra very finely punctured, flavous, a sutural triangular patch from the middle to the apices, as well as a small spot at the apex of each elytron, black. — Length 2 1/2 lines. Head entirely impunctate, the frontal tubercles strongly raised, the carina short but

  6. Species of Ganoderma and related genera mainly of the Bogor and Leiden Herbaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyaert, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    This contribution to the knowledge of the Aphyllophorales is dedicated to Dr. M. A. Donk as a tribute to his life-long endeavour to put the systematics and the taxonomy of this challenging order on a sound basis. A collection of South Asian specimens of Ganoderma and various other collections have b

  7. Revision of the Lauraceae II. The genera Endlicheria, Cryptocarya (American species) and Licaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1937-01-01

    Endlicheria Nees (non Presl) in Linnaea 8 (1833), p. 37; id., Progr. (1833), p. 16; id., Syst. (1836), p. 365; Endl., Gen. (1837), p. 321; id., Ench. (1841), p. 197; Dietrich, Synops. Pl. 2 (1840), p. 1332, 1350; Spach, Hist. nat. Végét. X (1841), p. 473; Steudel, Nomencl. ed. 2 (1841), p. 554; Meis

  8. Species of Ganoderma and related genera mainly of the Bogor and Leiden Herbaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyaert, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    This contribution to the knowledge of the Aphyllophorales is dedicated to Dr. M. A. Donk as a tribute to his life-long endeavour to put the systematics and the taxonomy of this challenging order on a sound basis. A collection of South Asian specimens of Ganoderma and various other collections have

  9. Studies in resupinate Basidiomycetes—V. Some new genera and species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jülich, W.

    1978-01-01

    Crustomyces The following new taxa are proposed: Australohydnum gen. nov. (based on Hydnum griseo-fuscescens Reich.), Ceraceohydnum brunneum gen. et spec. nov. gen. nov. (based on Odontia subabrupta Bourd. & Galz.), Megalocystidium gen. nov. (based on Corticium leucoxanthum Bres.), Phlebiopsis gen.

  10. New genera and species of antipatharian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the North Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opresko, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    New taxa of deep water antipatharian corals of the North Pacific are described. Represented in the family Schizopathidae are: Bathypathes seculata spec. nov.; Umbellapathes gen. nov.; U. helioanthes spec. nov.; U. bipinnata spec. nov.; Dendrobathypathes boutillieri spec. nov.; D. fragilis spec. nov.

  11. Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lom, Jirí; Dyková, Iva

    2006-01-01

    ...; altogether, 17 actinospore collective groups with 180 types have been described. Life cycles of the two classes of the phylum Myxozoa, Malacosporea and Myxosporea, are briefly outlined with specification of the appropriate terms...

  12. Revision of the Lauraceae II. The genera Endlicheria, Cryptocarya (American species) and Licaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1937-01-01

    Endlicheria Nees (non Presl) in Linnaea 8 (1833), p. 37; id., Progr. (1833), p. 16; id., Syst. (1836), p. 365; Endl., Gen. (1837), p. 321; id., Ench. (1841), p. 197; Dietrich, Synops. Pl. 2 (1840), p. 1332, 1350; Spach, Hist. nat. Végét. X (1841), p. 473; Steudel, Nomencl. ed. 2 (1841), p. 554;

  13. Phyllotactic spectra in cacti: Mammilaria species and some genera from Rebutia group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Gola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllotaxis of globular or hemispheric cacti from Mammillaria genus and from Rebutia group shows the significant differences between the two groups. An extremely wide spectrum of phyllotaxis with many infrequent patterns has been found in Rebutia group while in Mammilluria genus it appears to be quite narrow with the main Fibonacci pattern dominant. Therefore one of possible factors responsible for these differences might be a genetic one. Ontogenetic transformations of phyllotaxis both continuous (quantitative and discontinuous (qualitative have been found in studied cacti. These developmental events together with dichotomy frequently occurring in some taxa increase the level of phyllotaxis diversity. As more than one expression of the pattern occurred due to continuous transformations in many studied cacti - the numbers of opposite spirals can no longer be treated as a feature of the diagnostic value in cactus taxonomy. Because of intense developmental changes significant is rather a range of phyllotaxis diversity (phyllotactic spectrum than a single pattern or its expression in a given taxon.

  14. [Stability in drinking and surface water of nine virus species from different genera (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnel, H; Ottis, K; Herlyn, M

    1977-01-01

    The stability of nine viruses, Aujeszky, Sindbis, Vesicular Stomatitis, Newcastle Disease, Vaccinia, FMD, HCC, Reo and Teschen virus in drinking and surface water was investigated comparatively at temperatures of 9 and 15 degrees C as well as the influence of water factors like seasonal difference in temperature, pH value, hardness and sort of water. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. At temperatures of 9 to 15 degrees C the majority of the viruses remained stabil in natural water for an astonishing long time. 2. Starting with virus concentration of about 10(4) infectious units per ml Teschen, Vaccinia, Reo, HCC and ND virus could mostly be demonstrated in water longer than 200 days and FMD, Aujeszky, Vesicular Stomatitis and Sindbis virus for 20 to 50 days on average at 9 degrees C. The stability of the viruses investigated decreased in water in the named turn. 3. Based on these results it can be assumed that under natural conditions with very low virus content of some particles the labile viruses such as Toga, Herpes, Rhabdo and pH labile Picorna remain infectious in water for some days. They should not have any importance as water contaminants. More resistant viruses like Paramyxo may keep infectious for weeks and very stabile viruses such as Entero, Reo, Adeno and Pox viruses several weeks to months. 4. As to factors temperature, pH, hardness and sort of water-within the naturally differing range-only the temperature and only in the case of less resistant viruses showed significant influence on the virus stability in water.

  15. NOTES ON TWO LEGUMINOUS GENERA FROM EASTERN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. A new monotypic genus, Kalappia Kostermans, is established for a tree of commercial importance from Celebes, K. celebica Kostermans. The genus is assigned to Caesalpiniaceae (Tribus Cassiae. 2. The Papilionaceous genus Desmofischera Holth. (only species: D.monosperma Holth. is reduced to a synonym of Monarthrocarpus Merr. [only species: M. securiformis (Benth. Merr.]. Additional collections, from Morotai, are cited.

  16. NOTES ON TWO LEGUMINOUS GENERA FROM EASTERN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-01-01

    1. A new monotypic genus, Kalappia Kostermans, is established for a tree of commercial importance from Celebes, K. celebica Kostermans. The genus is assigned to Caesalpiniaceae (Tribus Cassiae). 2. The Papilionaceous genus Desmofischera Holth. (only species: D.monosperma Holth.) is reduced to a synonym of Monarthrocarpus Merr. [only species: M. securiformis (Benth.) Merr.]. Additional collections, from Morotai, are cited.

  17. Two new genera of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veron E. Thatcher

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda, Digenea are described from freshwater fish of Rondônia State, Brazil. Pronamphistoma cichlasomae gen. et sp. nov. from Cichlasoma severum (Heckel is characterized as having a small, robust body with an anterior collar-like expansion, diverticula within the wall of the oral sucker and vitellaria in lateral fanshaped configurations. Micramphistoma ministoma gen. et sp. nov. from Hypopomus sp lacks oral diverticula, has anteriorly situated parallel tests and a very small postero-ventral acebtabulum. Neither of the new forms closely resembles any known genus.

  18. Share of aflatoxigenic moulds from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium in mycopopulations isolated from spices for meat processing industry

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    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of this paper show share of aflatoxigenic moulds from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium in mycopopulations isolated from spices that are often used in meat processing (ground pepper, dried peppercorn, paprika powder, caraway and laurel. Using standard mycological methods, it has been found that all the examined samples were contaminated by Aspergillus species, and further 50% by Penicillium species. Additionally, aflatoxigenic moulds A. flavus and A. niger were found to be present. A. flavus was present with 60% in the samples of dried peppercorn 2; paprika powder 2, while its frequencies in ground pepper 1 and laurel were 50% and 28,5%. respectively. A. niger made up 50% of all the isolates of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, isolated from paprika powder 1, although its share in the samples of laurel, paprika powder 2 and ground pepper 1 was 43%, 20% and 10% respectively.

  19. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

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    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  20. Relationships in Ananas and other related genera using chloroplast DNA restriction site variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, M F; Buso, G S C; Ferreira, F R; Noyer, J L; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G; Hamon, P; Ferreira, M E

    2003-12-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was examined using PCR-RFLP to study phylogenetic relationships in Ananas and related genera. One hundred fifteen accessions representing the seven Ananas species and seven other Bromelioideae including the neighboring monospecific genus Pseudananas, two Pitcairnioideae, and one Tillandsioideae were included in the study. Eight primers designed from cpDNA were used for generating fragments. Restriction by 18 endonucleases generated 255 variable fragments. Dissimilarities were calculated from the resulting matrix using the Sokal and Michener index and the neighbor-joining method was used to reconstruct the diversity tree. Phylogenetic reconstruction was attempted using Wagner parsimony. Phenetic and cladistic analyses gave consistent results. They confirm the basal position of Bromelia in the Bromelioideae. Ananas and Pseudananas form a monophyletic group, with three strongly supported sub-groups, two of which are geographically consistent. The majority of Ananas parguazensis accessions constitute a northern group restricted to the Rio Negro and Orinoco basins in Brazil. The tetraploid Pseudananas sagenarius joins the diploid Ananas fritzmuelleri to constitute a southern group. The third and largest group, which includes all remaining species plus some accessions of A. parguazensis and intermediate phenotypes, is the most widespread and its distribution overlaps those of the northern and southern groups. Ananas ananassoides is dominant in this sub-group and highly variable. Its close relationship to all cultivated species supports the hypothesis that this species is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pineapple. The data indicate that gene flow is common within this group and scarcer with both the first and second groups. Comparison of cpDNA data with published genomic DNA data point to the hybrid origin of Ananas bracteatus and support the autopolyploidy of Pseudananas. The Ananas-Pseudananas group structure and distribution are

  1. Conserved signature indels and signature proteins as novel tools for understanding microbial phylogeny and systematics: identification of molecular signatures that are specific for the phytopathogenic genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Brenneria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Hafiz Sohail; Lee, Brian; Gupta, Radhey S

    2014-02-01

    Genome sequences are enabling applications of different approaches to more clearly understand microbial phylogeny and systematics. Two of these approaches involve identification of conserved signature indels (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) that are specific for different lineages. These molecular markers provide novel and more definitive means for demarcation of prokaryotic taxa and for identification of species from these groups. Genome sequences are also enabling determination of phylogenetic relationships among species based upon sequences for multiple proteins. In this work, we have used all of these approaches for studying the phytopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Brenneria. Members of these genera, which cause numerous diseases in important food crops and ornamental plants, are presently distinguished mainly on the basis of their branching in phylogenetic trees. No biochemical or molecular characteristic is known that is uniquely shared by species from these genera. Hence, detailed studies using the above approaches were carried out on proteins from the genomes of these bacteria to identify molecular markers that are specific for them. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 23 conserved proteins, members of the genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Brenneria formed a strongly supported clade within the other Enterobacteriales. Comparative analysis of protein sequences from the Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Brenneria genomes has identified 10 CSIs and five CSPs that are either uniquely or largely found in all genome-sequenced species from these genera, but not present in any other bacteria in the database. In addition, our analyses have identified 10 CSIs and 17 CSPs that are specifically present in either all or most sequenced Dickeya species/strains, and six CSIs and 19 CSPs that are uniquely found in the sequenced Pectobacterium genomes. Finally, our analysis also identified three CSIs

  2. Spionidae (Annelida: 'Polychaeta': Canalipalpata) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Karin; Götting, Miriam

    2015-09-18

    Seven species belonging to the spionid genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes were found during the polychaete workshop on Lizard Island in August 2013. One species is new to science and named Scolelepis inversa n. sp., another Scolelepis species is probably also a new species but was represented in our samples by only a single specimen and not formally described. All other species have been reported previously from Australia. Species diagnoses of all species found during the workshop and of Scolelepis balihaiensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1979, Microspio microcera (Dorsey, 1977) and M. minuta (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) have been critically reviewed and amended based on the study of type material. The potential synonymy of Microspio minuta (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) and M. microcera (Dorsey, 1977) is discussed. The new combination Spio jirkovi (Sikorski, 1992) proposed by Sikorski (2013) is returned to Malacoceros. We added DNA barcodes for five species collected in the Lizard Island area to public databases which will be useful in future phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. For Microspio we provide the first sequence data for this genus.

  3. Evolutionary physiology: the extent of C4 and CAM photosynthesis in the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia of the Portulacaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Lonnie J; Cline, Amanda; Smith, Monica; Sage, Rowan F

    2008-01-01

    The Portulacaceae is one of the few terrestrial plant families known to have both C(4) and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. There may be multiple origins of the evolution of CAM within the Portulacaceae but the only clear evidence of C(4) photosynthesis is found in members of the genus Portulaca. In the Portulaca, CAM succulent tissue is overlaid with the C(4) tissue in a unique fashion where both pathways are operating simultaneously. Earlier reports have shown that the clade containing the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia may also contain C(4) photosynthetic species similar to the Portulaca, which would indicate multiple origins of C(4) photosynthesis within the family. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the true photosynthetic nature of these genera. An initial survey of the carbon isotope composition of the Anacampseros ranged from -12.6 per thousand to -24.0 per thousand, indicating very little CAM activity in some species, with other values close to the C(4) range. Anacampseros (=Grahamia) australiana which had been previously identified as a C(4) species had a carbon isotope composition value of -24.0 per thousand, which is more indicative of a C(3) species with a slight contribution of CAM activity. Other Anacampseros species with C(4)-like values have been shown to be CAM plants. The initial isotope analysis of the Grahamia species gave values in the range of -27.1 per thousand to -23.6 per thousand, placing the Grahamia species well towards the C(3) photosynthetic range. Further physiological studies indicated increased night-time CO(2) uptake with imposition of water stress, associated with a large diurnal acid fluctuation and a marked increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. This showed that the Grahamia species are actually facultative CAM plants despite their C(3)-like carbon isotope values. The results indicate that the Grahamia and Anacampseros species do not utilize the C(4) photosynthetic pathway. This is the first

  4. Pantanalinema gen. nov. and Alkalinema gen. nov.: novel pseudanabaenacean genera (Cyanobacteria) isolated from saline-alkaline lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Malone, Camila Francieli Silva; Sant'Anna, Célia Leite; Barbiero, Laurent; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The genus Leptolyngbya Anagnostidis & Komárek (1988) was described from a set of strains identified as 'LPP-group B'. The morphology within this group is not particularly informative and underestimates the group's genetic diversity. In the present study, two new pseudanabaenacean genera related to Leptolyngbya morphotypes, Pantanalinema gen. nov. and Alkalinema gen. nov., are described under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants, based on a polyphasic approach. Pantanalinema gen. nov. (type species Pantanalinema rosaneae sp. nov.) has sheaths and trichomes with slight gliding motility, which distinguish this genus from Alkalinema gen. nov. (type species Alkalinema pantanalense sp. nov.), which possesses trichomes arranged in an ornate (interwoven) pattern. 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains of Pantanalinema and Alkalinema exhibited low identity to each other (≤91.6 %) and to other sequences from known pseudanabaenacean genera (≤94.3 and 93.7 %, respectively). In a phylogenetic reconstruction, six sequences from strains of Pantanalinema and four from strains of Alkalinema formed two separate and robust clades (99 % bootstrap value), with the genera Oculatella and Phormidesmis, respectively, as the closest related groups. 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences and secondary structures of strains of Pantanalinema and Alkalinema did not correspond to any previous descriptions. The strains of Pantanalinema and Alkalinema were able to survive and produce biomass at a range of pH (pH 4-11) and were also able to alter the culture medium to pH values ranging from pH 8.4 to 9.9. These data indicate that cyanobacterial communities in underexplored environments, such as the Pantanal wetlands, are promising sources of novel taxa.

  5. PRELIMINARY REVISIONS OF SOME GENERA OF MALAYSIAN PAPILIONACEAE II

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    MS van Meeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The revisions or notes have been prepared by Miss M. S. van Meeuwen, except for those of Pseudarthria and Sophora by C. G. G. J. van Steenis, and Tephrosia by J. Stemmerik. In Alysicarpus 4 species are distinguished in Malaysia; a key, synonymy, and discussion are given.Lourea Desv., being a homonym, has, according to Dr. Bakhuizen van den Brink, to be replaced by Christia; a key and discussion is given of 4 Malaysian species; 5 new combinations are proposed. Under Desmodium the variability of D. heterocarpon (L. DC. and its full synonymy are discussed; one new variety is proposed; an enumeration of specimens of both varieties is given. D. ormooarpoides DC. and D. zonatum Miq. are two sharply distinct species which have been confused in the past; a key, synonyms, discussion, and enumeration of specimens ;; j are provided. The discrimination of D. sequax Wall, and D. viegaphyllum Zoll. is discussed and their synonymy given; specimens have been enumerated. Distribution is given of D. scorpiurus (Sw. Desv. and D. tor-tuosum (Sw.   DC. Psoraleai is revised for Malaysia where 4 species are recorded and keyed out; a fifth species must remain dubious, as the type could not be traced in the Paris Herbarium. Of Pseudarthria only one species occurs in Malaysia; its synonymy and distribution is given.Sophora longipes Merr.; an endemic species from the Philippines, is recorded for Timor. Of Tephro&ia maculata M. & P., from Papua, the synonymy is given and specimens enumerated; T. brachystachys Laut. & K. Seh. is reduced. Notes and distribution are given of T. zollingeri Backer. For T. mollie . Val., a later homonym, the new name T. papuana is proposed.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the family Vorticellidae (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) using combined datasets with a special emphasis on the three morphologically similar genera Carchesium, Epicarchesium and Apocarchesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Clamp, John C; Xu, Dapeng; Kusuoka, Yasushi; Hori, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the phylogeny of the family Vorticellidae at the generic level because few comprehensive analyses of molecular phylogenetic relationships between members of this group have, so far, been done. As a result, the phylogenetic positions of some genera that were based originally on morphological analyses remain controversial. In the present study, we performed phylogenetic analyses of vorticellids based on the sequence of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, including one species of the genus Apocarchesium, for which no sequence has previously been reported. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with SSU rRNA gene sequences by using four different methods (Bayesian analysis, maximum-likelihood, neighbour-joining and maximum-parsimony) and had a consistent branching pattern. Members of the genera Vorticella (except V. microstoma) and Carchesium formed a clearly defined, well supported clade that was divergent from the clade comprising members of the genera Pseudovorticella and Epicarchesium, suggesting that the differences in the silverline system (transverse vs reticulate) among vorticellids may be the result of genuine evolutionary divergence. Members of the newly established genus Apocarchesium clustered within the family Vorticellidae basal to the clade containing members of the genera Pseudovorticella and Epicarchesium and were distinct from members of the genus Carchesium, supporting the validity of Apocarchesium as a novel genus. Additional phylogenetic analyses of 21 strains representing seven genera from the families Vorticellidae and Zoothamniidae were performed with single datasets (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, ITS2 alone) and combined datasets (SSU rRNA+ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, SSU rRNA+ITS2) to explore further the phylogenetic relationship between the three morphologically similar genera Carchesium, Epicarchesium and Apocarchesium, using characteristics not included in previous analyses. The phylogenetic trees reconstructed with combined datasets were more

  7. The Philippine Rubiaceae genera: updated synopsis in INTKEY databases of the DELTA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alejandro, G.D.; Liede, S.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in generic concepts and delimitation resulted in 80 genera (6 of which are cultivated) of Philippine Rubiaceae. Generic descriptions of all genera are coded in DELTA format (Version 2000) and translated by the directive CONFOR into INTKEY database for interactive identification and

  8. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  9. Seed atlas of the monocotyledonous genera of the páramo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melcher, I.M.; Bouman, F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The dispersal units as seeds and fruits of the monocotyledonous genera in the paramo of equatorial America are described and illustrated with SEM photos. The monocotyledonous genera are mainly of neotropical and to a lesser extent of wide-temperate origin. Wind is the main dispersal vector and

  10. Wood Anatomy in Several Genera of Nigerian Annonaceae

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    Olatunji Olusanya OLATUNJI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristic of the wood of Annona muricata, A. senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, A. glauca, A. squamosa, Cleistopholis patens, Monodora tenuifolia and Greenwayodendron suaviolis were investigated in search of their stable taxonomic attribute. Thirty-two wood samples were collected from eight species of Annonnaceae (four specimens each. Fixation of the most healthy and fresh wood of each species was done using 500 ml of FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid and dehydrated in a series of ethanol while infiltration was done using tertiary-butyl-alcohol prepared in accordance with Johansen’s method. The sectioning was carried out with a rotary microtome and the slide containing the wood samples were examined using power shots s70 camera attached to computer. The results revealed several interesting wood anatomical features such as the presence of numerous fibre, ray cells, vessels, absence of axial parenchyma in some species, growth ring ranges from distinct to indistinct. Rays are composed of upright cells in A. muricata, fibre tracheid are also uncommon in A. muricata but common in G. suaviolis. Axial parenchyma are common in A. glauca and A. squamosa but absent in other species. The wood structure of A. glauca and A. squamosa are similar to that of C. patens, but the absence of axial parenchyma distinguished it from them. The results are important in understanding the relationships between and within the species.

  11. Wood Anatomy in Several Genera of Nigerian Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Olusanya OLATUNJI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristic of the wood of Annona muricata, A. senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, A. glauca, A. squamosa, Cleistopholis patens, Monodora tenuifolia and Greenwayodendron suaviolis were investigated in search of their stable taxonomic attribute. Thirty-two wood samples were collected from eight species of Annonnaceae (four specimens each. Fixation of the most healthy and fresh wood of each species was done using 500 ml of FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid and dehydrated in a series of ethanol while infiltration was done using tertiary-butyl-alcohol prepared in accordance with Johansen’s method. The sectioning was carried out with a rotary microtome and the slide containing the wood samples were examined using power shots s70 camera attached to computer. The results revealed several interesting wood anatomical features such as the presence of numerous fibre, ray cells, vessels, absence of axial parenchyma in some species, growth ring ranges from distinct to indistinct. Rays are composed of upright cells in A. muricata, fibre tracheid are also uncommon in A. muricata but common in G. suaviolis. Axial parenchyma are common in A. glauca and A. squamosa but absent in other species. The wood structure of A. glauca and A. squamosa are similar to that of C. patens, but the absence of axial parenchyma distinguished it from them. The results are important in understanding the relationships between and within the species.

  12. Proposal of the genera Anaerococcus gen. nov., Peptoniphilus gen. nov. and Gallicola gen. nov. for members of the genus Peptostreptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, T; Kawamura, Y; Li, N; Li, Z Y; Zhao, L; Shu, S

    2001-07-01

    Members of genus Peptostreptococcus have previously been found to be distantly related to the type species, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence similarities. They were divided into three major phylogenetic groups, and their peptidoglycan structure and biochemical traits differed between groups. The reclassification of the species of these three groups into three new genera, Peptoniphilus gen. nov., Anaerococcus gen. nov. and Gallicola gen. nov., is proposed. The genus Peptoniphilus gen. nov. includes the following butyrate-producing, non-saccharolytic species that use peptone and amino acids as major energy sources: Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus comb. nov. (type species), Peptoniphilus lacrimaris comb. nov., Peptoniphilus harei comb. nov., Peptoniphilus indolicus comb. nov. and Peptoniphilus ivorii comb. nov. The genus Anaerococcus gen. nov. contains the saccharolytic, butyrate-producing species Anaerococcus prevotii comb. nov. (type species), Anaerococcus tetradius comb. nov., Anaerococcus lactolyticus comb. nov., Anaerococcus hydrogenalis comb. nov., Anaerococcus vaginalis comb. nov. and Anaerococcus octavius sp. nov. The genus Gallicola gen. nov. contains a single species, Gallicola barnesae comb. nov.

  13. Multigene Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeographic Diversification of the Earth Tongue Fungi in the Genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zai-Wei; Yang, Zhu L.; Pfister, Donald H.; Carbone, Matteo; Bau, Tolgor; Smith, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the “earth tongue fungi” in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1α sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e.g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America. PMID:25084276

  14. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

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    L. E. Codd

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  15. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  16. Definition and Revision of the Orthrius-group of genera (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae

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    Robert Gerstmeier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An “Orthrius-group” of genera is proposed, and defined to include Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885; Caridopus Schenkling, 1908; Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842; Gyponyx Gorham, 1883; Languropilus Pic, 1940; Orthrius Gorham, 1876; Pieleus Pic, 1940; Xenorthrius Gorham, 1892; plus three new genera Neorthrius gen. n., Nonalatus gen. n. and Pseudoastigmus gen. n. A phylogeny of the 11 constituent Orthrius-group genera (analysis of 22 morphological characters using Clerus Geoffroy as the out-group taxon was performed with TNT v1.1 is proposed. Four genera are synonymised: Burgeonus Pic, 1950, syn. n. (with Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885; Brinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. and Quasibrinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. (both with Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842; and Dedana Fairmaire, 1888, syn. n. (with Orthrius Gorham, 1876. The genera Falsoorthrius Pic, 1940 and Mimorthrius Pic, 1940 are transferred from Clerinae to the subfamily Tillinae.

  17. Descriptions of two new genera of the spider family Caponiidae (Arachnida, Araneae) and an update of Tisentnops and Taintnops from Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D.; Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract New members of the spider family Caponiidae from Brazil and Chile are presented. Three new species in previously known genera are described: Taintnops paposo sp. n. from Chile, and the Brazilian Tisentnops mineiro sp. n. and Tisentnops onix sp. n., both belonging to a genus known only from its damaged type. Additionally, two new non–nopine Brazilian genera are proposed: Nasutonops gen. n. including three new species: Nasutonops chapeu sp. n., Nasutonops sincora sp. n. and Nasutonops xaxado sp. n.; and Carajas gen. n., known only from the type species Carajas paraua sp. n. Both new genera have entire, rather than sub-segmented tarsi. Therefore, they are not included in the caponiid subfamily Nopinae. Nasutonops gen. n. is characterized by the presence of a projected clypeal horn, unique among caponiids. Additionally, the first blind caponiids are described: Tisentnops mineiro sp. n. from the state of Minas Gerais and Carajas paraua sp. n. from the state of Pará. Both of these species are found only in caves and completely lack eyes. PMID:27843380

  18. Descriptions of two new genera of the spider family Caponiidae (Arachnida, Araneae and an update of Tisentnops and Taintnops from Brazil and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Brescovit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New members of the spider family Caponiidae from Brazil and Chile are presented. Three new species in previously known genera are described: Taintnops paposo sp. n. from Chile, and the Brazilian Tisentnops mineiro sp. n. and Tisentnops onix sp. n., both belonging to a genus known only from its damaged type. Additionally, two new non–nopine Brazilian genera are proposed: Nasutonops gen. n. including three new species: N. chapeu sp. n., N. sincora sp. n. and N. xaxado sp. n.; and Carajas gen. n., known only from the type species C. paraua sp. n. Both new genera have entire, rather than sub-segmented tarsi. Therefore, they are not included in the caponiid subfamily Nopinae. Nasutonops gen. n. is characterized by the presence of a projected clypeal horn, unique among caponiids. Additionally, the first blind caponiids are described: Tisentnops mineiro sp. n. from the state of Minas Gerais and Carajas paraua sp. n. from the state of Pará. Both of these species are found only in caves and completely lack eyes.

  19. Ultrastructural, protein composition, and antigenic comparison of psittacine beak and feather disease virus purified from four genera of psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, B W; Niagro, F D; Latimer, K S; Lukert, P D; Steffens, W L; Rakich, P M; Pritchard, N

    1990-04-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus, was purified from diseased tissues of a lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea), a black palm cockatoo (Probosiger aterrimus), a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis), and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). The histopathology of diseased feathers and follicular epithelium from the different species was compared; basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the follicular epithelium and intracytoplasmic globular inclusions were observed within macrophages located in the feather pulp from the four species. Psittacine beak and feather disease virus antigen was specifically detected by colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy. The different preparations of purified virions displayed an icosahedral symmetry, were non-enveloped, and had a mean diameter that varied from 12 to 15 nm when negatively stained. Two major viral-associated proteins with approximate molecular weights of 26 and 23 kilodaltons (kd) were consistently demonstrated from the four viral preparations. Purified virions from the four genera were antigenically related. These findings suggest that the PBFD virus purified from numerous genera of diseased birds is similar based on ultrastructural characteristics, protein composition and antigenic reactivity.

  20. Effects of Erosion from Mounds of Different Termite Genera on Distinct Functional Grassland Types in an African Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cleo M; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites can contribute to grazing lawn development is through erosion of soil from aboveground mounds to the surrounding soil surface. This may alter the nutrient status of the surrounding soils. We hypothesize that the importance of this erosion varies with termite genera, depending on feeding strategy and mound type. To test this, we simulated erosion by applying mound soil from three termite genera (Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Trinervitermes) in both a field experiment and a greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, we found soils with the highest macro nutrient levels (formed by Trinervitermes) promoted the quality and biomass of both a lawn (Digitaria longiflora) and a bunch (Sporobolus pyramidalis) grass species. In the field we found that soils with the highest micro nutrient levels (formed by Macrotermes) showed the largest increase in cover of grazing lawn species. By linking the different nutrient availability of the mounds to the development of different grassland states, we conclude that the presence of termite mounds influences grassland mosaics, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.

  1. Epiphytic mosses from the genera Orthotrichum s.l. and Nyholmiella in the Nízký Jeseník Mts (Northern Moravia, Czech Republic.

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    Číhal Lukáš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the distribution of the genera Orthotrichum s.l. and Nyholmiella in the phytogeographical district 98. Nízký Jeseník, and follows the project carried out between years 2005 and 2009 in nearby phytogeographical district 97. Hrubý Jeseník. The total number of 57 locations was visited during the year 2015, and 142 samples of mosses were collected. Altogether, 9 species of genus Orthotrichum s.l. and 1 species of the genus Nyholmiella were recently recorded in the studied area. Lists of species and localities are given.

  2. The lichen genera Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium (Trypetheliales: Trypetheliaceae in India

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    Komal Kumar INGLE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic account of Dictyomeridium and Polymeridium are presented from India. Polymeridium cinereonigricans (Vain. R.C. Harris, P. pleurothecium R.C. Harris and P. submuriforme Aptroot are reported as new records for India. An artificial key to all the species known so far from India along with notes on their distribution and ecology is also presented.

  3. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae: multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

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    Bermingham Eldredge

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved

  4. Systematics and molecular phylogeny of two African stem borer genera, Sciomesa Tams & Bowden and Carelis Bowden (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, P; Le Ru, B; Conlong, D; Cugala, D; Defabachew, B; Matama-Kauma, T; Pallangyo, B; Van den Berg, J

    2010-12-01

    Currently, the systematics of the African noctuid stem borers of the subtribe Sesamiina, which include major pests of cereals, is confused. In addition, their ecology is poorly known, as are the factors influencing their evolution. In this paper, we address these shortcomings for two genera of the Sesamiina, Sciomesa Tams & Bowden and Carelis Bowden. Mixed Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, which included their host plants and two mitochondrial genes, showed the genus Sciomesa to be polyphyletic. Two new genera were created, Pirateolea and Feraxinia. The genus Carelis proved to be paraphyletic and was subdivided into two sub-genera. The genera Sciomesa, Carelis and Pirateolea (named the 'Sciomesa genus group') share morphological traits, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that they had a common ancestor living on Cyperaceae and that they were distant from the genus Feraxinia belonging to another clade which had an ancestor living on Poaceae. Seven new species were described: Sciomesa gnosia sp. n., Sciomesia bua sp. n., Pirateolea nola gen. n, sp. n., Feraxinia serena gen. n., sp. n., Carelis australis sp. n., Carelis transversa sp. n. and Carelis agnae sp. n. Ten species were sunk as synonyms: Sciomesa mesoscia (Hampson) syn. n., Sciomesa mirifica Laporte syn. n., Sciomesa constantini Laporte syn. n. and Sciomesa etchecopari Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Sciomesa mesophaea (Aurivillius); Acrapex sparsipucta Laporte syn. n. is a synonym of Sciomesa excelsa (Laporte) comb. n.; Acrapex congitae Laporte syn. n., Sesamia minuta Laporte syn. n. and Sesamia minuscula Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Sciomesa boulardi (Laporte) comb. n.; Acrapex bryae Laporte syn. n. and Acrapex fayei Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Feraxinia jemjemensis (Laporte) comb. n. Eleven new combinations were created: Sciomesa excelsa (Laporte) comb. n., Sciomesa boulardi (Laporte) comb. n., Sciomesa punctipennis (Krüger) comb. n., Pirateolea piscator (Fletcher) comb. n., Pirateolea argocyma

  5. The absence of Arabidopsis-type telomeres in Cestrum and closely related genera Vestia and Sessea (Solanaceae): first evidence from eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykorova, Eva; Lim, Kar Yoong; Chase, Mark W; Knapp, Sandra; Leitch, Ilia Judith; Leitch, Andrew Rowland; Fajkus, Jiri

    2003-05-01

    Using slot-blot and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we found no evidence for the presence of the Arabidopsis-type telomeric sequence (TTTAGGG)n at the chromosome termini in any of the Cestrum species we investigated. Probing for the human-type telomere (TTAGGG)n also revealed no signal. However, polymerase chain reaction experiments indicated that there are short lengths of the sequence TTTAGGG dispersed in the genome but that these sequences are almost certainly too short to act as functional telomeres even if they were at the chromosome termini. An analysis of related genera Vestia and Sessea indicates that they too lack the Arabidopsis-type telomere, and the sequences were lost in the common ancestor of these genera. We found that the Cestrum species investigated had particularly large mean chromosome sizes. We discuss whether this is a consequence of alternative telomere end maintenance systems.

  6. A review of the genera Cleigastra Macquart, Gonarcticus Becker, Gonatherus Rondani, Hexamitocera Becker, Nanna Strobl, Orthacheta Becker and Spathephilus Becker (Diptera, Scathophagidae) of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerov, A L; Krivosheina, M G

    2015-09-03

    Flies of the genera Cleigastra Macquart, 1835, Gonarcticus Becker, 1894, Gonatherus Rondani, 1856, Hexamitocera Becker, 1894, Nanna Strobl, 1894, Orthacheta Becker, 1894 and Spathephilus Becker, 1894 (all Scathophagidae) of the fauna of Russia are reviewed. Key to genera, generic descriptions and keys for determination of species are given, and data on geographical distribution are summarized. One species, Nanna cryophila sp. nov., is described as new to science. One new synonymy is proposed: Nanna kamtschatkense (Hendel, 1930) = Nanna tibiella (Zetterstedt, 1838). Orthacheta cornuta (Loew, 1863) is recorded from Europe for the first time. Gonarcticus arcticus (Becker, 1907) is newly recorded from the Palaearctic Region and Russia. Additionally, Nanna flavipes (Fallén, 1819) is newly recorded from China, and Spathephilus nigriventris (Loew, 1864) is newly recorded from Kazakhstan.

  7. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae

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    Thomas Henry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species C. bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; C. baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; C. dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; C. rileyi sp. n., from Texas; C. taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; C. texensis sp. n., from Texas; C. transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León; and C. variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., C. complicatus Knight, comb. n., C. consimilis Reuter, comb. n., C. fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus, C. nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and C. rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and C. divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species M. myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species P. bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; P. cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; P. quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species P. brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; P. cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; P. dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; P. keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; P. pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; P. schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; P. serrata sp. n

  8. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsidea bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsidea baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidea rileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea texensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsidea variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus complicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsidea consimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsus rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsus divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicoris myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsis bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsis cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsis quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsidea brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico

  9. The use of the terrestrial snails of the genera Megalobulimus and Thaumastus as representatives of the atmospheric carbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Kita D.; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Carvalho, Carla; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Chivall, David; Souza, Rosa; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L.; Cavallari, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazilian archaeological shellmounds, many species of land snails are found abundantly distributed throughout the occupational layers, forming a contextualized set of samples within the sites and offering a potential alternative to the use of charcoal for radiocarbon dating analyses. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this alternative, one needs to prove that the mollusk shells reflect the atmospheric carbon isotopic concentration in the same way charcoal does. In this study, 18 terrestrial mollusk shells with known collection dates from 1948 to 2004 AD, around the nuclear bombs period, were radiocarbon dated. The obtained dates fit the SH1-2 bomb curve within less than 15 years range, showing that certain species from the Thaumastus and Megalobulimus genera are reliable representatives of the atmospheric carbon isotopic ratio and can, therefore, be used to date archaeological sites in South America.

  10. The use of the terrestrial snails of the genera Megalobulimus and Thaumastus as representatives of the atmospheric carbon reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Kita D; Alves, Eduardo Q; Carvalho, Carla; Oliveira, Fabiana M; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Chivall, David; Souza, Rosa; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L; Cavallari, Daniel C

    2016-06-08

    In Brazilian archaeological shellmounds, many species of land snails are found abundantly distributed throughout the occupational layers, forming a contextualized set of samples within the sites and offering a potential alternative to the use of charcoal for radiocarbon dating analyses. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this alternative, one needs to prove that the mollusk shells reflect the atmospheric carbon isotopic concentration in the same way charcoal does. In this study, 18 terrestrial mollusk shells with known collection dates from 1948 to 2004 AD, around the nuclear bombs period, were radiocarbon dated. The obtained dates fit the SH1-2 bomb curve within less than 15 years range, showing that certain species from the Thaumastus and Megalobulimus genera are reliable representatives of the atmospheric carbon isotopic ratio and can, therefore, be used to date archaeological sites in South America.

  11. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella including the description of Tsukamurella wratislaviensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, M; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J; Thomas, E G; Mordarski, M; Ward, A C; James, A L

    1991-06-01

    Representatives of the genera Gordona and Tsukamurella together with related actinomycetes were the subject of chemotaxonomic, numerical taxonomic and DNA homology studies. In the numerical analysis the organisms were examined for 116 unit characters and the data sorted using the simple matching, Jaccard and pattern coefficients; clustering was achieved using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages algorithm. The numerical groupings were not affected by the statistics used or by test error, estimated at 1.9%. The numerical taxonomic data supported the integrity of the four validly described species of Gordona but indicated that the genus Tsukamurella might encompass a species in addition to Tsukamurella paurometabola. The putative new strains had chemical, enzymic, nutritional and tolerance properties consistent with their assignment to the genus Tsukamurella and formed a DNA homology group corresponding to the one formed by the Tsukamurella paurometabola strains. It is proposed that the new taxon be assigned to the genus Tsukamurella as Tsukamurella wratislaviensis.

  12. Conserved Noncoding Elements in the Most Distant Genera of Cephalochordates: The Goldilocks Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Kozmikova, Iryna; Ono, Hiroki; Nossa, Carlos W.; Kozmik, Zbynek; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Yu, Jr-Kai; Holland, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of vertebrates + tunicates, are evolving particularly slowly. Therefore, genome comparisons between two congeners of Branchiostoma revealed so many conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), that it was not clear how many are functional regulatory elements. To more effectively identify CNEs with potential regulatory functions, we compared noncoding sequences of genomes of the most phylogenetically distant cephalochordate genera, Asymmetron and Branchiostoma, which diverged approximately 120–160 million years ago. We found 113,070 noncoding elements conserved between the two species, amounting to 3.3% of the genome. The genomic distribution, target gene ontology, and enriched motifs of these CNEs all suggest that many of them are probably cis-regulatory elements. More than 90% of previously verified amphioxus regulatory elements were re-captured in this study. A search of the cephalochordate CNEs around 50 developmental genes in several vertebrate genomes revealed eight CNEs conserved between cephalochordates and vertebrates, indicating sequence conservation over >500 million years of divergence. The function of five CNEs was tested in reporter assays in zebrafish, and one was also tested in amphioxus. All five CNEs proved to be tissue-specific enhancers. Taken together, these findings indicate that even though Branchiostoma and Asymmetron are distantly related, as they are evolving slowly, comparisons between them are likely optimal for identifying most of their tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements laying the foundation for functional characterizations and a better understanding of the evolution of developmental regulation in cephalochordates. PMID:27412606

  13. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of Opisthonecta and related genera (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Clamp, John C

    2007-01-01

    The gene encoding 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in the sessiline peritrichs Opisthonecta minima and Opisthonecta matiensis, whose free-swimming, paedomorphic trophonts resemble telotrochs. Using these new sequences, phylogenetic trees were constructed with four different methods to test a previously published association between Opisthonecta henneguyi and members of the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae. All trees had similar topologies, with O. minima, O. henneguyi, Vorticella microstoma, and Astylozoon enriquesi forming a well-supported, certainly monophyletic clade. On the basis of genetic evidence, genera of the families Opisthonectidae and Astylozoidae are assigned to the family Vorticellidae, which already includes some species with free-swimming morphotypes. The ssu rRNA sequence of O. matiensis places it in the family Epistylididae; its taxonomic revision will be left to another group of authors. A close association of Ophrydium versatile with members of the family Vorticellidae was confirmed, casting doubt on the validity of the family Ophrydiidae. Epistylis galea, Campanella umbellaria, and Opercularia microdiscum are confirmed as comprising an extremely distinct, monophyletic, but morphologically heterogeneous clade that is basal to other clades of sessiline peritrichs.

  14. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaun, Christian; Zotzmann, Sina; Santaella, Vanesa Garcia; Werblow, Antje; Zumkowski-Xylander, Helga; Kraiczy, Peter; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larval mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borrelial genes, flaB and ospA encoding for the subunit B of flagellin and the outer surface protein A, the results show that DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia garinii could be detected in ten Culicidae species comprising four distinct genera (Aedes, Culiseta, Culex, and Ochlerotatus). Positive samples also include adult specimens raised in the laboratory from wild-caught larvae indicating that transstadial and/or transovarial transmission might occur within a given mosquito population.

  15. The maxillary sinus in three genera of new world monkeys: factors that constrain secondary pneumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Rossie, James B; Cooper, Gregory M; Carmody, Kelly A; Schmieg, Robin M; Bonar, Christopher J; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    The air filled cavities of paranasal sinuses are thought by some to appear opportunistically in spatial "gaps" within the craniofacial complex. Anthropoid primates provide excellent natural experiments for testing this model, since not all species possess a full complement of paranasal sinuses. In this study, two genera of monkeys (Saguinus and Cebuella) which form maxillary sinuses (MS) as adults were compared to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), in which a MS does not form. Using microCT and histomorphometric methods, the spatial position of paranasal spaces was assessed and size of the adjacent dental sacs was measured. In Saguinus, secondary pneumatization is underway perinatally, and the sinus extends alongside deciduous premolars (dp). The MS overlaps all permanent molars in the adult. In Saimiri, the homologous space (maxillary recess) extends no farther posterior than the first deciduous premolar at birth and extends no farther than the last premolar in the adult. Differences in dental size and position may account for this finding. For example, Saimiri has significantly larger relative dp volumes, and enlarged orbits, which encroach on the internasal space to a greater degree when compared to Saguinus. These factors limit space for posterior expansion of the maxillary recess. These findings support the hypothesis that secondary pneumatization is a novel, opportunistic growth mechanism that removes "unneeded" bone. Moreover, paranasal spaces occur in association with semiautonomous skeletal elements that border more than one functional matrix, and the spatial dynamics of these units can act as a constraint on pneumatic expansion of paranasal spaces.

  16. Two unusual new dinoflagellate cyst genera from the Bunde Borehole, Maastrichtian type area, southern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis; Klinkenberg; Williams; Fensome

    2000-06-01

    Maastrichtian and Danian deposits from the Bunde Borehole in the Maastrichtian type area contain the morphologically unusual dinoflagellate species Spumadinium felderorum gen. et sp. nov. and Lasagniella herngreenii gen. et sp. nov., both of which have archeopyles formed by the loss of several paraplates. In S. felderorum the paraplates forming the operculum or opercular pieces appear to be the third and fourth precingulars (3"-4") plus the first and second anterior intercalaries (1a-2a). This suggests that Spumadinium, although having a wall resembling some cribroperidinioids, is a cladopyxiinean. L. herngreenii is unique in having up to eight wall layers, separated and supported by buttresses. The archeopyle is also a combination type but formed by loss of one apical (3'), three anterior intercalary (1a-3a) and three precingular (3"-5") paraplates. Thus, Lasagniella is assignable to the Peridiniales. The distinctive morphology and restricted ranges of the two genera make them useful stratigraphic markers for the Upper Maastrichtian-Danian.

  17. The Ordovician acritarch genera Tranvikium and Ampullula: their relationship and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uutela; Sarjeant

    2000-10-01

    A restudy of the Ordovician (Arenig-Llanvirn) acritarch taxa Tranvikium polygonale Tynni, 1982, and Ampullula suetica Righi, 1991, indicates that they represent extremes in a single morphological plexus. At one extreme are forms with a polar 'excystment' aperture (closed by an operculum or two opercular pieces) and a smaller opening (plugged or open) at the opposite pole; at the other are forms lacking a polar aperture but having, at the opposite pole, a tube open distally and plugged or open basally. New morphological terms for these structures are proposed. The genera and species are treated as synonyms and an emended diagnosis is given for Tranvikium polygonale, incorporating this whole morphological plexus. The possible purposes of the structures exhibited and the likely affinity of T. polygonale to various groups of algae are discussed. The emendation of Ampullula by Brocke (1997) is rejected and the genus Stelomorpha Yin, 1994 retained, with an emended diagnosis. The new combination Stelomorpha princeps (Brocke, 1997) Uutela and Sarjeant is proposed.

  18. Molecular probes and microarrays for the detection of toxic algae in the genera Dinophysis and Phalacroma (Dinophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Bente; Dittami, Simon M; Groben, René; Brubak, Sissel; Escalera, Laura; Rodríguez, Francisco; Reguera, Beatriz; Chen, Jixin; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Dinophysis and Phalacroma species containing diarrheic shellfish toxins and pectenotoxins occur in coastal temperate waters all year round and prevent the harvesting of mussels during several months each year in regions in Europe, Chile, Japan, and New Zealand. Toxicity varies among morphologically similar species, and a precise identification is needed for early warning systems. Molecular techniques using ribosomal DNA sequences offer a means to identify and detect precisely the potentially toxic species. We designed molecular probes targeting the 18S rDNA at the family and genus levels for Dinophysis and Phalacroma and at the species level for Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis acuta, and Dinophysis norvegica, the most commonly occurring, potentially toxic species of these genera in Western European waters. Dot blot hybridizations with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified rDNA from 17 microalgae were used to demonstrate probe specificity. The probes were modified along with other published fluorescence in situ hybridization and PCR probes and tested for a microarray platform within the MIDTAL project ( http://www.midtal.com ). The microarray was applied to field samples from Norway and Spain and compared to microscopic cell counts. These probes may be useful for early warning systems and monitoring and can also be used in population dynamic studies to distinguish species and life cycle stages, such as cysts, and their distribution in time and space.

  19. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV.

  20. Phylogenetic revision of Camarosporium (Pleosporineae, Dothideomycetes) and allied genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasinghe, D N; Hyde, K D; Jeewon, R; Crous, P W; Wijayawardene, N N; Jones, E B G; Bhat, D J; Phillips, A J L; Groenewald, J Z; Dayarathne, M C; Phukhamsakda, C; Thambugala, K M; Bulgakov, T S; Camporesi, E; Gafforov, Y S; Mortimer, P E; Karunarathna, S C

    2017-06-01

    A concatenated dataset of LSU, SSU, ITS and tef1 DNA sequence data was analysed to investigate the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the genus Camarosporium in Pleosporineae (Dothideomycetes). Newly generated sequences from camarosporium-like taxa collected from Europe (Italy) and Russia form a well-supported monophyletic clade within Pleosporineae. A new genus Camarosporidiella and a new family Camarosporidiellaceae are established to accommodate these taxa. Four new species, Neocamarosporium korfii, N. lamiacearum, N. salicorniicola and N. salsolae, constitute a strongly supported clade with several known taxa for which the new family, Neocamarosporiaceae, is introduced. The genus Staurosphaeria based on S. lycii is resurrected and epitypified, and shown to accommodate the recently introduced genus Hazslinszkyomyces in Coniothyriaceae with significant statistical support. Camarosporium quaternatum, the type species of Camarosporium and Camarosporomyces flavigena cluster together in a monophyletic clade with significant statistical support and sister to the Leptosphaeriaceae. To better resolve interfamilial/intergeneric level relationships and improve taxonomic understanding within Pleosporineae, we validate Camarosporiaceae to accommodate Camarosporium and Camarosporomyces. The latter taxa along with other species are described in this study.

  1. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe

  2. Maximizing the Diversity of Ensemble Random Forests for Tree Genera Classification Using High Density LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into improving the effectiveness of forest inventory management using airborne LiDAR data has focused on developing advanced theories in data analytics. Furthermore, supervised learning as a predictive model for classifying tree genera (and species, where possible has been gaining popularity in order to minimize this labor-intensive task. However, bottlenecks remain that hinder the immediate adoption of supervised learning methods. With supervised classification, training samples are required for learning the parameters that govern the performance of a classifier, yet the selection of training data is often subjective and the quality of such samples is critically important. For LiDAR scanning in forest environments, the quantification of data quality is somewhat abstract, normally referring to some metric related to the completeness of individual tree crowns; however, this is not an issue that has received much attention in the literature. Intuitively the choice of training samples having varying quality will affect classification accuracy. In this paper a Diversity Index (DI is proposed that characterizes the diversity of data quality (Qi among selected training samples required for constructing a classification model of tree genera. The training sample is diversified in terms of data quality as opposed to the number of samples per class. The diversified training sample allows the classifier to better learn the positive and negative instances and; therefore; has a higher classification accuracy in discriminating the “unknown” class samples from the “known” samples. Our algorithm is implemented within the Random Forests base classifiers with six derived geometric features from LiDAR data. The training sample contains three tree genera (pine; poplar; and maple and the validation samples contains four labels (pine; poplar; maple; and “unknown”. Classification accuracy improved from 72.8%; when training samples were

  3. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, AIKEN, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2006-10-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on ''rapid'' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained more genera than we would likely encounter and because this larger number of genera required both more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher) more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  4. Cetraria (Parmeliaceae and some related genera on the African continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kärnefelt

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species are reported new for the lichen flora of southern Africa:  Bryoria fuseescens (Gyeln. Brodo & D. Hawksw.,  B. motykae (D. Hawksw. Brodo & D. Hawksw.,  Cetraria chlorophylla (Humb. Vain, and  Platismatia glauca (L. Culb. & Culb. (Parmeliaceae, found at high elevations in Natal and south-west Cape.  B. fuscescens, B. motykae and  P. glauca were previously known from a few localities, also at high elevations, in east Africa. The genus Cetraria s. str. was previously unknown on the African continent.

  5. Further observations on scorpion genera Hadrurus and Hoffmannihadrurus (Scorpiones, Caraboctonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Soleglad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple populations of Hadrurus pinteri from Baja California Sur, Mexico have been examined. It is demonstrated that the southern populations of this species have a larger number of accessory trichobothria (neobothriotaxy than the northern populations, numbers exceeding the maximum currently recorded for the genus. Examination of carapace and chela coloration and its patterns show a close affinity between Hadrurus pinteri and the dark phase of Hadrurus concolorous. A new morphometric ratio of the carapace is defined that distinguishes Hadrurus from Hoffmannihadrurus, further supporting the monophyly of the latter genus.

  6. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  8. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  9. Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, D.J.; Christopher, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and diversification of trap-jaw ants in the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Fredrick J; Fisher, Brian L; Schmidt, Chris A; Matos-Maraví, Pável; Janda, Milan; Suarez, Andrew V

    2016-10-01

    Ants in the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus belong to one of the largest clades in the subfamily Ponerinae, and are one of four lineages of ants possessing spring-loaded "trap-jaws." Here we present results from the first global species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis of these trap-jaw ants, reconstructed from one mitochondrial, one ribosomal RNA, and three nuclear protein-coding genes. Bayesian and likelihood analyses strongly support reciprocal monophyly for the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus. Additionally, we found strong support for seven trap-jaw ant clades (four in Anochetus and three in Odontomachus) mostly concordant with geographic distribution. Ambiguity remains concerning the closest living non-trap-jaw ant relative of the Anochetus+Odontomachus clade, but Bayes factor hypothesis testing strongly suggests that trap-jaw ants evolved from a short mandible ancestor. Ponerine trap-jaw ants originated in the early Eocene (52.5Mya) in either South America or Southeast Asia, where they have radiated rapidly in the last 30million years, and subsequently dispersed multiple times to Africa and Australia. These results will guide future taxonomic work on the group and act as a phylogenetic framework to study the macroevolution of extreme ant mouthpart specialization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel cultured protists identify deep-branching environmental DNA clades of cercozoa: New Genera Tremula, Micrometopion, Minimassisteria, Nudifila, Peregrinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Scoble, Josephine M; Lewis, Rhodri; Vickerman, Keith; Arndt, Hartmut; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    We describe three new orders of filosan Cercozoa, five new deep-branching genera, eight new species of Thaumatomonas, Reckertia, Spongomonas, Rhogostoma, Agitata, Neoheteromita and Paracercomonas, sequence their 18S rDNA, and construct 18S rDNA trees for 148 Cercozoa. Our phylogeny indicates that Filosa were ancestrally gliding flagellates; non-flagellate filose amoebae evolved from them five times independently. The new genera are more closely related to environmental DNA sequences than cultured organisms. Tremula longifila, a zooflagellate glider on both flagella (unlike other Cercozoa), is the most divergent filosan (Tremulida ord. n.). Micrometopion nutans is a eukaryote-eating gliding zooflagellate like Metopion and Metromonas. Minimassisteria diva is a widespread trimorphic marine amoeboflagellate granofilosan. Peregrinia clavideferens, a non-testate, scale-bearing, filose amoeba, branches deeply in Thaumatomonadida, which are probably sisters to Spongomonadida. Nudifila producta is a filose amoeboflagellate related to Clautriavia and Marimonadida (ord. n., e.g. Pseudopirsonia, Auranticordis). We substantially revise Imbricatea, now including Spongomonadida, and Thecofilosea to include Phaeodaria. Thecofilosea and Imbricatea and Thecofilosea are sisters, both arguably ancestrally rigid gliding flagellates with ventral pseudopod-emitting grooves. Scale-free Ovulinata parva is sister to Paulinella, so imbricate silica scales can be lost. Internal hollow silica skeletons evolved twice in Thecofilosea (Ebriida, Phaeodaria) or were multiply lost. Protaspa replaces preoccupied 'Protaspis'.

  12. Identification of Elymus (Triticeae, Poaceae) and its related genera genomes by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified Adh genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, QuanLan; Zhang, NingNing; Li, Lei; Liu, Jie

    2010-10-01

    Elymus L. is the largest genus in Triticeae, containing about 150 species with four recognized genome donors (St, H, P, and W). Traditionally, the genome compound of this genus is identified based on cytological data. Recently, molecular phylogenetic analysis was used to investigate its genomic combination. Here we describe a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay based on digesting alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) amplicons with two restriction enzyme combinations, EcoRI-HindIII and EcoRI-PstI, which easily can be used to distinguish Elymus and its closely related genera genomes. The method includes only four steps: (1) amplifying nuclear Adh genes with universal primers; (2) purifying and cloning PCR products; (3) digesting plasmids with restriction enzymes that identify a given genome; (4) running the digested products on an agarose gel and identify the sample based on the restriction profiles. Results showed that: (1) PCR products ranged from 1,200 to 2,000 bp; (2) Adh2 gene was amplified from all the tested genomes; Adh1 gene was amplified from almost all of the tested genomes except the W genome; Adh3 gene was amplified only from the St genome; (3) the EcoRI-HindIII combination was effective to distinguish different Adh gene types (Adh1, Adh2, and Adh3); (4) the Adh2-EcoRI-PstI fragments could be used to distinguish Elymus and its closely related genera genomes. Therefore, This RFLP assay provides an inexpensive and simple means of identifying Elymus genomes.

  13. The spider genera Euthycaelus Simon and Schismatothele Karsch (Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadanucci, José Paulo Leite; Weinmann, Dirk

    2014-05-13

    The genus Euthycaelus Simon 1889 is diagnosed based on the examination of type-material and additional material from Venezuela and Colombia. The genus now includes: Euthycaelus colonicus Simon 1889, E. norae sp. nov., E. amandae sp. nov.; Euthycaelus steini Simon 1889 is transferred to Psalistops comb. nov. The genus Schismatothele Karsch 1879 is considered a senior synonym of Hemiercus Simon 1903. Schismatothele includes S. lineata Karsch 1879, S. inflata (Simon 1889) comb. nov., S. modesta (Simon 1889) comb. nov, and S. benedettii Panzera et al. 2011. Hemiercus proximus Mello-Leitão 1923, from Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, is transferred to Acanthoscurria proxima (Mello-Leitão 1923) comb. nov. Hemiercus kastoni Caporiacco 1955 is considered a species inquirenda pending the examination of the type material.

  14. Two new genera of Rogadinae (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Quicke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Confusocentrus panturat gen. n., sp. n., and Quasimodorogas confusus gen. n., sp. n., both from Thailand, are described as new and illustrated. Confusocentrus has a long ovipositor, no division between face and clypeus, an enlarged and heavily sclerotized and sculptured syntergite with subsequent ones weakly sclerotized and retracted. It resembles an heavily sculptured Clinocentrus species except for the merged face and clypeus, and the lack of transverse sculpture on the 3rd tergite. Quasimodorogas has a claw with a pointed basal lobe and an highly humped mesosoma, short metasoma, and a basally very narrow 1st metasomal tergite thus showing affinities with the Colastomion subgroup of the Rogadini. In addition it has various unique features including no separation between the base of the hind tibial spurs (unlike in Aleiodes with comb, in which it is interupted at level of inner spur and metasoma with foveolate tergites 2–5.

  15. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.; William J. Knight; Yalin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which sup...

  16. Géneros de Lamiaceae de México, diversidad y endemismo Genera of Lamiaceae from Mexico, diversity and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martínez-Gordillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La familia Lamiaceae es muy diversa en México y se distribuye con preferencia en las zonas templadas, aunque es posible encontrar géneros como Hyptis y Asterohyptis, que habitan en zonas secas y calientes; es una de las familias más diversas en el país, de la cual no se tenían datos actualizados sobre su diversidad y endemismo. En este trabajo se presenta una clave para identificar los géneros de la familia, las descripciones de los mismos, con comentarios acerca de su riqueza y endemismo, un mapa de distribución de la familia y un listado de especies presentes en el país; todo lo anterior a partir de una revisión de la bibliografía, de varios herbarios mexicanos (CHAPA, CHIP, ENCB, FCME, IEB, MEXU, OAX, SERO y UAMIZ y de las colecciones y listados disponibles en Internet (F, K, MO y US. En México se encuentran 32 géneros nativos o naturalizados por largo tiempo y 591 especies que representan el 8.11% de la familia, con un endemismo de 65.82%.The Lamiaceae family is highly diverse in Mexico and it is distributed preferently in temperate zones, nevertheless it is possible find some genera such as Hyptis and Asterohyptis inhabitating dry and hot places. Lamiaceae is one of the most diverse families in the country, and there were no data about its diversity and endemism. In the current contribution a key to the genera of the family, their descriptions, commentaries about their richness and endemism, a map of the family distribution and a list of species in the country are presented; all the above based on a literature search, the revision of herbarium collections (CHAPA, CHIP, ENCB, FCME, IEB, MEXU, OAX, SERO y UAMIZ and species lists available on the web (F, K, MO and US. In Mexico there are 32 native or naturalized for a long time genera and 591 species that represent 8.11% of the family, with an endemism of 65.82%.

  17. Antimicrobial effect of probiotics on bacterial species from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambori, Csilla; Morvay, Attila Alexandru; Sala, Claudia; Licker, Monica; Gurban, Camelia; Tanasie, Gabriela; Tirziu, Emil

    2016-03-31

    The antimicrobial role of probiotic Lactobacillus casei subspecies casei DG (L. casei DG) and of the mix culture of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 was tested on species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera from supragingival sites from dogs with dental disease of different breed, age, sex, weight, and diet. The research was conducted on these four genera because of their importance in zoonotic infections after dog bites. Species from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera were isolated and identified. To test the antimicrobial efficacy of L. casei DG and the mixed culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 on the pathogenic species, the agar overlay method was used. L. casei DG had a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera after 24 hours of incubation. The mixed probiotic culture made up of L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 species had no bactericidal effect on the species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, which were resistant. However, it had a bacteriostatic effect on several species of Pasteurella and Neisseria genera. This work highlights the antimicrobial potential of probiotics in vitro, demonstrating that the probiotic L. casei DG has a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from dental plaque and that the mix culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 has only a bacteriostatic effect.

  18. An account of the Malay-Pacific species of Selliguea (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.

    1998-01-01

    The morphology and taxonomy is discussed of the Polypodiaceous genera Selliguea, Holcosorus, Crypsinus, Phymatopsis, Grammatopteris, Pycnoloma, Oleandropsis and Crypsinopsis, based on a revision of species from Malesia and the Pacific. All these genera are merged in Selliguea. Fiftytwo species are r

  19. Karyotypic analyses of twenty-one species of molossid bats (Molossidae: Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.

  20. Hebeloma species associated with Cistus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ursula; Beker, Henry J; Vila, Jordi; Vesterholt, Jan; Llimona, Xavier; Gadjieva, Rena

    2009-01-01

    The genus Hebeloma has a number of species highly specific to Cistus and others that occur with several host genera. This paper discusses the species of Hebeloma that appear to be ectomycorrhizal with Cistus, judging from their occurrence when Cistus is the only available host. The previously unknown species H. plesiocistum spec. nov. is described. We also provide a key to the known Hebeloma associates of Cistus. Molecular analyses based on ITS sequence data further illustrate the distinctness of the newly described species and difficulties in the species delimitation with view to H. erumpens. Specific associations with Cistus may have evolved more than once within the genus Hebeloma.

  1. Feasibility of nuclear ribosomal region ITS1 over ITS2 in barcoding taxonomically challenging genera of subtribe Cassiinae (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Priyanka; Kumar, Amit; Rodrigues, Vereena; Shukla, Ashutosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the Study The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is situated between 18S and 26S in a polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. It had been proved to be the most commonly sequenced region across plant species to resolve phylogenetic relationships ranging from shallow to deep taxonomic levels. Despite several taxonomical revisions in Cassiinae, a stable phylogeny remains elusive at the molecular level, particularly concerning the delineation of species in the genera Cassia, Senna and Chamaecrista. This study addresses the comparative potential of ITS datasets (ITS1, ITS2 and concatenated) in resolving the underlying morphological disparity in the highly complex genera, to assess their discriminatory power as potential barcode candidates in Cassiinae. Methodology A combination of experimental data and an in-silico approach based on threshold genetic distances, sequence similarity based and hierarchical tree-based methods was performed to decipher the discriminating power of ITS datasets on 18 different species of Cassiinae complex. Lab-generated sequences were compared against those available in the GenBank using BLAST and were aligned through MUSCLE 3.8.31 and analysed in PAUP 4.0 and BEAST1.8 using parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference (BI) methods of gene and species tree reconciliation with bootstrapping. DNA barcoding gap was realized based on the Kimura two-parameter distance model (K2P) in TaxonDNA and MEGA. Principal Findings Based on the K2P distance, significant divergences between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances were observed, while the presence of a DNA barcoding gap was obvious. The ITS1 region efficiently identified 81.63% and 90% of species using TaxonDNA and BI methods, respectively. The PWG-distance method based on simple pairwise matching indicated the significance of ITS1 whereby highest number of variable (210) and informative sites (206) were obtained. The BI tree-based methods outperformed

  2. Feasibility of nuclear ribosomal region ITS1 over ITS2 in barcoding taxonomically challenging genera of subtribe Cassiinae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Mishra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the Study The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region is situated between 18S and 26S in a polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. It had been proved to be the most commonly sequenced region across plant species to resolve phylogenetic relationships ranging from shallow to deep taxonomic levels. Despite several taxonomical revisions in Cassiinae, a stable phylogeny remains elusive at the molecular level, particularly concerning the delineation of species in the genera Cassia, Senna and Chamaecrista. This study addresses the comparative potential of ITS datasets (ITS1, ITS2 and concatenated in resolving the underlying morphological disparity in the highly complex genera, to assess their discriminatory power as potential barcode candidates in Cassiinae. Methodology A combination of experimental data and an in-silico approach based on threshold genetic distances, sequence similarity based and hierarchical tree-based methods was performed to decipher the discriminating power of ITS datasets on 18 different species of Cassiinae complex. Lab-generated sequences were compared against those available in the GenBank using BLAST and were aligned through MUSCLE 3.8.31 and analysed in PAUP 4.0 and BEAST1.8 using parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference (BI methods of gene and species tree reconciliation with bootstrapping. DNA barcoding gap was realized based on the Kimura two-parameter distance model (K2P in TaxonDNA and MEGA. Principal Findings Based on the K2P distance, significant divergences between the inter- and intra-specific genetic distances were observed, while the presence of a DNA barcoding gap was obvious. The ITS1 region efficiently identified 81.63% and 90% of species using TaxonDNA and BI methods, respectively. The PWG-distance method based on simple pairwise matching indicated the significance of ITS1 whereby highest number of variable (210 and informative sites (206 were obtained. The BI tree-based methods

  3. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as carriers of fungi in hospital environments: an emphasis on the genera Tapinoma and Pheidole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, L D M; Moreira Filho, R E; Brito, E H S; Aragão, T B; Brilhante, R S N; Cordeiro, R A; Rocha, M F G; Monteiro, A J; Quinet, Y P; Sidrim, J J C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of filamentous fungi and yeasts on the external surface of ants at hospitals. From March 2007 to February 2008, 2,899 ants were evaluated in two public hospitals in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. The ants were attracted by nontoxic baits, distributed within critical and semicritical hospital areas. The fungi were identified through macro- and micromorphological analysis, biochemical profile, and growth in chromogenic medium. From this study, 5 genera and 13 species of ants were identified, from critical (8% of the collected ants) and semicritical (92%) areas, during the daytime (48%) and nighttime (52%) periods. In the mycological analysis, 75% of the ants were fungi carriers, with the species Tapinoma melanocephalum and species from the genus Pheidole having the most potential as carriers of airborne fungi (75 and 18%, respectively) and yeasts (6 and 1%, respectively). In summary, ants act as carriers of airborne fungi and yeasts, including some pathogenic species.

  4. Elimination of 5S DNA unit classes in newly formed allopolyploids of the genera Aegilops and Triticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B R; Feldman, M

    2010-06-01

    Two classes of 5S DNA units, namely the short (containing units of 410 bp) and the long (containing units of 500 bp), are recognized in species of the wheat (the genera Aegilops and Triticum) group. While every diploid species of this group contains 2 unit classes, the short and the long, every allopolyploid species contains a smaller number of unit classes than the sum of the unit classes of its parental species. The aim of this study was to determine whether the reduction in these unit classes is due to the process of allopolyploidization, that is, interspecific or intergeneric hybridization followed by chromosome doubling, and whether it occurs during or soon after the formation of the allopolyploids. To study this, the number and types of unit classes were determined in several newly formed allotetraploids, allohexaploids, and an allooctoploid of Aegilops and Triticum. It was found that elimination of unit classes of 5S DNA occurred soon (in the first 3 generations) after the formation of the allopolyploids. This elimination was reproducible, that is, the same unit classes were eliminated in natural and synthetic allopolyploids having the same genomic combinations. No further elimination occurred in the unit classes of the 5S DNA during the life of the allopolyploid. The genetic and evolutionary significance of this elimination as well as the difference in response to allopolyploidization of 5S DNA and rDNA are discussed.

  5. Molecular characterisation of potexviruses isolated from three different genera in the family Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R; Pleij, C W A; Loss, S; Burgermeister, W; Aust, H; Schiemann, J

    2004-05-01

    The genome properties of three potexviruses which previously had been isolated from different genera in the family Cactaceae and had been found to be only distantly related serologically have been studied. The sequence of the 3040 3' terminal nucleotides of the genomic RNA of isolate K11 from Schlumbergera bridgesii and the complete RNA sequences of isolates B1 and CC10 from Zygocactus sp. and Opuntia sp., respectively, were determined. Starting sequences were obtained by means of immunocapture reverse transcription PCR using primers derived from highly conserved sequences in other potexviral RNAs. The known parts of the sequences were extended by means of random-primed cDNAs and specific primers derived from the known parts of the sequences. The genome structure of the three viruses resembles that of other potexviruses. The conserved motifs typical for replication-associated proteins, triple gene block (TGB) proteins and coat proteins of potexviruses were readily identified in the translation products of the five open reading frames. The 3' untranslated regions of the three RNAs are folded into secondary structures containing three characteristic hairpins. Rather low percentages of amino acid sequence identities ranging from 62% to 76% for the coat proteins and 41% to 49% for TGB proteins 3 suggest that these viruses should be regarded as distinct virus species for which the names Zygocactus virus X, Schlumbergera virus X and Opuntia virus X are proposed. It is also suggested that the name Cactus virus X which originally was coined for all three virus isolates should no longer be used.

  6. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  7. Taxonomic key for the genera of Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea occurring in Goiás State, Brazil, including new records and distributional notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe F. Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic key for the genera of Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea occurring in Goiás State, Brazil, including new records and distributional notes. Despite their great diversity and high abundance in Neotropical aquatic environments, the fauna of Elmidae remains practically unknown in some areas and even entire biomes in this region. In this work we bring, for the first time, faunistic data for the Elmidae of central Brazil. The aim of this work was to inventory the Elmidae fauna in central, southwestern and southeastern Goiás State, Brazil and to produce a taxonomic key, at genus level, for adults from the studied region. The taxonomic key presented herein offers means for the identification of all the 13 genera known to occur in Goiás, 11 of them being new records for the State. Moreover, the number of named species registered for Goiás increased from one to nine.

  8. Snakes across the Strait: trans-Torresian phylogeographic relationships in three genera of Australasian snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and Pseudechis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Dumbrell, Alex J; Hay, Chris; Pook, Catharine E; Williams, David J; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the phylogeny of three genera of Australasian elapid snakes (Acanthophis-death adders; Oxyuranus-taipans; Pseudechis-blacksnakes), using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND4 genes. In Acanthophis and Pseudechis, we find evidence of multiple trans-Torresian sister-group relationships. Analyses of the timing of cladogenic events suggest crossings of the Torres Strait on several occasions between the late Miocene and the Pleistocene. These results support a hypothesis of repeated land connections between Australia and New Guinea in the late Cenozoic. Additionally, our results reveal undocumented genetic diversity in Acanthophis and Pseudechis, supporting the existence of more species than previously believed, and provide a phylogenetic framework for a reinterpretation of the systematics of these genera. In contrast, our Oxyuranus scutellatus samples from Queensland and two localities in New Guinea share a single haplotype, suggesting very recent (late Pleistocene) genetic exchange between New Guinean and Australian populations.

  9. Two new genera of nematode (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jans Morffe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Kongonema meyeri gen. n. sp. n. is characterized byfemales with the cervical cuticle unarmed, first cephalic annule cone-like and truncate, sub-cylindrical procorpus and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic. The males of K. meyeri gen. n. sp. n. have the procorpus sub-cylindrical, the dorsal cuticle of the tail end thickened, a single large, median mammiform pre-cloacal papilla and a pair of small, pre-cloacal, sub-lateral papillae at a short distance before the level of the cloaca. Lubanema decraemerae gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by the body markedly fusiform, cuticle unarmed and strongly annulated, procorpus sub-cylindrical, isthmus as a constriction between procorpus and basal bulb, genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic and the posterior end rounded with a very short tail appendage.

  10. Two new genera of nematode (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae) parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera) from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Kongonema meyeri gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by having females with the cervical cuticle unarmed, first cephalic annule cone-like and truncate, sub-cylindrical procorpus and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic. The males of Kongonema meyeri gen. n. sp. n. have the procorpus sub-cylindrical, the dorsal cuticle of the tail end thickened, a single large, median mammiform pre-cloacal papilla and a pair of small, pre-cloacal, sub-lateral papillae at a short distance before the level of the cloaca. Lubanema decraemerae gen. n. sp. n. is characterized by the body markedly fusiform, cuticle unarmed and strongly annulated, procorpus sub-cylindrical, isthmus as a constriction between procorpus and basal bulb, genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic and the posterior end rounded with a very short tail appendage.

  11. Isoflavones in the Rutaceae family: twenty selected representatives of the genera Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus, Ruta and Severinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblovská, Radka; Macková, Zuzana; Vítková, Michaela; Kokoska, Ladislav; Klejdus, Borivoj; Lapcík, Oldrich

    2008-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in combination with semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analytical HPLC with mass spectroscopy in the selective ion monitoring mode were used for the determination of selected isoflavones, daidzein, genistein, biochanin A and their homologues, in 20 representatives of the Rutaceae family. Species belonging to five genera were studied, namely Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus, Ruta and Severinia. The enzyme immunoassays used were based on polyclonal antibodies raised against isoflavonoid conjugates with bovine serum albumin (BSA), namely biochanin A-7-BSA, daidzein-7-BSA, daidzein-4'-BSA, genistein-7-BSA and genistein-4'-BSA. Aglycones as well as glycosides were detected, and methoxyisoflavones appeared to be more abundant than hydoxyisoflavones. The content of individual isoflavonoids ranged from 0 to 2.6 mg/kg (dry weight); the sum of all measured substances reached up to 5.9 mg.

  12. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna;

    2015-01-01

    The Lolium-Festuca complex incorporates species from the Lolium genera and the broad leaf Fescues. Plants belonging to this complex exhibit significant phenotypic plasticity for agriculturally important traits, such as annuality/perenniality, establishment potential, growth speed, nutritional val...

  13. The described species of the family Sacculinidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1955-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION AND KEYS OF GENERA AND SPECIES The present paper contains the data concerning the synonymy and the figures of the Sacculinidae, compiled from the various publications dealing with species of the family, to bring the scattered data together in a general survey. The keys contain all th

  14. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Auld, Tony D; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  15. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Thomson

    Full Text Available The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae, a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  16. Evolution and biogeography of the slipper orchids: Eocene vicariance of the conduplicate genera in the Old and New World Tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO. We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.

  17. Two new potamid crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus new genus, new species and Minutomon shanweiense new genus, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Mao, Si Ying

    2014-02-12

    Two new Chinese genera and species of freshwater crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus, new genus, new species, and Minutomon shanweiense, new genus, new species, are described from Zhaoqing City and Shanwei City, respectively. The former is superficially closest to Huananpotamon Dai & Ng, 1994, while the latter resembles Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, and Mediapotamon Dai, 1995. The two new genera, however, possess distinctive combinations of carapace, third maxilliped, male thoracic sternal and first gonopodal characters that easily distinguish them from other genera. Notes on the general biology of the two new species are also given.

  18. North-south diversity of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balachandran, T.

    The effectiveness of north-south hydrographical barriers in restricting the distributions of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda:Calanoida) in the euphotic zone of the Indian Ocean was studied. Twenty seven species belonging to 7 genera were...

  19. Revision of the New World cycad weevils of the subtribe Allocorynina, with description of two new genera and three new subgenera (Coleoptera: Belidae: Oxycoryninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'brien, Charles W; Tang, William

    2015-06-09

    The taxonomy of the weevils inhabiting male cycad cones in the New World is reviewed. All species belong in a single subtribe, Allocorynina, of the family Belidae, subfamily Oxycoryninae and tribe Oxycorynini and are known to develop only in cones of the cycad genera Dioon and Zamia. Most species of Rhopalotria Chevrolat develop in male cones of Zamia ranging from Mexico, Belize, the Caribbean (Cuba, Isle of Youth, Cayman Islands, Jamaica and the Bahamas) to southern Florida, and one species in those of Dioon spinulosum in Mexico. Rhopalotria consists of three previously described species, two previously described genus-group names (treated herein as subgenera) and four new species described herein: subgenus Allocorynus Sharp with R. calonjei n. sp., R. furfuracea n. sp., R. mollis (Sharp) and R. vovidesi n. sp., and the nominate subgenus Rhopalotria with R. dimidiata Chevrolat, R. meerowi n. sp. and R. slossoni (Schaeffer). The species of Parallocorynus Voss develop only in cones of Dioon in Mexico, and the genus consists of one previously described species, the nominate subgenus and three new subgenera and 11 new species described herein: subgenus Dysicorynus n. subg. with P. andrewsi n. sp. and P. sonorensis n. sp., subgenus Eocorynus n. subg. with P. chemnicki n. sp. and P. schiblii n. sp., subgenus Neocorynus n. subg. with P. iglesiasi n. sp. and P. inexpectatus n. sp., and the nominate subgenus Parallocorynus with P. bicolor (Voss), P. gregoryi n. sp., P. jonesi n. sp., P. norstogi n. sp., P. perezfarrerai n. sp. and P. salasae n. sp. Two new genera are described, Protocorynus with one new species in Honduras, P. bontai, and Notorhopalotria with four new species ranging from Costa Rica to Colombia, N. montgomeryensis, N. panamensis, N. platysoma and N. taylori. Keys to genera, subgenera and species are provided. All of these weevils are believed to be involved in pollination of their host cycads.

  20. Pamphagidae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) from the Palaearctic Region: taxonomy, classification, keys to genera and a review of the tribe Nocarodeini I.Bolívar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Mustafa

    2016-12-13

    The very rich material of Palaearctic Pamphagidae preserved in the collections including the type specimens of all taxa, the historical unidentified specimens and newly collected material have been studied. 58 genera and 295 species and subspecies are listed. The higher classification of the family is reviewed mainly based on the male phallic complex as well as the traditional and some new external characters. The tribe Haplotropiidini is transferred to the subfamily Thrinchinae. Previously synonymized subfamily Tropidaucheninae is validated as an independent tribe of Pamphaginae. The tribe Nocarodeini is taxonomically reviewed except the genus Bufonocarodes Mistshenko. The male phallic complex is also used as one of the main characters in decisions of the genus group taxa. The following 10 genera are synonymized: Pseudotmethis Bey-Bienko, 1948 and Paratmethis Zheng & He, 1996 (with Filchnerella Karny, 1908), Sinotmethis Bey-Bienko, 1959 and Kanotmethis Yin, 1994 (with Beybienkia Tsyplenkov, 1956), Paktia Pfadt, 1970 (with Mistshenkoella Cejchan, 1969), Pseudosavalania Demirsoy, 1973 (with Paranocarodes I. Bolívar, 1912), Nocaropsis Ramme, 1951 (with Paranothrotes Mistshenko, 1951), Paranocaracris Mistshenko, 1951 and Oronothrotes Mistshenko, 1951 (with Nocaracris Uvarov, 1928) and Savalania Mistshenko, 1951 (with Nocarodes Fischer von Waldheim, 1846). The genera Mistshenkoella Cejchan and Cryptonothrotes La Greca are proposed as subgenera of Saxetania Mistshenko. The following genera are divided: Eremocharis Saussure into 4 species groups, Paranocarodes I. Bolívar into 2 species groups, Paranothrotes Mistshenko into 4 species groups, Nocaracris Uvarov into 7 species groups and Nocarodes Fischer von Waldheim into 4 species groups. The following 24 species and subspecies are synonymized: Tmethis cinerascus cyanipes Werner, 1939 [with Eremopeza angusta (Uvarov, 1934)], Iranotmethis cyanipennis cyanipes Bey-Bienko, 1951 [with Iranotmethis cyanipennis iranicus

  1. 重庆分布中国种子植物特有属区系特征研究%Study on Genera Endemic to China in the Spermatophytic Flora of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁博; 操梦帆; 邓洪平; 丁醒; 文海军; 郭金

    2013-01-01

    重庆分布中国种子植物特有属66属,包含100种,隶属于40科.其基本特征为:①种子植物主要科的特有成分分化程度不同;单种和寡种特有属所占比例较大.珍稀濒危植物丰富;重庆分布草本特有属所占比例低于全国草本特有属比例;以古老和孑遗性为主,存在一定年轻成分.②落叶木本22属,占木本植物的73.33%;主要垂直分布于海拔1 000~3 000 m,表明特有属具有明显的温带性质.③地理水平分布以中国东部和中部特有分布变型为主,也有中国南部特有分布变型;重庆东南部和西北部是中国种子植物特有属在重庆的主要分布中心,中西部也有一定数量分布.%66 genera endemic to China were found in the spermatophyte flora of Chongqing, including 100 species of 40 families. The floristic characters are as follows: (1) The differentiation degree of endemic elements varies in different major families of the seed plants. It has a large number of monotypic and oligo-typic genera, and riches in rare and endangered plants. Proportion of herbaceous endemic genera in Chongqing is lower than that in the whole nation. Most of the 66 endemic genera are ancient and relic, but a certain number of young genera can also be found. (2) 22 endemic genera are deciduous woody plants, occupying 73. 33% of the total endemic woody plants in Chongqing. A majority of the endemic genera distribute in an area of 1 000- 3 000 m alt. , showing an obvious temperate nature. (3) Areal-type analysis showed that the 66 endemic genera could be divided into two subtypes, most of which were restricted in eastern to central China, while others were mainly endemic to southern China. Southeast and northwest Chongqing are two main distribution centers of the Chinese endemic genera in Chong-qing, while the midwest part also has a certain amount of endemic genera distributed.

  2. Evolution of bidirectional sex change and gonochorism in fishes of the gobiid genera Trimma, Priolepis, and Trimmatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunobe, Tomoki; Sado, Tetsuya; Hagiwara, Kiyoshi; Manabe, Hisaya; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Sakurai, Makoto; Dewa, Shin-ichi; Matsuoka, Midori; Shinomiya, Akihiko; Fukuda, Kazuya; Miya, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Size-advantage and low-density models have been used to explain how mating systems favor hermaphroditism or gonochorism. However, these models do not indicate historical transitions in sexuality. Here, we investigate the evolution of bidirectional sex change and gonochorism by phylogenetic analysis using the mitochondrial gene of the gobiids Trimma (31 species), Priolepis (eight species), and Trimmatom (two species). Trimma and Priolepis formed a clade within the sister group Trimmatom. Gonadal histology and rearing experiments revealed that Trimma marinae, Trimma nasa, and Trimmatom spp. were gonochoric, whereas all other Trimma and Priolepis spp. were bidirectional sex changers or inferred ones. A maximum-likelihood reconstruction analysis demonstrated that the common ancestor of the three genera was gonochoristic. Bidirectional sex change probably evolved from gonochorism in a common ancestor of Trimma and Priolepis. As the gonads of bidirectional sex changers simultaneously contain mature ovarian and immature testicular components or vice versa, individuals are always potentially capable of functioning as females or males, respectively. Monogamy under low-density conditions may have been the ecological condition for the evolution of bidirectional sex change in a common ancestor. As T. marinae and T. nasa are a monophyletic group, gonochorism should have evolved from bidirectional sex change in a common ancestor.

  3. Twining Genera of (0,4) Supersymmetric Sigma Models on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Sarah; Paquette, Natalie M

    2013-01-01

    Conformal field theories with (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry and K3 target can be used to compactify the E8xE8 heterotic string to six dimensions in a supersymmetric manner. The data specifying such a model includes an appropriate configuration of 24 gauge instantons in the E8xE8 gauge group to satisfy the constraints of anomaly cancellation. In this note, we compute twining genera - elliptic genera with appropriate insertions of discrete symmetry generators in the trace - for (0,4) theories with various instanton embeddings. We do this by constructing linear sigma models which flow to the desired conformal field theories, and using the techniques of localization. We present several examples of such twining genera which are consistent with a moonshine relating these (0,4) models to the finite simple sporadic group M24.

  4. Reproductive allocation and output in herbaceous annuals of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia in elevated CO[sub 2] environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, E.J.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the capacity of plants to adapt to rapidly changing global climate, we must elucidate the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on reproduction, fitness and evolution. We investigated how elevated CO[sub 2] influenced reproduction and growth of plants exhibiting a range of floral displays, the implications of shifts in allocation for fitness in these species, and whether related taxa would show similar patterns of response. Three herbaceous, annual species each of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia were grown under 350 or 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. Vegetative growth and reproductive output were non-destructively measured throughout the full life span, and biomass calibrated with a subsample harvest at first flowering. Viability and germination studies of seed progeny were conducted to more precisely characterize fitness. Timecourse and numbers of floral buds, flowers, unripe and abscised fruits differed between CO[sub 2] treatments. Genera differed significantly in their phenological responses to elevated CO[sub 2], Polygonum and Cassia species (but not Ipomoea) showed accelerated, enhanced reproduction. Elevated CO[sub 2] ameliorated trade-offs between vegetative and floral production. However, seed [open quotes]quality[close quotes] and fitness were not always directly correlated with quantity produced. Species within general responded more consistently to CO[sub 2], indicating that phylogeny and life form may be general predictors of performance under global change.

  5. Epilachnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)—A Revision of the World Genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Szawaryn, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recent revised generic classification of the tribe Epilachnini (Szawaryn et al. 2015), all 27 genera are re-described, diagnosed, illustrated, and included in an identification key. The following nomenclatural changes are made: Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850, Epilachna (Cleta) Mulsant 1850, Solanophila Weise 1898, Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993, and Epilachna (Uniparodentata) Wang and Cao 1993 are removed from synonymy of Epilachna Chervolat 1837. The subgenus Cleta of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Cleta Mulsant 1850 stat. nov.; the subgenus Uniparodentata of Epilachna is raised to the genus level, as Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 stat. nov. Chazeauiana Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna sahlbergi Mulsant 1850), and Epilachna (Hypsa) Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna nigrolimbata Thomson 1875) are synonymized here under the name Cleta Mulsant 1850 (type species, Epilachna eckloni Mulsant 1850)—new synonyms; Fuerschia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Coccinella canina Fabricius 1781) is synonymized with Solanophila Weise 1898 (type species, Epilachna gibbosa Crotch 1874)—new synonym; Ryszardia Tomaszewska and Szawaryn 2015 (type species, Epilachna decipiens Crotch 1874) and Epilachna (Aparodentata) Wang and Cao, 1993 (type species, Epilachna yongshanensis Cao and Xiao 1984) are synonymized under the name Uniparodentata Wang and Cao 1993 (type species, Epilachna paramagna Pang and Mao 1979)—new synonyms. Henosepilachna (Elateria) Fürsch 1964 (type species: Coccinella elaterii Rossi 1794) is removed from synomyms of Henosepilachna Li 1961 [type species, Coccinella sparsa Herbst 1786 (=Coccinella vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 1775)] and is synonymized here with Chnootriba Chevrolat 1837 (type species: Coccinella similis Thunberg 1781)—new synonym. Coccinella flavofasciata Laporte 1840, Epilachna aequatorialis Gordon 1975, E. bizonata Crotch 1874, E. convergens Crotch 1874, E. cruciata

  6. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  7. New taxonomical arrangement of the traditionally conceived genera Orthotrichum and Ulota (Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta

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    Plášek Vítězslav

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditionally conceived genera Orthotrichum Hedw. and Ulota F.Weber are here reclassified into six genera, Orthotrichum, Dorcadion Lindb., Nyholmiella Holmen & E.Warncke, Pulvigera Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra, Plenogemma Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra, and Ulota, based on morphological differences and partially on molecular evidence. The genus Pulvigera includes P. lyellii (Hook. & Taylor Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra (Orthotrichum lyellii Hook. & Taylor which was selected as its generitype. The genus Plenogemma includes P. phyllantha (Brid. Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra (Ulota phyllantha Brid. which was selected as its generitype.

  8. Diversidade de espécies dos gêneros de Crematogaster, Gnamptogenys e Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae e complementaridade dos métodos de coleta durante a estação seca numa estação ecológica no estado do Pará, Brasil Diversity of species of the genera Crematogaster,Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla, (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and complementarity of sampling methods during the dry season in an ecological station in the Brazilian state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Pereira Souza

    2007-01-01

    elaboration of alternative protocols, we analyzed the complementarity of two sampling methods in the detection of species richness. In 6 plots of 1 km² distributed in an area of 33,000 ha of continuous primary forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, the diversity and the frequency of species of genera Crematogaster,Gnamptogenys and Pachycondyla were investigated, as part of the "Ant methodology Protocol" of the Project TEAM. Using the Winkler extractor and pitfall traps, 10 sub-samples were collected per transect. In each plot, 4 transects of 100 m were installed. We registered 36 species, and 15 are new records for the state, and 29 for the study site. Seventeen species were common to both sampling methods, 11 were captured with pitfall and 8 with Winkler. The proportions of singletons were high for both methods (>0,4. Nineteen species were captured by only one method and three were represented by only one individual in both methods. Ordination analysis (SSH, Semi-Strong Hybrid Multi-Dimensional Scaling indicated differences in community structure between both sampling methods. There was a complementarity's effect between these two methods in order to obtain a more complete inventory of the species richness, indicating that both must be used in the protocol. Other resources like rarefaction and/or sample dilution must be evaluated in future investigations.

  9. Nuclear DNA amount and genome downsizing in natural and synthetic allopolyploids of the genera Aegilops and Triticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, T; Anikster, Y; Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Feldman, M

    2008-08-01

    Recent molecular studies in the genera Aegilops and Triticum showed that allopolyploidization (interspecific or intergeneric hybridization followed by chromosome doubling) generated rapid elimination of low-copy or high-copy, non-coding and coding DNA sequences. The aims of this work were to determine the amount of nuclear DNA in allopolyploid species of the group and to see to what extent elimination of DNA sequences affected genome size. Nuclear DNA amount was determined by the flow cytometry method in 27 natural allopolyploid species (most of which were represented by several lines and each line by several plants) as well as 14 newly synthesized allopolyploids (each represented by several plants) and their parental plants. Very small intraspecific variation in DNA amount was found between lines of allopolyploid species collected from different habitats or between wild and domesticated forms of allopolyploid wheat. In contrast to the constancy in nuclear DNA amount at the intraspecific level, there are significant differences in genome size between the various allopolyploid species, at both the tetraploid and hexaploid levels. In most allopolyploids nuclear DNA amount was significantly less than the sum of DNA amounts of the parental species. Newly synthesized allopolyploids exhibited a similar decrease in nuclear DNA amount in the first generation, indicating that genome downsizing occurs during and (or) immediately after the formation of the allopolyploids and that there are no further changes in genome size during the life of the allopolyploids. Phylogenetic considerations of the origin of the B genome of allopolyploid wheat, based on nuclear DNA amount, are discussed.

  10. Three new species in the subfamily Eriopeltinae Sulc from Italy (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) with comments on the genus Lecanopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Three new coccid species, namely Hadzibejliaspis ferenci Pellizzari n. sp., Lecanopsis sicula Pellizzari n. sp. and L. salvatorei Pellizzari n. sp. are described and illustrated. Identification keys for the genera in the subfamily Eriopeltinae Sulc and to species in the genera Hadzibejliaspis Koteja and Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti are provided.

  11. Inactivation of three genera of dominant fungal spores in groundwater using chlorine dioxide: Effectiveness, influencing factors, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gang; Xu, Xiangqian; Huang, Tinglin; Zhu, Hong; Ma, Jun

    2017-08-18

    Fungi in aquatic environments received more attention recently; therefore, the characteristics of inactivation of fungal spores by widely used disinfectants are quite important. Nonetheless, the inactivation efficacy of fungal spores by chlorine dioxide is poorly known. In this study, the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide at inactivation of three dominant genera of fungal spores isolated from drinking groundwater and the effects of pH, temperature, chlorine dioxide concentration, and humic acid were evaluated. The inactivation mechanisms were explored by analyzing the leakage of intracellular substances, the increase in extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and proteins as well as the changes in spore morphology. The kinetics of inactivation by chlorine dioxide fitted the Chick-Watson model, and different fungal species showed different resistance to chlorine dioxide inactivation, which was in the following order: Cladosporium sp.>Trichoderma sp. >Penicillium sp., which are much more resistant than Escherichia coli. Regarding the three genera of fungal spores used in this study, chlorine dioxide was more effective at inactivation of fungal spores than chlorine. The effect of disinfectant concentration and temperature was positive, and the impact of pH levels (6.0 and 7.0) was insignificant, whereas the influence of water matrices on the inactivation efficiency was negative. The increased concentration of characteristic extracellular substances and changes of spore morphology were observed after inactivation with chlorine dioxide and were due to cell wall and cell membrane damage in fungal spores, causing the leakage of intracellular substances and death of a fungal spore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Checklist of invasive alien species in CSIR-NBRI Botanic Garden, Lucknow, India

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    Shilpi Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The invasive alien species of CSIR-NBRI Botanic Garden are enumerated and their impact on the surrounding ecosystem are discussed. This study deals with the information on habit, nativity and family of plant species occurring in the area of study. A total of 103 invasive alien species under 86 genera and 36 families were recorded. Among these, the eudicotyledons represent 85 species, 69 genera and 32 families; monocotyledons represent 18 species, 17 genera and 4 families. In terms of nativity, species from Tropical America are the most dominant group with 34 species. In addition, based on life forms, herbs are dominant (88 species, followed by shrubs (8 species, climbers (4 species and trees (3 species.

  13. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  14. Taxonomic and biogeographical notes on Okavango desmids (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) II: Genera Cosmarium, Xanthidium and Staurastrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coesel, P.F.M.; van Geest, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, a sequel to an earlier discussion on desmid algae from the Botswana Okavango Delta and the annexed Namibian Caprivi Strip, 25 taxa belonging to the genera Cosmarium, Xanthidium and Staurastrum are dealt with. Nine taxa are newly described: Cosmarium doidgei var. depressum, C.

  15. Studies in Annonaceae VI. A leafanatomical survey of genera of Annonaceae in the Neotropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setten, van A.K.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    SETTEN, A. K. van & KOEK-NOORMAN, J.: Studies in Annonaceae. VI. A leafanatomical survey of genera of Annonaceae in the Neotropics. — Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 108: 17—50. 1986. — ISSN 0006-8152. Within the scope of the multidisciplinary research project on systematics of Annonaceae, a survey of the leafana

  16. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic brassicaceae genera in the cape flora of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummenhoff, K.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Linder, H.P.; Mühlhausen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heliophila (ca. 73 spp.), the ditypic Cycloptychis and Thlaspeocarpa, and the monotypic Schlechteria, Silicularia, Brachycarpaea, and Chamira are endemic to the Cape region of South Africa, where they are the dominant genera of Brassicaceae. They may be regarded as the most diversified Brassicaceae

  17. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic brassicaceae genera in the cape flora of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummenhoff, K.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Linder, H.P.; Mühlhausen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heliophila (ca. 73 spp.), the ditypic Cycloptychis and Thlaspeocarpa, and the monotypic Schlechteria, Silicularia, Brachycarpaea, and Chamira are endemic to the Cape region of South Africa, where they are the dominant genera of Brassicaceae. They may be regarded as the most diversified Brassicaceae

  18. Combined data, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the origin of the New Zealand cicada genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas R; Arensburger, Peter; Simon, Chris; Chambers, Geoffrey K

    2002-02-01

    We have applied Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic estimation to data from four mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, 12S, and 16S) and a single nuclear gene (EF1alpha) from several genera of New Zealand, Australian, and New Caledonian cicada taxa. We specifically focused on the heterogeneity of phylogenetic signal among the different data partitions and the biogeographic origins of the New Zealand cicada fauna. The Bayesian analyses circumvent many of the problems associated with other statistical tests for comparing data partitions. We took an information-theoretic approach to model selection based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). This approach indicated that there was considerable uncertainty in identifying the best-fit model for some of the partitions. Additionally, a large amount of uncertainty was associated with many parameter estimates from the substitution model. However, a sensitivity analysis on the combined dataset indicated that the model selection uncertainty had little effect on estimates of topology because these estimates were largely insensitive to changes in the assumed model. This outcome suggests strong signal in our data. Our analyses support a New Caledonian affiliation of the New Zealand cicada genera Maoricicada, Kikihia, and Rhodopsalta and Australian affinities for the genera Amphipsalta and Notopsalta. This result was surprising, given that previous cicada biologists suspected a close relationship between Amphipsalta, Notopsalta, and Rhodopsalta based on genitalic characters. Relationships among the closely related genera Maoricicada, Kikihia, and Rhodopsalta were poorly resolved, the mitochondrial data and the EF1alpha data favoring different arrangements within this clade.

  19. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  20. Six new species of Microdon Meigen from Madagascar (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemer, Menno; Bot, Sander

    2015-10-28

    Six new species of the myrmecophilous hoverfly genus Microdon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) are described from Madagascar. Redescriptions are given for the three other Madagascan species of this genus. Keys are presented to the Madagascan genera of the subfamily Microdontinae and to the Madagascan species of Microdon.

  1. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting c

  2. Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of chili in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.; Wang, W.-Z.; Liu, L.; Cai, L.; Liu, X.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a serious disease of more than 30 plant genera. Several Colletotrichum species have been reported to infect chili in different countries. Although China is the largest chiliproducing country, little is known about the species that have been infecting

  3. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  4. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., Avicularia lynnae sp. n., and Avicularia caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected

  5. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyraporagen. n., Caribenagen. n., and Antillenagen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianaesp. n., Avicularia lynnaesp. n., and Avicularia caeisp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate

  6. A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, P; Liu, M; Hodge, K T

    2008-01-01

    The present taxonomic revision deals with Neotropical species of three entomopathogenic genera that were once included in Hypocrella s. l.: Hypocrella s. str. (anamorph Aschersonia), Moelleriella (anamorph aschersonia-like), and Samuelsia gen. nov (anamorph aschersonia-like). Species of Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia are pathogens of scale insects (Coccidae and Lecaniidae, Homoptera) and whiteflies (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera) and are common in tropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF 1-alpha), and RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) and analyses of multiple morphological characters demonstrate that the three segregated genera can be distinguished by the disarticulation of the ascospores and shape and size of conidia. Moelleriella has filiform multi-septate ascospores that disarticulate at the septa within the ascus and aschersonia-like anamorphs with fusoid conidia. Hypocrella s. str. has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and Aschersonia s. str. anamorphs with fusoid conidia. The new genus proposed here, Samuelsia, has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and aschersonia-like anamorphs with small allantoid conidia. In addition, the present study presents and discusses the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology in Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia based on multigene phylogenetic analyses.

  7. A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, P.; Liu, M.; Hodge, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    The present taxonomic revision deals with Neotropical species of three entomopathogenic genera that were once included in Hypocrella s. l.: Hypocrella s. str. (anamorph Aschersonia), Moelleriella (anamorph aschersonia-like), and Samuelsia gen. nov (anamorph aschersonia-like). Species of Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia are pathogens of scale insects (Coccidae and Lecaniidae, Homoptera) and whiteflies (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera) and are common in tropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF 1-α), and RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) and analyses of multiple morphological characters demonstrate that the three segregated genera can be distinguished by the disarticulation of the ascospores and shape and size of conidia. Moelleriella has filiform multi-septate ascospores that disarticulate at the septa within the ascus and aschersonia-like anamorphs with fusoid conidia. Hypocrella s. str. has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and Aschersonia s. str. anamorphs with fusoid conidia. The new genus proposed here, Samuelsia, has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and aschersonia-like anamorphs with small allantoid conidia. In addition, the present study presents and discusses the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology in Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia based on multigene phylogenetic analyses. PMID:18490956

  8. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 8. The new genera Cygnocyphon, Eximiocyphon, Paracyphon, Leptocyphon, Tectocyphon, and additions to Contacyphon de Gozis, Nanocyphon Zwick and Eurycyphon Watts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-07

    New monotypic genera proposed are: Cygnocyphon ibex n. gen., n. sp., Eximiocyphon excisus n. gen., n. sp., and Paracyphon avicularis n. gen., n. sp. Also proposed are the new genera Leptocyphon n. gen., with L. furcalonga, n. sp. and L. quadricornutus, n. sp., Tectocyphon n. gen., with T. microphallus n. sp., T. hirsutus n. sp., and T. victoriae n. sp. The diagnosis of genus Eurycyphon Watts is amended, E. fulvus Watts and E. aquilus Watts are partly redescribed. New species are: Eurycyphon barringtoni n. sp., E. castaneus n. sp., E. falcatus n. sp., E. parvus n. sp., E. perlatus n. sp., E. thunguttii, n. sp., E. tomweiri n. sp., and E. tricornis n. sp. Species of Nanocyphon are discussed and N. tasmanicus n. sp. is described. Contacyphon forcipatus n. sp. is described and an apparently introduced population of the European Contacyphon putonii Gozis is reported from West Australia. For comparison with some of the new taxa the redescription of Pseudomicrocara orientalis Armstrong, type species of the genus, is supplemented.

  9. Reactive Oxygen Species in Skeletal Muscle Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in eukaryotic cells' life. Up to the 1990s of the past century, ROS have been solely considered as toxic species resulting in oxidative stress, pathogenesis and aging. However, there is now clear evidence that ROS are not merely toxic species but also—within certain concentrations—useful signaling molecules regulating physiological processes. During intense skeletal muscle contractile activity myotubes' mitochondria genera...

  10. Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven R. MANCHESTER; Zhi-Duan CHEN; An-Ming LU; Kazuhiko UEMURA

    2009-01-01

    We review the fossil history of seed plant genera that are now endemic to eastern Asia. Although the majority of eastern Asian endemic genera have no known fossil record at all, 54 genera, or about 9%, are reliably known from the fossil record. Most of these are woody (with two exceptions), and most are today either broadly East Asian, or more specifically confined to Sino-Japanese subcategory rather than being endemic to the Sino-Himalayan area. Of the "eastern Asian endemic" genera so far known from the fossil record, the majority formerly occurred in Europe and/or North America, indicating that eastern Asia served as a late Tertiary or Quaternary refugium for taxa. Hence, many of these genera may have originated in other parts of the Northern Hemisphere and expanded their ranges across continents and former sea barriers when tectonic and climatic conditions al-lowed, leading to their arrival in eastern Asia. Although clear evidence for paleoendemism is provided by the gymnosperms Amentotaxus, Cathaya, Cephalotaxus, Cunninghamia, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Ginkgo, Ketel-eeria, Metasequoia, Nothotsuga, Pseudolarix, Sciadopitys, and Taiwania, and the angiosperms Cercidiphyllum, Choerospondias, Corylopsis, Craigia, Cyclocarya, Davidia, Dipelta, Decaisnea, Diplopanax, Dipteronia, Em-menopterys, Eucommia, Euscaphis, Hemiptelea, Hovenia, Koelreuteria, Paulownia, Phellodendron, Platycarya, Pteroceltis, Rehderodendron, Sargentodoxa, Schizophragma, Sinomenium, Tapiscia, Tetracentron, Toricellia,Trapella, and Trochodendron, we cannot rule out the possibility that neoendemism plays an important role espe-cially for herbaceous taxa in the present-day flora of Asia, particularly in the Sino-Himalayan region. In addition to reviewing paleobotanical occurrences from the literature, we document newly recognized fossil occurrences that expand the geographic and stratigraphic ranges previously known for Dipelta, Pteroceltis, and Toricellia.

  11. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550). PMID:27698572

  12. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Call, Douglas F.; Yates, Matthew D.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most ({proportional_to}30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m{sup 2}, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m{sup 2}. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m{sup 2}) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. (orig.)

  13. Major histocompatibility complex variation and evolution at a single, expressed DQA locus in two genera of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Henry, Tammy; Maldonado, Jesus E; Moss, Cynthia J; Poole, Joyce H; Pearson, Virginia R; Murray, Suzan; Alberts, Susan C; Fleischer, Robert C

    2010-02-01

    Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial to defense against infectious disease, provide an important measure of functional genetic diversity, and have been implicated in mate choice and kin recognition. As a result, MHC loci have been characterized for a number of vertebrate species, especially mammals;however, elephants are a notable exception. Our study is the first to characterize patterns of genetic diversity and natural selection in the elephant MHC. We did so using DNA sequences from a single, expressed DQA locus in elephants.We characterized six alleles in 30 African elephants(Loxodonta africana) and four alleles in three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). In addition, for two of the African alleles and three of the Asian alleles, we characterized complete coding sequences (exons 1-5) and nearly complete non-coding sequences (introns 2-4) for the class II DQA loci. Compared to DQA in other wild mammals, we found moderate polymorphism and allelic diversity and similar patterns of selection; patterns of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions were consistent with balancing selection acting on the peptides involved in antigen binding in the second exon. In addition, balancing selection has led to strong trans-species allelism that has maintained multiple allelic lineages across both genera of extant elephants for at least 6 million years. We discuss our results in the context of MHC diversity in other mammals and patterns of evolution in elephants.

  14. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2010-07-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most (~30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m 2, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m 2. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m2) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Towards a phylogenetic classification of reef corals: The Indo-Pacific genera Merulina, Goniastrea and Scapophyllia (Scleractinia, Merulinidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Danwei

    2014-06-03

    Recent advances in scleractinian systematics and taxonomy have been achieved through the integration of molecular and morphological data, as well as rigorous analysis using phylogenetic methods. In this study, we continue in our pursuit of a phylogenetic classification by examining the evolutionary relationships between the closely related reef coral genera Merulina, Goniastrea, Paraclavarina and Scapophyllia (Merulinidae). In particular, we address the extreme polyphyly of Favites and Goniastrea that was discovered a decade ago. We sampled 145 specimens belonging to 16 species from a wide geographic range in the Indo-Pacific, focusing especially on type localities, including the Red Sea, western Indian Ocean and central Pacific. Tree reconstructions based on both nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal a novel lineage composed of three species previously placed in Favites and Goniastrea. Morphological analyses indicate that this clade, Paragoniastrea Huang, Benzoni & Budd, gen. n., has a unique combination of corallite and subcorallite features observable with scanning electron microscopy and thin sections. Molecular and morphological evidence furthermore indicates that the monotypic genus Paraclavarina is nested within Merulina, and the former is therefore synonymised. © 2014 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  16. A revision of the haploporinae nicoll, 1914 (digenea: haploporidae) from mullets (mugilidae): two new haploporine genera and a key to the genera of the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-03-01

    Two new haploporine genera are established for parasites of mullets. Ragaia n. g. is erected for R. lizae n. sp. from Liza ramado in the Ebro Delta on the Mediterranean Coast of Spain. This new genus is distinguished by the unique combination of the following characters: a strongly muscular ventral sucker which is twice as large as the oral sucker; a large, muscular hermaphroditic sac similar in length to the ventral sucker; a saccular, thick-walled internal seminal vesicle which is larger than the external seminal vesicle; and the ovary and vitellarium located rather close to the posterior extremity. Pseudodicrogaster n. g. is erected to accommodate Dicrogaster japonica Machida, 1996, as P. japonica (Machida, 1996) n. comb., a parasite of Mugil cephalus L. off Fukaura, Japan. This genus is recognised on the basis of: the tubular condition of both the internal and external seminal vesicles, the latter being much shorter than the former; the sucker ratio; the massive pyriform hermaphroditic sac; the location of the testis; and the presence of two eye-spots in developed miracidia. A key to the nine recognised genera of the Haploporinae is presented.

  17. Re-introduction and supplementation of species of Acropora and Pocillopora into the lagoons of Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesh, M.; Koya, S.I.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    The genera Acropora and Pocillopora are represented by a large number of species in most coral reefs They are more sensitive to environmental changes and anthropogenic effects and hence are more at risk than other coral species For example...

  18. Renius cornutus, a new genus and species of Chilocorini from Tibet, China (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Huo, Lizhi; Ahrens, Dirk; Ren, Shunxiang; Wang, Xingmin

    2017-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Chilocorini, Renius Li & Wang, gen. n., with a new species R. cornutus Li et Wang, sp. n. is described from Tibet, China. All diagnostic features are illustrated. The relationships with other genera of Chilocorini are discussed and a key to Chinese genera of Chilocorini is provided.

  19. New cytogenetic data for some Palaearctic species of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea with karyosystematic notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Gavrilov-Zimin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytogenetic data are reported for 17 species from 15 genera of the families Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, and Coccidae. Twelve species and 6 genera (Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heterococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heliococcus Šulc, 1912, Trabutina Marchal, 1904, Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868, and Anapulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 were studied cytogenetically for the first time. The taxonomic problems in the genera Trionymus Berg, 1899, Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 and Rhizopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 are discussed based on karyotype characters. Two chromosomal forms (cryptic species of Acanthopulvinaria orientalis (Nasonov, 1908, 2n=18 and 2n=16 were discovered.

  20. The genetic diversity of genus Bacillus and the related genera revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences and ardra analyses isolated from geothermal regions of turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Coleri Cihan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%, the facultative thermophiles (14% and the mesophiles (12%. These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16, Brevibacillus (13, Paenibacillus (1 and Thermoactinomycetes (2 were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4-100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6, B. lichenformis (3, B. subtilis (3, B. agri (3, B. smithii (2, T. vulgaris (2 and finally P. barengoltzii (1. In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies.