WorldWideScience

Sample records for superfund environmental response

  1. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  2. Superfund Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.

  3. 75 FR 69992 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... mechanism to provide financing for response actions under a State or Tribal response program. II. Background... pool, indemnity pool, or insurance mechanism to provide financing for response actions under a state or... outreach to local communities to increase their awareness and knowledge regarding the importance of...

  4. 76 FR 73622 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... pool, an indemnity pool, or insurance mechanism to provide financing for response actions under a State..., indemnity pool, or insurance mechanism to provide financing for response actions under a state or tribal... their awareness and knowledge regarding the importance of monitoring engineering and institutional...

  5. 78 FR 73525 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Section V of this guidance; or be a party to a voluntary response program Memorandum of Agreement (VRP MOA) \\6\\ with EPA; and \\6\\ States or tribes that are parties to VRP MOAs and that maintain and make...) recipients that do not have a VRP MOA with EPA must demonstrate that their response program includes, or is...

  6. 77 FR 69827 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... to voluntary response program Memorandum of Agreement (VRP MOA) \\6\\ with EPA; \\6\\ States or tribes that are parties to VRP MOAs and that maintain and make available a public record are automatically... not have a VRP MOA with EPA must demonstrate that their response program includes, or is taking...

  7. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5). Annual report to Congress for Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations in a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to clean up the 1989 inventory of sites in the Environmental Restoration Program by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planning for corrective activities, environmental restoration and waste management operations at its facilities. DOE also continues to conduct assessments (e.g., Management Audits, Environmental Safety and Health (ES & H) Progress Assessments, Internal Self Assessments) at its operating facilities to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current environmental compliance status and follow-up on findings.

  8. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, provides a federal "superfund" to clean up...

  9. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  10. 75 FR 49414 - Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 RIN 2050-AG58 Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund... Superfund Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts. DATES: This rule is effective October 12... requirements shall apply to all new Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts, funded under...

  11. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  12. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...

  13. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  14. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  15. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN: Superfund Program Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains GPS-located Superfund Program facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of...

  16. Superfund reform: US Environmental Protection Agency`s 30-day study and its implication for the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.R.; Friedman, J.R.; Neff, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to reform and restructure the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAS) Superfund program, the EPA Administrator on October 21, 1991, announced several key programmatic reforms. These reforms are a result of the Superfund 30-Day Task Force Report (30-Day Study, EPA 1991a), an effort carried out by EPAs office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The EPA OSWER oversees environmental cleanup activities under a number of statutory authorities, including the Comprehensive Environmental response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). CERCLA and its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), establish a regulatory framework to govern the cleanup of existing, and often abandoned, hazardous waste sites. The purposes of this report are to (1) review the background and recommendations of EPNs 30-Day Study, (2) identify and discuss the initiatives from the 30-Day Study that may impact DOE`s environmental restoration mission, (3) report on EPAs progress in implementing the selected priority initiatives, and (4) describe potentially related DOE activities.

  17. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  18. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  19. Detection of environmentally persistent free radicals at a superfund wood treating site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Gehling, William; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Cook, Robert; Dellinger, Barry

    2011-08-01

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have previously been observed in association with combustion-generated particles and airborne PM(2.5) (particulate matter, d 2.5um). The purpose of this study was to determine if similar radicals were present in soils and sediments at Superfund sites. The site was a former wood treating facility containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a major contaminant. Both contaminated and noncontaminated (just outside the contaminated area) soil samples were collected. The samples were subjected to the conventional humic substances (HS) extraction procedure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the EPFR concentrations and determine their structure for each sample fraction. Analyses revealed a ∼30× higher EPFR concentration in the PCP contaminated soils (20.2 × 10(17) spins/g) than in the noncontaminated soil (0.7 × 10(17) spins/g). Almost 90% of the EPFR signal originated from the minerals/clays/humins fraction. GC-MS analyses revealed ∼6500 ppm of PCP in the contaminated soil samples and none detected in the background samples. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) analyses revealed ∼7× higher concentrations of redox-active transition metals, in the contaminated soils than the noncontaminated soil. Vapor phase and liquid phase dosing of the clays/minerals/humins fraction of the soil with PCP resulted in an EPR signal identical to that observed in the contaminated soil, strongly suggesting the observed EPFR is pentachlorophenoxyl radical. Chemisorption and electron transfer from PCP to transition metals and other electron sinks in the soil are proposed to be responsible for EPFR formation.

  20. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  1. Congressional Testimony: Statement of Wade T. Najjum Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Wade T. Najjum Assistant Inspector General for Program Evaluation U.S. EPA Office of Inspector General Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

  2. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  3. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  4. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  5. 76 FR 70164 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... in connection with the Armour Road Superfund Site located at 2251 Armour Road North Kansas City...

  6. Environmental Factor{trademark} system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases.

  7. Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a Superfund site because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished.

  8. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  9. Relating Magnetic Parameters to Heavy Metal Concentrations and Environmental Factors at Formosa Mine Superfund Site, Douglas County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the field of environmental magnetism have led to exciting new applications for this field. Magnetic minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and tend to have an affinity for heavy metals. Hence, it has been demonstrated that magnetic properties are often significantly related to concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants. As a result, magnetic techniques have been used as proxy for determining hot spots of several types of pollution produced from a diversity of anthropogenic sources. Magnetic measurements are non-destructive and relatively inexpensive compared to geochemical analyses. The utility of environmental magnetic methods varies widely depending on biological, chemical and physical processes that create and transform soils and sediments. Applications in the direction of mapping heavy metals have been studied and shown to be quite useful in countries such as China and India but to date, little research has been done in the US. As such, there is need to expand the scope of research to a wider range of soil types and land uses, especially within the US. This study investigates the application of environmental magnetic techniques to mapping of heavy metal concentrations at the Formosa Mine Superfund Site, an abandoned mine about 25 miles southwest of Roseburg, OR. The soils and sediment at this site are derived from pyrite-rich bedrock which is weak in terms of magnetic susceptibility. Using hotspot analysis, correlation and cluster analyses, interactions between metals and magnetic parameters are investigated in relation to environmental factors such as proximity to seeps and adits. Preliminary results suggest significant correlation of magnetic susceptibility with certain heavy metals, signifying that magnetic methods may be useful in mapping heavy metal hotspots at this site. Further analysis examines the relation of various land use differences in magnetic signatures obtained throughout the Cow Creek watershed.

  10. Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A set of site boundaries for each site in EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) on EPA's Superfund National...

  11. Environmental Asbestos Assessment Manual Superfund Method for the Determination of Asbestos in Ambient Air Part 2: Technical Background Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sampling and analysis method for the determination of asbestos in air is presented in Part 1 of this report, under separate cover. This method is designed specifically to provide results suitable for supporting risk assessments at Superfund sites, although it is applicable t...

  12. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

  13. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Superfund National Priority List Sites as part of the CIMC web service. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate,...

  14. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  15. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Ore..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0893 or Site name Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site by one of...

  16. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context.

  17. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  18. Environmental Factor(tm) system: Superfund site information from five EPA databases (on cd-rom). Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Environmental Factor puts today`s technology to work to provide a better, more cost-efficient and time-saving way to access EPA information on hazardous waste sites. Environmental consultants, insurers, and reinsurers, corporate risk assessors and companies actively involved in the generation, transport, storage or cleanup of hazardous waste materials can use its user-friendly information retrieval system to gain rapid access to vital information in immediately-usable form. Search, retrieve, and export information in real time. No more waiting for the mail or overnight delivery services to deliver hard copies of voluminous listings and individual site reports. More than 200,000 pages of EPA hazardous waste site information are contained in 5 related databases: (1) Site data from the National Priority List (NPL) and CERCLIS databases, Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) and Records of Decision (RODs) summaries; (2) Complete PRP information; (3) EPA Records of Decision (Full Text); (4) entire Civil Enforcement Docket; and (5) Glossary of EPA terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Environmental Factor`s powerful database management engine gives even the most inexperienced computer user extensive search capabilities, including wildcard, phonetic and direct cross reference searches across multiple databases. The first menu option delivers information from the NPL, CERCLIS site data, PRP and RODs summary information. Enter a set of search criteria and then immediately access displays containing information from all of these databases. Get full PRP information and Full Text RODs by using their respective menu options. If your search turns up multiple items, a list of site names appears. To bring up the data, highlight the specific site you want and hit Enter. That`s how easy it is to access the vast amount of data stored in the Environmental Factor CD-ROM.

  19. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment and...

  20. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) Gulf Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) (R) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  1. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy.

  2. Chemical and biological methods for the analysis and remediation of environmental contaminants frequently identified at superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melinda Christine Wiles [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health

    2004-08-15

    Substantial environmental contamination has occurred from coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (C5P) in wood preserving solutions. The present studies focused on the characterization and remediation of these contaminants. The first objective was to delineate a sequence of biological changes caused by chlorinated phenol (CP) exposure. The second study was to develop multi-functional sorbents to remediate CPs and other components of wood preserving waste from groundwater. Following water remediation, the final aim of this work was to explore the safety of the parent clay minerals as potential enterosorbents for contaminants ingested in water and food. Based on evaluations of toxicity and neutron activation analysis of tissues, no significant differences were observed between animals receiving clay supplements and control animals, with the exception of slightly decreased brain Rb in animals ingesting clay. Overall, the results suggest that neither clay mineral, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. 420 refs., 28 figs, 15 tabs.

  3. EPA, 12 Private Entities Agree to Remove Contamination and Conduct Study at Metro Container Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (October 21, 2015) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 12 private entities have agreed to settle on actions that will lead to increased environmental protection at the Metro Container Superfund Site in Trainer, Delaware Co.,

  4. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  5. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  6. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation......, long interval from reduction in green house emission to cessation of warming, and the uncertain capacity of the natural systems to buffer greenhouse gas emissions. This thesis explores current challenges in our understanding of how climate change will affect biodiversity and how consequent challenges...... and European breeding bird surveys. The next four chapters in the thesis (chapters III-VI) are based on these programs. The chapters seek to answer questions about the continental-scale responses of biodiversity to climate change through investigation of population dynamics since 1980. Chapter III presents...

  7. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the...

  8. EPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement of Work for Inorganic Superfund Methods Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration ISM02.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains analytical methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide in environmental samples. It also contains contractual requirements for laboratories participating in Superfund's Contract Laboratory Program.

  9. EPA Contract Laboratory Program Statement of Work for Inorganic Superfund Methods Multi-Media, Multi-Concentration ISM02.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains analytical methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide in environmental samples. It also contains contractual requirements for laboratories participating in Superfund's Contract Laboratory Program.

  10. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the CIMC...

  11. Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, Washington Proposed to Superfund Cleanup List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (March 24, 2015 - Seattle) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to add the Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, in Spokane County, Washington, to the Superfund National Priorities List. The proposed listing includes a 60-day public comment

  12. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  13. Environmental social responsible practices of hospitality industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental social responsible practices of hospitality industry: The case of first level hotels and lodges in Gondar city, Ethiopia. ... positive and negative impact of tourism and hospitality industry, taking responsibility towards ... Article Metrics.

  14. Environmental Refugees - Justice and Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Julie Fogt; Jein, Marie Amailie Rosentoft; Murray, Tamsin Sureka Parfitt

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has and will have a tremendous effect on humanity. One of the consequences is people being forced to move - fleeing from the changes in climate and environment. This new group of refugees are known as environmental refugees. Scientific evidence (produced amongst others by the IPPC) suggests that environmental refugees will challenge our globalized world in growing numbers, warning our international political and legal system to take serious considerations of the future of these...

  15. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    challenges for human society in areas of food production, health and environmental protection. This kind of solution-oriented contributions in the ecological sciences will be important for the protection of biodiversity and human well-being during this century - that will be marked by climate change. Overall......Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation...... for their strengths and weaknesses when measuring organismal processes and environmental impacts over space and time. Chapter II provides an example of such integration. Genetic material from wild populations serves as a resource to reconstruct past changes in numbers, but the accuracy of reconstructions is often...

  16. Environmentally Responsible Behaviour and its Relationship with Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Monteiro da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the relationship between the environmentally responsible behaviours and the perception of Environmental Education of students and public servants of a Federal Public Institution of Education through an electronic questionnaire applied to students and workers of the institution. The data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, t-tests for independent samples, variance analysis, and regression trees. Those results contribute to understand the behaviour considered as environmentally responsible of individuals from a Federal Public Institution of Education, before their perception regarding Environmental Education. Based on the results presented in this survey, one can devise strategies for teaching, research, outreaching, empowerment, and awareness of future technicians, graduates, and technologists as well as other stakeholders involved with environmental issues. Thus, this study contributes to the surveyed institution in the sense that, based on it, goals and strategies towards the empowerment in education and environmental management can be traced, highlighting themes that address waste management, sustainable biddings, labour life quality, raise of students’ awareness, empowerment of the civil servants, and rational use of resources. The study also contributes to identify what are the environmentally responsible behaviors in an organizational academic environment.

  17. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

  18. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  19. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  20. Microbial responses to environmental arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Espino, David; Tamames, Javier; de Lorenzo, Víctor; Cánovas, David

    2009-02-01

    Microorganisms have evolved dynamic mechanisms for facing the toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In this sense, arsenic speciation and mobility is also affected by the microbial metabolism that participates in the biogeochemical cycle of the element. The ars operon constitutes the most ubiquitous and important scheme of arsenic tolerance in bacteria. This system mediates the extrusion of arsenite out of the cells. There are also other microbial activities that alter the chemical characteristics of arsenic: some strains are able to oxidize arsenite or reduce arsenate as part of their respiratory processes. These type of microorganisms require membrane associated proteins that transfer electrons from or to arsenic (AoxAB and ArrAB, respectively). Other enzymatic transformations, such as methylation-demethylation reactions, exchange inorganic arsenic into organic forms contributing to its complex environmental turnover. This short review highlights recent studies in ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these processes in bacteria, and also provides some examples of genetic engineering for enhanced arsenic accumulation based on phytochelatins or metallothionein-like proteins.

  1. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... AGENCY In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to... with PWPO provided a covenant not to sue for response costs at the Taylor Lumber and Treating Site... should reference the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site in Sheridan, Oregon, EPA Docket No....

  2. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  3. Speech Versus Action in Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanna Ferreira Peixoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of rethinking the consumption culture in contemporary society brings up the interest in researching how consumption habits are related to environmental preservation. Even though sustainable practices are valuable, the comparison amid how people act as consumers and their assumed ethical stance raises questions. Consumers advocate a concern for environmental issues but research shows that their consumption habits are still old fashioned. This study target the convergence and divergence between environmentally responsible speech and consumption behavior under the perspective of theories of action (Argyris, Putnam & Smith, 1985. Research utilized in-depth interviews and self-reports, using a logbook, to collect information about environmentally responsible discourse and consumption behavior of 11 participants. Data collection and analysis explore dimensions of environmentally responsible behavior (Stern, 1999, 2000: personal domain; behavioral domain; contextual domain; personal capabilities; and habits & routines. Results suggest that environmentally responsible behavior is not always consistent with the discourse due to influence of motivational issues (impotence, lack of interest, sacrifice, and convenience and contextual issues (financial situation, lack of public policies, time constraints, and culture.

  4. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  5. 76 FR 4933 - Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Review Responsibilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Responsibilities; Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities. OMB Control...

  6. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  7. Fiscal year 1996 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Tenth annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Public Law 99-499), which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting remedial investigation and feasibility studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial actions. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located.

  8. Superfund Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes an inventory of program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the...

  9. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the "Rechtsstaat"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wolf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important difficulty facing a Rechtsstaat idea when it comes to the realization of "sustainable development", lies in the structural differences between the constitutional order based on the Rechtsstaat on the one hand, and the dynamics of political and economic planning on the order. "Sustainable development" is development that links ecology and economy in such a way that ecological harm is minimized. Development should therefore be in the interest of future generations.There is, however, not yet much legislation concerning environmental protection, because the Rechtsstaat finds itself in a position where it cannot take sides. In no circumstances can the state legalize the ecological aspect, for this will presuppose state interference in the economic system, therefore violation a principle of the Rechsstaat. Environmental protection could thus easily be misused as the basis for allowing the state to directly manipulate the economic process.The state has the duty to invoke which measures which could help to regulate environmental harm and to create a legal basis for future economic and technological developments which are compatible with environmental protection. The German Constitutional amendment of 1994 deliberately did not take up environmental protection in the catalogue of fundamental rights. In terms of German constitutional law, state goals bind the legislature and should be translated into legislation. Article 20a GG formulates environmental protection as a state goal.It would be seem to be fair to suggest that the most important contribution towards getting to grips with the responsibilities of the Rechsstaat in promoting environmental protection has been made by legislative bodies in European as well as in German environmental law. The legislative measures require that precautionary measures should be taken by those who cause the environmental damage or risk. Environmental protection and economic development are inseparable

  10. 76 FR 13615 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... administrative settlement concerning the Grants Chlorinated Solvents Superfund Site, Grants, Cibola County, New... Grants Chlorinated Solvents Superfund Site, Grants, Cibola County, New Mexico and EPA Docket Number...

  11. Spatial disparity in the distribution of superfund sites in South Carolina: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Jiang, Chengsheng; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith; Wilson, Sacoby

    2013-11-06

    According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Superfund is a federal government program implemented to clean up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Twenty-six sites in South Carolina (SC) have been included on the National Priorities List (NPL), which has serious human health and environmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess spatial disparities in the distribution of Superfund sites in SC. The 2000 US census tract and block level data were used to generate population characteristics, which included race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), education, home ownership, and home built before 1950. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to map Superfund facilities and develop choropleth maps based on the aforementioned sociodemographic variables. Spatial methods, including mean and median distance analysis, buffer analysis, and spatial approximation were employed to characterize burden disparities. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the number of Superfund facilities and population characteristics. Spatial coincidence results showed that of the 29.5% of Blacks living in SC, 55.9% live in Superfund host census tracts. Among all populations in SC living below poverty (14.2%), 57.2% were located in Superfund host census tracts. Buffer analyses results (0.5mi, 1.0mi, 5.0mi, 0.5km, 1.0km, and 5.0km) showed a higher percentage of Whites compared to Blacks hosting a Superfund facility. Conversely, a slightly higher percentage of Blacks hosted (30.2%) a Superfund facility than those not hosting (28.8%) while their White counterparts had more equivalent values (66.7% and 67.8%, respectively). Regression analyses in the reduced model (Adj. R2 = 0.038) only explained a small percentage of the variance. In addition, the mean distance for percent of Blacks in the 90th percentile for Superfund facilities was 0.48mi. Burden disparities exist in the distribution of Superfund facilities in SC at the block and

  12. Climate Change and Corporate Environmental Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN; Chowdhury, M. Jahangir Alam

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, as an international environmental issue, is getting a lot of attention. The negative effects of climate change have become one of the most talked about issues among Governments, scientists, environmentalists and others. It is said that business activities are affecting the climate negatively. In order to minimize the negative effects of climate change, the activities of the businesses should be controlled and encouraged to perform in a socially responsible manner. The article ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCUNTING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Constantin Danuletiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is an economic growth strategy aimed to conciliate economic and social progress without endangering the natural equilibrium of the planet. The true stake of the future is the avoidance of environment degradation through developing of a responsibility sense both of citizens as well as of companies, for the purpose of reaching a stable sustainable development. Environmental accounting expresses the appearance of a new ethics that answer to the human worries for planetary development and progress. Starting from the damage caused to the environment, we ask ourselves about the destructive activity conducted by companies and making them responsible of the problem to the future generations.

  14. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  15. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  16. Modeling crop responses to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Potential biophysical responses of crops to climate change are studied focusing on the primary environmental variables which define the limits to agricultural crop growth and production, and the principal methods for predicting climate change impacts on crop geography and production. It is concluded that the principal uncertainties in the prediction of the impacts of climate change on agriculture reside in the contribution of the direct effects of increasing CO2, in potential changes inclimate variability, and the effects of adjustments mechanisms in the context of climatic changes.

  17. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...... with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 has been initiated. The paper especially presents the annex activities regarding...... development of Energy and Environmental Building concepts including discussion of the selected design strategy and technical solutions, the integrated design approach and design methods and tools....

  18. Air-water exchange of PAHs and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-12-15

    Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of PAH flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual PAH deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m(2))/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10(5) (ng/m(2))/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase PAHs and dermal exposure to PAHs in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to PAHs at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of PAHs was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne PAHs, rather than a source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of sociodemographics and environmental attitudes on general responsible environmental behavior among recreational boaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottrell, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined predictors of self-reported general responsible environmental behavior (GREB) among recreational boaters in Maryland in 1992. Findings show a relationship between cognitive (professed knowledge of environmental issues), affective (environmental concern), and conative (verbal comm

  20. Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schreuder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.

  1. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-07-16

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  2. EPA Proposes to Remove Most of Fulton, Oswego County, New York Site from Superfund List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y) After cleaning up more than 10,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and approximately 9 million gallons of contaminated groundwater, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to remove a portion of the Fulton Terminals Superfund

  3. Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, Washington Added to Superfund Cleanup List

    Science.gov (United States)

    (September 28, 2015 - Seattle) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has added the Grain Handling Facility at Freeman, in Spokane County, Washington, to the Superfund National Priorities List. The site was added to the NPL after EPA considered input rec

  4. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulong eChan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere, and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.

  5. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  6. Factors influencing environmentally responsible behavior in the Finnish service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, M.

    2008-07-01

    Companies and society are increasingly interested in the environmental impacts caused by their various actions. The environmental impacts of industrial activities have been considerably reduced as a result of increased economic and normative steering. However, the majority of organizations nowadays operate in the service sector where normative steering is rare. This study concentrates on finding factors that encourage environmentally responsible behavior in service sector companies. Research on this area has until now been lacking. The methodological choices are quantitative survey research and a qualitative case study. The survey examined the effect that employees' environmental knowledge, attitudes, social pressure, and the company's environmental management system have on environmentally responsible behavior. 756 office workers' in four different companies answered the survey. The case study investigated the efficiency of electricity saving measures in a service company. The research results consist of three main findings. Firstly, the research shows that knowledge of causes of environmental problems does not lead to environmentally responsible behavior without appropriate environmental training being organized by the employer. Secondly, the results indicate that environmental training in companies improves employees' knowledge of both how to behave in an environmentally responsible manner and also of the environmental and economic effects of environmental behavior. Thirdly, the research results suggest that environmental training should be repeated regularly. This study presents new empirical knowledge of employees' environmental behavior and the factors affecting it in service sector companies. Companies aiming to improve their environmental efficiency can use these results in decision-making. Further research is needed to evaluate the content and curriculum of environmental training. The duration of the impact of environmental

  7. Ant functional responses along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Understanding species distributions and diversity gradients is a central challenge in ecology and requires prior knowledge of the functional traits mediating species' survival under particular environmental conditions. While the functional ecology of plants has been reasonably well explored, much less is known about that of animals. Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth, and they perform a great variety of ecological functions. In this study, we analyse how the functional species traits present in ant communities vary along broad gradients in climate, productivity and vegetation type in the south-western Mediterranean. To this end, we compiled one of the largest animal databases to date: it contains information on 211 local ant communities (including eight climate variables, productivity, and vegetation type) and 124 ant species, for which 10 functional traits are described. We used traits that characterize different dimensions of the ant functional niche with respect to morphology, life history and behaviour at both individual and colony level. We calculated two complementary functional trait community indices ('trait average' and 'trait dissimilarity') for each trait, and we analysed how they varied along the three different gradients using generalized least squares models that accounted for spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that productivity, vegetation type and, to a lesser extent, each climate variable per se might play an important role in shaping the occurrence of functional species traits in ant communities. Among the climate variables, temperature and precipitation seasonality had a much higher influence on functional responses than their mean values, whose effects were almost lacking. Our results suggest that strong relationships might exist between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional traits among south-western Mediterranean ant communities. This finding indicates that

  8. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in or

  9. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum...

  10. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road...

  11. Environmental reference of enterprises social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara K. Zuzek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some considerations to take over the realm of entrepreneurial responsibility for the environment. It discusses the concept of ecological trends responsibility. Evidence indicates inclusion of small and medium-sized enterprises in the area of responsibility. Business responsibilities towards the environment as a basis for making voluntary commitments are presented.

  12. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  13. Technology evaluation report: SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) program demonstration test. The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) combustion research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterland, L.; Lee, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary-kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. The system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a coal tar waste (KO87). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was also tested. Compliance with the incinerator performance standards of 99.99% principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7% O2 was measured for all tests. The Pyretron system was capable of in-compliance performance at double the mixed waste feedrate and at a 60% increase in batch waste charge mass than possible with conventional incineration. Scrubber blowdown and kiln ash contained no detectable levels of any of the POHCs chosen.

  14. Environmental variation and population responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Callum R; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in order to design effective strategies to conserve biodiversity under global change. Here, we review recent theoretical and empirical studies to assess: (1) how populations respond to changes in environmental variance, and (2) how environmental variance affects population responses to changes in mean conditions. Contrary to frequent claims, empirical studies show that increases in environmental variance can increase as well as decrease long-term population growth rates. Moreover, environmental variance can alter and even reverse the effects of changes in the mean environment, such that even if environmental variance remains constant, omitting it from population models compromises their ability to predict species' responses to changes in mean conditions. Drawing on theory relating these effects of environmental variance to the curvatures of population growth responses to the environment, we outline how species' traits such as phylogenetic history and body mass could be used to predict their responses to global change under future environmental variability.

  15. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  16. Environmental Problems in Africa: A Theological Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Climate change is a global environmental problem and while a ... of climate change. In addition, the impact of the pollution caused ... they are eating, from the air they are breathing, and .... is essential to review ecological policy in. Africa and ...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assists corporations to better manage the effect of their activities on the environment. This article aims to study ISO 14001 implementation and its effects on the environmental responsibility. A model will be built, which covers the environmental management system, the components of organizational culture, being able to influence environmental standards implementation.

  18. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, Catalina

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assist...

  20. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility and Civil Environmental Liability: A Neoinstitutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sales Rios

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The new economic paradigm including environmental transformation by human actions causes impact and pressure at numerous social classes. Therefore, there are many institutional and organizational changes to meet this new social and environmental demand. Thus, the work is divided into three parts. This work reveals, with the neo-institutionalism framework, how the institutional dynamics affect the decision-making process of business organizations in the adoption of environmental responsibility in its activities by dividing it in three parts. In the first part, it is studied the relationship between social agents, institutions and organizations, connecting them to the new environmental management present in the social system. In the second part it is characterized the role of informal institutions - manner, culture, values ​​- that operate action of organizations such as corporate social responsibility. Finally, in the third part, the role of formal institutions is explained - rules, regulations, laws – in the environmental liability.

  2. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  3. Immigrant Children Promoting Environmental Care: Enhancing Learning, Agency and Integration through Culturally-Responsive Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of culturally-responsive environmental education to engage immigrant early adolescents. Our study suggests that environmental involvement can become a means and an end for children to bridge their school and home in agential ways. Drawing from a multi-phase study involving focus groups with children, parents, and…

  4. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  5. Roles and responsibilities of energy-related environmental organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    Federal energy policy recognizes that environmental quality is a national priority which must not be sacrificed in the quest for increased domestic energy production. Within the Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Environment (EV) is responsible for meeting the nation's energy needs in ways which impose the lowest possible adverse impacts on the environment and on human health and safety. EV monitors all DOE programs to see that they comply with existing environmental and safety laws, regulations, and policies. It studies the environmental, health and safety effects of new energy technologies, using the results as a basis for providing energy-environmental policy guidance to DOE offices and field organizations. To be effective, and to avoid duplication of effort, EV needs to communicate with other members of the energy/environmental community. To facilitate such communication, this directory has been assembled of the energy/environmental research, regulatory, and adjudicatory community, describing organizations and their functions.

  6. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  7. Superfund Training/Tech Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a collection of information resources, training, and other media related to hazardous waste site cleanup and characterization. A major part of...

  8. INDUST.SUPERFUND_POLY_09

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon layer represents a current (as of April 2009) list of CERCLIS' sites in EPA Region 7. Some of the sites are expanded to include plumes and others not.

  9. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  10. Environmental geology: Our professional public responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, L.C.; Brady, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Conflicts between different interest groups for use of natural resources is one area where state geological surveys can provide assistance. A state geological survey working within the scientific constraints of specific issues can remain objective in its presentations and maintain the faith of both the conflicting interest groups and the public. One cannot vary from the objective view or you will quickly be criticized. Criticism can still occur from one side of a natural resource issue as your data might counter their views. However, the final decisions are almost always made in some legislators, or regulators, area of responsibility. The responsibility of the state geological survey is to provide the important data that will assist in making correct decisions. Should one party in the conflict become extreme in their demands, a potential compromise that is beneficial to both sides can be lost. In Kansas, the classical natural resource problem of resource/recreation in a populated area is presented as a case study. The state geological survey presented data on sand resources in the Kansas River and its valley in northeast Kansas. That information was important to both recreation and dredging interests where the political problem is a conflict of sand use as a construction material resource versus use of the alluvial river as an important recreation area, especially for canoeing. However, when a reasonable compromise was near completion in the Kansas Legislature one side, in a bold move to develop an advantage, ruined that potential for compromise.Conflicts between different interest groups for use of natural resources is one area where state geological surveys can provide assistance. A state geological survey working within the scientific constraints of specific issues can remain objective in its presentations and maintain the faith of both the conflicting interest groups and the public. In Kansas, the classical natural resource problem of resource/recreation in a

  11. Urban elementary students' views of environmental scientists, environmental caretakers and environmentally responsible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).

  12. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility...

  13. Apoplast as the site of response to environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T

    1998-03-01

    When the life cycle of plants is influenced by various environmental signals, the mechanical properties of the cell wall are greatly changed. These signals also modify the levels and structure of the cell wall constituents and such modifications are supposed to be the cause of the changes in the wall mechanical properties. These changes in the cell wall, the major component of the apoplast, can be recognized as the response of plants to environmental signals. The analysis of the mechanism leading to the response suggests that the apoplast is involved not only in the response but also in the perception and transduction of environmental signals in concert with the receptors of signals located on the plasma membrane. Thus, the apoplast plays a principal role in the communication of plants with the outer world and enables the plants to adapt themselves and survive in the environment full of stresses.

  14. Relationships among social and environmental responsibility and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of an economy can be achieved through socially responsible behavior of companies in both the balanced development of labour and environmental protection as well as in responsible consumption of non-renewable resources. This paper aims to highlight the impact of the implementation of quality management systems on increasing responsibility for companies on sustainable management of human and natural resources. First, we perform a quantitative analysis to determine the effects of the adoption of ISO 14000 on the evolution of greenhouse gases. Secondly, we take a qualitative research on the impact of the adoption of ISO 26000 as a national standard. Based on three essential factors of production (labour, nature and capital we propose a model of sustainable development based on the three pillars: social responsibility, environmental protection and business

  15. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Biological responses to environmental heterogeneity under future ocean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W; Cornwall, Christopher E; Davison, Andrew; Doney, Scott C; Fourquez, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Lima, Ivan D; McMinn, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to

  17. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  18. Responses of Lens esculenta Moench to controlled environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Clair, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Many experiments were undertaken to study the responses of the lentil cultivars 'Large blonde' and 'Anicia' to controlled environmental factors. They covered different aspects of the physiology and the ecology of the crop.The orientation experiments (2) involved germination and depth of sowing. The

  19. Facilitating Comprehension, Connection and Commitment to Environmentally Responsible Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased awareness of the negative effects the building industry has on the environment, designs produced without considering sustainability of the planet can no longer be accepted. Although the concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility are not new to the field of interior design, a review of the literature reveals…

  20. Plant Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Gratani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to heterogeneity in the environment where new stress factors (i.e., climate change, land use change, and invasiveness are introduced, and where inter- and intraspecies differences may reflect resource limitation and/or environmental stress factors. Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. Nevertheless, the extent to which phenotypic plasticity may facilitate survival under environmental condition changes still remains largely unknown because results are sometimes controversial. Thus, it is important to identify plant functional traits in which plasticity may play a determinant role in plant response to global change as well as on the ecological consequences at an ecosystem level for the competition between wild and invasive species, considering that species with a greater adaptive plasticity may be more likely to survive in novel environmental conditions. In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change. There is the necessity to analyze variations at phenotypic and genetic levels for the same species and, in particular, for endemic and rare species because these could have drastic effects at an ecosystem level.

  1. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  2. Durable spatiotemporal surveillance of Caenorhabditis elegans response to environmental cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopito, Ronen B; Levine, Erel

    2016-01-01

    Animal response to changes in environmental cues is a complex dynamical process that occurs at diverse molecular and cellular levels. To gain a quantitative understanding of such processes, it is desirable to observe many individuals, subjected to repeatable and well defined environmental cues over long time periods. Here we present WormSpa, a microfluidic system where worms are individually confined in optimized chambers. We show that worms in WormSpa are neither stressed nor starved, and in particular exhibit pumping and egg-laying behaviors equivalent to those of freely behaving worms. We demonstrate the applicability of WormSpa for studying stress response and physiological processes. WormSpa is simple to make and easy to operate, and its design is modular, making it straightforward to incorporate available microfluidic technologies. We expect that WormSpa would open novel avenues of research, hitherto impossible or impractical. PMID:24336777

  3. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Ham

    2009-01-01

    Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consum...

  4. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  5. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  6. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  7. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K E; Drake, K D

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  8. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K. E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  9. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  10. Limited transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii exposed to environmental stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon W Ellison

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression although other factors may also play a role. We examined the transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to a variety of environmental signals expected to be encountered during its life cycle. R. rickettsii exposed to differences in growth temperature (25 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C, iron limitation, and host cell species displayed nominal changes in gene expression under any of these conditions with only 0, 5, or 7 genes, respectively, changing more than 3-fold in expression levels. R. rickettsii is not totally devoid of ability to respond to temperature shifts as cold shock (37 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C induced a change greater than 3-fold in up to 56 genes. Rickettsiae continuously occupy a relatively stable environment which is the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Because of their obligate intracellular character, rickettsiae are believed to be undergoing reductive evolution to a minimal genome. We propose that their relatively constant environmental niche has led to a minimal requirement for R. rickettsii to respond to environmental changes with a consequent deletion of non-essential transcriptional response regulators. A minimal number of predicted transcriptional regulators in the R. rickettsii genome is consistent with this hypothesis.

  11. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  12. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  13. EPA Proposes to Add Dutchess County Creek, N.Y. to the Federal Superfund List, Sediment Contaminated with Mercury, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Wappinger Creek in Dutchess County, N.Y. to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Sediment within the two mile long tidal port

  14. EPA Finalizes Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, N.J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the former Milford P

  15. Geophysical logging at the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina, during January through March 2016. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 150 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 3 open borehole wells.

  16. Dynamism of Stimuli-Responsive Nanohybrids: Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Plazas-Tuttle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug delivery carriers, in tissue-engineered templates and scaffolds, adaptive clothing, smart surface coatings, electrical switches and in platforms for diversified functional applications. Such ANHs are composed of carbonaceous, metallic or polymeric materials with stimuli-responsive soft-layer coatings that enable them to perform such switchable functions. Since ANHs are engineered to dynamically transform under different exposure environments, evaluating their environmental behavior will likely require new approaches. Literature on polymer science has established a knowledge core on stimuli-responsive materials. However, translation of such knowledge to environmental health and safety (EHS of these ANHs has not yet been realized. It is critical to investigate and categorize the potential hazards of ANHs, because exposure in an unintended or shifting environment could present uncertainty in EHS. This article presents a perspective on EHS evaluation of ANHs, proposes a principle to facilitate their identification for environmental evaluation, outlines a stimuli-based classification for ANHs and discusses emerging properties and dynamic aspects for systematic EHS evaluation.

  17. Chemosensory function and response in idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, P; Hummel, T

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews the current literature on the possible role of olfactory and trigeminal chemosensory function in idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI). Two general points emerge from the review. First, studies of chemosensory function in IEI patients indicate that, despite their self-reported "heightened sensitivity" and enhanced responsivity to environmental odors, when compared to healthy controls they generally are found to be equally or even less sensitive to odors as measured by objective psychophysical and electrophysiological measures of olfactory function. These studies point towards alterations in the cognitive processing of olfactory information as the major characteristic of IEI. Second, studies of the role of sensitivity and bias in olfactory and trigeminal chemosensory functioning indicate that nonsensory factors (e.g., attention, bias, personality) can dramatically alter the self-reported impact of exposure to volatile chemicals. Together, these general points suggest a perspective on IEI that views many symptoms of the disorder to primarily reflect the influence of nonsensory, cognitive processes on responses to environmental odors.

  18. 77 FR 67669 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility... Defendant under Sections 106 and 107 of the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and...

  19. CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY DAN PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FISIK PANTAI KUTA, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Yudiartana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining corporate environmental (CER responsibilities along Kuta Beach(Bali in relation to future forms of development, specifically the disposal of waste. For the lastone and a half decades, this situation has generated such serious problems that the involvement ofall stakeholders is now critical if issues are to be solved in generating a garbage free environment.The engagement of corporate hotel developers is viewed as an absolute determinant of suchimprovement. Here, not only is an ecologically sound approach to waste management whollynecessary, but the provision of associated infrastructure surfaces as a vital component in theprocess.

  20. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). This EMP does not address the technical requirements for such monitoring.

  1. 75 FR 45666 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... and sediment and the extraction and treatment of groundwater. The Consent Decree also requires the...://www.epa.gov/region1/superfund/sites/blackburn/293498.pdf ), payable to the U.S. Treasury or, if...

  2. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  3. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  4. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  5. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...)(1) concerning the Factory H Superfund Site in Meriden, Connecticut (``Site'') with the following... refer to the Factory H Superfund Site, U.S. EPA Docket No. CERCLA-01-2012-0112. FOR FURTHER...

  6. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County, Florida for publication..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0729 or Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund...

  7. Environmental toxicants-induced immune responses in the olfactory mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Imamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. Selected viruses can enter the olfactory bulb via the olfactory mucosa, and directly affect the CNS. On the other hand, environmental toxicants may induce inflammatory responses in the olfactory mucosa, including infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, these inflammatory responses cause the loss of OSNs that are then replaced with newly generated OSNs that re-connect to the olfactory bulb after inflammation has subsided. It is now known that immune cells and cytokines in the olfactory mucosa play important roles in both degeneration and regeneration of OSNs. Thus, the olfactory system is a unique neuroimmune interface where interaction between nervous and immune systems in the periphery significantly affects the structure, neuronal circuitry, and immunological status of the CNS. The mechanisms by which immune cells regulate OSN loss and the generation of new OSNs are, however, largely unknown. To help develop a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, we have provided a review of key research that has investigated how the immune response in the olfactory mucosa affects the pathophysiology of OSNs.

  8. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  9. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  10. Transcriptomic responses to environmental temperature in eurythermal and stenothermal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cheryl A; Buckley, Bradley A

    2015-06-01

    Ectothermic species like fishes differ greatly in the thermal ranges they tolerate; some eurythermal species may encounter temperature ranges in excess of 25°C, whereas stenothermal species in polar and tropical waters live at essentially constant temperatures. Thermal specialization comes with fitness trade-offs and as temperature increases due to global warming, the physiological basis of specialization and thermal plasticity has become of great interest. Over the past 50 years, comparative physiologists have studied the physiological and molecular differences between stenothermal and eurythermal fishes. It is now well known that many stenothermal fishes have lost an inducible heat shock response (HSR). Recent advances in transcriptomics have now made it possible to examine genome-wide changes in gene expression (GE) in non-model ecologically important fish, broadening our view beyond the HSR to regulation of genes involved in hundreds of other cellular processes. Here, we review the major findings from transcriptomic studies of extreme eurythermal and stenothermal fishes in response to acute and long-term exposure to temperature, both time scales being critically important for predicting climate change responses. We consider possible molecular adaptations that underlie eurythermy and stenothermy in teleosts. Furthermore, we highlight the challenges that still face the field of comparative environmental genomics and suggest fruitful paths of future investigation.

  11. Field analytical support during Superfund site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, W.L.; Catherman, D.R. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    ERM-FAST{reg_sign} Services has provided cost-effective and critical field analytical support for a wide variety of investigatory and remedial projects over the past four years. Two recent projects involving soils remediation at Superfund sites exemplify the power of real time field analytical support in reducing time and expense during a project`s remedial phase. ERM-FAST on-site analytical facilities were able to meet, in a real time scenario, all data quality objectives (DQOs), all regulatory agency requirements, and satisfied the client`s needs. ERM-FAST made this possible through the development of unique analytical strategies, the proper selection of analytical technologies, and by streamlining the analytical methodologies. Both of these remedial efforts offer illustrations of the effectiveness of field analysis for vastly differing site contaminants. This case study focuses on the use of portable Gas Chromatography (GC) instrumentation as a tool for providing analytical support during a CERCLA site remediation program. The project discussed provides an example of how low cost portable analytical instrumentation can be utilized in a field setting to meet analytical DQOs consistent with CERCLA compliance and to meet the requirements for remedial activity cost control. Substantial savings were realized both by reducing total project analytical cost, and by efficient and effective process and schedule management.

  12. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  13. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  14. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  15. Responsibility to Nature? Hans Jonas and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.

  16. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  17. Response of Everglades tree islands to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Debra A.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Holmes, Charles W.; Landacre, Bryan; Marot, Marci E.

    2006-01-01

    Tree islands are centers of biodiversity within the Florida Everglades, USA, but the factors controlling their distribution, formation, and development are poorly understood. We use pollen assemblages from tree islands throughout the greater Everglades ecosystem to reconstruct the timing of tree island formation, patterns of development, and response to specific climatic and environmental stressors. These data indicate that fixed (teardrop-shaped) and strand tree islands developed well before substantial human alteration of the system, with initial tree island vegetation in place between 3500 and 500 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP), depending on the location in the Everglades wetland. Tree island development appears to have been triggered by regional- to global-scale climatic events at 2800 cal yr BP, 1600–1500 cal yr BP, 1200–1000 cal yr BP (early Medieval Warm Period), and 500–200 cal yr BP (Little Ice Age). These periods correspond to drought intervals documented in Central and South America and periods of southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The records indicate a coherence of climate patterns in both subtropical North America and the Northern Hemisphere Neotropics. Water management practices of the 20th century altered plant communities and size of tree islands throughout the Everglades. Responses range from loss of tree islands due to artificially long hydroperiods and deep water to expansion of tree islands after flow reductions. These data provide evidence for the rapidity of tree island response to specific hydrologic change and facilitate prediction of the response to future changes associated with Everglades restoration plans.

  18. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  19. Students' Environmental Responsibility and Their Willingness to Pay for Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Sharmin; Celik, Bilge Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore environmental attitudes and how such attitudes, when combined with a specific cost, can affect environmental behavior. Environmental attitudes are important to study due to the rising belief by building occupants that they are owed safe, healthy, environmentally responsible, and comfortable living…

  20. 7 CFR 1940.306 - Environmental responsibilities within the National Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... complying with environmental legislation, Executive orders, and regulations, including, but not limited to... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental responsibilities within the National... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  1. 42 CFR 137.300 - Since Federal environmental responsibilities are new responsibilities, which may be assumed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities assumed by the Self-Governance Tribe. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Since Federal environmental responsibilities are... additional funds available to Self-Governance Tribes to carry out these formerly inherently...

  2. The Development of Responsible Environmental Citizenship: A Critical Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Harold R.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional thinking links environmental knowledge to awareness followed by action. However, research suggests that environmental education would be more effective if based on levels of variables involved in environmental citizenship behavior: entry-level (sensitivity, ecology knowledge, androgyny, attitudes); ownership (knowledge of issues,…

  3. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Hyoung Han; Min Jae Lee; Yun-Seop Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward...

  4. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  5. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  6. Delegation of Authority Under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) - Decision Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum concerns how the Office of Enforcement (OE) proposed that two new authorities under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) be delegated to the Regional Administrators.

  7. Differential physiological responses to environmental change promote woody shrub expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary; Greaves, Heather; Kornfeld, Ari; Gough, Laura; Atkin, Owen K; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaver, Gaius; Griffin, Kevin L

    2013-05-01

    Direct and indirect effects of warming are increasingly modifying the carbon-rich vegetation and soils of the Arctic tundra, with important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the biological and environmental influences on the processes that regulate foliar carbon cycling in tundra species is essential for predicting the future terrestrial carbon balance in this region. To determine the effect of climate change impacts on gas exchange in tundra, we quantified foliar photosynthesis (A net), respiration in the dark and light (R D and R L, determined using the Kok method), photorespiration (PR), carbon gain efficiency (CGE, the ratio of photosynthetic CO2 uptake to total CO2 exchange of photosynthesis, PR, and respiration), and leaf traits of three dominant species - Betula nana, a woody shrub; Eriophorum vaginatum, a graminoid; and Rubus chamaemorus, a forb - grown under long-term warming and fertilization treatments since 1989 at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Under warming, B. nana exhibited the highest rates of A net and strongest light inhibition of respiration, increasing CGE nearly 50% compared with leaves grown in ambient conditions, which corresponded to a 52% increase in relative abundance. Gas exchange did not shift under fertilization in B. nana despite increases in leaf N and P and near-complete dominance at the community scale, suggesting a morphological rather than physiological response. Rubus chamaemorus, exhibited minimal shifts in foliar gas exchange, and responded similarly to B. nana under treatment conditions. By contrast, E. vaginatum, did not significantly alter its gas exchange physiology under treatments and exhibited dramatic decreases in relative cover (warming: -19.7%; fertilization: -79.7%; warming with fertilization: -91.1%). Our findings suggest a foliar physiological advantage in the woody shrub B. nana that is further mediated by warming and increased soil nutrient availability, which may facilitate shrub expansion and

  8. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  9. Environmental Education and Behaviour: The Case of Corporate Social-Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the potential effects of environmental education on corporate behavior and social and environmental impact by examining connections between human behavior and environmental problems, the role of the modern corporation, a behavioral theory of the firm, and corporate social responsibility. (DC)

  10. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  11. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  12. Environmental Education and Behaviour: The Case of Corporate Social-Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the potential effects of environmental education on corporate behavior and social and environmental impact by examining connections between human behavior and environmental problems, the role of the modern corporation, a behavioral theory of the firm, and corporate social responsibility. (DC)

  13. 45 CFR 640.5 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental impact statement. 640.5 Section 640.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 640.5 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a) If...

  14. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  15. EPA Encourages the Public to Provide Input on Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford and Alexandria Township, New Jersey, Public Meeting to Take Place May 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the 86-acre historic former M

  16. Corporate sustainability, social responsibility and environmental management : an introduction to theory and practice with case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Responsible behaviours are increasingly being embedded into new business models and strategies that are designed to meet environmental, societal and governance deficits. Therefore, the notions of Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management have become very popular among academia as corporations are moving beyond transparency, business ethics and stakeholder engagement. This book provides business students and scholars with a broad analysis on the subject ...

  17. Zooplankton Responses In A Tropical System With Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Javier Aranguren Riaño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes of environmental transformation that currently occur in the climatic change context generate changes in ecosystems and biological communities. ¿How populations respond to these stressors? ¿what effects could occur on taxonomic and ecological diversity? The taxonomic composition and structure of the zooplankton was analyzed with relationship to environmental changes in a tropical water reservoir located at 6º02`18``N and 73º29`16`` W. During four months, samples were taken weekly covering stations of low, medium, and high precipitation. A high degree of temporal variability was established, it associated with a short hydraulic retention time estimated at 8 days.  Nine species were collected, of which Keratella tropica tropica and Thermocyclops decipiens were the two most abundant and constant species. Found values of H’ diversity and S richness were considered low, corresponding to a little mature community associated with a fluctuating physical environment and supported by high variation coefficients of electrical conductivity and Sechhi disk transparency. Drastic variations on the system volume in short time lapses generate important changes in the physical expression of system with a direct effect on composition and structure of the zooplankton. In general, the response model of the zooplankton in the reservoir according to the statement by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.  RESPUESTAS DEL ZOOPLANCTON EN UN SISTEMA TROPICAL CON ALTA TENSIÓN AMBIENTAL Los procesos de transformación ambiental que se dan en la actualidad, en un marco de cambio climático, generan modificaciones en los ecosistemas y comunidades biológicas, ¿Cómo responden las poblaciones a estos factores de tensión? ¿Qué efectos se darían sobre la diversidad taxonómica y ecológica? Se analizó la variación de la composición taxonómica y estructura del zooplancton en función de los cambios ambientales en un reservorio tropical ubicado a 6º

  18. Federal Environmental Permitting Handbook. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The handbook consists of eight chapters addressing permitting and licensing requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Federal Insectide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Each chapter consists of: (1) an introduction to the statute and permitting requirements; (2) a diagram illustrating the relationship between permitting requirements under the statute being discussed and permitting requirements from other environmental statutes which may have to be addressed when applying for a particular permit (e.g., when applying for a RCRA permit, permits and permit applications under the CWA, CAA, SDWA, etc. would have to be listed in the RCRA permit application); and, (3) a compilation of the permitting requirements for the regulatory program resulting from the statute. In addition, the Handbook contains a permitting keyword index and a listing of hotline telephone numbers for each of the statutes.

  19. Continued geophysical logging near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-01-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center collected borehole geophysical logs and images and continuous water-level data near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during December 2012 through July 2015. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center at the site involved the collection of borehole geophysical log data in 15 wells, in addition to surface geologic mapping and passive diffusion bag sampling. In a continued effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in developing a conceptual groundwater model to assess current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, more than 900 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 10 open borehole wells were delineated and continuous water-level data information from 14 monitoring wells within close proximity of the initially drilled boreholes was collected to observe any induced water-level fluctuations during drilling operations

  20. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  2. Surface geophysics and porewater evaluation at the Lower Darby Creek Area Superfund Site, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles W.; Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is participating in an ongoing study to aid in the identification of subsurface heterogeneities that may act as preferential pathways for contaminant transport in and around the Lower Darby Creek Area (LDCA) Superfund Site, Philadelphia Pa. Lower Darby Creek, which flows into the Delaware River, borders the western part of the former landfill site. In 2013, the USGS conducted surface geophysics measurements and stream porewater sampling to provide additional data for EPA’s site characterization. This report contains data collected from field measurements of direct current (DC) resistivity, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, and stream porewater specific conductance (SC).

  3. 76 FR 21405 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... (OPA), 33 U.S.C. 2702(b), for damages for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources... the United States Western District of Washington. The Complaint alleged claims under section 107(a) of... Commencement Bay/Nearshore Tideflats Superfund site in Tacoma, Washington. In settlement of the claims...

  4. 77 FR 24981 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division. In this action, the United States sought on... Crescent Plating Works Superfund Site in Chicago, Illinois, pursuant to Section 107 of the Comprehensive.... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources...

  5. Limited Transcriptional Responses of Rickettsia rickettsii Exposed to Environmental Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Damon W.; Clark, Tina R.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Kimmo Virtaneva; Ted Hackstadt

    2009-01-01

    Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression altho...

  6. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the application of environmental politicies facilitates the identification of unknown costs and their next reaction. Moreover we try to determine, if these costs have a connection with the different environmental strategies, which are used. Design/methodology/approach: An empiric study was done through a telephonic survey all over Spain in 2012. The idea was to obtain a representative sample. From 943 companies, the survey was answered by 141 of them. Findings and Originality/value: It is shown the relationship between the costs behavior, knowledge of the unknown and hidden costs with the environmental strategies. Research limitations/implications: To dispose a bigger sample, this allowed us to obtain results in relationship with sectors type and to verify the result for regions. Practical implications: The organizations can be aware of costs reaction, depending on their action in the environmental area. Originality/value: Environmental politicies in the CSR field facilitate unknown or hidden costs detection and they allow their evaluation and the decisions about them. The obtained improvements can revert to the society due to the development of environmental politicies and they offer a competitive advantage for the company.

  7. Reclamation of environmental liabilities at populated area, an environmental legacy with social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo V, Jairo; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry in Ecuador has had its own history since the first oil well was drilled in the country's Amazon region on February 16th /1967 and the environmental control of the activity has been evolving over the years. But at the same time it has been leaving traces behind at each one of the locations where a road has been opened, a platform has been build or a pipeline has been laid. Consequently the old practice of covering up spillages with a layer of clay or sand are being discovered today and providing evidence of the foot-print that has been caused to the environment. In the heart of the Ecuadorian Amazon region, where settlements were established on top of old crude spillages, such as Aguas Negras and Paraiso in Canton Cuyabeno, EnCanEcuador, in line with its philosophy of social responsibility and commitment to the environment, took on the restoration of these areas. For that purpose it had to reach an agreement with the communities affected and then temporarily dismantle the houses built in these areas and remove all the contaminated soil until they were sure it was free of hydrocarbons, thus ensuring the public health of these villages and the conservation of the environment. The sites, from which contaminated soil was removed, were then filled with clean soil and their houses rebuilt. During this operation it was possible to recover approximately 3,500 cubic meters of contaminated soil at a cost of $175,000. Land removed from the site was transported to our land farming remediation center, where, through a process of degradation with native bacteria from the zone, the bioremediation of the soil was achieved until it reached TPH limits below the levels regulated by government entities from our country. (author)

  8. Environmental Stress Response and Adaptation Mechanisms in Rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kajić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are bacteria that can fixate atmospheric nitrogen in association within the root or the stem nodules of legume plants and transform atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Soil environmental conditions are critical factors for the persistence and survival of rhizobia in the soil. The changes in the rhizosphere environment can affect both growth and saprophytic competence, which will influence competitiveness and persistence. Environmental stress imposes a major threat to symbiotic nitrogen fixation and agriculture that can be limited by soil and climatic factors such as salinity, drought, temperature, acidity/alkalinity and heavy metals. In this review we present several different mechanisms in rhizobia adaptation under stress factors.

  9. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  10. Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility in an Emerging Economy: Through the Lens of Legitimacy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Bhattacharyya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to promote Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSER require an understanding of stakeholder attitudes toward enhanced responsibility. However, little is known about current attitudes on this subject, or the determinants of these attitudes. This study presents a survey of the attitudes of Indian managers, toward 18 social and 16 key contemporary environmental management issues. The findings indicate that respondents are concerned about a range of issues surrounding social responsibility. With respect to environmental responsibilities, Indian respondents were also strong in their support, and identified a select few issues to be more important over other environmental factors. Results indicated a positive attitude of Indian managers towards CSER. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA confirmed three distinct social and environmental factors for the respondents and provided a model of managerial attitudes towards CSER.

  11. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  12. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  13. Superfund/IGD: EF_NPL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPL is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  14. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  15. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how much are food manufacturing companies committed to caring for the environment as a main component of their CSR strategy. In order to fulfil the defined objectives of the paper, the primary and secondary sources of information were collected and used, as well as there was used the method of interview, using a questionnaire (total number of respondents was 100 food manufacturing companies. In our research the highest percentage of large, SMC and micro companies indicated the reduction of negative operational impacts as the most important commitment of companies in relation to environment. Most large companies invest to installing pollution reducing technology to improve environmental quality (67% and utilizing more environmentally friendly raw materials (51%. These areas indicated the highest percentage as well as for SMC. In the case of large companies there are more visible movements in environmental practices than in micro and small-medium companies.

  17. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  18. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    How internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures are norms guiding environmentally desirable behavior? In two surveys (N = 206 and N = 200), subjective social norms and personal norms for a specific behavior (the purchase of organic food or recycling) as well as self...

  19. Environmental guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.

  20. Ocular response to environmental variations in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de la Rosa, Alberto; Martín-Montañez, Vicente; López-Miguel, Alberto; Fernández, Itziar; Calonge, Margarita; González-Méijome, José M; González-García, María J

    2017-01-01

    To assess the influence of different indoor environments simulated in an environmental chamber on soft contact lens (CL) wearers. Fifty-four CL wearers were grouped based on their symptoms while wearing their CLs. Subjects were fitted with two different CL types, conventional hydrogel (Omafilcon A) and silicone hydrogel (comfilcon A), and exposed to two controlled indoor environmental conditions, standard [50% relative humidity (RH), 23°C, 930 mb of atmospheric pressure] and adverse (in-flight air cabin environment: 5% RH, localised air flow, 23°C, 750 mb atmospheric pressure), for 90 min in an environmental chamber, making a total of four visits. Symptoms, tear osmolarity, pre-lens tear breakup time (PLBUT), phenol red thread test, visual acuity, bulbar and limbal hyperaemia, corneal and limbal staining, and CL dehydration were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the effect of environment, CL type, discomfort-based grouping, and time on blink rate. Environment was found to significantly (p ≤ 0.018) affect limbal and bulbar hyperaemia, PLBUT, tear osmolarity, and CL dehydration. Likewise, CL type significantly (p ≤ 0.04) affected nasal and total corneal staining, limbal conjunctival staining, CL dehydration, comfort, and blurred vision. The environment, CL type, and time had significant effects (p ≤ 0.0001) on the blink rate. Ocular surface integrity and blink rate in CL wearers depend on the environment CL users are exposed to, as well as on the soft CL type that they are wearing. Tight control of environmental conditions can contribute to a better understanding of CL-related discomfort. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Introduction: Human response to environmental decline at the forest frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Alger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific insights about the places where the greatest environmental costs (and human welfare losses might be avoided has too frequently been misperceived as knowledge about which policy interventions are effective in the extremely varied contexts where these losses can occur. This forum demonstrates the behavioral consequences that can occur when protected areas are expanded to slow deforestation and highlights a need to better understand the behavioral changes that deforestation, infrastructure development, and malaria emergence prompt in tropical areas. Facilitation of this awareness will require the integration of rigorous social and ecological science in an interdisciplinary context. This work should be aimed at understanding the opportunity costs of economic drivers, such as soybean expansion, logging, mining, hunting, and wildlife trade, in order to scale the countervailing incentives that are incorporated into common property institutions or economic instruments. To get ahead of the curve of worsening environmental degradation and the poverty traps that occur at the forest edge requires special attention to the scientific evaluation of policies that create incentives for environmental stewardship in the varied contexts of the tropical forest frontier.

  2. Externality in the nonobese: effects of environmental responsiveness on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, J; Slochower, J

    1976-03-01

    The study considered whether external responsiveness in normal weight people would predict changes in eating behavior and weight following major alteration of environmetnal food cues. Normal weight children were tested for externality on measures of eating, slide recall, and extremity of affective responsiveness during the first week of a summer camp, and were weighed biweekly thereafter. There was a significant correlation between externality and weight change, indicating that the more externally responsive the children were, the more weight they gained. The implications of this finding for theories about the development of obesity were considered.

  3. A Response Analysis of Economic Growth to Environmental Risk: A Case Study of Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunpeng; Ji, Jianyue; Yu, Xiaoli

    The economic growth is one kind of risk sources for environmental pollution. Taking Qingdao as sample, using principal component analysis, Granger causality test and impulse response function, this paper aims to find the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution. The result shows that the economic growth is Granger cause of environmental risk which are influenced by time lags. The influence is progressive, gradual, and long-standing.

  4. Transcriptional profiles of Treponema denticola in response to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, Ian; Keegan, Caroline; Sim, Jee-Hyun; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2010-10-27

    The periodontal pathogen T. denticola resides in a stressful environment rife with challenges, the human oral cavity. Knowledge of the stress response capabilities of this invasive spirochete is currently very limited. Whole genome expression profiles in response to different suspected stresses including heat shock, osmotic downshift, oxygen and blood exposure were examined. Most of the genes predicted to encode conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be induced under heat and oxygen stress. Several of these HSPs also seem to be important for survival in hypotonic solutions and blood. In addition to HSPs, differential regulation of many genes encoding metabolic proteins, hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators and transporters was observed in patterns that could betoken functional associations. In summary, stress responses in T. denticola exhibit many similarities to the corresponding stress responses in other organisms but also employ unique components including the induction of hypothetical proteins.

  5. 42 CFR 137.308 - Does the Secretary have any enforcement authority for Federal environmental responsibilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Federal environmental responsibilities assumed by Tribes under section 509 of the Act ? 137.308... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.308 Does the Secretary have any enforcement authority for Federal environmental...

  6. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward...

  7. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  8. The Equator Principles, Project Finance and the Challenge of Social and Environmental Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The Equator Principles, launched in 2003 and revamped in 2006, are a set of voluntary principles designed to help private lenders make socially and environmentally responsible project financing decisions...

  9. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Helena Chemical Company, (Tampa Plant), Hillsborough County, Tampa, FL, May 7, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The decision document (Record of Decision), presents the selected remedial action for the Helena Chemical Company Superfund Site, Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida. This action addresses soil, sediment, and ground water contamination at the site and calls for the implementation of response measures which will protect human health and the environment. The selected remedy includes biological treatment (i.e., bioremediation) of pesticides and other site related contaminants located in surface soil sand sediments to levels appropriate for future industrial use of the Site. In addition, the selected remedy includes ground water recovery and treatment to remove pesticides and other site related contaminants.

  10. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  11. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  12. Manager’s Dilemma: Stockholders’ and Consumers’ Responses to Corporate Environmental Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayag Lal Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal that different stakeholders have different environmental preferences by demonstrating the managers’ dilemma of selecting an appropriate environmental strategy to achieve firms’ corporate goals. It analyzes the effects of firms’ efforts in environmental impact through actual environmental practices and environmental considerations in environmental management on stockholders’ and consumers’ responses by using the Newsweek Green Rankings 2012 for large US-based firms. The study uses the event study methodology and the ordinary least squares multivariate regression model conditioned with relevant firm and industry-specific characteristics. The results indicate that both stockholders and consumers appreciate corporate efforts in reducing environmental damage; however, consumers exhibit a significant and negative response against firms’ environmental management efforts. The conflicting results provide valuable insights into the alignment of environmental efforts for developing core competencies that lead firms toward sustainability. Further, this research makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature and provides guidelines for the formulation of public policies that encourage corporate environmental efforts to ensure simultaneous development of business and society.

  13. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    , which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 458.1, and DOE Order 231.1. The environmental monitoring addressed by this plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, effluent and surveillance monitoring, and permit and regulatory compliance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). LLNL coordinates its ground water surveillance monitoring program with the CERCLA monitoring program to gain sampling efficiencies.

  14. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sameen Ruqia Imadi; Alvina Gul Kazi; Mohammad Abass Ahanger; Salih Gucel; Parvaiz Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Different stresses include nutrient deficiency, pathogen attack, exposure to toxic chemicals etc. Transcriptomic studies have been mainly applied to only a few plant species including the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have provided valuable insights into the genetic networks of plant stress responses. Transcriptomics applied to cash crops including barley, rice, sugarcane, wheat and maize have further helped in understanding physiological and molecular responses in terms of genome sequence, gene regulation, gene differentiation, posttranscriptional modifications and gene splicing. On the other hand, comparative transcriptomics has provided more information about plant’s response to diverse stresses. Thus, transcriptomics, together with other biotechnological approaches helps in development of stress tolerance in crops against the climate change.

  15. Remediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund SiteRemediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company, Portland Plant, Superfund Site is located adjacent tothe Willamette River in Portland, Oregon and addresses contamination of soil, groundwater, and riversediments stemming from creosoting operations...

  16. Responsibility Determinations of Department of Defense Environmental Cleanup Contractors: Caveat Vendori

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous Waste Clean Up Costs, 125 Mil. L. Rev. 55, 58 (1989); Lee, supra note 3, at 46. 5 R. Joel Ankney, But I Was Only Following Orders: Government...negligent or which constitutes intentional & Engineering: Liability Suits By The Government, 19 A.F.L. Rev. 250 (1970), 15 Y.P.A. 77. 159 See Joel S... Moskowitz , Superfund Contractor Indemnification: A Cure In Search Of A Disease, 20 Envtl. L. Rptr. 10333 (Aug. 1990); Thomas M. Armstrong & Anne

  17. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Site Management Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This site management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program implements the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (EPA 1990), also known as an Interagency Agreement (IAG), hereafter referred to as the Agreement.'' The Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), hereafter known as the Parties,'' entered into this Agreement for the purpose of coordinating remediation activities undertaken on the ORR to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  20. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  1. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  2. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. I. Cellular and molecular responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Abelson, Avigdor; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Rosenfeld, Michael; Mokady, Ofer

    2003-10-01

    The study reported here is part of an ongoing effort to establish sensitive and reliable biomonitoring markers for probing the coastal marine environment. Here, we report comparative measurements of a range of histological, cellular and sub-cellular parameters in molluscs sampled in polluted and reference sites along the Mediterranean coast of Israel and in the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Available species enabled an examination of conditions in two environmental 'compartments': benthic (Donax trunculus) and intertidal (Brachidontes pharaonis, Patella caerulea) in the Mediterranean; pelagic (Pteria aegyptia) and intertidal (Cellana rota) in the Red Sea. The methodology used provides rapid results by combining specialized fluorescent probes and contact microscopy, by which all parameters are measured in unprocessed animal tissue. The research focused on three interconnected levels. First, antixenobiotic defence mechanisms aimed at keeping hazardous agents outside the cell. Paracellular permeability was 70-100% higher in polluted sites, and membrane pumps (MXRtr and SATOA) activity was up to 65% higher in polluted compared to reference sites. Second, intracellular defence mechanisms that act to minimize potential damage by agents having penetrated the first line of defence. Metallothionein expression and EROD activity were 160-520% higher in polluted sites, and lysosomal functional activity (as measured by neutral red accumulation) was 25-50% lower. Third, damage caused by agents not sufficiently eliminated by the above mechanisms (e.g. single-stranded DNA breaks, chromosome damage and other pathological alterations). At this level, the most striking differences were observed in the rate of micronuclei formation and DNA breaks (up to 150% and 400% higher in polluted sites, respectively). The different mollusc species used feature very similar trends between polluted and reference sites in all measured parameters. Concentrating on relatively basic

  3. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  4. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  5. Stochastic analysis of response functions in environmental modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumeo, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Development of a new mathematical technique to include stochasticity in environmental models used of resource management and public health risk analysis is reported. The technique is based on the expansion of basic governing equations to include stochastic terms. The stochastic terms are then separated from the non-fluctuating terms, and the resulting set of equations solved simultaneously. The solutions of this set of equations are used to calculate the moments of the output variables. In addition, the moments are used in conjunction with the Fokker-Planck Equation to produce an analytical solution for the probability density functions of the dependent variables. The technique is applied in two examples. The first example is an application to the Streeter-Phelps BOD-OD Equations. Results of the analysis are compared to field data as well as to results of a Monte Carlo model and to moments derived using a Stochastic Differential Equations approach. The second application involves analysis of health risks associated with waterborne diseases. Results are compared to the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of a similar system of equations.

  6. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: the interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Lisa R

    2008-11-15

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition.

  8. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The ensueing immune response

  9. Institutional and policy responses to uncertainty in environmental policy: A comparison of dutch and US styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties regarding problem definition and policy response are an endemic pan of environmental decisionmaking. Some standard responses to uncertainty in decisionmaking are analyzed and then used to suggest the importance of learning-oriented policy processes in open, flexible, and adaptive

  10. Making Democracy Matter: Responsibility and Effective Environmental Governance in Regional Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Tabatha J.; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper will critically examine the changing social relations of responsibility associated with Australia's current regional "experiment" in environmental governance. This experiment centrally involves the transfer of responsibility for natural resource management (NRM) from Federal and State governments to community-based regional…

  11. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, J. L.; Wagner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects. ?? 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  12. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  13. Bayesian inference-based environmental decision support systems for oil spill response strategy selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew J; Hope, Max J

    2015-07-15

    Contingency plans are essential in guiding the response to marine oil spills. However, they are written before the pollution event occurs so must contain some degree of assumption and prediction and hence may be unsuitable for a real incident when it occurs. The use of Bayesian networks in ecology, environmental management, oil spill contingency planning and post-incident analysis is reviewed and analysed to establish their suitability for use as real-time environmental decision support systems during an oil spill response. It is demonstrated that Bayesian networks are appropriate for facilitating the re-assessment and re-validation of contingency plans following pollutant release, thus helping ensure that the optimum response strategy is adopted. This can minimise the possibility of sub-optimal response strategies causing additional environmental and socioeconomic damage beyond the original pollution event.

  14. In situ field screening for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with a portable spectrofluorometer at a Superfund site near Jackson, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amick, E.N.; Pollard, J.E. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Engelmann, W.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Environmental Monitoring Systems Lab.; Vo-Dinh, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Advanced Monitoring Development Group

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada (EMSL-LV) is currently evaluating the use of scanning ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) fluorescence as a field screening technology. A prototype field-portable spectrofluorometer capable of excitation, emission, and synchronous scans has been developed and was field tested at the American Creosote Works Superfund site. The UV-vis fluorescence spectra of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were clearly seen in the synchronous spectra of soil samples extracted on site. Split soil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and by immunoassay methods. Although a comparison of results with these other methods has not been completed, the synchronous fluorescence method shows promise in that analytical results have the potential to provide compound- or class-selective results and can be immediately available on-site at a reasonable cost.

  15. Improving alkenone paleothermometry by incorporating cell response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, F. G.; Wolfe, G. V.; Mix, A. C.; Sparrow, M. A.

    2003-04-01

    A linear, global coretop calibration now exists for the alkenone unsaturation index Uk’37 and mean annual SST (maSST). The calibration equation is statistically the same as that for a subarctic Pacific strain of Emiliania huxleyi (Ehux) grown exponentially under isothermal conditions in batch culture. Although the calibration has been applied widely for paleoSST reconstruction, uncertainty still exists, stemming from two key factors: genetic variability among strains, and physiologic response to stress and growth state. We will discuss in this talk the extent that Uk’37 and other aspects of cellular alkenone composition vary in response to nutrient depletion and light deprivation in isothermal (15^oC) batch cultures of Ehux isolated from three different ocean locations - a Norwegian fjord (CCMP370); the subarctic Pacific (CCMP1742) and the Sargasso Sea (CCMP 372). We will also present results from detailed alkenone compositional analysis in thirty surface sediments collected between ˜50^oS and 10^oS along the Chile-Peru margin in the SE Pacific Ocean. The Uk’37 - maSST relationship derived from this dataset is statistically indistinguishable from the global coretop calibration. But, comparison of other compositional properties shows that the alkenone signature preserved in the Chile-Peru margin sediments is also not consistent with that expressed by exponentially growing cells of any of the three cultured Ehux strains. Alkenone signatures preserved in sediments appear more like that in algal cells that have experienced some level of non-thermal, physiological stress such as nutrient and light limitation. Given our observations as a precedent, improved confidence in paleotemperature estimates derived from Uk’37 measurements may require interpretation of unsaturation patterns in full context with the overall alkenone composition preserved in the sediment.

  16. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  17. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  18. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment.

  19. Legal and environmental responsibility of hydroelectric power plants; Hidreletricas e responsabilidade juridica-ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Paulo Affonso Leme [UNESP, SP (Brazil)]|[Sociedade Brasileira de Direito do Meio Ambiente (SOBRADIMA), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The work try to present, from the legal point of view, some aspects relating the use of water for power production, focusing questions like agricultural zoning and environment, . It considers questions about responsibilities with fauna and flora and utilities companies responsibility of monitoring water quality in the reservoir area. It concludes making the utilities companies responsible for the environmental preservation even outside its action area

  20. A review of the Texas, USA San Jacinto Superfund site and the deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the San Jacinto River and Houston Ship Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Aggarwal, Juhi; Iken, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The San Jacinto River (SJR) waste pits that lie just under the 1-10 overpass in eastern Harris County east of Houston, Texas, USA, were created in the 1960s as dumping grounds for paper mill waste. The deposition of this waste led to accumulation of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCCDDs/PCDFs) over the course of several decades. After abandonment, the waste material eventually became submerged under the waters of the SJR, resulting in widespread environmental contamination that currently constitutes a significant health concern for eastern Harris County communities. The original waste pits were rediscovered in 2005, and the San Jacinto waste site is now a designated EPA superfund site. The objective of this review then is to discuss the history and current state of containment around the San Jacinto waste pits and analyze spatial and temporal trends in the PCDD/PCDF deposition through the SJR system from the data available. We will discuss the current exposure and health risks represented by the Superfund site and the SJR system itself, as well as the discovery of liver, kidney, brain (glioma), and retinoblastoma cancer clusters in eastern Harris County across multiple census tracts that border the Superfund site. We will also cover the two primary management options, containment versus removal of the waste from the Superfund and provide recommendations for increased monitoring of existing concentrations of polychlorinated waste in the SJR and its nearby associated communities.

  1. Environmental and social responsibility reporting. Do Macedonian companies disclose those information and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrsik Jadranka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating environmental impact into financial reports is becoming standard practice in the 21st Century. Investors are aware of the need for environmentally correct operations since failures in this domain lower the price of shares. However, in terms of regulation, in most of the countries, environmental reporting remains voluntary. Institutions dealing with development and promotion of the modern accounting and financial reporting standards encourage companies to concurrently report for their environmental activities. The only question is how. Accounting may include information on the environmental impact only if it is quantitative and monetary. Since many nuances of the issues remain difficult to quantify, corporations opt to separately report on their environmental practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the accounting and stock market regulations and the practice of reporting for environmental impact of the operations of the leading Macedonian companies. We selected ten companies that make the Macedonian Stock Exchange Index and additional five companies with significant environmental impact. We reviewed their annual reports and interviewed their financial officers. The results show that the environmental and social responsibility reporting is left to the companies and their management and its perception of the need for keeping posted the major stakeholders and the most appropriate way to do it. As a consequence, many large Macedonian companies do not refer to these issues in their annual addressing to the stakeholders. The findings of this paper can motivate the regulatory body and the government to require more transparency and disclosure of the sustainability information.

  2. WHAT IS IT? WHY INVEST? BUSINESS PROFESSORS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guimarães Garcia da Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine what is an environmentally responsible company and what motivates this company, according to the perception of professors of Administration. In order to achieve this goal, 69 interviews were collected, which were analyzed by using the technical devices of the Discourse of the Collective Subject (DCS, in a qualitative and quantitative approach. The central ideas identified allows us to conclude that, for professors of Administration, an environmentally responsible company is the one that does not harm the environment and is concerned about the environmental impacts, acts beyond its legal obligations and has adequate internal processes. Its motivations for investing in sustainable actions refer to an improvement of the corporate image in the market, or to the pressure imposed by the consumer and society, besides the environmental awareness of the company or just to meet the obligations imposed by legislation.

  3. 42 CFR 137.292 - How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental...-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509 of the Act ? Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities by: (a) Adopting a resolution...

  4. Do Board’s Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy and Orientation Influence Environmental Sustainability Disclosure? UK Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Helfaya, A.; Moussa, T

    2017-01-01

    The environmental implications of corporate economic activities have led to growing demands for firms and their boards to adopt sustainable strategies and to disseminate more useful information about their activities and impacts on environment. This paper investigates the impact of board’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy and orientation on the quantity and quality of environmental sustainability disclosure in UK listed firms. We find that effective board CSR strategy and CSR-or...

  5. Phytoplankton niches, traits and eco-evolutionary responses to global environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchman, Elena; Edwards, Kyle F.; Klausmeier, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton are major primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and are sensitive to various aspects of global environmental change. They can respond through phenotypic plasticity, species sorting, genetic adaptation, or a combination of these processes. Here we present conceptual, experimental...... and theoretical ways to predict different phytoplankton responses to global change. Using phytoplankton ecological niches to predict their responses to multiple environmental stressors is a promising new approach. Functional traits of phytoplankton, such as resource utilization traits and tolerance curves...... for various environmental factors like temperature, can be used to define niches along major axes. Characterization of pairwise and higher dimension trade-offs among traits should help predict possible niche changes along multiple dimensions simultaneously. The potential for evolutionary responses to global...

  6. Allocating responsibility for environmental risks: A comparative analysis of examples from water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Neelke

    2017-03-01

    The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations. Currently, little insight exists on how to foster collective action such that individuals and organizations take the responsibility to address transboundary environmental risks. On the basis of 4 cases of transboundary water governance, it will be shown how certain allocation principles are more likely to encourage cooperative action. The main lesson from these case studies is that the allocation of responsibilities should be seen as a risk distribution problem, including considerations of effectiveness, efficiency, and fairness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:371-375. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Ecology and vegetarian considerations: does environmental responsibility demand the elimination of livestock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussow, J D

    1994-05-01

    Although the recommendation to avoid animal flesh for environmental reasons has been increasingly advanced, especially in the highly industrialized countries, the ecological implications of such avoidance are seldom carefully examined. If sustainable food systems are to be modeled after natural systems that maintain fertility, both plants and animals would be involved. This paper examines the history of the idea that environmental responsibility is linked to vegetarianism and the destructive effects of present methods of animal raising on farmers, animal welfare, and the environment. Finally, it explores the question of whether vegetarianism is the appropriate response to these problems.

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TO EVALUATE PREFERABILITY OF PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-Making (FRED) demonstrates how the life-cycle concept can be used to quantify competing products' environmental performance so that this information may be integrated with considerations of total ownership cost and technical perfor...

  9. Social and Environmental Responsibility and Local Sustainable Development: The Case of the Environmental Education Project and Asset – PEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the actions of social responsibility expressed by the Environmental and Heritage Education Project (PEAP, which has been  implemented in the Boa Vista and Moura communities, both located in Oriximiná, State of Pará. This project purported to promote the rescue and preservation of environmental and cultural heritage in local communities, developed in a partnership between the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Emilio Goeldi [a painter] Pará Museum] (MPEG, the private company Mineração Rio do Norte (Rio do Norte Mining (MRN and representatives of local communities. This study examines to what extent the actions of PEAP can be considered drivers of sustainable local development. To answer this question, the research focused on the implementation of the PEAP actions and their effects on the two communities under study. Specifically, we sought to identify potential social, cultural and economic impacts of the actions of PEAP on both communities, and to identify future expectations of social subjects involved. This is a case study that follows a qualitative approach. The data collected in documents and interviews were analyzed according to the concepts of sustainable local development, corporate social responsibility and tri-sector partnership. The study identified that the actions taken by the PEAP result of management practices and participatory social planning, and reflecting the redemption of traditional practices, socialization of information and income generation, which together contribute to sustainable local development.

  10. Environmental variability study on the measured responses of Runyang Cablestayed Bridge using wavelet packet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YouLiang; LI AiQun; LIU Tao

    2008-01-01

    The structural damage alarming method based on wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) for long-span cable-stayed bridges is presented through combination of ambient vibration test and wavelet packet analysis.The environmental variability in the measured WPES and damage alarming indices ERVD of the Runyang Ca-ble-stayed Bridge are discussed in detail using the wavelet packet analysis of the measured acceleration responses of the bridge under daily environmental condi-tions.The analysis results reveal that the actual environmental conditions includ-ing traffic Ioadings,environmental temperature and typhoon Ioadings have re-markable correlations with the measured WPES.The changes of environmental temperature have a long-term trend influence on the WPES,while the influences of traffic and typhoon Ioadings on the measured WPES of the bridge present instan-taneous changes because of the nonstationary properties of the Ioadings.The analysis results of the measured responses further reveal that the damage alarm-ing indices ERVD can sensitively reflect the influences of environmental tempera-ture and typhoon Ioadings on the dynamic properties of Runyang Cable-stayed Bridge.Therefore,the proposed structural damage alarming indices ERVD under ambient vibrations are suitable for real-time damage alarming for long-span ca-ble-stayed bridges.

  11. Environmental variability study on the measured responses of Runyang Cablestayed Bridge using wavelet packet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural damage alarming method based on wavelet packet energy spectrum (WPES) for long-span cable-stayed bridges is presented through combination of ambient vibration test and wavelet packet analysis. The environmental variability in the measured WPES and damage alarming indices ERVD of the Runyang Cable-stayed Bridge are discussed in detail using the wavelet packet analysis of the measured acceleration responses of the bridge under daily environmental conditions. The analysis results reveal that the actual environmental conditions including traffic loadings, environmental temperature and typhoon loadings have remarkable correlations with the measured WPES. The changes of environmental temperature have a long-term trend influence on the WPES, while the influences of traffic and typhoon loadings on the measured WPES of the bridge present instantaneous changes because of the nonstationary properties of the loadings. The analysis results of the measured responses further reveal that the damage alarming indices ERVD can sensitively reflect the influences of environmental temperature and typhoon loadings on the dynamic properties of Runyang Cable-stayed Bridge. Therefore, the proposed structural damage alarming indices ERVD under ambient vibrations are suitable for real-time damage alarming for long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  12. Letter to Silverton and San Juan County Regarding Potential Superfund Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feb. 12, 2016 Update: EPA added a letter to the Town of Silverton and San Juan County regarding the agency’s commitment to the Town and County’s involvement during a potential Superfund listing process.

  13. Preliminary estimate of natural resource damage : Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary estimate of natural resource damages associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site...

  14. Remediation System Evaluation, Streamlined Remediation System Evaluation (RSE-Lite), Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site is located at 82 Milbar Boulevard, East Farmingdale, Suffolk County, New York. The site is situated on a 1-acre lot in an industrial/commercial area that is surrounded by similar small manufacturers...

  15. Report: EPA’s Distribution of Superfund Human Resources Does Not Support Current Regional Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0397, September 19, 2017. Due to insufficient human resources to cover all Superfund site work, some regions have had to slow down or discontinue their efforts to protect human health and the environment.

  16. Complex Response of White Pines to Past Environmental Variability Increases Understanding of Future Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation t...

  17. Delegating responsibility for environmental transition - are innovations in renewable energy a system, policy or market responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    The European liberalisation of the energy sector has left open questions about the responsibility for future innovations in renewable energy.......The European liberalisation of the energy sector has left open questions about the responsibility for future innovations in renewable energy....

  18. Who's Responsible? Media Framing of Pediatric Environmental Health and Mothers' Perceptions of Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Susan; Tan, Andy S L

    2016-12-01

    How the media frames issues of environmental health may affect mothers' views of who is responsible for addressing environmental risks to pediatric health and, ultimately, their protective behaviors. This article describes how information-oriented media sources attribute responsibility for such risks and examines associations between mothers' routine media exposure, or scanning, and perceptions of responsibility. First, a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 474 media stories (i.e., Associated Press, parenting magazines, and websites) about childhood exposure to environmental chemicals over a 6-month period (September 2012-February 2013). We found that media stories attributed responsibility most frequently to parents, though significant differences were observed across media sources, such that websites focused more on parents and general news more on government agencies and manufacturers. Next, we conducted an online survey of mothers (N = 819) and revealed that website scanning during the prior 6 months was significantly associated with perceived personal responsibility, even after we adjusted for potential confounders. Scanning general news was also significantly associated with perceived government and manufacturer responsibility. Understanding media framing of these issues highlights opportunities for health communicators to offset pressure placed on mothers by encouraging greater social and policy support in and exposure to certain media.

  19. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  20. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  1. Vaccine-induced antibody responses as parameters of the influence of endogenous and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Amsterdam JGC van; Vandebriel RJ; Kimman TG; Rumke HC; Steerenberg PS; Vos JG; LPI; LEO; LIO; LVO

    2000-01-01

    The most adequate way to assess effects of environmental exposures on the immune system using laboratory animals is to study effects on antigen-specific immune responses, such as after sensitization to T cell dependent antigens. Most likely, this also applies for testing effects in the human populat

  2. Environmental Responsibility and Policy in a Two Country Dynamic Input-Output Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rutger; Janssen, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    Increased spatial dependency of economic activities, as well as spatial differentiation of production and consumption, has implication for environmental policy. One of the issues that has gained importance is the responsibility for the emissions from products that cross national boundaries during it

  3. 75 FR 30859 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... States v. Sensient Colors Inc., Civil Action No.07cv1275, was lodged with the United States District... Colors Inc. (``Sensient'') under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act... Protection Agency (``EPA'') in connection with Sensient's ownership and operation of a pigment and dye...

  4. Making the Case for Green Building: Cataloging the Benefits of Environmentally Responsible Design & Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex

    2008-01-01

    To those entrenched in the green building world, the benefits seem obvious. Why would anyone choose to build in a way that isn't comfortable, healthy, energy efficient, and environmentally responsible? Even within a single college or university project, different team members often have different reasons for promoting a green agenda. Architects…

  5. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  6. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The

  7. A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2004-01-01

    The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases...

  8. 78 FR 45599 - Proposed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Assigning Environmental Responsibilities to the State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) Act, 16 U.S.C. 4601-4 8. Hazardous Materials Comprehensive Environmental... Responsibilities to the State of Texas for Categorical Exclusions AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Texas Division Office, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed MOU and request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  9. Geophysical logging and geologic mapping data in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Clark, Timothy W.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, the collection of borehole geophysical logs and images, and passive diffusion bag sampling were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during March through October 2011. The study purpose was to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Data compilation efforts included geologic mapping of more than 250 features, including rock type and secondary joints, delineation of more than 1,300 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 15 open borehole wells, and the collection of passive diffusion-bag samples from 42 fracture zones at various depths in the 15 wells.

  10. Geophysical logging and thermal imaging at the Hemphill Road TCE NPL Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs and thermal imaging data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Hemphill Road TCE National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina, during August 2014 through February 2015. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, surface geological mapping and borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 600 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) was conducted in 5 open borehole wells and 2 private supply bedrock wells. In addition, areas of potential groundwater discharge within a down-gradient, nearby creek were determined using thermal imagery to calculate temperature differences between the stream and bank seepage.

  11. Geophysical logging and thermal imaging near the Hemphill Road TCE National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-03-27

    Borehole geophysical logs and thermal imaging data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey near the Hemphill Road TCE (trichloroethylene) National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina, during August 2014 through February 2015. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, surface geological mapping and borehole geophysical log and thermal imaging data collection, which included the delineation of more than 600 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations), was completed in five open borehole wells and two private supply bedrock wells. In addition, areas of possible groundwater discharge within a nearby creek downgradient of the study site were determined based on temperature differences between the stream and bank seepage using thermal imagery.

  12. Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E Scott; Metheny, Maura A

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of ground water and soil contamination at the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, uses technologies that reflect differences in hydrogeologic settings, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and costs of treatment. The poorly permeable glacial materials that overlie fractured bedrock at the W.R. Grace property necessitate use of closely spaced recovery wells. Contaminated ground water is treated with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation. At UniFirst, a deep well completed in fractured bedrock removes contaminated ground water, which is treated by hydrogen peroxide, UV oxidation, and granular activated carbon (GAC). The remediation system at Wildwood integrates air sparging, soil-vapor extraction, and ground water pumping. Air stripping and GAC are used to treat contaminated water; GAC is used to treat contaminated air. New England Plastics (NEP) uses air sparging and soil-vapor extraction to remove VOCs from the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water. Contaminated air and water are treated using separate GAC systems. After nine years of operation at W.R. Grace and UniFirst, 30 and 786 kg, respectively, of VOCs have been removed. In three years of operation, 866 kg of VOCs have been removed at Wildwood. In 15 months of operation, 36 kg of VOCs were removed at NEP. Characterization work continues at the Olympia Nominee Trust, Whitney Barrel, Murphy Waste Oil, and Aberjona Auto Parts properties. Risk assessments are being finalized that address heavy metals in the floodplain sediments along the Aberjona River that are mobilized from the Industri-Plex Superfund Site located a few miles upstream.

  13. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  14. Early perturbation in mitochondria redox homeostasis in response to environmental stress predicts cell fate in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Creveld, Shiri Graff; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Schatz, Daniella; Koren, Ilan; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous marine photosynthetic eukaryotes that are responsible for about 20% of global photosynthesis. Nevertheless, little is known about the redox-based mechanisms that mediate diatom sensing and acclimation to environmental stress. Here we used a redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein sensor targeted to various subcellular organelles in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, to map the spatial and temporal oxidation patterns in response to environmental stresses. Specific organelle oxidation patterns were found in response to various stress conditions such as oxidative stress, nutrient limitation and exposure to diatom-derived infochemicals. We found a strong correlation between the mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) redox potential (EGSH) and subsequent induction of cell death in response to the diatom-derived unsaturated aldehyde 2E,4E/Z-decadienal (DD), and a volatile halocarbon (BrCN) that mediate trophic-level interactions in marine diatoms. Induction of cell death in response to DD was mediated by oxidation of mitochondrial EGSH and was reversible by application of GSH only within a narrow time frame. We found that cell fate can be accurately predicted by a distinct life-death threshold of mitochondrial EGSH (-335 mV). We propose that compartmentalized redox-based signaling can integrate the input of diverse environmental cues and will determine cell fate decisions as part of algal acclimation to stress conditions.

  15. Hierarchical dose-response modeling for high-throughput toxicity screening of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Reif, David M; Reich, Brian J

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) of environmental chemicals is used to identify chemicals with high potential for adverse human health and environmental effects from among the thousands of untested chemicals. Predicting physiologically relevant activity with HTS data requires estimating the response of a large number of chemicals across a battery of screening assays based on sparse dose-response data for each chemical-assay combination. Many standard dose-response methods are inadequate because they treat each curve separately and under-perform when there are as few as 6-10 observations per curve. We propose a semiparametric Bayesian model that borrows strength across chemicals and assays. Our method directly parametrizes the efficacy and potency of the chemicals as well as the probability of response. We use the ToxCast data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as motivation. We demonstrate that our hierarchical method provides more accurate estimates of the probability of response, efficacy, and potency than separate curve estimation in a simulation study. We use our semiparametric method to compare the efficacy of chemicals in the ToxCast data to well-characterized reference chemicals on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) assays, then estimate the probability that other chemicals are active at lower concentrations than the reference chemicals.

  16. Management of Transpetro's corporate social and environmental responsibility in the midwest of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Walderes [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, Goias (Brazil); Bortolon, Carlos Roberto; Castro, Newton Camelo de; Machado Cardoso, Guilherme [Transpetro, Goiania, Goias (Brazil); Da Silva, Simone Rodrigues [ATP Engenharia, Goiania, Goias (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Since 2003, all Transpetro sites have been certified by quality, environment, and operational safety and health international standards. However, compliance with corporate social and environmental responsibility policies is not always the case in every regional business unit. The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment initiated in 2008 to meet this challenge and develop mechanisms for monitoring performance along various parameters at a regional scale. This experiment was carried out at the Transpetro land and oil terminals in the Midwest of Brazil. A team of management professionals was put together and an appropriate methodology was selected. The results from this analysis showed that social and environmental responsibilities can be conveniently and successfully managed at the local level and that this function is highly relevant to a company's operations. This study proved that local social responsibility mechanisms should be used to foster the maturing of corporate citizenship.

  17. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Gary A.; Blanchet, Richard J.; Linder, Greg L.; Palawski, Don; Brumbaugh, William G.; Canfield, Tim J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Farag, Aïda M.; DalSoglio, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates. Integration of chemical analyses with toxicological and ecological

  18. Contrasting Responses to Harvesting and Environmental Drivers of Fast and Slow Life History Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Rueda, Lucía; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric

    2016-01-01

    According to their main life history traits, organisms can be arranged in a continuum from fast (species with small body size, short lifespan and high fecundity) to slow (species with opposite characteristics). Life history determines the responses of organisms to natural and anthropogenic factors, as slow species are expected to be more sensitive than fast species to perturbations. Owing to their contrasting traits, cephalopods and elasmobranchs are typical examples of fast and slow strategies, respectively. We investigated the responses of these two contrasting strategies to fishing exploitation and environmental conditions (temperature, productivity and depth) using generalized additive models. Our results confirmed the foreseen contrasting responses of cephalopods and elasmobranchs to natural (environment) and anthropogenic (harvesting) influences. Even though a priori foreseen, we did expect neither the clear-cut differential responses between groups nor the homogeneous sensitivity to the same factors within the two taxonomic groups. Apart from depth, which affected both groups equally, cephalopods and elasmobranchs were exclusively affected by environmental conditions and fishing exploitation, respectively. Owing to its short, annual cycle, cephalopods do not have overlapping generations and consequently lack the buffering effects conferred by different age classes observed in multi-aged species such as elasmobranchs. We suggest that cephalopods are sensitive to short-term perturbations, such as seasonal environmental changes, because they lack this buffering effect but they are in turn not influenced by continuous, long-term moderate disturbances such as fishing because of its high population growth and turnover. The contrary would apply to elasmobranchs, whose multi-aged population structure would buffer the seasonal environmental effects, but they would display strong responses to uninterrupted harvesting due to its low population resilience. Besides

  19. Measuring Consumers’ Environmental Responsibility: A Synthesis of Constructs and Measurement Scale Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. R. Taufique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is universal that central to all production is consumption. Without proper management, production along with consumption is likely to be the main sources of environmental problems. This very reality calls for consumers to be environmentally responsible in their consumption behavior. The objective of this paper is to prepare a synthesis of all the possible factors and measurement scale items to be used for assessing consumers’ environmental responsibility. For making such synthesis, all major works done on the field have been thoroughly reviewed.The paper comes up with a total of six parameters that include knowledge & awareness, attitude, green consumer value, emotional affinity toward nature, willingness to act and environment related past behavior. These tentative, yet inclusive set of parameters are thought to be useful for guiding the designing of large scale future empirical researches for developing a dependable inclusive set of parameters to test consumer’ environmental responsibility. A conceptual model and possible measurement items are proposed for further empirical research.

  20. The hidden function of photosynthesis: a sensing system for environmental conditions that regulates plant acclimation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Yang, Chunhong

    2012-06-01

    Plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy by photosynthesis. Since they are sessile, they have to deal with a wide range of conditions in their immediate environment. Many abiotic and biotic parameters exhibit considerable fluctuations which can have detrimental effects especially on the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. During evolution, plants, therefore, evolved a number of acclimation processes which help them to adapt photosynthesis to such environmental changes. This includes protective mechanisms such as excess energy dissipation and processes supporting energy redistribution, e.g. state transitions or photosystem stoichiometry adjustment. Intriguingly, all these responses are triggered by photosynthesis itself via the interplay of its light reaction and the Calvin-Benson cycle with the residing environmental condition. Thus, besides its primary function in harnessing and converting light energy, photosynthesis acts as a sensing system for environmental changes that controls molecular acclimation responses which adapt the photosynthetic function to the environmental change. Important signalling parameters directly or indirectly affected by the environment are the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and the redox states of components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and/or electron end acceptors coupled to it. Recent advances demonstrate that these signals control post-translational modifications of the photosynthetic protein complexes and also affect plastid and nuclear gene expression machineries as well as metabolic pathways providing a regulatory framework for an integrated response of the plant to the environment at all cellular levels.

  1. An assessment of environmental literacy and analysis of predictors of responsible environmental behavior held by secondary teachers in Hualien County of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of nine variables in predicting teachers' responsible environmental behavior (REB). The theoretic framework of this study was based on the Hines model, the Hungerford and Volk model, and the environmental literacy framework proposed by Environmental Literacy Assessment Consortium. A nine-page instrument was administered by mailed questionnaire to 300 randomly selected secondary teachers in Hualien County of Taiwan with a 78.7% response rate. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) For all the respondents, all the nine environmental literacy variables were significant correlates of REB. These correlates included: perceived knowledge of environmental action strategies (KNOW; r =.46), intention to act (IA; r =.46), perceived skill in using environmental action strategies (SKILL; r =.45), perceived knowledge of environmental problems and issues (KISSU; r =.34), environmental sensitivity (r =.28), environmental responsibility (r =.27), perceived knowledge of ecology and environmental science (r =.27), locus of control (r =.27), and environmental attitudes (r =.21). (2) When only the nine environmental literacy variables were considered, the most parsimonious set of predictors of REB for all the teachers included: (a) KNOW, (Rsp2 =.2116); (b) IA, (Rsp2 =.0916); and (c) SKILL, (Rsp2 =.0205). For the urban teachers, the most parsimonious set of predictors included: (a) IA (Rsp2 =.2559); (b) SKILL (Rsp2.0926); and (c) environmental responsibility (Rsp2 =.0219). For the rural teachers, the most parsimonious set of predictors included: (a) KNOW (Rsp2 =.1872); (b) IA (Rsp2 =.0816); and (c) KISSU (Rsp2 =.0318). (3) When the environmental literacy variables as well as demographic and experience variables were considered, the most parsimonious set of predictors for all the teachers included: (a) KNOW, (Rsp2 =.2834); (b) IA, (Rsp2

  2. Toxicological Responses of Environmental Mixtures: Environmental Metals Mixtures Display Synergistic Induction of Metal-Responsive and Oxidative Stress Genes in Placental Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metals mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. PMID:26472158

  3. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A; Ray, Paul D; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu(2+) transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals.

  4. The evolutionary and behavioral modification of consumer responses to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Peter A

    2014-02-21

    How will evolution or other forms of adaptive change alter the response of a consumer species' population density to environmentally driven changes in population growth parameters? This question is addressed by analyzing some simple consumer-resource models to separate the ecological and evolutionary components of the population's response. Ecological responses are always decreased population size, but evolution of traits that have effects on both resource uptake rate and another fitness-related parameter may magnify, offset, or reverse this population decrease. Evolution can change ecologically driven decreases in population size to increases; this is likely when: (1) resources are initially below the density that maximizes resource growth, and (2) the evolutionary response decreases the consumer's resource uptake rate. Evolutionary magnification of the ecological decreases in population size can occur when the environmental change is higher trait-independent mortality. Such evolution-driven decreases are most likely when uptake-rate traits increase and the resource is initially below its maximum growth density. It is common for the difference between the new eco-evolutionary equilibrium and the new ecological equilibrium to be larger than that between the original and new ecological equilibrium densities. The relative magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects often depend sensitively on the magnitude of the environmental change and the nature of resource growth.

  5. Minimization of biosynthetic costs in adaptive gene expression responses of yeast to environmental changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Vilaprinyo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast successfully adapts to an environmental stress by altering physiology and fine-tuning metabolism. This fine-tuning is achieved through regulation of both gene expression and protein activity, and it is shaped by various physiological requirements. Such requirements impose a sustained evolutionary pressure that ultimately selects a specific gene expression profile, generating a suitable adaptive response to each environmental change. Although some of the requirements are stress specific, it is likely that others are common to various situations. We hypothesize that an evolutionary pressure for minimizing biosynthetic costs might have left signatures in the physicochemical properties of proteins whose gene expression is fine-tuned during adaptive responses. To test this hypothesis we analyze existing yeast transcriptomic data for such responses and investigate how several properties of proteins correlate to changes in gene expression. Our results reveal signatures that are consistent with a selective pressure for economy in protein synthesis during adaptive response of yeast to various types of stress. These signatures differentiate two groups of adaptive responses with respect to how cells manage expenditure in protein biosynthesis. In one group, significant trends towards downregulation of large proteins and upregulation of small ones are observed. In the other group we find no such trends. These results are consistent with resource limitation being important in the evolution of the first group of stress responses.

  6. Environmental enrichment improves response strength, threshold, selectivity, and latency of auditory cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Navzer D; Percaccio, Cherie R; Pandya, Pritesh K; Moucha, Raluca; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 50 yr, environmental enrichment has been shown to generate more than a dozen changes in brain anatomy. The consequences of these physical changes on information processing have not been well studied. In this study, rats were housed in enriched or standard conditions either prior to or after reaching sexual maturity. Evoked potentials from awake rats and extracellular recordings from anesthetized rats were used to document responses of auditory cortex neurons. This report details several significant, new findings about the influence of housing conditions on the responses of rat auditory cortex neurons. First, enrichment dramatically increases the strength of auditory cortex responses. Tone-evoked potentials of enriched rats, for example, were more than twice the amplitude of rats raised in standard laboratory conditions. Second, cortical responses of both young and adult animals benefit from exposure to an enriched environment and are degraded by exposure to an impoverished environment. Third, housing condition resulted in rapid remodeling of cortical responses in <2 wk. Fourth, recordings made under anesthesia indicate that enrichment increases the number of neurons activated by any sound. This finding shows that the evoked potential plasticity documented in awake rats was not due to differences in behavioral state. Finally, enrichment made primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons more sensitive to quiet sounds, more selective for tone frequency, and altered their response latencies. These experiments provide the first evidence of physiologic changes in auditory cortex processing resulting from generalized environmental enrichment.

  7. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction project agreement? 137.285 Section...

  8. 42 CFR 137.307 - What Federal environmental responsibilities remain with the Secretary when a Self-Governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Secretary when a Self-Governance Tribe assumes Federal environmental responsibilities for... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.307 What Federal environmental responsibilities remain with the Secretary when a Self-Governance Tribe assumes Federal...

  9. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  10. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

  11. Framing Devices in the Creation of Environmental Responsibility: A Qualitative Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Skill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between identity work for environmental responsibility and sustainable development in relation to an ecological master frame. The material is based on a case study with Swedish householders and focusses on the interviewees identity work in relation to specific and detailed environmentally friendly activities. The argument put forth is that individuals construct what is possible and reasonable by identifying themselves in relation to the multitude of others and by doing certain activities. The conclusions suggest that the householders consider themselves to have a responsibility for the environment, but that they do enough by performing specific activities such as recycling. Thereby the study shows how the individuals present their own ideas and actions in relation to an ecological master frame.

  12. The microbial opsin homologue sop1 is involved in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum development and environmental stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang eLyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial opsins play a crucial role in responses to various environmental signals. Here, we report that the microbial opsin gene sop1 in the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was dramatically up-regulated during infection and sclerotial development compared with the vegetative growth stage. Further study showed sop1 was essential for growth, sclerotial development and full virulence of S. sclerotiorum. Sop1-silenced transformants were more sensitive to high salt stress, fungicides and high osmotic stress. However, they were more tolerant to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, suggesting that sop1 is involved in different stress responses and fungicide resistance, which plays a role in the environmental adaptability of S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, a Delta blast search showed that microbial opsins are not present in animals and almost all higher plants, indicating that as a predicted transmembrane protein, sop1 is a potential drug target for disease control of S. sclerotiorum.

  13. Corticosterone responses and personality in birds: Individual variation and the ability to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrem, John F

    2013-09-01

    Birds can respond to an internal or external stimulus with activation of the HPA axis and secretion of corticosterone. There is considerable individual variation in corticosterone responses, and individual responses can be very different from the mean response for a group of birds. Corticosterone responses and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli are determined by individual characteristics called personality. It is proposed that birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. The relationship between corticosterone responses and fitness thus depends on the prevailing environmental conditions, so birds with either low or high corticosterone responses can have the greatest fitness and be most successful, but in different situations. It is also proposed that birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be better able to cope with environmental changes due to climate change than birds with proactive personalities and relatively low corticosterone responses. Phenotypic plasticity in corticosterone responses can be quantified using a reaction norm approach, and reaction norms can be used to determine the degree of plasticity in corticosterone responses of individual birds, and mean levels of plasticity in responses of species of birds. Individual corticosterone responses and personality, and reaction norms for corticosterone responses, can in future be used to predict the ability of birds to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  14. Space use variation in co-occurring sister species: response to environmental variation or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Claire M S; Meynard, Christine; Watson, Johan; Rioux, Camille; Benhamou, Simon; Perez, Julie; du Plessis, Jurie J; Avenant, Nico; Pillay, Neville; Ganem, Guila

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence often involves niche differentiation either as the result of environmental divergence, or in response to competition. Disentangling the causes of such divergence requires that environmental variation across space is taken into account, which is rarely done in empirical studies. We address the role of environmental variation versus competition in coexistence between two rodent species: Rhabdomys bechuanae (bechuanae) and Rhabdomys dilectus dilectus (dilectus) comparing their habitat preference and home range (HR) size in areas with similar climates, where their distributions abut (allopatry) or overlap (sympatry). Using Outlying Mean Index analyses, we test whether habitat characteristics of the species deviate significantly from a random sample of available habitats. In allopatry, results suggest habitat selection: dilectus preferring grasslands with little bare soil while bechuanae occurring in open shrublands. In sympatry, shrubland type habitats dominate and differences are less marked, yet dilectus selects habitats with more cover than bechuanae. Interestingly, bechuanae shows larger HRs than dilectus, and both species display larger HRs in sympatry. Further, HR overlaps between species are lower than expected. We discuss our results in light of data on the phylogeography of the genus and propose that evolution in allopatry resulted in adaptation leading to different habitat preferences, even at their distribution margins, a divergence expected to facilitate coexistence. However, since sympatry occurs in sites where environmental characteristics do not allow complete species separation, competition may explain reduced inter-species overlap and character displacement in HR size. This study reveals that both environmental variation and competition may shape species coexistence.

  15. Space use variation in co-occurring sister species: response to environmental variation or competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M S Dufour

    Full Text Available Coexistence often involves niche differentiation either as the result of environmental divergence, or in response to competition. Disentangling the causes of such divergence requires that environmental variation across space is taken into account, which is rarely done in empirical studies. We address the role of environmental variation versus competition in coexistence between two rodent species: Rhabdomys bechuanae (bechuanae and Rhabdomys dilectus dilectus (dilectus comparing their habitat preference and home range (HR size in areas with similar climates, where their distributions abut (allopatry or overlap (sympatry. Using Outlying Mean Index analyses, we test whether habitat characteristics of the species deviate significantly from a random sample of available habitats. In allopatry, results suggest habitat selection: dilectus preferring grasslands with little bare soil while bechuanae occurring in open shrublands. In sympatry, shrubland type habitats dominate and differences are less marked, yet dilectus selects habitats with more cover than bechuanae. Interestingly, bechuanae shows larger HRs than dilectus, and both species display larger HRs in sympatry. Further, HR overlaps between species are lower than expected. We discuss our results in light of data on the phylogeography of the genus and propose that evolution in allopatry resulted in adaptation leading to different habitat preferences, even at their distribution margins, a divergence expected to facilitate coexistence. However, since sympatry occurs in sites where environmental characteristics do not allow complete species separation, competition may explain reduced inter-species overlap and character displacement in HR size. This study reveals that both environmental variation and competition may shape species coexistence.

  16. Effects of Cell Type and Culture Media on Interleukin-6 Secretion in Response to Environmental Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Veranth, John M; Cutler, N. Shane; Kaser, Erin G.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Yost, Garold S.

    2007-01-01

    Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kao...

  17. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation's Highly-Loaded Front Block Compressor Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestina, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will detail the work done to improve thermal efficiency in the compression process of a gas turbine engine for aircraft applications under NASAs Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project. The talk will present the goals and objectives of the work and show the activity of both Phase 1 and Phase 2 tests and analysis. The summary shows the projected fuel burn savings achieved through system studies.

  18. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts) andRicinus communisL. (castor bean), in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis...

  19. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro,Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  20. Responses of grassland production to single and multiple global environmental changes.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this century, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are expected to cause warmer surface temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns. At the same time, reactive nitrogen is entering natural systems at unprecedented rates. These global environmental changes have consequences for the functioning of natural ecosystems, and responses of these systems may feed back to affect climate and atmospheric composition. Here, we rep...

  1. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro,Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  2. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: THE ROLE OF CODES OF CONDUCT IN FOSTERING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Spanish multinational enterprises (MNEs) are a prime example of how companies benefit from globalization and expand their activities worldwide through foreign direct investment. This paper has a legal perspective, focusing on the environmental performance of Spanish MNEs in Latin America and their corporate social responsibility (CSR) through the adoption of codes of conduct. As a result of a set of factors, Spanish MNEs have implemented voluntary CSR initiatives, strategies and standards in ...

  3. Environmental and social pressure as drivers of corporate social responsibility in a globalizing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haleem, Fazli; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Studies of drivers of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices that also explore the influence of company size and location are rare. This paper fills this gap by showing the extent to which environmental and social pressures affect the efforts companies put into implementing internal and ...... and external CSR practices and how size and location affect this relationship. The paper is based on data collected in 2013 using the sixth release of the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey....

  4. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  5. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  6. A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2004-01-01

    The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases......" in this context) and measurement error and it is moderated by perceived dissimilarity between the behaviors and by the (moral) importance of behaving in a responsible way towards the environment. These propositions are tested (and confirmed) by means of a mall-intercept survey of ordinary Danish shop...

  7. Phenotypic plasticity as an adaptive response to predictable and unpredictable environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to modify its phenotype in response to environmental changes as a consequence of an interaction between genes and environment (Bradshaw, 1965). Plasticity contributes to the vast phenotypic variation observed in natural populations. Many examples...... such as anti-predator behaviours or the activation of mechanisms to prevent thermal stress injuries suggest that plasticity is an adaptive response, favoured by natural selection. At the same time, organisms do show limited plastic responses, indicating that this ability is not for free. Costs and benefits...... to be an adaptive response. Despite almost a century of studies on phenotypic plasticity, the relation between plasticity and evolution is still not clear and theoretical prediction are often not met by empirical data. In my PhD I have investigated if and when plasticity can evolve. I selected Drosophila simulans...

  8. Conservation of Modules but not Phenotype in Bacterial Response to Environmental Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, Sonia; Joachimiak, Marcin; Joyner, Dominique; Chakraborty, Romy; Baumohl, Jason; Dehal, Paramvir; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Alm, Eric

    2010-05-17

    Microbes live in changing environments and change their phenotype via gene regulation in response. Although this transcriptional response is important for fitness, very little is known about how it evolves in microbes. We started by asking a number of high-level questions about the evolution of transcriptional phenotype: (1) To what extent is transcriptional response conserved, i.e. do conserved genes respond similarly to the same condition; (2) To what extent are transcriptional modules conserved; and (3) Does there exist a general stress response to a variety of stressors? To illuminate these questions, we analyzed more than 500 microarray experiments across the bacterial domain. We looked for conservation of transcriptional regulation both in close sister species and vastly divergent clades. In addition, we produced and analyzed an extensive in-house compendium of environmental stress data in three metal-reducing bacteria.

  9. Social end environmental corporate responsibility end maturity indicator mediating organizations strategic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni de Araujo Gomes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The business environment has presented constant challenges to organizations leaders. In this context, permanent surveillance, reflecting the search for competitiveness and productivity, causes them turn attention to factors or actions antecedents and consequences of corporate social and environmental responsibility dimension (RSAC. The paper analyzes and estimates the intensity of the relations between the factors of brand value, reputation sense of the company concerned (stakeholders and perspective to generate external risks, all of them such as satellites explaining the RSAC. And, in addition to tests of goodness of fit to the relational model, also was proposed an equation to measure the degree (or index of maturity in Environmental Responsibility Corporate Sector (RSACS, attempting to analyze and identify in what stage the RSACS constructs affects the final performance as strategic for organizations. This research was performed in the construction of Minas Gerais, represented by their managers adopti a survey method using a structured questionnaires with questions based on likert variations. The data collected were evaluated by analysis of structural equations using LVPLS. To measure the shares in Environmental Responsibility, we used known models in organizations and academia, such as the Corporate Sustainability Index, the Dow Jones Indexes, the index of the Ethos Institute and the representation theory of Hopkins (1997.

  10. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil-water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil-water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  11. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Jennifer C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT. The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for

  12. 78 FR 47317 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Herbert N. Francis concerning the Ore Knob Mine... comments by site name ``Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site'' by one of the following methods:...

  13. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  14. Environmental circadian disruption elevates the IL-6 response to lipopolysaccharide in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kandis L; Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Evans, Jennifer A; Davidson, Alec J

    2013-08-01

    The immune system is regulated by circadian clocks within the brain and immune cells. Environmental circadian disruption (ECD), consisting of a 6-h phase advance of the light:dark cycle once a week for 4 weeks, elevates the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. This indicates that circadian disruption adversely affects immune function; however, it remains unclear how the circadian system regulates this response under ECD conditions. Here, we develop an assay using ex vivo whole-blood LPS challenge to investigate the circadian regulation of immune responses in mice and to determine the effects of ECD on these rhythms. LPS-induced IL-6 release in whole blood was regulated in a circadian manner, peaking during subjective day under both entrained and free-running conditions. This LPS-induced IL-6 release rhythm was associated with daily variation in both white blood cell counts and immune cell responsiveness. ECD increased the overall level of LPS-induced IL-6 release by increasing immune cell responsiveness and not by affecting immune cell number or the circadian regulation of this rhythm. This indicates that ECD produces pathological immune responses by increasing the proinflammatory responses of immune cells. Also, this newly developed whole blood assay can provide a noninvasive longitudinal method to quantify potential health consequences of circadian disruption in humans.

  15. Response of seagrass indicators to shifts in environmental stressors: A global review and management synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Roca, G.

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrass-based indicators are widely used to assess coastal ecosystem status, there is little universality in their application. Matching the plethora of available indicators to specific management objectives requires a detailed knowledge of their species-specific sensitivities and their response time to environmental stressors. We conducted an extensive survey of experimental studies to determine the sensitivity and response time of seagrass indicators to ecosystem degradation and recovery. We identified seagrass size and indicator type (i.e. level of biological organization of the measure) as the main factors affecting indicator sensitivity and response time to degradation and recovery. While structural and demographic parameters (e.g. shoot density, biomass) show a high and unspecific sensitivity, biochemical/physiological indicators present more stressor-specific responses and are the most sensitive detecting early phases of environmental improvement. Based on these results we present a simple decision tree to assist ecosystem managers to match adequate and reliable indicators to specific management goals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Essence Of Social And Environmental Responsibilities Of Companies In Indonesia A Study Of Economic-Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arifudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of research in this paper is the essence of Social and Environmental Responsibilities can be carried out effectively and efficiently. In addition to explore the essence of Social and Environmental Responsibilities this paper also attempted to analyze the extent to which the substantive law of Social and Environmental Responsibilities may encourage equalization of welfare state. This research is a normative research. Legal materials used in the study is literature materials the literature relating to the Social and Environmental Responsibilities Legal System Economic Democracy Economic Welfare Economic Sustainability Economic Analysis of Law. The results of the research shows that Social and Environmental Responsibilities is a balance point which at that point if it can be managed properly it will deliver in a state close to the relationship balance between the community the company and the government so that the welfare of nation can begin to be realized. Social and Environmental Responsibilities is a form of follow-up of the real form of Article 33 paragraph 3 of Constitution 1945. For that it needs to be strengthened its existence in order to understand completely and thoroughly for the welfare of Indonesian people through the good governance of Social and Environmental Responsibilities so as to realize a good business climate in Indonesia through the creation of a harmonious relationship between the community the company and the government.

  17. Carotenoid responses to environmental stimuli: integrating redox and carbon controls into a fruit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciullino, A L; Bidel, L P R; Urban, L

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids play an important role in plant adaptation to fluctuating environments as well as in the human diet by contributing to the prevention of chronic diseases. Insights have been gained recently into the way individual factors, genetic, environmental or developmental, control the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway at the molecular level. The identification of the rate-limiting steps of carotenogenesis has paved the way for programmes of breeding, and metabolic engineering, aimed at increasing the concentration of carotenoids in different crop species. However, the complexity that arises from the interactions between the different factors as well as from the coordination between organs remains poorly understood. This review focuses on recent advances in carotenoid responses to environmental stimuli and discusses how the interactions between the modulation factors and between organs affect carotenoid build-up. We develop the idea that reactive oxygen species/redox status and sugars/carbon status can be considered as integrated factors that account for most effects of the major environmental factors influencing carotenoid biosynthesis. The discussion highlights the concept of carotenoids or carotenoid-derivatives as stress signals that may be involved in feedback controls. We propose a conceptual model of the effects of environmental and developmental factors on carotenoid build-up in fruits.

  18. Business Environmental Responsibility in the Hospitality Industry = Okoljska odgovornost podjetij v turistični industriji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah Kasim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the literature is reviewed and analyzed to establish the connection between tourism and the physical environments. The review shows an inevitable link between tourism activities with both environments. This and the strong tourism growth in the past, implies that tourism has far-reaching negative impacts that must be mitigated, not only for the good of the physical environments, but also for the sustainability of the industry itself. The review also indicates a slow integration of responsible environmental considerations into tourism planning and development due to lack of consensus about the importance of sustainable tourism as the industry’s new direction, lack of a single comprehensive meaning of sustainable tourism to ease operationalizing the concept, and the flawed acceptance of alternative tourism as the answer for all tourism ills. The paper ends by confirming the need for a new way of thinking that takes into consideration the fragmented nature of the industry and a collective and conscious effort of all tourism businesses, governmental policymakers and planners as well as the key stakeholders (the society, the NGOS, the CBOS and the tourists to prioritize environmental issues in their daily undertakings. It also highlights the environmental impacts of a hotel operation and stresses the need for hotels, as one of the key tourism businesses to deal with its environmental obligations.

  19. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  20. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant’s Growth Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles. PMID:28066483

  1. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  2. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  3. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-12-01

    The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  4. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  5. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  6. Pulmonary fibrosis in response to environmental cues and molecular targets involved in its pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshinori; Ohnuma, Aya; Horiuchi, Haruka; Harada, Takanori

    2011-03-01

    Chronic lung injury resulting from a variety of different causes is frequently associated with the develop ment of pulmonary fibrosis in humans. Although the etiology of pulmonary fibrosis is generally unknown, several sources of evidence support the hypothesis that a number of environmental and occupational agents play an etiologic role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The agents discussed in this review include beryllium, nylon flock, textile printing aerosols, polyvinyl chloride and didecyldimethylammonium chloride. The authors also describe a variety of animal models, including genetically modified mice, in order to investigate the molecular mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis, focusing on chemokine receptors, regulatory T cells and transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling. Overall, we propose the concept of toxicological pulmonary fibrosis as a lung disease induced in response to environmental cues.

  7. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  8. Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jason P; Moran, Nancy A; Ives, Anthony R

    2009-03-01

    How environmental change affects species abundances depends on both the food web within which species interact and their potential to evolve. Using field experiments, we investigated both ecological and evolutionary responses of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), a common agricultural pest, to increased frequency of episodic heat shocks. One predator species ameliorated the decrease in aphid population growth with increasing heat shocks, whereas a second predator did not, with this contrast caused by behavioral differences between predators. We also compared aphid strains with stably inherited differences in heat tolerance caused by bacterial endosymbionts and showed the potential for rapid evolution for heat-shock tolerance. Our results illustrate how ecological and evolutionary complexities should be incorporated into predictions of the consequences of environmental change for species' populations.

  9. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hung, Alice L.; Blazer, Vicki; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental endocrine disruptors (EED) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones, such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ER) in the larval heart compared to the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit similar tissue-specific effects as BPA and genistein or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. Methods: We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of estrogen receptor genes by RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Selective patterns of ER activation were observed in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue-specificity in ER activation is due to differences in the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes. ERα is expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 has the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activate the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. Conclusion: The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish has revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero is associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  10. USACE Environmental Support to the Army and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Environmental Workload $1.9B Obligations (M) Army IRP/MMRP $164 Army EQ $189 AF IRP/MMRP $208 AF EQ $103 Superfund $312 FUSRAP $152 FUDS $457 BRAC ER...Federal Agencies •Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program ( FUSRAP ) •Defense State Memorandum of Agreement (DSMOA) 5 BUILDING

  11. Effects of cell type and culture media on Interleukin-6 secretion in response to environmental particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veranth, John M; Cutler, N Shane; Kaser, Erin G; Reilly, Christopher A; Yost, Garold S

    2008-03-01

    Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kaolin particles along with soluble vanadium and lipopolysaccharide, applied to airway-derived cells grown in submerged culture. Cell types included A549, BEAS-2B, RAW 264.7, and primary macrophages. The cell culture models (specific combinations of cell types and culture conditions) were reproducibly different in the cytokine signaling responses to the suite of treatments. Further, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to the treatments changed when the same cells, BEAS-2B, were grown in KGM versus LHC-9 media or in media containing bovine serum. The effect of changing media composition was reversible over multiple changes of media type. Other variables tested included culture well size and degree of confluence. The observation that sensitivity of a cell type to environmental agonists can be manipulated by modifying culture conditions suggests a novel approach for studying biochemical mechanisms of particle toxicity.

  12. Effects of cell type and culture media on Interleukin-6 secretion in response to environmental particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veranth, J.M.; Cutler, N.S.; Kaser, E.G.; Reilly, C.A.; Yost, G.S. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kaolin particles along with soluble vanadium and lipopolysaccharide, applied to airway-derived cells grown in submerged culture. Cell types included A549, BEAS-2B, RAW 264.7, and primary macrophages. The cell culture models (specific combinations of cell types and culture conditions) were reproducibly different in the cytokine signaling responses to the suite of treatments. Further, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to the treatments changed when the same cells, BEAS-2B, were grown in KGM versus LHC-9 media or in media containing bovine serum. The effect of changing media composition was reversible over multiple changes of media type. Other variables tested included culture well size and degree of confluence. The observation that sensitivity of a cell type to environmental agonists can be manipulated by modifying culture conditions suggests a novel approach for studying biochemical mechanisms of particle toxicity.

  13. Microbial community responses to anthropogenically induced environmental change: towards a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Andrew; Brown, Mark V; Siciliano, Steven D; Thrall, Peter H

    2013-05-01

    The soil environment is essential to many ecosystem services which are primarily mediated by microbial communities. Soil physical and chemical conditions are altered on local and global scales by anthropogenic activity and which threatens the provision of many soil services. Despite the importance of soil biota for ecosystem function, we have limited ability to predict and manage soil microbial community responses to change. To better understand causal relationships between microbial community structure and ecological function, we argue for a systems approach to prediction and management of microbial response to environmental change. This necessitates moving beyond concepts of resilience, resistance and redundancy that assume single optimum stable states, to ones that better reflect the dynamic and interactive nature of microbial systems. We consider the response of three soil groups (ammonia oxidisers, denitrifiers, symbionts) to anthropogenic perturbation to motivate our discussion. We also present a network re-analysis of a saltmarsh microbial community which illustrates how such approaches can reveal ecologically important connections between functional groups. More generally, we suggest the need for integrative studies which consider how environmental variables moderate interactions between functional groups, how this moderation affects biogeochemical processes and how these feedbacks ultimately drive ecosystem services provided by soil biota. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS and Commonwealth of Australia.

  14. Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) analysis in support of environmental impact assessment offshore Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Mark; Ekrol, Narve; Rye, Henrik; Turner, Liam [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    The work reported here encompasses analyses of specific potential spill scenarios for oil exploration activity planned offshore of Namibia. The analyses are carried out with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) 3-dimensional model systems. A spill scenario using 150 m{sup 3} of marine diesel demonstrates the rapidity with which such a spill will dissipate naturally, even in light winds. Vertical and horizontal mixing bring subsurface hydrocarbon concentrations to background levels within a few days. A hypothetical 10 day blowout scenario releasing 11,000 bbl per day of light crude oil is investigated in terms of the potential for delivering oil to selected bird and marine mammal areas along the Namibian coast. Worst case scenarios are selected to investigate the potential mitigating effects of planned oil spill response actions. Mechanical recovery significantly reduces, and in some cases eliminates, potential environmental consequences of these worst case scenarios. Dispersant application from fixed wing aircraft further reduces the potential surface effects. The analysis supplies an objective basis for net environmental analysis of the planned response strategies. (Author)

  15. Environmental responsibility and financial performance nexus in South Africa: panel Granger causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Adomah Worae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined environmental responsibility and financial performance nexus of Johannesburg Stock Exchange’s socially responsible investing manufacturing and mining firms during the period of 2008-2014. The study employs annual panel dataset of fourteen manufacturing and mining companies on the index, and Granger causality analysis using Gcause2 Baum’s version. The paper found unidirectional causal relationship between environmental responsibility, measured by emissions intensity and equity returns, and bidirectional causal relationship between emissions intensity and market value of equity deflated by sales at 1% significant levels. Impliedly, improvements in ‘energy efficient technologies’ to reduce fossil energy consumption (prevention activities seem to exhibit value destroying tendencies, while improvements in ‘end-of-pipe’ activities seem to estimate a drive market value of equity deflated by sales and equity returns. The Pesaran CD and Breusch-Pagan LM tests confirmed existence of cross-sectional dependence amongst panel members. The authors tend to support institutional and stakeholder theories.

  16. Methodology for Assessing the Quality of Agribusiness Activity Based on the Environmentally Responsible Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonovna Anfinogentova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research and development of quality evaluation methods of agro-industrial enterprises activity in the regional economy with the use of the ecological approach. The hypothesis of the study is that the activity of the economic entities (as well as of agribusiness must be assessed not only in the context of economic efficiency and effectiveness, but also in the context of environmental ethics and environmental aggression. As the initial data, we have used the indicators of economic statistics of Russian agrarian-oriented regions, as well as the data received from management reporting on the sample of enterprises of three regions (the Belgorod and Moscow regions, Krasnodar Territory. The article offers the economic and mathematical approach for measuring the level of the environmental responsibility of agro-industrial enterprises on the basic formula of the Mandelbrot set and statistical indicator of Hurst. Our scientific contribution is the development of a modified methodology for assessing the quality of the activity of agro-industrial enterprises using the parameter characterizing the level of environmental ethics and environmental aggression of these entities. The main result of the study is the approbation of the method, which has shown its practical applicability and relative coherence with certain indicators of regional ecological statistics. The proposed method is characterized by the integration of the different mathematical approaches and as an adaptive assessment tool that can be used to assess the quality of the activity of both agro-industrial enterprises and enterprises of other industries and fields of the economy. In the further works, the authors plan to develop methodological approaches to the assessment of the quality of agro-industrial products. At the same time, the main attention will be paid to the ecological and social component of the quality.

  17. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  18. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  19. Synthesis of environmentally responsive organic materials by application of ion track holes in polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Hideki; Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Katakai, Ryoichi; Spohr, R.; Vetter, J.

    1997-03-01

    Polymer films were irradiated by heavy ion beams and etched by a concentrated alkali solution to produce particle track membranes (PTMs). Then the PTMs were chemically modified by grafting such monomers as amino acid group containing methacryloyl and N-isopropylacrylamide the polymers of which are known as environmentally responsive hydrogels. The size of pores of the modified PTMs under different temperatures in water was followed by electron microscopy. The pore was controlled from an open state to a completely closed state by changing temperature. The conductivity through the membrane was measured by changing the temperature of the cell. (author)

  20. MicroRNAs in inflammation and response to injuries induced by environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonkoly, Enikoe [Molecular Dermatology Research Group, Unit of Dermatology and Venerology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Pivarcsi, Andor, E-mail: andor.pivarcsi@ki.se [Molecular Dermatology Research Group, Unit of Dermatology and Venerology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate basic biological processes by posttranscriptional suppression of their target genes. Altered miRNA expression may lead to widespread gene expression changes and has been implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the role of miRNAs in inflammation and in the response to environmental agents and pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, ethanol, carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dioxin, and UV radiation.

  1. Behavioural and physiological stress responses to environmental and human factors in different small mammal species: implications for their conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Castilla, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Wild animal populations are continuously subjected to periodic disturbances by environmental and anthropogenic causes. Thereby, in this doctoral thesis, we carried out different investigations to study the behavioural and physiological stress responses of several small mammal species to different environmental and human factors. Behavioral responses to predation ris...

  2. Expanded Porphyrin-Anion Supramolecular Assemblies: Environmentally Responsive Sensors for Organic Solvents and Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Kim, Dong Sub; Lin, Chung-Yon; Zhang, Huacheng; Lammer, Aaron D; Lynch, Vincent M; Popov, Ilya; Miljanić, Ognjen Š; Anslyn, Eric V; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2015-06-24

    Porphyrins have been used frequently to construct supramolecular assemblies. In contrast, noncovalent ensembles derived from expanded porphyrins, larger congeners of naturally occurring tetrapyrrole macrocycles, are all but unknown. Here we report a series of expanded porphyrin-anion supramolecular assemblies. These systems display unique environmentally responsive behavior. Addition of polar organic solvents or common anions to the ensembles leads to either a visible color change, a change in the fluorescence emission features, or differences in solubility. The actual response, which could be followed easily by the naked eye, was found to depend on the specifics of the assembly, as well as the choice of analyte. Using the ensembles of this study, it proved possible to differentiate between common solvents, such as diethyl ether, THF, ethyl acetate, acetone, alcohol, acetonitrile, DMF, and DMSO, identify complex solvent systems, as well as distinguish between the fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and sulfate anions.

  3. The effect of adrenal demedullation on cardiovascular responses to environmental stimulation in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, K. R.; Kelly, E.

    1986-01-01

    Circulating plasma adrenaline has been implicated in the facilitation of neurogenic pressor responses and development of hypertension. Bilateral adrenal demedullation in rats did not affect body weight, urine output, urinary electrolyte (Na+, K+ and Cl-) excretion, nor plasma corticosterone concentration, indicating the selective nature of the demedullation procedure. Adrenal demedullation did induce significant reductions in adrenal catecholamine content, plasma adrenaline levels, resting blood pressure and heart rate in conscious rats, but did not affect alerting-induced increases in blood pressure. The adrenal medulla and circulating plasma adrenaline appear to contribute to the maintenance of resting cardiovascular parameters, but would not appear to be involved in nor facilitate the cardiovascular responses to environmental stimulation. PMID:3742165

  4. A MYB-domain protein EFM mediates flowering responses to environmental cues in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanyuan; Shen, Lisha; Chen, Ying; Bao, Shengjie; Thong, Zhonghui; Yu, Hao

    2014-08-25

    Plants adjust the timing of the transition to flowering to ensure their reproductive success in changing environments. Temperature and light are major environmental signals that affect flowering time through converging on the transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding the florigen in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that a MYB transcription factor EARLY FLOWERING MYB PROTEIN (EFM) plays an important role in directly repressing FT expression in the leaf vasculature. EFM mediates the effect of ambient temperature on flowering and is directly promoted by another major FT repressor, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE. EFM interacts with an H3K36me2 demethylase JMJ30, which forms a negative feedback regulatory loop with the light-responsive circadian clock, to specifically demethylate an active mark H3K36me2 at FT. Our results suggest that EFM is an important convergence point that mediates plant responses to temperature and light to determine the timing of reproduction.

  5. Dynamic regulation of partner abundance mediates response of reef coral symbioses to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunning, R; Vaughan, N; Gillette, P; Capo, T R; Matté, J L; Baker, A C

    2015-05-01

    Regulating partner abunclance may allow symmotic organisms to mediate interaction outcomes, facilitating adaptive responses to environmental change. To explore the capacity for-adaptive regulation in an ecologically important endosymbiosis, we studied the population dynamics of symbiotic algae in reef-building corals under different abiotic contexts. We found high natural variability in symbiont abundance in corals across reefs, but this variability converged to different symbiont-specific abundances when colonies were maintained under constant conditions. When conditions changed seasonally, symbiont abundance readjusted to new equilibria. We explain these patterns using an a priori model of symbiotic costs and benefits to the coral host, which shows that the observed changes in symbiont abundance are consistent with the maximization of interaction benefit under different environmental conditions. These results indicate that, while regulating symbiont abundance helps hosts sustain maximum benefit in a dynamic environment, spatiotemporal variation in abiotic factors creates a broad range of symbiont abundances (and interaction outcomes) among corals that may account for observed natural variability in performance (e.g., growth rate) and stress tolerance (e.g., bleaching susceptibility). This cost or benefit framework provides a new perspective on the dynamic regulation of reef coral symbioses and illustrates that the dependence of interaction outcomes on biotic and abiotic contexts may be important in understanding how diverse mutualisms respond to environmental change.

  6. When environmental changes do not cause geographic separation of fauna: differential responses of Baikalian invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazalova Varvara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the impact of climate fluctuations on the demographic histories of species caused by changes in habitat availability is well studied, populations of species from systems without geographic isolation have received comparatively little attention. Using CO1 mitochondrial sequences, we analysed phylogeographic patterns and demographic histories of populations of five species (four gastropod and one amphipod species co-occurring in the southwestern shore of Lake Baikal, an area where environmental oscillations have not resulted in geographical isolation of habitats. Results Species with stronger habitat preferences (gastropods B. turriformis, B. carinata and B. carinatocostata exhibit rather stable population sizes through their evolutionary history, and their phylogeographic pattern indicates moderate habitat fragmentation. Conversely, species without strong habitat preference (gastropod M. herderiana and amphipod G. fasciatus exhibit haplotype networks with a very abundant and widespread central haplotype and a big number of singleton haplotypes, while their reconstructed demographic histories show a population expansion starting about 25-50 thousand years ago, a period marked by climate warming and increase in diatom abundance as inferred from bottom-lake sedimentary cores. Conclusions In agreement with previous studies, we found that species reacted differently to the same environmental changes. Our results highlight the important role of dispersal ability and degree of ecological specialization in defining a species' response to environmental changes.

  7. Mining web-based data to assess public response to environmental events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, YoonKyung; Stow, Craig A

    2015-03-01

    We explore how the analysis of web-based data, such as Twitter and Google Trends, can be used to assess the social relevance of an environmental accident. The concept and methods are applied in the shutdown of drinking water supply at the city of Toledo, Ohio, USA. Toledo's notice, which persisted from August 1 to 4, 2014, is a high-profile event that directly influenced approximately half a million people and received wide recognition. The notice was given when excessive levels of microcystin, a byproduct of cyanobacteria blooms, were discovered at the drinking water treatment plant on Lake Erie. Twitter mining results illustrated an instant response to the Toledo incident, the associated collective knowledge, and public perception. The results from Google Trends, on the other hand, revealed how the Toledo event raised public attention on the associated environmental issue, harmful algal blooms, in a long-term context. Thus, when jointly applied, Twitter and Google Trend analysis results offer complementary perspectives. Web content aggregated through mining approaches provides a social standpoint, such as public perception and interest, and offers context for establishing and evaluating environmental management policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Placing Social Marketing in the Practice of Corporate Social Responsibility: Focusing on Environmental Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Saraiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the awareness of social problems and environmentally related issues in particular becomes widespread, companies have been called to participate in the resolution of these, given that they are the main economic agents with impacts on the society and on the environment. Considering that corporations face pressures from their stakeholders to contribute to solving the social global issues that are affecting them, this theoretical paper analyses the role of stakeholder theory, a new management paradigm, and the importance of social marketing to achieve the aims of corporate social responsibility (CSR. The key point of this study is the possible contribution of social marketing to ensuring the companies’ voluntary involvement in promoting social and environmental well-being, supporting them to respond to stakeholders’ requests, due to its capacity of providing, over time, quantifiable improvement on social issues. In this context, this study explores the linkage between stakeholder theory, CSR and social marketing concepts, giving particular attention to the social marketing contribution to solving environmental issues.

  9. Correlative changes in life-history variables in response to environmental change in a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Deere, Jacques A; Coulson, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Global change alters the environment, including increases in the frequency of (un)favorable events and shifts in environmental noise color. However, how these changes impact the dynamics of populations, and whether these can be predicted accurately has been largely unexamined. Here we combine recently developed population modeling approaches and theory in stochastic demography to explore how life history, morphology, and average fitness respond to changes in the frequency of favorable environmental conditions and in the color of environmental noise in a model organism (an acarid mite). We predict that different life-history variables respond correlatively to changes in the environment, and we identify different life-history variables, including lifetime reproductive success, as indicators of average fitness and life-history speed across stochastic environments. Depending on the shape of adult survival rate, generation time can be used as an indicator of the response of populations to stochastic change, as in the deterministic case. This work is a useful step toward understanding population dynamics in stochastic environments, including how stochastic change may shape the evolution of life histories.

  10. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    ensuring that this work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, and DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 450.1A, DOE Order 5400.5, and DOE Order 231.1. The environmental monitoring addressed by this plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, effluent and surveillance monitoring, and permit and regulatory compliance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). LLNL coordinates its ground water surveillance monitoring program with the CERCLA monitoring program to gain sampling efficiencies. (See LLNL [1992] and LLNL [2008] for information about LLNL's CERCLA activities).

  11. Modeling the survival responses of a multi-component biofilm to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles Brangarí, Albert; Manzoni, Stefano; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Biofilms are consortia of microorganisms embedded in self-produced matrices of biopolymers. The survival of such communities depends on their capacity to improve the environmental conditions of their habitat by mitigating, or even benefitting from some adverse external factors. The mechanisms by which the microbial habitat is regulated remain mostly unknown. However, many studies have reported physiological responses to environmental stresses that include the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the induction of a dormancy state. A sound understanding of these capacities is required to enhance the knowledge of the microbial dynamics in soils and its potential role in the carbon cycle, with significant implications for the degradation of contaminants and the emission of greenhouse gases, among others. We present a numerical analysis of the dynamics of soil microbes and their responses to environmental stresses. The conceptual model considers a multi-component heterotrophic biofilm made up of active cells, dormant cells, EPS, and extracellular enzymes. Biofilm distribution and properties are defined at the pore-scale and used to determine nutrient availability and water saturation via feedbacks of biofilm on soil hydraulic properties. The pore space micro-habitat is modeled as a simplified pore-network of cylindrical tubes in which biofilms proliferate. Microbial compartments and most of the carbon fluxes are defined at the bulk level. Microbial processes include the synthesis, decay and detachment of biomass, the activation/deactivation of cells, and the release and reutilization of EPS. Results suggest that the release of EPS and the capacity to enter a dormant state offer clear evolutionary advantages in scenarios characterized by environmental stress. On the contrary, when the conditions are favorable, the diversion of carbon into the production of the aforementioned survival mechanisms does not confer any additional benefit and the population

  12. Responses to Environmental Stress in Plants Adapted to Mediterranean Gypsum Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep V. LLINARES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum areas are stressful environments inhabited by gypsophytes, plants that are exclusive for such habitats, and by plants that grow on gypsum but also on other soil types, the so-called gypsovags. To investigate possible differences between gypsovags and gypsophytes with respect to basic stress response mechanisms, two common osmolytes, glycine betaine and total soluble sugars, as well as monovalent (Na+ and K+ and bivalent (Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, were quantified, under field conditions, in two Iberian endemic gypsophytes (Gypsophila struthium subsp. hispanica and Ononis tridentata and two common Mediterranean gypsovags (Rosmarinus officinalis and Helianthemum syriacum. Their spatial variation according to a topographic gradient and their temporal variation over a period of three successive seasons were correlated with climatic data and soil characteristics. This analysis confirmed that water stress is the main environmental stress factor in gypsum habitats, whereas the percentage of gypsum in the soil does not seem to play any relevant role in the activation of stress responses in plants. Glycine betaine may contribute to stress tolerance in the gypsophytes, but not in the gypsovags, according to the close correlation found between the level of this osmolyte and the gypsophily of the investigated taxa. Cation contents in the plants did not correlate with those present in the soil, but the gypsophytes have higher levels of Ca2+ and Mg2+ than the gypsovags, under all environmental conditions, which may represent an adaptation mechanism to their specific habitat.

  13. Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W.

    1983-05-01

    Human response to severe environmental stress is conceived and implemented by individuals, but must be approved by the group. These decisions are made with respect to perceived circumstances. Societies are enmeshed within adaptive systems that provide a matrix of opportunities and constraints for a wide range of potential behavioral variability. Such systems repeatedly readjust to short-term crises, e.g., droughts, but persistent and severe environmental stress may require substantial revision of adaptive strategies. The Sahel drought of 1968-1973 is an example of a brief but severe crisis, recurring along the Saharan margins perhaps once every 30 years. Closer inspection shows links between intensified intertribal warfare and ecological stress in the lower Omo Valley. The decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom during the 12th century B.C., in response to economic stagnation, sociopolitical instability, dynastic weakness, foreign pressures, and poor Nile floods over 50-70 years, represents a more complex and fundamental modification, with systemic simplification lasting 450 years. Such insights can be applied to future, global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric CO 2. Simulation and paleoclimatic experience suggest a drier climate for the North American and Soviet breadbaskets, to threaten world food supplies at a time of maximum demographic pressures and declining resources. Public perception and remedial planning should receive the attention of Quaternary scientists, in order to preempt an involuntary, global, systemic simplification.

  14. A quantitative model to assess Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Lucena, R

    2014-01-01

    The awareness of the impact of human activities in society and environment is known as "Social Responsibility" (SR). It has been a topic of growing interest in many enterprises since the fifties of the past Century, and its implementation/assessment is nowadays supported by international standards. There is a tendency to amplify its scope of application to other areas of the human activities, such as Research, Development and Innovation (R + D + I). In this paper, a model of quantitative assessment of Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology (SR EST) is described in detail. This model is based on well established written standards as the EFQM Excellence model and the ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on SR. The definition of five hierarchies of indicators, the transformation of qualitative information into quantitative data and the dual procedure of self-evaluation and external evaluation are the milestones of the proposed model, which can be applied to Environmental Research Centres and institutions. In addition, a simplified model that facilitates its implementation is presented in the article.

  15. Molecular mechanism of dehydrin in response to environmental stress in plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuxiu; WANG Zi; XU Jin

    2007-01-01

    Dehydrins, known as the D-11 subgroup of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, are an immunologically distinct family of proteins, which typically accumulate in desiccation-tolerant seed embryo or in vegetative tissues in response to various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity and freezing. The existence of conservative sequences designated as K, S, and Y segments is a structural feature of dehydrins, and the K segment found in all dehydrins represents a highly conserved 15 amino acid motif (EKKGIMDKIKEKLPG) and forms an amphiphilic a-helix. According to the arrangement of these domains and clustering analysis, dehydrins are subdivided into 5 subtypes: YnSK, Kn, KnS, SKn and YnK. Different types of dehydrins are induced by different environmental stress in plants. Study results showed that dehydrins might play important protective roles under abiotic stress via a number of different mechanisms, including improving or protecting enzyme activities by the cryoprotective activity in responding to freeze/thaw or dehydration; stabilizing vesicles or other endomembrane structures by function as the membrane stabilizer during freeze induced dehydration,and preventing the membrane system from the oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen radicals as the radical scavenger. Here, the gene expression and molecular mechanisms of dehydrin in response to stress in plants are discussed.

  16. [Dynamic change of Yulania sap flow before dormancy in response to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhong-Long; Jia, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Lu-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Duan, Jie

    2012-09-01

    From September 26 to November 5, 2011, the sap flow of Yulania wufengensis trees including cold-resistance type (HK) and non cold-resistance type (HF), Y. 'Sunspire' (HY), and Yulania x soulangeana (EQ) which were introduced into Beijing four years before was monitored by Flow-32 stem heat balance sensor, and, in combining with the environmental factors monitored synchronically, the changes of the sap flow before dormancy and the environmental factors were analyzed, with the responses of the sap flow to the environmental factors investigated at the scales of 0.5 h and 1 day. The sap flow of the Yulanias trees before dormancy displayed an obvious trend of declining day by day. The environmental factors affecting the sap flow could be divided into two categories, i. e., meteorological index (MI) and soil index (SI). The sap flow of the Yulanias trees had a synchronous variation rhythm with MI, and declined in parallel to SI. The combined effect of MI and SI on the diurnal changes of the sap flow was 69% - 73%. At both 0.5 h and 1 day scales, the sap flow showed significantly correlations with total radiation (Rs), air vapor pressure deficit (D), air relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), and wind speed (w). The sap flow showed no significant correlations with soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at 0. 5 h scale, but had significant correlations with Ts, SWC, and day length (Z) at 1 day scale (the correlation efficient was about 0.8). Only Rs, Z, and D were included into the model at 1 day scale, but almost all environmental factors (except SWC and Ts) were included in the model at 0.5 h scale. Except for HF type, the regression coefficients of the model for the Yulanias trees at 1 day scale (0.92-0.96) were larger than those at 0.5 h scale (0.77-0.87), and the correlations between the dynamic changes of sap flow and the environmental factor were consistent, which was in accord with the fact that the HF could not overwinter in Beijing but the

  17. The Influence of Nrf2 on Cardiac Responses to Environmental Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nrf2 protects the lung from adverse responses to oxidants, including 100% oxygen (hyperoxia and airborne pollutants like particulate matter (PM exposure, but the role of Nrf2 on heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV responses is not known. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of Nrf2 would exacerbate murine HR and HRV responses to severe hyperoxia or moderate PM exposures. Nrf2-/- and Nrf2+/+ mice were instrumented for continuous ECG recording to calculate HR and HRV (low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF, and total power (TP. Mice were then either exposed to hyperoxia for up to 72 hrs or aspirated with ultrafine PM (UF-PM. Compared to respective controls, UF-PM induced significantly greater effects on HR (P<0.001 and HF HRV (P<0.001 in Nrf2-/- mice compared to Nrf2+/+ mice. Nrf2-/- mice tolerated hyperoxia significantly less than Nrf2+/+ mice (~22 hrs; P<0.001. Reductions in HR, LF, HF, and TP HRV were also significantly greater in Nrf2-/- compared to Nrf2+/+ mice (P<0.01. Results demonstrate that Nrf2 deletion increases susceptibility to change in HR and HRV responses to environmental stressors and suggest potential therapeutic strategies to prevent cardiovascular alterations.

  18. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  20. Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 1. Interplay between vertical structure and photosynthetic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.-Z.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation acclimation to changing climate, in particular elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), has been observed to include modifications to the biochemical and ecophysiological functioning of leaves and the structural components of the canopy. These responses have the potential to significantly modify plant carbon uptake and surface energy partitioning, and have been attributed with large-scale changes in surface hydrology over recent decades. While the aggregated effects of vegetation acclimation can be pronounced, they often result from subtle changes in canopy properties that require the resolution of physical, biochemical and ecophysiological processes through the canopy for accurate estimation. In this paper, the first of two, a multilayer canopy-soil-root system model developed to capture the emergent vegetation responses to environmental change is presented. The model incorporates both C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, and resolves the vertical radiation, thermal, and environmental regimes within the canopy. The tight coupling between leaf ecophysiological functioning and energy balance determines vegetation responses to climate states and perturbations, which are modulated by soil moisture states through the depth of the root system. The model is validated for three growing seasons each for soybean (C3) and maize (C4) using eddy-covariance fluxes of CO2, latent, and sensible heat collected at the Bondville (Illinois) Ameriflux tower site. The data set provides an opportunity to examine the role of important environmental drivers and model skill in capturing variability in canopy-atmosphere exchange. Vertical variation in radiative states and scalar fluxes over a mean diurnal cycle are examined to understand the role of canopy structure on the patterns of absorbed radiation and scalar flux magnitudes and the consequent differences in sunlit and shaded source/sink locations through the canopies. An analysis is made of the impact of

  1. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  2. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  3. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high < SS/low = L/high < L/low). Thus, 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure demonstrated counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings.

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ormet Corporation, Hannibal, OH, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-12

    The Record of Decision presents the selected remedy for the Ormet Corporation Superfund Site. The purpose of this remedy is to eliminate or reduce contamination in soils, sediments and ground water, and to reduce the risks associated with exposure to contaminated materials. This is the first and final remedy planned for the Site.

  5. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  6. Superfund: Interagency Agreements and Improved Project Management Needed to Achieve Cleanup Progress at Key Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Superfund completing the remedial investigation, which would include a human and ecological risk assessment , feasibility study, proposed plan...EPA said that a human and ecological risk assessment —which would estimate how threatening a hazardous waste site is to human health and the

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  8. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  10. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified

  11. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flávia R; Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Vicentini, Renato; Duarte, Rodrigo DC; de Rosa, Vicente E; Vinagre, Fabiano; Barsalobres, Carla; Medeiros, Ane H; Rodrigues, Fabiana A; Ulian, Eugênio C; Zingaretti, Sônia M; Galbiatti, João A; Almeida, Raul S; Figueira, Antonio VO; Hemerly, Adriana S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Gláucia M

    2007-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate). The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified. Additionally, the protein kinases

  12. Drivers and Dynamics of Ecological Responses to Abrupt Environmental Change on the Early Miocene Oregon Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    We know that the biosphere responds to abrupt climate change, but know less about the dynamics of those changes and their proximal drivers. Studies of well-preserved fossil time-series spanning past climate events that utilize multiple environmental proxies and examine multiple taxonomic groups can provide critical insight into (a) the specific environmental factors to which the biota respond, (b) the rate and tempo of those responses, and (c) whether taxonomic groups respond similarly or differently to the same stresses. I examine the drivers and dynamics of ecological changes in continental shelf benthic foraminifera and molluscs from the Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation in Oregon (20.3-16.3 mya), which spans a time of global warming leading into the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. Stable isotope (δ18O) data from three species of benthic foraminifera from the Astoria sediments indicate that the region abruptly warmed by 2-4°C approximately 19 mya. In addition, δ13C values from epifaunal and infaunal foraminifera indicate an increase in productivity and organic carbon flux over time. Further, an increase in δ15N from bulk sediment and an increase in sedimentary laminations suggest oxygen levels declined. Multivariate analyses demonstrate a strong correlation between foraminiferal community metrics and δ15N suggesting that the foraminiferal community is tracking oxygenation levels while correlations to productivity changes appear indirect. Molluscan community metrics also have an approximately linear relationship to δ15N. Temperature itself had little direct influence on community composition. Changes in community composition and structure of both the foraminifera and the molluscs are abrupt relative to the duration of community states, but each group responds differently to the climate change. The foraminiferal community increases in the number of species and the evenness of species abundances while the molluscan community decreases in

  13. Acute exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) triggers the emersion response in the green shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia. Using an experimental arena containing a rock bed onto which crabs could emerse, we established that exposure to HEA (4mmol/l NH4HCO3) for 15min triggers emersion in crabs. In experiments utilizing NaHCO3 controls and NH4HCO3 injections, we further determined that emersion was triggered specifically by external ammonia and was independent of secondary acid-base or respiratory disturbances caused by HEA. We then hypothesized that emersion from HEA provides a physiological benefit, similar to emersion from hypoxia. Exposure to 15min of HEA without emersion (no rock bed present) caused significant increases in arterial haemolymph total ammonia (Tamm), pH, and [HCO3(-)]. When emersion was allowed, arterial haemolymph Tamm and [HCO3(-)] increased, but no alkalosis developed. Moreover, emersion decreased haemolymph partial pressure of NH3 relative to crabs which could not emerse. Overall, we demonstrate a novel behavioural response to HEA exposure in crabs which we propose may share similar mechanistic pathways with the emersion response triggered by hypoxia.

  14. Conceptual Design and Structural Optimization of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving the fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project requires innovative and unconventional aircraft concepts. In response, advanced hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft concepts have been proposed and analyzed as a means of meeting these objectives. For the current study, several HWB concepts were analyzed using the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) analysis code. HCDstruct is a medium-fidelity finite element based conceptual design and structural optimization tool developed to fill the critical analysis gap existing between lower order structural sizing approaches and detailed, often finite element based sizing methods for HWB aircraft concepts. Whereas prior versions of the tool used a half-model approach in building the representative finite element model, a full wing-tip-to-wing-tip modeling capability was recently added to HCDstruct, which alleviated the symmetry constraints at the model centerline in place of a free-flying model and allowed for more realistic center body, aft body, and wing loading and trim response. The latest version of HCDstruct was applied to two ERA reference cases, including the Boeing Open Rotor Engine Integration On an HWB (OREIO) concept and the Boeing ERA-0009H1 concept, and results agreed favorably with detailed Boeing design data and related Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) analyses. Following these benchmark cases, HCDstruct was used to size NASA's ERA HWB concepts and to perform a related scaling study.

  15. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Iglesias

    Full Text Available Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future.

  16. 环境改善需求、环境责任认知和公众环境行为%Environmental Improvement Demand, Environmental Responsibility Cognition and Public Environmental Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成钢; 何兴邦

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influences of environmental improvement demand and environmental responsibility cog -nition upon public environmental behavior based on CGSS (2013) data.The results show that residents'demand for environ-mental improvement is positively correlated to personal environmental behavior.Moreover , the cognition weakening of two types of environmental responsibilities reduce the participation rate of residents 'environmental behavior: for one thing , resi-dents are apt to impute environmental responsibilities to governments , enterprises and social organizations; for another , it is widely believed that individuals only exert small positive externalities upon environmental improvement .Furthermore, the effi-ciency of environmental improvement demand on personal environmental behavior is affected by residents 'cognition of environ-mental responsibility.In conclusion , governments and media should enhance propaganda of the effect of personal environmen -tal behavior so as to raise the participation rate of public environmental behavior.%基于CGSS (2013)数据,本文实证分析了环境改善需求和环境责任认知对公众环境行为的影响。本研究发现居民对环境的改善需求与个人环境行为呈正相关。另外,两类环境责任自我弱化认知降低了居民的环境行为参与率:一类是居民倾向于把环境责任归咎给政府、企业和社会团体等社会组织,另一类是居民倾向于认为个人对于环境改善只存在微小的正外部性。最后,本研究还发现环境改善需求对个人环境行为的效力受到居民环境责任认知的影响。本研究认为政府和媒体应强化个人环境行为作用的宣导以提升公众环境行为参与率。

  17. Communication of Social and Environmental Responsibility in the Mission, Vision and Values of BM&FBovespa and Fortune 500 companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Cristiane de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines evidence of the socio-environmental alignment of companies listed on the Novo Mercado segment of the BM&FBovespa and in the Fortune 500, using content analysis of the mission, vision and values published by these organizations. Data were collected from the websites of the 233 companies that made up the research sample. Findings reveal that 90 of the companies investigated showed some evidence of social and environmental concerns in the dimensions analyzed. Indication of socio-environmental concerns appeared more frequently with regard to the dimension "values." Among the 42 terms encountered that refer to environmental concern, "sustainable" and "sustainability" appeared most frequently among the companies listed on BM&FBovespa, while "integrity", "ethics" and "social responsibility" were those more often used by the Fortune 500 companies. Results suggest that social and environmental disclosure is still incipient. Moreover, it is observed that organizations evincing some degree of concern in their missions, visions and values cannot necessarily be seen as socially and environmentally responsible, because the inclusion of this information in their texts is not proof that the company carries out actions of socio-environmental responsibility.

  18. Coral reefs in the South China Sea: Their response to and records on past environmental changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU KeFu

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews both the recent and longer-term (Holocene) ecological history of coral reefs in the South China Sea (SCS).(1) Local ecological monitoring since the 1960s shows that the coral reefs in the South China Sea have declined dramatically,reflecting the rapid decrease of living coral cover and the great loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae.Collectively,this has led to a significant decrease of annual CaCO3 production.Heavy anthropogenic activities and global warming are recognized as major triggers of the observed coral reef degradation.Observations show that the modern coral reefs in the SCS are a source of atmospheric CO2 in summer.(2) Coral reefs of the SCS have been widely used to reveal longer-term environmental variations,including Holocene high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) and abrupt climate events,millennial-scale E1 Ni(n)o variations,millennial-and centennial-scale sea level oscillations,strong and cyclic storm activities,East Asian monsoon intensities,variation in seawater pH,and recent seawater pollution,(3) Coral reefs of the southern SCS have experienced repeated episodes of bleaching over the last 200 years due to high SST and intense E1 Ni(n)o events; coral reefs of the northern SCS suffered high levels of mortality during several abrupt winter cold-water bleaching events during the middle Holocene warm period.On average,recovery after the middle Holocene cold-bleaching took 20-30 years; recovery following other middle Holocene environmental stresses took approximately 1020 years.Such findings have significantly contributed to the understanding of the present ecological pressures faced by the coral reefs in the SCS,the histories of Holocene climate/environment changes,and the long-term models of coral reef responses to various past environmental changes.

  19. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Garnett, James A.; Matthews, Steve; Penades, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27327765

  20. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, Linda M. [Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Foerlin, Lars [Department of Zoology/Zoophysiology, Goeteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Karlsson, Goeran [Swedish NMR Centre at Goeteborg University, Box 465, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha [Institute of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, D.G. Joakim [Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: joakim.larsson@fysiologi.gu.se

    2006-07-20

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE{sub 2}, which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants.

  1. Responsiveness of Food Security Reporting to Environmental Variability and Agricultural Production Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickley, E. B.; Brown, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    This paper uses 1342 food security update reports from the US Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) in an analysis that focuses on the environmental, market, and livelihood influences on the food security in 17 countries in Africa from 2000-2009. A textual analysis was conducted using the reports as a primary data source to evaluate the responsiveness of food security analysis to environmental variability and food production deficits. The research shows that FEWS NET analysts demonstrate a consistent approach across all 17 countries as to the discussion and use of rainfall information, agricultural production, food prices and food access parameters. There are significant differences in the use of remote sensing and other technical information between East, West and Southern African country analysts, with satellite remote sensing of vegetation being used 28% of the time, rainfall imagery 84% and gridded crop models only 10% of the time. Significantly more discussion of biophysical information was seen during the rainy season than during the dry season, and different satellite products were used during periods of drought than periods of adequate moisture. As the demand for early warning information grows to more countries in different ecosystems, there is likely to be an increased need for the effective utilization of remote sensing, market, and livelihood data, and it is also probable that this information will be critical for improved policy-making regarding climate extremes in the future.

  2. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Garnett, James A; Matthews, Steve; Penades, José R; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-06-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  5. A decade of insights into grassland ecosystem responses to global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Grace, James B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Seabloom, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    Earth’s biodiversity and carbon uptake by plants, or primary productivity, are intricately interlinked, underlie many essential ecosystem processes, and depend on the interplay among environmental factors, many of which are being changed by human activities. While ecological theory generalizes across taxa and environments, most empirical tests of factors controlling diversity and productivity have been observational, single-site experiments, or meta-analyses, limiting our understanding of variation among site-level responses and tests of general mechanisms. A synthesis of results from ten years of a globally distributed, coordinated experiment, the Nutrient Network (NutNet), demonstrates that species diversity promotes ecosystem productivity and stability, and that nutrient supply and herbivory control diversity via changes in composition, including invasions of non-native species and extinction of native species. Distributed experimental networks are a powerful tool for tests and integration of multiple theories and for generating multivariate predictions about the effects of global changes on future ecosystems.

  6. The application of biochemical responses to assess environmental quality of tropical estuaries: field surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranho, Luciane Alves; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Cesar, Augusto; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Torres, Ronaldo José; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza; Morais, Rodofley Davino; Mozeto, Antônio Aparecido; DelValls, Tomás Angel; Martín-Díaz, María Laura

    2012-10-26

    A battery of biomarkers of exposure (EROD, DBF, GST and GPx) and effect (lipid peroxidation and DNA damage - strand breaks) were analyzed in gill tissues from caged and native oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae exposed to two tropical estuarine systems in SW Brazil: Santos (S1, S2, S3, S4) and Paranaguá (P1 - control, P2, P3, P4). The exposure lasted 28 days. Native oysters were sampled in the same areas where caged systems were exposed. Significant induction of biomarkers of exposure to organic compounds and oxidative stress (p rhizophorae proved to be a suitable tool for assessing and monitoring the environmental quality in mangrove ecosystems. This integrated approach employing multi-biomarker responses under field conditions could be incorporated as a descriptor of health status in tropical estuarine systems.

  7. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation High Overall Pressure Ratio Compressor Research Pre-Test CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestina, Mark L.; Fabian, John C.; Kulkarni, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative and cost-shared approach to reducing fuel burn under the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. NASA and General Electric (GE) Aviation are working together aa an integrated team to obtain compressor aerodynamic data that is mutually beneficial to both NASA and GE Aviation. The objective of the High OPR Compressor Task is to test a single stage then two stages of an advanced GE core compressor using state-of-the-art research instrumentation to investigate the loss mechanisms and interaction effects of embedded transonic highly-loaded compressor stages. This paper presents preliminary results from NASA's in-house multistage computational code, APNASA, in preparation for this advanced transonic compressor rig test.

  8. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  9. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  10. Introduction to "coping with environmental risk and uncertainty: individual and cultural responses".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ember, Carol R

    2013-03-01

    The papers in this special issue of Human Nature collectively consider societal and individual responses to a wide variety of environmental and social risks. The first paper considers societal level effects of pathogen risk on collectivism and conformity, avoidance of outsiders, and in-group loyalty in a worldwide cross-cultural sample. The second deals with societal-level effects of resource unpredictability on the nature and conduct of warfare in eastern Africa. The third deals with effects of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes and mediating factors on individual perceptions of risk in Mexico and Ecuador. The final paper deals with effects of various types of father absence on women's reproductive life histories in Bangladesh.

  11. Laboratory study on the molluscicidal effect of Earth Tec: an environmentally responsible copper sulfate product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M M; Hady, H M; Salama, M M; el-Ghazali, S

    1994-08-01

    Studies were carried out, under laboratory conditions to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of Earth Tec on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Earth Tec is an environmentally responsible copper sulfate product manufactured and marketed as an algicide/bactericide with an active ingredient form of copper ion (Cu++). A single application, of 1 ppm of copper equivalent, for 24 hours caused 100% mortality rate of the snails. Exposure for 48 hours to 1 ppm and 2 weeks to 0.25 ppm caused mortality rates of 84% and 100% respectively. It was concluded that this chemical compound is a promising molluscicide. Field studies are ongoing and will be published in due time.

  12. Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility as an Attraction and Retention Factor for Young Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates if company social-environmental responsibility (SER is an attraction and retention factor for young professionals in two studies. The first study, an experiment, investigates whether such practices influence the attraction exerted by the company as a prospect employer among undergraduate students, considering different wage and professional development conditions. The second study, a survey, investigates the impact of company SER on voluntary turnover among trainees, controlling for individual differences and satisfaction with income, growth and interests. The results suggest that SER is an important element in the attractiveness exercised by companies as they recruit young professionals, and in the retention of trainees, since it is statistically associated with the likelihood of them leaving their companies after disputed selection processes and expensive training programs.

  13. A Long Term View of Forest Response to Environmental Change: 25 Years of Studying Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; David, F.; David, O.

    2014-12-01

    Forests influence the budgets of greenhouse gases, and understanding how they will respond to environmental change is critical to accurately predicting future GHG trends. The time scale for climate change is long and forest growth is slow, thus very long measurement periods are required to observe meaningful forest response. We established an eddy flux tower within a mixed forest stand dominated by red oak and red maple at the Harvard Forest LTER site in 1989 where CO2, H2O and energy fluxes together with meteorological observations have been measured continuously. An array of plots for biometric measurements was established in 1993. Flux measurement at an adjacent hemlock stand began in 2000. Records of land use and disturbance and vegetation plot data extend back to 1907. The combined suite of measurements merges observations of instantaneous ecosystem responses to environmental forcing with details of vegetation dynamics and forest growth that represent the emergent properties relevant to long-term ecosystem change. Both the deciduous stand and hemlock stand are accumulating biomass. Each has added over 20 Mg-C ha-1 as woody biomass in trees >10cm dbh since 1990, even though the hemlock stand is older. Net carbon exchange shows enhanced uptake in early spring and late fall months in response to warmer temperatures and likely an increase in evergreen foliage at the deciduous site. Net carbon uptake efficiency at the deciduous stand has increased over time as well as indicated by peak NEE under optimum light conditions. The trend is only partly explained by variation in mean leaf area index and cannot be directly attributed to climate response. The combination of longer growing season and increased uptake efficiency yields a general trend of increasing annual NEE (Fig. 1). However, significant excursions in the trend highlight the sensitivity of forest carbon stocks. The pulse of high annual carbon uptake (peak 6 Mg-C ha-1y-1 in 2008) from 2000-2008 is only

  14. Environmental mold and mycotoxin exposures elicit specific cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H Rosenblum Lichtenstein

    Full Text Available Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls.These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation-inducing environmental agents.

  15. Report: Independent Ground Water Sampling Generally Confirms EPA’s Data at Wheeler Pit Superfund Site in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0218, September 8, 2010. With minimal exceptions, our independent sampling results at the Wheeler Pit Superfund Site were consistent with the sampling results that EPA Region 5 has obtained historically.

  16. Issuance of Final Guidance: Ecological Risk Assessment and Risk Management Principles for Superfund Sites, October 7, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to help Superfund risk managers make ecological risk management decisions that are based on sound science, consistent across Regions, and present a characterization of site risks that is transparent to the public.

  17. Plasticity in above- and belowground resource acquisition traits in response to single and multiple environmental factors in three tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Bellingham, Peter J; Lyver, Philip O'B; Bonner, Karen I; Wardle, David A

    2013-04-01

    Functional trait plasticity is a major component of plant adjustment to environmental stresses. Here, we explore how multiple local environmental gradients in resources required by plants (light, water, and nutrients) and soil disturbance together influence the direction and amplitude of intraspecific changes in leaf and fine root traits that facilitate capture of these resources. We measured population-level analogous above- and belowground traits related to resource acquisition, i.e. "specific leaf area"-"specific root length" (SLA-SRL), and leaf and root N, P, and dry matter content (DMC), on three dominant understory tree species with contrasting carbon and nutrient economics across 15 plots in a temperate forest influenced by burrowing seabirds. We observed similar responses of the three species to the same single environmental influences, but partially species-specific responses to combinations of influences. The strength of intraspecific above- and belowground trait responses appeared unrelated to species resource acquisition strategy. Finally, most analogous leaf and root traits (SLA vs. SRL, and leaf versus root P and DMC) were controlled by contrasting environmental influences. The decoupled responses of above- and belowground traits to these multiple environmental factors together with partially species-specific adjustments suggest complex responses of plant communities to environmental changes, and potentially contrasting feedbacks of plant traits with ecosystem properties. We demonstrate that despite the growing evidence for broadly consistent resource-acquisition strategies at the whole plant level among species, plants also show partially decoupled, finely tuned strategies between above- and belowground parts at the intraspecific level in response to their environment. This decoupling within species suggests a need for many species-centred ecological theories on how plants respond to their environments (e.g. competitive/stress-tolerant/ruderal and

  18. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Unfried; Matthias Kroker; Andrea Autengruber; Marijan Gotić; Ulrich Sydlik

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of su...

  19. Responses of laboratory exposed catfish (Clarias gariepinus) to environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kerry; van Vuren, Johan; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    Technical grade DDT is annually sprayed for malaria control in many under developed countries world wide. Despite the controversy surrounding the use of DDT, minimal research concerning the effects on indigenous fish species in these areas has been conducted. In this study, the objectives were to identify some of the effects of sprayed p,p'-DDT on the common African sharptooth catfish species (Clarias gariepinus) under laboratory conditions. The effects were assessed by exposing specimens to three environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT (0.66, 1.36 and 2.72 μg/l) for 21 days and analysing a suite of biomarkers in the plasma, gonads and body morphometrics. The biomarkers were specifically selected based on their practicality in developing countries, which could potentially be utilised for continued monitoring, and included alkali-labile phosphate (ALP), calcium, magnesium and zinc as the indirect measures of vitellogenin, gonadosomatic index, gonad mass manipulated using analysis of covariance, and condition factor. The results showed no significant (pgariepinus, indicating that these species were not responsive to the p,p'-DDT concentrations when exposed sub-chronically. This lack of a response suggested that mature C. gariepinus are tolerant to 21 days exposure of low levels of p,p'-DDT.

  20. Influence of environmental factors on biotic responses to nutrient enrichment in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Tranmer, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on biotic responses to nutrients was examined in three diverse agricultural regions of the United States. Seventy wadeable sites were selected along an agricultural land use gradient while minimizing natural variation within each region. Nutrients, habitat, algae, macroinvertebrates, and macrophyte cover were sampled during a single summer low-flow period in 2006 or 2007. Continuous stream stage and water temperature were collected at each site for 30 days prior to sampling. Wide ranges of concentrations were found for total nitrogen (TN) (0.07-9.61 mg/l) and total phosphorus (TP) (R2) for nutrients and biotic measures across all sites ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 and generally were not higher within each region. The biotic measures (RCHL, SCHL, and AQM) were combined in an index to evaluate eutrophic status across sites that could have different biotic responses to nutrient enrichment. Stepwise multiple regression identified TN, percent canopy, median riffle depth, and daily percent change in stage as significant factors for the eutrophic index (R2 = 0.50, p plant growth indicators should be used when evaluating eutrophication, especially when streams contain an abundance of macrophytes.

  1. Connecting RNA Processing to Abiotic Environmental Response in Arabidopsis: the role of a polyadenylation factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. Q.; Xu, R.; Hunt, A. G.; Falcone, D. L.

    Plants are constantly challenged by numerous environmental stresses both biotic and abiotic It is clear that plants have evolved to counter these stresses using all but limited means We recently discovered the potential role of a messenger RNA processing factor namely the Arabidopsis cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 kDa subunit AtCPSF30 when a mutant deficient in this factor displayed altered responses to an array of abiotic stresses This AtCPSF30 mutant named oxt6 exhibited an elevated tolerance to oxidative stress Microarray experiments of oxt6 and its complemented lines revealed an altered gene expression profile among which were antioxidative defense genes Interestingly the same gene encoding AtCPSF30 can also be transcribed into a large transcript that codes for a potential splicing factor Both protein products have a domain for RNA binding and a calmodulin binding domain activities of which have been confirmed by biochemical assays Surprisingly binding of AtCPSF30 to calmodulin inhibits the RNA-binding activity of the protein Mutational analysis shows that a small part of the protein is responsible for calmodulin binding and point mutations in this region abolished both RNA binding activity and the inhibition of this activity by calmodulin Analyses of the potential splicing factor are on going and the results will be presented The interesting possibilities for both the interplay between splicing and polyadenylation and the regulation of these processes by stimuli that act through

  2. Stochastic response surface methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation: Application to environmental and biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P.G. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.]|[Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Comprehensive uncertainty analyses of complex models of environmental and biological systems are essential but often not feasible due to the computational resources they require. Traditional methods, such as standard Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling, for propagating uncertainty and developing probability densities of model outputs, may in fact require performing a prohibitive number of model simulations. An alternative is offered, for a wide range of problems, by the computationally efficient Stochastic Response Surface Methods (SRSMs) for uncertainty propagation. These methods extend the classical response surface methodology to systems with stochastic inputs and outputs. This is accomplished by approximating both inputs and outputs of the uncertain system through stochastic series of well behaved standard random variables; the series expansions of the outputs contain unknown coefficients which are calculated by a method that uses the results of a limited number of model simulations. Two case studies are presented here involving (a) a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for perchloroethylene (PERC) for humans, and (b) an atmospheric photochemical model, the Reactive Plume Model (RPM-IV). The results obtained agree closely with those of traditional Monte Carlo and Latin Hypercube Sampling methods, while significantly reducing the required number of model simulations.

  3. Environmentally Responsible Use of Nanomaterials for the Photocatalytic Reduction of Nitrate in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudrick, Kyle

    Nitrate is the most prevalent water pollutant limiting the use of groundwater as a potable water source. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to leverage advances in nanotechnology to improve nitrate photocatalysis and transition treatment to the full-scale. The research objectives were to (1) examine commercial and synthesized photocatalysts, (2) determine the effect of water quality parameters (e.g., pH), (3) conduct responsible engineering by ensuring detection methods were in place for novel materials, and (4) develop a conceptual framework for designing nitrate-specific photocatalysts. The key issues for implementing photocatalysis for nitrate drinking water treatment were efficient nitrate removal at neutral pH and by-product selectivity toward nitrogen gases, rather than by-products that pose a human health concern (e.g., nitrite). Photocatalytic nitrate reduction was found to follow a series of proton-coupled electron transfers. The nitrate reduction rate was limited by the electron-hole recombination rate, and the addition of an electron donor (e.g., formate) was necessary to reduce the recombination rate and achieve efficient nitrate removal. Nano-sized photocatalysts with high surface areas mitigated the negative effects of competing aqueous anions. The key water quality parameter impacting by-product selectivity was pH. For pH catalysts that form a Schottky barrier, allowing for localization of electrons, were best for nitrate reduction. Silver was optimal in heterogeneous systems because of its ability to improve nitrate reduction activity and N-gas by-product selectivity, and graphene was optimal in two-electrode systems because of its ability to shuttle electrons to the working electrode. "Environmentally responsible use of nanomaterials" is to ensure that detection methods are in place for the nanomaterials tested. While methods exist for the metals and metal oxides examined, there are currently none for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene

  4. Selected Water- and Sediment-Quality, Aquatic Biology, and Mine-Waste Data from the Ely Copper Mine Superfund Site, Vershire, VT, 1998-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hathaway, Edward; Coles, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The data contained in this report are a compilation of selected water- and sediment-quality, aquatic biology, and mine-waste data collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vershire, VT, from August 1998 through May 2007. The Ely Copper Mine Superfund site is in eastern, central Vermont (fig. 1) within the Vermont Copper Belt (Hammarstrom and others, 2001). The Ely Copper Mine site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2001. Previous investigations conducted at the site documented that the mine is contributing metals and highly acidic waters to local streams (Hammarstrom and others, 2001; Holmes and others, 2002; Piatak and others, 2003, 2004, and 2006). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, compiled selected data from previous investigations into uniform datasets that will be used to help characterize the extent of contamination at the mine. The data may be used to determine the magnitude of biological impacts from the contamination and in the development of remediation activities. This report contains analytical data for samples collected from 98 stream locations, 6 pond locations, 21 surface-water seeps, and 29 mine-waste locations. The 98 stream locations are within 3 streams and their tributaries. Ely Brook flows directly through the Ely Copper Mine then into Schoolhouse Brook (fig. 2), which joins the Ompompanoosuc River (fig. 1). The six pond locations are along Ely Brook Tributary 2 (fig. 2). The surface-water seeps and mine-waste locations are near the headwaters of Ely Brook (fig. 2 and fig. 3). The datasets 'Site_Directory' and 'Coordinates' contain specific information about each of the sample locations including stream name, number of meters from the mouth of stream, geographic coordinates, types of samples collected (matrix of sample), and the figure on which the sample location is depicted. Data have been collected at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site by the

  5. 77 FR 42310 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; City of Middletown, CT and RLO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ..., Inc., Omo Manufacturing Site, Middletown, CT AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice... administrative settlement for recovery of response costs under CERCLA, concerning the Omo Manufacturing Superfund... the Omo Manufacturing Superfund Site in Middletown, Connecticut with the following settling parties...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the importance of the environmental dimension of the concept of corporate social responsibility (Social Corporate Responsibility - CSR in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first part describes the essence of corporate social responsibility. The second part is the basic pillar of CSR, which is an ecological area. The third part presents the environmental efforts undertaken by small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of CSR. The analysis was based on the literature available and data obtained from empirical research conducted by the writer. The results show that companies, however in different extent undertake ecological activities willingly. Furthermore, those activities benefit not only in terms of the environmental dimension of CSR, but also in other areas of the organization.

  7. Influence of a chlor-alkali superfund site on mercury bioaccumulation in periphyton and low-trophic level fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Broadley, Hannah J.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Berlin, New Hampshire, USA, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. The present study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10–40× increase, mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 20.1 ± 24.8 ng g–1 dry wt) and total mercury (THg; 10–30× increase, mean ± SD: 2045 ± 2669 ng g–1 dry wt) compared with all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3–7× on average) relative to the reference (THg mean ± SD: 33.5 ± 9.33 ng g–1 dry wt; MeHg mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.21 ng g–1 dry wt). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23 ng L–1) and dissolved (0.76 ng L–1) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2-fold to 5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential of periphyton material was highest (2–9 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies, and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration.

  8. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  9. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed geophysical logs from 20 test wells and 23 residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site in East Fishkill, New York, from 2006 through 2010 as part of an Interagency Agreement to provide hydrogeologic technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2. The geophysical logs collected include caliper, gamma, acoustic and optical televiewer, deviation, electromagnetic-induction, magnetic-susceptibility, fluid-property, and flow under ambient and pumped conditions. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with single-well aquifer test data and drilling logs to characterize the lithology, fabric, fractures, and flow zones penetrated by the wells. The results of the geophysical log analysis were used as part of the hydrogeologic characterization of the site and in the design of discrete-zone monitoring installations in the test wells and selected residential wells.

  10. Application of the environmental Gini coefficient in allocating water governance responsibilities: a case study in Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shenbei; Du, Amin; Bai, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    The equitable allocation of water governance responsibilities is very important yet difficult to achieve, particularly for a basin which involves many stakeholders and policymakers. In this study, the environmental Gini coefficient model was applied to evaluate the inequality of water governance responsibility allocation, and an environmental Gini coefficient optimisation model was built to achieve an optimal adjustment. To illustrate the application of the environmental Gini coefficient, the heavily polluted transboundary Taihu Lake Basin in China, was chosen as a case study. The results show that the original environmental Gini coefficient of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was greater than 0.2, indicating that the allocation of water governance responsibilities in Taihu Lake Basin was unequal. Of seven decision-making units, three were found to be inequality factors and were adjusted to reduce the water pollutant emissions and to increase the water governance inputs. After the adjustment, the environmental Gini coefficient of the COD was less than 0.2 and the reduction rate was 27.63%. The adjustment process provides clear guidance for policymakers to develop appropriate policies and improve the equality of water governance responsibility allocation.

  11. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  12. A unifying conceptual model for the environmental responses of isoprene emissions from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulos, Catherine; Prentice, Iain C.; Keenan, Trevor F.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Peñuelas, Josep; Possell, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Isoprene is the most important volatile organic compound emitted by land plants in terms of abundance and environmental effects. Controls on isoprene emission rates include light, temperature, water supply and CO2 concentration. A need to quantify these controls has long been recognized. There are already models that give realistic results, but they are complex, highly empirical and require separate responses to different drivers. This study sets out to find a simpler, unifying principle. Methods A simple model is presented based on the idea of balancing demands for reducing power (derived from photosynthetic electron transport) in primary metabolism versus the secondary pathway that leads to the synthesis of isoprene. This model's ability to account for key features in a variety of experimental data sets is assessed. Key results The model simultaneously predicts the fundamental responses observed in short-term experiments, namely: (1) the decoupling between carbon assimilation and isoprene emission; (2) a continued increase in isoprene emission with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at high PAR, after carbon assimilation has saturated; (3) a maximum of isoprene emission at low internal CO2 concentration (ci) and an asymptotic decline thereafter with increasing ci; (4) maintenance of high isoprene emissions when carbon assimilation is restricted by drought; and (5) a temperature optimum higher than that of photosynthesis, but lower than that of isoprene synthase activity. Conclusions A simple model was used to test the hypothesis that reducing power available to the synthesis pathway for isoprene varies according to the extent to which the needs of carbon assimilation are satisfied. Despite its simplicity the model explains much in terms of the observed response of isoprene to external drivers as well as the observed decoupling between carbon assimilation and isoprene emission. The concept has the potential to improve global

  13. Linking life history theory, environmental setting, and individual-based modeling to compare responses of different fish species to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Winkle, W.; Rose, K.A.; Winemiller, K.O.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Christensen, S.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Otto, R.G. (R.G. Otto Associates, Vienna, MD (United States)); Shuter, B.J. (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resurces, Onatario (Canada))

    1993-05-01

    We link life history theory, environmental setting, and individual-based modeling to compare the responses of two fish species to environmental change. Life history theory provides the framework for selecting representative species, and in combination with information on important environmental characteristics, it provides the framework for predicting the results of model simulations. Individual-based modeling offers a promising tool for integrating and extrapolating our mechanistic understanding of reproduction, growth, and mortality at the individual level to population-level responses such as size-frequency distributions and indices of year-class strength. Based on the trade-offs between life history characteristics of striped bass Morone saxatilis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and differences in their respective environments, we predicted that young-of-year smallmouth bass are likely to demonstrate a greater compensatory change in growth and mortality than young-of-year striped bass in response to changes in density of early life stages and turnover rates of zooplankton prey. We tested this prediction with a simulation experiment. The pattern of model results was consistent with our expectations: by the end of the first growing season, compensatory changes in length and abundance of juveniles were more pronounced for smallmouth bass than for striped bass. The results also highlighted the dependence of model predictions on the interplay between density of larvae and juveniles and characteristics of their zooplankton prey.

  14. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  15. Coccolithophore responses to environmental variability in the South China Sea: species composition and calcite content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian; Poulton, Alex J.; Dai, Minhan; Guo, Xianghui

    2016-08-01

    Coccolithophore contributions to the global marine carbon cycle are regulated by the calcite content of their scales (coccoliths) and the relative cellular levels of photosynthesis and calcification rates. All three of these factors vary between coccolithophore species and with response to the growth environment. Here, water samples were collected in the northern basin of the South China Sea (SCS) during summer 2014 in order to examine how environmental variability influenced species composition and cellular levels of calcite content. Average coccolithophore abundance and their calcite concentration in the water column were 11.82 cells mL-1 and 1508.3 pg C mL-1, respectively, during the cruise. Water samples can be divided into three floral groups according to their distinct coccolithophore communities. The vertical structure of the coccolithophore community in the water column was controlled by the trophic conditions, which were regulated by mesoscale eddies across the SCS basin. The evaluation of coccolithophore-based calcite in the surface ocean also showed that three key species in the SCS (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda) and other larger, numerically rare species made almost equal contributions to total coccolith-based calcite in the water column. For Emiliania huxleyi biometry measurements, coccolith size positively correlated with nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), and it is suggested that coccolith length is influenced by light and nutrients through the regulation of growth rates. Larger-sized coccoliths were also linked statistically to low pH and calcite saturation states; however, it is not a simple cause and effect relationship, as carbonate chemistry was strongly co-correlated with the other key environmental factors (nutrients, light).

  16. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  17. Mechanisms driving carbon allocation in tropical rainforests: allometric constraints and environmental responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhansl, Florian; Schnecker, Jörg; Singer, Gabriel; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forest ecosystems play a major role in global water and carbon cycles. However, mechanisms of C allocation in tropical forests and their response to environmental variation are largely unresolved as, due to the scarcity of data, they are underrepresented in global syntheses of forest C allocation. Allocation of gross primary production to wood production exerts a key control on forest C residence time and biomass C turnover, and therefore is of special interest for terrestrial ecosystem research and earth system science. Here, we synthesize pantropical data from 105 old-growth rainforests to investigate relationships between climate (mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, dry season length and cloud cover), soil nutrient relations (soil N:P) and the partitioning of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) to wood production (WPart) using structural equation modelling. Our results show a strong increase of WPart with ANPP, pointing towards allometric scaling controls on WPart, with increasing light competition in more productive forests triggering greater ANPP allocation to wood production. ANPP itself was positively affected by mean annual temperature and soil N:P. Beyond these allometric controls on WPart we found direct environmental controls. WPart increased with dry season length in tropical montane rainforests and with mean annual precipitation in lowland tropical rainforests. We discuss different trade-offs between plant traits, such as community-wide changes along the wood economics spectrum, the leaf economics spectrum and the plant resource economics spectrum, as underlying mechanisms for direct climatic controls on WPart. We thereby provide new insights into mechanisms driving carbon allocation to WPart in tropical rainforests and show that low and high productive tropical rainforests may respond differently to projected global changes.

  18. Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency [ER.QUADS6K_EPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Draft reference grid cells for emergency response reconnaissance developed for use by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Grid cells are based on densification...

  19. Environmental Consumerism in the United Kingdom: Some Reflections on Managerial Responses and Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P. J.; Jones, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    In England, management policies on land use and environmental consumerism are demand led, reactive, and detached from ecological and economic realities. Education that emphasizes environmental management from a standpoint of ethics, economics, political science, and law is recommended. (SK)

  20. Environmental Consumerism in the United Kingdom: Some Reflections on Managerial Responses and Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P. J.; Jones, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    In England, management policies on land use and environmental consumerism are demand led, reactive, and detached from ecological and economic realities. Education that emphasizes environmental management from a standpoint of ethics, economics, political science, and law is recommended. (SK)

  1. Expression pattern and core region analysis of AtMPK3 promoter in response to environmental stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The protein kinase AtMPK3,a component of the MAP kinase cascade,plays an important role in stress signal transduction in plant cells. To clarify how AtMPK3 is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to various environmental factors, the 1016-bp promoter sequence upstream of the transcription start site of the AtMPK3 gene was isolated. Analyses of the promoter sequence using plant promoter databases revealed that the AtMPK3 promoter contains many potential cis-acting elements involved in environmental stress responses. We constructed four deletion mutants of the AtMPK3 promoter, and introduced the intact and truncated promoter sequences fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into Arabidopsis. GUS histochemical staining and quantitative fluorometric GUS assays were performed to visualize and compare the expression patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. The region between-188 and-62 upstream of the transcription start site was identified as the essential DNA sequence of the AtMPK3 promoter for responses to drought, high salinity, low temperature, and wounding. These results advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling AtMPK3 expression in response to different environmental stimuli.

  2. Prediction of breeding values and selection responses with genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that genotypes differ not only in mean, but also in environmental variance of the traits they affect. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance may indicate genetic differences in environmental sensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop a general framework fo

  3. Analysis of environmental stress in plants with the aid of marker genes for H2O2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieno, Ayaka; Naznin, Hushna Ara; Sawaki, Katsunobu; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yusaku; Ishino, Haruka; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide acts as a signaling molecule mediating the acquisition of tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of marker genes for H2O2 response could help to intercept the signaling network of stress response of plants. Here, we describe application of marker genes for H2O2 responses to monitoring several abiotic stress responses. Arabidopsis plants were treated with UV-B, high light, and cold stresses, where involvement of H2O2-mediated signaling is known or suggested. Monitoring of these stress responses with molecular markers using quantitative real-time RT-PCR can detect landmark events in the sequential stress responses. These methods can be used for analysis of mutants and transgenic plants to examine natural H2O2 responses that are involved in environmental adaptation.

  4. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  5. Sex differences in the response to environmental cues regulating seasonal reproduction in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2008-01-27

    Although it is axiomatic that males and females differ in relation to many aspects of reproduction related to physiology, morphology and behaviour, relatively little is known about possible sex differences in the response to cues from the environment that control the timing of seasonal breeding. This review concerns the environmental regulation of seasonal reproduction in birds and how this process might differ between males and females. From an evolutionary perspective, the sexes can be expected to differ in the cues they use to time reproduction. Female reproductive fitness typically varies more as a function of fecundity selection, while male reproductive fitness varies more as a function sexual selection. Consequently, variation in the precision of the timing of egg laying is likely to have more serious fitness consequences for females than for males, while variation in the timing of recrudescence of the male testes and accompanying territory establishment and courtship are likely to have more serious fitness consequences for males. From the proximate perspective, sex differences in the control of reproduction could be regulated via the response to photoperiod or in the relative importance and action of supplementary factors (such as temperature, food supply, nesting sites and behavioural interactions) that adjust the timing of reproduction so that it is in step with local conditions. For example, there is clear evidence in several temperate zone avian species that females require both supplementary factors and long photoperiods in order for follicles to develop, while males can attain full gonadal size based on photoperiodic stimulation alone. The neuroendocrine basis of these sex differences is not well understood, though there are many candidate mechanisms in the brain as well as throughout the entire hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis that might be important.

  6. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  7. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors.

  8. Modeling of Andean Páramo Ecosystems’ Hydrological Response to Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Andes, water infiltration from tropical wetlands, called páramo, generates headwaters for downstream rivers. The hydrological processes of these wetlands are not well understood within the larger hydrological system, impeding efforts to mitigate the rapid environmental changes anticipated due to regional population growth and climate change. This study constructed and calibrated a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP system model for ecosystems with sparse data in the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed in the Piura region of Peru. The model simulates the impacts of possible changes within the hydrological system to assist decision-makers in strategizing about sustainable development for the region, especially the páramo. Using scenarios designed with stakeholder participation, the WEAP model for the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed examines river headflow production, reservoir water levels, and demand coverage for downstream users when the upstream páramo and its environs are subjected to changes of temperature, precipitation, and land use. The model reveals that while temperature and precipitation changes can be expected to impact páramo water production, the anticipated land use changes will be a primary driver of hydrological responses in the páramo and subsequent changes downstream.

  9. Migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, James T; Bohrer, Gil; Winkler, David W; Barber, David R; Houston, C Stuart; Bildstein, Keith L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. Migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. With satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the Earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected that can advance our understanding about the mechanisms that shape migrations. We present the track annotation approach for movement data analysis using information about weather from the North American Reanalysis data set, a publicly available, regional, high-resolution model-observation hybrid product, and about topography, from a publicly available high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). As a case study, we present the analysis of the response to environmental conditions in three contrasting populations of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) across North America, tracked with a three-dimensional GPS-based sensor. Two populations in the east and west coasts of the United States responded similarly to weather, indicating use of both slope and thermal soaring. Continental-interior, "Plains populations," exhibited a different migratory pattern primarily indicative of thermal soaring. These differences help us understand the constraints and behaviors of soaring migrants. The track annotation approach allowed large-scale comparative study of movement in an important migratory species, and will enable similar studies at local to global scales.

  10. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  11. Environmental Stressors and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR in Exocrine Pancreatic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Pandol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The exocrine pancreas has the greatest synthetic capacity of any mammalian organ and as such is challenged with synthesis, processing and transporting a large load of digestive enzymes. Here we discuss how both mutations in the digestive enzymes and environmental factors impacting the pancreas such as alcohol abuse, smoking, metabolic disorders and drugs can cause Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER stress. We describe that in normal pancreas the ER stress resulting from alcohol abuse leads to an adaptive Unfolded Protein Response (UPR allowing for maintenance of protein synthesis, processing and transport. However, when key pathways necessary for the adaptive UPR are altered, the exocrine cell of the pancreas is unable to maintain these processes and cellular pathology results. These findings provide better insights to explain why some individuals with alcohol abuse disorders develop organ injury and disease while most do not. Further, the approach and models described here can be used to determine the relative roles of ER stress and the UPR for other etiologies of pancreatic diseases.

  12. Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector's responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2013-05-01

    Identify strategies to implement change across the Australian healthcare sector to better support social and natural environments. Methods. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Australian healthcare professionals. Interviewees described multiple barriers to implementing change and numerous strategies to overcome these barriers. They argued that action must be taken at the individual and systemic levels to produce substantial and effective change. The strategies recommended fall into four main categories: altering workplace cultures and professional identities, community engagement, political activity, and change from within. The overarching goals of these strategies are to reduce negative impacts on the natural environment, and increase social equity within and across generations. By implementing the strategies described, a more cohesive effort to address sustainability issues across the sector can be made. This may improve local and global health, within current and future generations. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Healthcare has a significant impact on the natural and social environments, which in turn have a significant impact upon health and healthcare. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper describes strategies to alter healthcare to better support environmental sustainability. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Collective implementation of the described strategies may allow a more cohesive and effective response across the Australian healthcare sector, to enhance local and global health for current and future generations.

  13. Steps toward a shared governance response for achieving Good Environmental Status in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cinnirella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is of fundamental importance to Europe given its strategic position. The responsibility for its overall ecosystem integrity is shared by European Union Member States (EU-MS and other Mediterranean countries. A juxtaposition of overlapping governance instruments occurred recently in the region, with the implementation of both the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD for EU-MS and the Ecosystem Approach Strategy (ECAP for all Mediterranean countries, including EU-MS. Both MSFD and ECAP are structured around vision-driven processes to achieve Good Environmental Status and a Healthy Environment, respectively. These processes have clear ecosystem-based, integrated policy objectives to guarantee the preservation and integrity of Mediterranean marine ecosystem goods and services. However, adoption of these instruments, especially those related to the new EU-MS directives on marine policy, could result in a governance gap in addition to the well-known economic gap between the EU and the non-EU political blocs. We identify two complementary requirements for effective implementation of both MSFD and ECAP that could work together to reduce this gap, to ensure a better alignment between MSFD and ECAP and better planning for stakeholder engagement. These are key issues for the future success of these instruments in a Mediterranean region where discrepancies between societal and ecological objectives may pose a challenge to these processes.

  14. Thermoregulatory and Physiological Responses of Najdi Sheep Exposed to Environmental Heat Load Prevailing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al-Haidary, R. S. Aljumaah, M. A. Alshaikh, K. A. Abdoun*, E. M. Samara, A. B. Okab and M. M. Alfuraiji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermoregulatory and physiological responses of Najdi rams raised under hot summer conditions prevailing in Kingdom Saudi Arabia. The core temperature (Tcore showed circadian rhythm characterized by biphasic achrophases, which were associated with the feeding times during both seasons. Average daily Tcore was significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. However, the amplitudes of the rhythmic oscillation during winter and summer seasons were 0.85 and 0.56C, respectively. Rectal (Tre and skin temperatures (Tsk were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions and exhibited similar patterns during both seasons concurrent with the pattern of temperature humidity index (THI, reaching the maximum values late in the afternoon and the minimum values early in the morning. Respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR showed the same pattern of the thermal parameters and were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. Serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, glucose, sodium and chloride were significantly (P<0.05 increased while those of albumin and calcium were decreased under hot summer conditions. The results obtained from this study indicate that hot summer conditions of Saudi Arabia is thermally stressful to Najdi rams. Therefore, Najdi sheep production under such conditions would require environmental and/or nutritional modification to alleviate the impact of heat stress.

  15. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  16. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fire rates of vegetation regeneration between ecoregions. We then related precipitation, temperature, and elevation records at four temporal scales to rates of post-fire vegetation regeneration to ascertain the influence of climate on post-fire vegetation dynamics. We found that broad-scale climate factors are an important influence on post-fire vegetation regeneration. Most notably, higher rates of post-fire regeneration occurred with warmer minimum temperatures. Increases in precipitation also resulted in higher rates of post-fire vegetation growth. While explanatory power was slight, multiple statistical approaches provided evidence for real ecological drivers of post-fire regeneration that should be investigated further at finer scales. The sensitivity of post-disturbance vegetation dynamics to climatic drivers has important ramifications for the management of ecosystems under changing climatic conditions. Shifts in temperature and precipitation regimes are likely to result in changes in post-disturbance dynamics, which could represent important feedbacks into the global climate system.

  17. Roles of heat shock factor 1 in neuronal response to fetal environmental risks and its relevance to brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Torii, Masaaki; Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Nakai, Akira; El Fatimy, Rachid; Mezger, Valerie; Ju, Min J; Ishii, Seiji; Chao, Shih-Hui; Brennand, Kristen J; Gage, Fred H; Rakic, Pasko

    2014-05-07

    Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various environmental challenges increases susceptibility to late onset of neuropsychiatric dysfunction; still, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that exposure of embryos to a variety of environmental factors such as alcohol, methylmercury, and maternal seizure activates HSF1 in cerebral cortical cells. Furthermore, Hsf1 deficiency in the mouse cortex exposed in utero to subthreshold levels of these challenges causes structural abnormalities and increases seizure susceptibility after birth. In addition, we found that human neural progenitor cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from schizophrenia patients show higher variability in the levels of HSF1 activation induced by environmental challenges compared to controls. We propose that HSF1 plays a crucial role in the response of brain cells to prenatal environmental insults and may be a key component in the pathogenesis of late-onset neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  19. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  20. Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 2. Role of acclimation under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.-Z.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to accurately predict land-atmosphere exchange of mass, energy, and momentum over the coming century requires the consideration of plant biochemical, ecophysiological, and structural acclimation to modifications of the ambient environment. Amongst the most important environmental changes experienced by terrestrial vegetation over the last century has been the increase in ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, with a projected doubling in CO2 from preindustrial levels by the middle of this century. This change in atmospheric composition has been demonstrated to significantly alter a variety of leaf and plant properties across a range of species, with the potential to modify land-atmosphere interactions and their associated feedbacks. Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) technology has provided significant insight into the functioning of vegetation in natural conditions under elevated CO2, but remains limited in its ability to quantify the exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy at the canopy scale. This paper addresses the roles of ecophysiological, biochemical, and structural plant acclimation on canopy-scale exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy through the application of a multilayer canopy-root-soil model (MLCan) capable of resolving changes induced by elevated CO2 through the canopy and soil systems. Previous validation of MLCan flux estimates were made for soybean and maize in the companion paper using a record of six growing seasons of eddy covariance data from the Bondville Ameriflux site. Observations of leaf-level photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and surface temperature collected at the SoyFACE experimental facility in central Illinois provide a basis for examining the ability of MLCan to capture vegetation responses to an enriched CO2 environment. Simulations of control (370 [ppm]) and elevated (550 [ppm]) CO2 environments allow for an examination of the vertical variation and canopy-scale responses of vegetation states and fluxes

  1. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  2. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  3. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  4. 78 FR 17219 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Training; 93.143, NIEHS Superfund Hazardous Substances--Basic Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and...) Dated: March 14, 2013. Carolyn Baum, Program Analyst, Office of Federal Advisory Committee Policy...

  5. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Region 9 Removal Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  7. Region 9 Removal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Concerns in Nigeria: A Critical Focus on Oil Producing Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Isa Dandago

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-known fact about the Nigerian Niger Delta region is incessant conflicts between the Oil Transnational Corporations and the oil producing communities. This could be attributed to the fact that the activities of Oil TNCs have continued to unleash untold devastation on the environment of the oil producing communities and its consequences on the local economy and by extension the total obliteration of the livelihood of the inhabitants of the area. Therefore, the Oil TNCs are increasingly becoming conscious of their devastating impact on the ecology of the area and their blatant disregard for the socio-economic development of the host communities. Consequently, the Oil TNCs have come to embrace the idea of executing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects as a vehicle to intervene meaningfully in order to mitigate the adverse effects of their operations on the environments of the host communities. This paper attempts to review and analyze CSR practices of the two major Oil TNCs in Bayelsa State: Shell and Agip in six host communities: Olugboboro, Olugbobiri, Ikebiri 1, Oporoma, Angiama, and Peremabiri in Southern Ijaw local government area. The key question explored in this study is: has the practice of CSR in the Nigerian Niger Delta region by Oil TNCs brought about socio-economic  development and drastic reduction in conflict between the host communities and the Oil TNCs? The paper argues that CSR projects of transnational oil corporations in Nigeria are driven by short-term expediency rather than the long term environmental developmental needs of host communities through the provision of poor quality social amenities to these communities in order to secure social license to operate. For transnational oil corporations to make positive impact in the Nigerian Niger Delta Region, their CSR projects should belong tern in nature, taking into consideration the sustainable development needs of the local communities. The CSR projects should

  9. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  10. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  11. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  12. Business and University Responses to the Environmental Challenge: A Case Study Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    leading companies. As an attempt to characterize the current status of introducing environmental management activities into pioneering business organizations and how the reaction from the equivalent educational institutions has been towards introducing this new managerial discipline in the curriculum......It has long been recognized that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organizations. So far, however, there has been little documentation about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even...

  13. Manager's and educator's responses to the environmental challenge: the research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    leading companies. As an attempt to characterize the current status of introducing environmental management activities into pioneering business organizations and how the reaction from the equivalent educational institutions has been towards introducing this new managerial discipline in the curriculum......It has long been recognized that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organizations. So far, however, there has been little documentation about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even...

  14. 77 FR 48170 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...Span Gas East Corporation (d/b/a National Grid); Energizer Battery Manufacturing, Inc.; Union Carbide..., LLC; Atmos Energy Corporation; Battery Broker Environmental Services, Inc.; Buffalo Optical...

  15. Oil spills and gas leaks: environmental response, prevention, and cost recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Testa, Stephen M; Jacobs, James, A

    2013-01-01

    Oil Spills and Gas Leaks highlights the complex nature of petroleum hydrocarbon fuel extraction methods, the unintended consequences when disasters occur, spill behavior, and environmental impact mitigation...

  16. 德国环境设备责任制度初探%German Equipment Environmental Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代杰; 郝荣

    2012-01-01

    德国《民法典》确定了一般环境侵权的规则——行为责任,再以《环境责任法》确立了特殊的环境侵权的规则——设备责任。设备侵权是危险责任的一种,其构成要件有两个:设备运营对环境产生不良影响进而导致损害;人身、财产受侵害。设备责任的承担不要求设备运营人的过错。设备责任归责采用因果关系推定原则。%German Civil Code established the general rules of environmental infringement. Environmental Liability Act established the equipment responsibility rules for special environmental infringement. Based on the greater risk and economic benefits, Equipment responsibility is classified as Danger Responsibility. Elements of the equipment responsibility are legal interests being damaged, causal relationship. Equipment responsibility adopts the Causation Presumption Rules which have strictly applicable coditions. The scope of personal compensation is different form death and mischief. Property damage applicates the general rules of civil law. Force majeure belongs to the impunity reasons, victim fault belongs to alleviating reasons.

  17. Using a triad approach in the assessment of hazardous waste site leaching from a Superfund site to an adjacent stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppanen, C.J. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology; Blanner, P.M.; Allan, R.S.; Maier, K.J. [Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Benson, W.H. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A triad approach was used in the evaluation of sediment in the Wolf River adjacent to the North Hollywood Dump, a federally listed Superfund site. Chemical analyses were done for 18 organochlorine pesticides, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 10 metals. Sediment toxicity was evaluated with freshwater invertebrates. Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance were assessed with a family-level biotic index. Mean Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in sediments collected in the spring. Both spring and fall sediments exhibited toxicity downstream from, adjacent to, and upstream from the dump, with toxicity significantly higher in fall sediments; however, a consistent trend was not observed. Toxicity was typically greater in the fall, and metal concentrations were typically higher in spring sediments, suggesting that metals were not responsible for the toxicity. Sediment-associated organochlorine pesticide and PCB congener concentrations were all below detectable limits, suggesting that these potential contaminants are not contributing to the observed toxicity. No differences were found in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, which was composed of predominantly pollution-tolerant families, among seasons or river reaches, which appear to be limited by the physical characteristics of the river. Sediments in urban reaches of the Wolf River appear to be degraded; the North Hollywood Dump cannot be isolated as a source of toxicity in this study. In situ testing, sediment toxicity identification and evaluation testing, acid-volatile sulfide analyses, or artificial substrate work would be appropriate to follow.

  18. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Christina L

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  19. Individual to community-level faunal responses to environmental change from a marine fossil record of Early Miocene global warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Belanger

    Full Text Available Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (≈ 20.3-16.7 mya during which the region warmed 2.1-4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability.

  20. Does prolactin mediate parental and life-history decisions in response to environmental conditions in birds? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Tartu, Sabrina; Chastel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". In vertebrates, adjustments of physiology and behavior to environmental changes are often mediated by central physiological mechanisms, and more specifically by hormonal mechanisms. As a consequence, these mechanisms are thought to orchestrate life-history decisions in wild vertebrates. For instance, investigating the hormonal regulation of parental behavior is relevant to evaluate how parents modulate their effort according to specific environmental conditions. Surprisingly and despite being classically known as the 'parental hormone', prolactin has been overlooked in birds relative to this context. Our aim is to review evidence that changes in prolactin levels can mediate, at least to some extent, the response of breeding birds to environmental conditions. To do so, we first examine current evidence and limits for the role of prolactin in mediating parental behavior in birds. Second, we emphasize the influence of environmental conditions and stressors on circulating prolactin levels. In addition, we review to what extent prolactin levels are a reliable predictor of breeding success in wild birds. By linking environmental conditions, prolactin regulation, parental behavior, and breeding success, we highlight the potential role of this hormone in mediating parental decisions in birds. Finally, we also review the potential role of prolactin in mediating other life history decisions such as clutch size, re-nesting, and the timing of molt. By evaluating the influence of stressors on circulating prolactin levels during these other life-history decisions, we also raise new hypotheses regarding the potential of the prolactin stress response to regulate the orchestration of the annual cycle when environmental changes occur. To sum up, we show in this review that prolactin regulation has a strong potential to allow ecological physiologists to better understand how individuals adjust their life-history decisions

  1. Responses of the upriver valley sediment to Holocene environmental changes in the Paju area of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Wook-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Yong; Lim, Jaesoo; Yu, Kang-Min

    2011-10-01

    Multidisciplinary paleoproxy data from five sedimentary cores (UJ-03, 06, 07, 10, and 12) recovered from the broad, flat upriver valley in the Paju area of Korea are presented. Twelve AMS radiocarbon dates from cores UJ-03 and 12 provided a high-resolution Holocene record for the sedimentary sequence, ranging from about 8000 YBP to the present. From 6400 to 4400 14C YBP (7100-5000 cal. YBP), the sediments were dominantly poorly sorted, medium to coarse sands containing angular to subangular pebbles, suggesting that the materials were locally derived. The increased abundance of coarse-grained sediment was attributed to intensified rainfall during the mid-Holocene, despite the dense regional vegetational cover. This period probably corresponded to the Holocene Climate Optimum in the Korean Peninsula. Total organic carbon (TOC) values showed a marked increase from 4400 to 2100 14C YBP (5000-2200 cal. YBP), which coincided with an observed decrease in particle size (i.e., a decrease in sand content). These changes indicated the onset of paludification on the silty or sandy valley bottom. Contemporaneously, relative abundances of Pinus and herbaceous pollen increased, and the East Asian summer monsoon became weakened. Several intermittent depositional layers were observed, ranging from 2100 14C YBP (2200 cal. YBP) to the present, which contained a high concentration of rootlets, sand, or clay particles. These types of recurring sedimentation events are attributable to climatic shifts and/or human impacts, such as timber harvest and land clearing. The upriver valley catchment was probably sensitive to flash floods due to poorly vegetated slopes, accelerating rates of erosion as a consequence of land use change. This research indicates that the response of a valley system such as that in Paju to climate- or human-induced environmental changes can vary greatly on local and regional scales.

  2. Early Eocene cyclicity at the Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica: Orbital forcing and environmental response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, U.; Bijl, P.; Jiménez, F.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Tauxe, L.; Bohaty, S. M.; Bendle, J.; Brinkhuis, H.; IODP Expedition 318 Scientists

    2011-12-01

    The early Eocene Greenhouse interval (~56-49 Ma) was punctuated by multiple transient global warming events, or hyperthermals - the most prominent of which was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Additional thermal maxima identified in Eocene records exhibit negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), carbonate dissolution horizons, and biotic perturbations, although of reduced magnitude and duration relative to the PETM. Many hyperthermals have been identified or postulated in the early Eocene, but it is unclear which of these events are normal carbon-cycle variations that occurred at orbital frequencies and which are exceptional events outside the normal range of Eocene carbon-cycle variability. Here we present a high-resolution cyclostratigraphy for a new early Eocene drillcore from the Wilkes Land Margin in direct proximity to the Antarctic continent (Site U1356 drilled during IODP Expedition 318). Site U1356 was situated in a mid-shelf setting during the early Eocene and is characterized by a superb magnetostratigraphy and a robust biostratigraphic age control. Our investigation includes XRF core scanning and ICP-MS data as well as bulk organic carbon isotope ratios (delta13Corg) in combination with the concentration of the total organic carbon (TOC). The early Eocene at Site U1356 consists of well developed cyclic claystones including the interval of magnetochron C24 which is ideal to re-evaluate the early Eocene part of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) and to provide new insights into the environmental responses as well as orbital configuration of early Eocene climatic cycles.

  3. Modeling the effects of environmental disturbance on wildlife communities: avian responses to prescribed fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E; Royle, J Andrew; Saab, Victoria A; Lehmkuhl, John F; Block, William M; Sauer, John R

    2009-07-01

    Prescribed fire is a management tool used to reduce fuel loads on public lands in forested areas in the western United States. Identifying the impacts of prescribed fire on bird communities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests is necessary for providing land management agencies with information regarding the effects of fuel reduction on sensitive, threatened, and migratory bird species. Recent developments in occupancy modeling have established a framework for quantifying the impacts of management practices on wildlife community dynamics. We describe a Bayesian hierarchical model of multi-species occupancy accounting for detection probability, and we demonstrate the model's usefulness for identifying effects of habitat disturbances on wildlife communities. Advantages to using the model include the ability to estimate the effects of environmental impacts on rare or elusive species, the intuitive nature of the modeling, the incorporation of detection probability, the estimation of parameter uncertainty, the flexibility of the model to suit a variety of experimental designs, and the composite estimate of the response that applies to the collection of observed species as opposed to merely a small subset of common species. Our modeling of the impacts of prescribed fire on avian communities in a ponderosa pine forest in Washington indicate that prescribed fire treatments result in increased occupancy rates for several bark-insectivore, cavity-nesting species including a management species of interest, Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus). Three aerial insectivore species, and the ground insectivore, American Robin (Turdus migratorius), also responded positively to prescribed fire, whereas three foliage insectivores and two seed specialists, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) and the Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus), declined following treatments. Land management agencies interested in determining the effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife

  4. Genetic Approaches to Study Plant Responses to Environmental Stresses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled; Cross, Joanna M

    2016-05-17

    The assessment of gene expression levels is an important step toward elucidating gene functions temporally and spatially. Decades ago, typical studies were focusing on a few genes individually, whereas now researchers are able to examine whole genomes at once. The upgrade of throughput levels aided the introduction of systems biology approaches whereby cell functional networks can be scrutinized in their entireties to unravel potential functional interacting components. The birth of systems biology goes hand-in-hand with huge technological advancements and enables a fairly rapid detection of all transcripts in studied biological samples. Even so, earlier technologies that were restricted to probing single genes or a subset of genes still have their place in research laboratories. The objective here is to highlight key approaches used in gene expression analysis in plant responses to environmental stresses, or, more generally, any other condition of interest. Northern blots, RNase protection assays, and qPCR are described for their targeted detection of one or a few transcripts at a once. Differential display and serial analysis of gene expression represent non-targeted methods to evaluate expression changes of a significant number of gene transcripts. Finally, microarrays and RNA-seq (next-generation sequencing) contribute to the ultimate goal of identifying and quantifying all transcripts in a cell under conditions or stages of study. Recent examples of applications as well as principles, advantages, and drawbacks of each method are contrasted. We also suggest replacing the term "Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)" with another less confusing synonym such as "RNA-seq", "high throughput sequencing", or "massively parallel sequencing" to avoid confusion with any future sequencing technologies.

  5. Using the Acropora digitifera genome to understand coral responses to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Chuya; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Kawashima, Takeshi; Hamada, Mayuko; Hisata, Kanako; Tanaka, Makiko; Fujie, Manabu; Fujiwara, Mayuki; Koyanagi, Ryo; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Fujiyama, Asao; Miller, David J; Satoh, Nori

    2011-07-24

    Despite the enormous ecological and economic importance of coral reefs, the keystone organisms in their establishment, the scleractinian corals, increasingly face a range of anthropogenic challenges including ocean acidification and seawater temperature rise. To understand better the molecular mechanisms underlying coral biology, here we decoded the approximately 420-megabase genome of Acropora digitifera using next-generation sequencing technology. This genome contains approximately 23,700 gene models. Molecular phylogenetics indicate that the coral and the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis diverged approximately 500 million years ago, considerably earlier than the time over which modern corals are represented in the fossil record (∼240 million years ago). Despite the long evolutionary history of the endosymbiosis, no evidence was found for horizontal transfer of genes from symbiont to host. However, unlike several other corals, Acropora seems to lack an enzyme essential for cysteine biosynthesis, implying dependency of this coral on its symbionts for this amino acid. Corals inhabit environments where they are frequently exposed to high levels of solar radiation, and analysis of the Acropora genome data indicates that the coral host can independently carry out de novo synthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids, which are potent ultraviolet-protective compounds. In addition, the coral innate immunity repertoire is notably more complex than that of the sea anemone, indicating that some of these genes may have roles in symbiosis or coloniality. A number of genes with putative roles in calcification were identified, and several of these are restricted to corals. The coral genome provides a platform for understanding the molecular basis of symbiosis and responses to environmental changes.

  6. Study on urban heat island effect and its response to the vegetation eco-environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Saiping; Zhao, Qianjun; Yin, Kai; Cui, Bei; Zhang, Xiupeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of urbanization, urban heat island effect issue is becoming more and more severe. What's more, the vegetation eco-environmental quality (VEEQ) is severely damaged, resulting in the decline of urban ecosystem function. Therefore, it is of great significance to use remote sensing technique to analyze the response of urban heat island to VEEQ quantitatively. As is known to all, vegetation is the main body in the vegetation ecological environment system. Water and heat conditions are the important driving forces for its formation and evolution. Good soil condition is the basis for vegetation survival. Besides, the terrain is conducive to the judgment of the vegetation distribution. Accordingly, several indexes involving vegetation index, heat index, soil moisture index, soil brightness index, elevation factor and slope factor were selected and extracted from Landsat8 OLI images to establish the evaluation index system of VEEQ. Based on Landsat8 TIRS images, this paper applied the radiative transfer equation method to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) and the urban island grade was divided based on the mean and standard deviation values of LST. The principal component analysis method was utilized to determine the weigh value of each index and then a comprehensive evaluation model of VEEQ was established. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship between LST and VEEQ was analyzed. The results showed that, there existed obvious heat island effects in Haidian District of Beijing city and its surrounding areas. The poor quality areas and the high quality areas of vegetation ecological environment had strengthening and weakening thermal environment effects respectively. There was a strong negative relationship between LST and VEEQ.

  7. Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to characterize the sensible (H and latent (LE heat exchange for different land covers in the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River catchment, Inner Mongolia, China. Eddy-covariance flux measurements at 50–100 m above ground were conducted in July 2009 using a weight-shift microlight aircraft. Wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data enables a spatial discretization of 90 m of the flux measurements. For a total of 8446 flux observations during 12 flights, MODIS land surface temperature (LST and enhanced vegetation index (EVI in each flux footprint are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer an environmental response function (ERF between all flux observations (H, LE and biophysical (LST, EVI and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF predictions covering the entire Xilin River catchment (≈3670 km2 are accurate to ≤18% (1 σ. The predictions are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (36 W m−2 H −2, 46 W m−2 −2 and spatial variability (11 W m−2 H −2, 14 W m−2 LE −2 to a precision of ≤5%. Lastly, ERF predictions of land cover specific Bowen ratios are compared between subsequent flights at different locations in the Xilin River catchment. Agreement of the land cover specific Bowen ratios to within 12 ± 9% emphasizes the robustness of the presented approach. This study indicates the potential of ERFs for (i extending airborne flux measurements to the catchment scale, (ii assessing the spatial representativeness of long-term tower flux measurements, and (iii designing, constraining and evaluating flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modelling applications.

  8. Isoprene Responses and Functions in Plants Challenged by Environmental Pressures Associated to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional reasons for isoprene emission are still a matter of hot debate. It was hypothesized that isoprene biosynthesis evolved as an ancestral mechanism in plants adapted to high water availability, to cope with transient and recurrent oxidative stresses during their water-to-land transition. There is a tight association between isoprene emission and species hygrophily, suggesting that isoprene emission may be a favorable trait to cope with occasional exposure to stresses in mesic environments. The suite of morpho-anatomical traits does not allow a conservative water use in hygrophilic mesophytes challenged by the environmental pressures imposed or exacerbated by drought and heat stress. There is evidence that in stressed plants the biosynthesis of isoprene is uncoupled from photosynthesis. Because the biosynthesis of isoprene is costly, the great investment of carbon and energy into isoprene must have relevant functional reasons. Isoprene is effective in preserving the integrity of thylakoid membranes, not only through direct interaction with their lipid acyl chains, but also by up-regulating proteins associated with photosynthetic complexes and enhancing the biosynthesis of relevant membrane components, such as mono- and di-galactosyl-diacyl glycerols and unsaturated fatty acids. Isoprene may additionally protect photosynthetic membranes by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Here we explore the mode of actions and the potential significance of isoprene in the response of hygrophilic plants when challenged by severe stress conditions associated to rapid climate change in temperate climates, with special emphasis to the concomitant effect of drought and heat. We suggest that isoprene emission may be not a good estimate for its biosynthesis and concentration in severely droughted leaves, being the internal concentration of isoprene the important trait for stress protection.

  9. Governing Environmentally-Related Migration in Bangladesh: Responsibilities, Security and the Causality Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, B.; Boas, I.J.C.; Ewing, J.; Baillat, A.; Das, U.K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally-related migration is often cited as one of the human consequences of environmental stress, especially in the context of climate change. Nonetheless, there is a lack of effective and appropriate governance strategies that address the issue due to the complex and multicausal character

  10. Governing Environmentally-Related Migration in Bangladesh: Responsibilities, Security and the Causality Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, B.; Boas, I.J.C.; Ewing, J.; Baillat, A.; Das, U.K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally-related migration is often cited as one of the human consequences of environmental stress, especially in the context of climate change. Nonetheless, there is a lack of effective and appropriate governance strategies that address the issue due to the complex and multicausal character

  11. Adaptive developmental plasticity: Compartmentalized responses to environmental cues and corresponding internal signals provide phenotypic flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateus, A.R.A.; Marques-Pita, M.; Oostra, V.; Lafuente, E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Beldade, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The environmental regulation of development can result in the production of distinct phenotypes from the same genotype and provide the means for organisms to cope with environmental heterogeneity. The effect of the environment on developmental outcomes is typically mediated by hormonal si

  12. Business and University Responses to the Environmental Challenge: A Case Study Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    It has long been recognized that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organizations. So far, however, there has been little documentation about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even lea...... an EU research project has been carried out. One of the basic research methodologies was a case study approach. The background for selecting this approach, how it was carried out as well as a few concentrated examples will be presented in this paper.......It has long been recognized that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organizations. So far, however, there has been little documentation about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even...... leading companies. As an attempt to characterize the current status of introducing environmental management activities into pioneering business organizations and how the reaction from the equivalent educational institutions has been towards introducing this new managerial discipline in the curriculum...

  13. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... untested approaches. When successful, such high risk research results in significant scientific advances... small business innovative research/small business technology transfer grants. Within the National... Research and Training Program Strategic Plan; Request for Comments ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  14. The compatible solute ectoine reduces the exacerbating effect of environmental model particles on the immune response of the airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfried, Klaus; Kroker, Matthias; Autengruber, Andrea; Gotić, Marijan; Sydlik, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution.

  15. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Unfried

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution.

  16. Responses to occupational and environmental exposures in the U.S. military--World War II to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Erin E

    2011-07-01

    Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.

  17. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing; Miljoevennlige bedrifter gir like hoey avkastning som andre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption.

  18. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  19. Validation of the Greek Version of the Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale and Relationships with Participation in Outdoor Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglaia Zafeiroudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to test the factorial validity of the Greek version of the Responsible Environmental Behavior scale (Zafeiroudi & Hatzigeorgiadis, 2012, and additionally, to investigate differences in responsible environmental behavior as a function of demographic characteristics, and participation in outdoor activities. Participants were 792 adults (379 men and 413 women from the prefecture of Attica (the largest prefecture of the country. Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed acceptable fit for the hypothesized 2-factor structure, individual and group environmental action, thus providing support for the factorial validity of the scale. Analysis of internal consistency supported the reliability of the two subscales (Cronbach’s alpha .82 and .85 respectively. Analysis of variance revealed significant effects for (a gender, with men scoring higher in group action and lower in individual action compared to women; (b age group, with the 35-54 sub-group displaying higher scores than the 18-34 and the 55-68 sub-groups in both individual and group action; and (c education level, with individuals with elementary education scoring lower in individual action compared to those with secondary and higher education. Finally, with regard to participation in outdoors activities, analysis of variance showed that individuals participating more frequently scored higher in both individual and group action than those who do not participate. The results of the present study provide support for the psychometric integrity of the Greek version of the Responsible Environmental Behavior instrument, and identify an important relationship between environmental behavior and participation in outdoor activities, suggesting that individuals’ outdoors experiences may help people getting connected with the natural environment.

  20. Isoprene Responses and Functions in Plants Challenged by Environmental Pressures Associated to Climate Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alessio Fini; Cecilia Brunetti; Francesco Loreto; Mauro Centritto; Francesco Ferrini; Massimiliano Tattini

    2017-01-01

    .... The suite of morpho-anatomical traits does not allow a conservative water use in hygrophilic mesophytes challenged by the environmental pressures imposed or exacerbated by drought and heat stress...

  1. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT AND COLD STRESS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES AND OTHER TOXICANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in laboratory rodents maintained under comfortable environmental conditions. However, exposure to toxicants as well as some drugs can occur under stressful conditions during rest or while exercising. Heat stress can exa...

  2. 77 FR 75659 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Johnson & Johnson, Permacel, Inc., 3M Company, Lionetti Oil Recovery, Inc., and Fry's Metals, Inc. The..., consisting of Novartis Corporation, Essex Chemical Corporation, Chevron Environmental Management Company... Philadelphia, Honeywell International Inc., ICI Americas Inc., International Paper Company, ITT Corporation...

  3. OsAPX4 gene response to several environmental stresses in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Stress Molecular Biology Laboratory (Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education), Alkali Soil Natural Environmental ... processes, metabolism and existence. They adversely affect plant growth, development or productivity. In Nort ...

  4. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  5. Sustainable cities - response to urban environmental problems = Sonaravna mesta - odziv na urbane okoljske probleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Poredoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas have considerable impact on the environment, which is reflected on the globallevel, but at the same time face many environmental problems. Sustainable citiesproceed from the need to improve the quality of city life and incorporate all componentsof sustainable development. On the example of Waitakere city, New Zealand, the articlestudies the main environmental problems and analyses measures introduced by the cityfor the improvement of the state of the environment in the city.

  6. Environmental response to the cold climate event 8200 years ago as recorded at Hoejby Soe, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Peter (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Ulfeldt Hede, M.; Noe-Nygaard, N. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Geography and Geology, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Clarke, A.L. (APEM Manchester Lab., Stockport (United Kingdom)); Vinebrooke, R.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Biological Science - Freshwater Biodiversity Lab., Edmonton (Canada))

    2008-07-15

    The need for accurate predictions of future environmental change under conditions of global warming has led to a great interest in the most pronounced climate change known from the Holocene: an abrupt cooling event around 8200 years before present (present = A.D. 1950), also known as the '8.2 ka cooling event' (ka = kilo-annum = 1000 years). This event has been recorded as a negative delta18OMICRON excursion in the central Greenland ice cores (lasting 160 years with the lowest temperature at 8150) and in a variety of other palaeoclimatic archives including lake sediments, ocean cores, speleothems, tree rings, and glacier oscillations from most of the Northern Hemisphere. In Greenland the maximum cooling was estimated to be 6 +- 2 deg. C while in southern Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries pollenbased quantitative temperature reconstructions indicate a maximum annual mean temperature decrease of around 1.5 deg. C. Today there is a general consensus that the primary cause of the cooling event was the final collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet near Hudson Bay and the associated sudden drainage of the proglacial Lake Agassiz into the North Atlantic Ocean around 8400 B.P. . This freshwater outflow, estimated to amount to c. 164,000 km3 of water, reduced the strength of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and thereby the heat transported to the North Atlantic region, resulting in an atmospheric cooling. The climatic consequences of this meltwater flood are assumed to be a good geological analogue for future climate-change scenarios, as a freshening of the North Atlantic is projected by almost all global-warming models and is also currently being registered in the region. In an ongoing project, the influence of the 8.2 ka cooling event on a Danish terrestrial and lake ecosystem is being investigated using a variety of biological and geochemical proxy data from a sediment core extracted from Hojby So, north-west Sjaelland. Here we present data on

  7. Environmental and genetic preconditioning for long-term anoxia responses requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby L LaRue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2 and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1 lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2 suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen

  8. Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to repeated endotoxin challenge in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Baumgard, L H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in cattle, the effects of acute exposure to a heat stress (HS) environment on the status of the pituitary (thyrotropin, TSH)-thyroid (thyroxine, T4)-peripheral tissue T4 deiodination (type 1 5'-deiodinase [D1]; triiodothyronine [T3]; reverse-triiodothyronine [rT3]) axis, and the further response of this pituitary-thyroid-peripheral tissue axis (PTTA) to perturbation caused by the induction of the proinflammatory innate immune state provoked by the administration of gram-negative bacteria endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Ten steers (318 ± 49 kg body weight) housed in controlled environment chambers were subjected to either a thermoneutral (TN: constant 19°C) or HS temperature conditions (cyclical daily temperatures: 32.2°C-40.0°C) for a total period of 9 d. To minimize the effects of altered plane of nutrition due to HS, steers in TN were pair-fed to animals in HS conditions. Steers received 2 LPS challenges 3 d apart (LPS1 and LPS2; 0.2 μg/kg body weight, intravenously, Escherichia coli 055:B5) with the first challenge administered on day 4 relative to the start of the environmental conditioning. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 24 h relative to the start of each LPS challenge. Plasma TSH, T4, T3, and rT3 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Liver D1 activity was measured in biopsy samples collected before the LPS1 (0 h) and 24 h after LPS2. Before the start of LPS1, HS decreased (P thyroid components of the PTTA, whereas a normal capacity to generate T3 from T4 in the liver is preserved. The data also suggest that LPS challenge further suppresses all components of the PTTA including liver T3 generation, and these PTTA perturbations are more pronounced in steers that encounter a HS exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Spatial resolution and regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to characterize the sensible (H and latent (LE heat exchange for different land covers in the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River Catchment, Inner Mongolia, China. Eddy-covariance flux measurements at 50–100 m above ground were conducted in July 2009 using a weight-shift microlight aircraft. Wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data enables a spatial discretization of 90 m of the flux measurements. For a total of 8446 flux observations during 12 flights, MODIS land surface temperature (LST and enhanced vegetation index (EVI in each flux footprint are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer an environmental response function (ERF between all flux observations (H, LE and biophysical- (LST, EVI and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF predictions covering the entire Xilin River Catchment (≈ 3670 km2 are accurate to ≤ 18%. The predictions are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (36 W m−2 < H < 364 W m−2, 46 W m−2 < LE < 425 W m−2 and spatial variability (11 W m−2 < σH < 169 W m−2, 14 W m−2 < σLE < 152 W m−2 to a precision of ≤ 5%. Lastly, ERF predictions of land cover specific Bowen ratios are compared between subsequent flights at different locations in the Xilin River Catchment. Agreement of the land cover specific Bowen ratios to within 12 ± 9% emphasizes the robustness of the presented approach. This study indicates the potential of ERFs for (i extending airborne flux measurements to the catchment scale, (ii assessing the spatial representativeness of long-term tower flux measurements, and (iii designing, constraining and evaluating flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modelling applications.

  10. The relationship between environmental variables and response of cotton to nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T A; Lawrence, K S; Porter, D O; Keeling, W; Mullinix, B G

    2013-03-01

    Nematicide/irrigation rate trials were conducted in Texas (TX) in 2009 and 2010 in cotton grown at three irrigation rates, where irrigation rate (base (B), B - 33%, B + 33%) was the main plot and treatment (untreated check, aldicarb, and nematicide seed treatment (NST) and NST + aldicarb) were the subplots. Aldicarb improved cotton lint yield with the base (medium) irrigation rate over the untreated check, but not at the B - 33% and B + 33% irrigation rates. In a second evaluation, 20 tests conducted over 7 yr at the same field in TX and 12 tests conducted over 6 yr at the same field in Alabama (AL) were examined for impact of environmental variables (EV) on the response to NST (containing thiodicarb or abamectin), aldicarb, a nontreated check (CK), insecticide seed treatment (TX only), and a combination of NST + aldicarb + oxamyl (NST/A/O, AL only) on root galls (TX only), early season nematode eggs (AL only), and yield (both sites). Galls/root system were lower with aldicarb-treated plots, than for the CK- or NST-treated plots. As water (irrigation plus rain) in May increased, galls/root system increased for CK or insecticide-only-treated plots, and decreased for NST- and aldicarb-treated plots, suggesting efficacy of nematicides was strongly improved by adequate soil moisture. Nematode reproduction was not affected by EV in either location, though yield was negatively affected by root-knot nematode eggs in AL at 60 d. Yield in both AL and TX was negatively related to temperature parameters and positively related to water parameters. With the addition of EV in TX, chemical treatments went from not significantly different in the absence of EV to aldicarb-treated plots having higher yields than nonnematicide-treated plots in the presence of EV. In AL, NST/A/O-treated plots yielded similar to aldicarb and better than CK or NST in the absence of EV and had significantly higher yields than all other treatments in the presence of most EV.

  11. Engineering geology and the environment - do coal geologists have environmental responsibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental planning for the impacts of coal mining is as much part of mine planning as any other design component. Planning rehabilitation is also part of this planning process, and, therefore, part of the mine design, rather than a procedure which can be postponed till a later date. Environmental planning procedures should aim to achieve informed and realistic decisions, based on a coordinated evaluation of data on natural systems, resource demands, and likely mining developments. Geologists bring a natural science background to design teams otherwise composed largely of engineers. They can contribute at all stages of the planning process, including the exploration or design stage, the assessment stage, and the mining or monitoring stage. Basic geological data are needed for environmental planning, since the structure and composition of the resource determines the mining method adopted and hence the environmental impacts of its extraction. Collecting environmental data is done most cost effectively during the exploration program, providing the opportunity for effective design at an early stage. Other important environmental geological aspects are: hydrogeochemical parameters such as the relationship between the distribution of sulphur minerals and water quality; groundwater quality and aquifer characteristics and their subsequent behaviour as spoil; geotechnical aspects of long-term spoil and final high wall stabilities; and the heritage value of exposed geological features. Geological inputs at both site-specific and regional scales are also required at the stage when the project is being assessed prior to development approval.

  12. Mice with altered brain lipoprotein metabolism display maladaptive responses to environmental challenges that may predispose to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, Jacob; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    Three-month-old neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-depleted mice (NEXLP(-/-)) mice are preobese and have normal body weight before developing obesity by 4.5 months. This series of experiments investigated responses to novel environment stimuli and acute sleep deprivation in preobese NEXLPL(-/-)) mice to test the hypothesis that neuron-specific LPL deletion alters normal adaptive metabolic responses to environmental challenges. Three-month-old, age- and weight-matched, male NEXLPL(-/-)) (n=10) and wild-type (WT) (n=10) mice were housed in individual metabolic chambers with a 12-hr dark cycle. Food and water intake, locomotor activity, and calorimetry data were recorded in 12-min intervals. Novel environmental responses were elicited by first-time introduction to chambers at dark onset, followed by acclimation, baseline recording, and 6-hr of sleep deprivation on subsequent experimental days. NEXLPL(-/-)) mice displayed a 1.5-fold greater increase in activity in response to a novel environment than seen in WT controls (P=0.0308), and a two-fold greater increase in food intake following acute sleep deprivation (P=0.0117). NEXLPL(-/-)) mice averaged a 27% higher metabolic rate than WT mice throughout the experiments (Pweight, composition, and temperature did not differ between murine groups throughout the experiments. Levels of free fatty acid, insulin, glucose, and triglycerides were similar between groups at the terminus. A deficiency in neuronal LPL signaling disrupts normal responses to novel environmental exposure and acute sleep deprivation, a maladaptive response that may contribute to weight gain in genetically predisposed mice, and perhaps humans.

  13. Environmental forcing on life history strategies: Evidence for multi-trophic level responses at ocean basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryan, Robert M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Hatch, Scott A.; Frederiksen, Morten; Wanless, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Variation in life history traits of organisms is thought to reflect adaptations to environmental forcing occurring from bottom-up and top-down processes. Such variation occurs not only among, but also within species, indicating demographic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. From a broad literature review, we present evidence for ocean basin- and large marine ecosystem-scale variation in intra-specific life history traits, with similar responses occurring among trophic levels from relatively short-lived secondary producers to very long-lived apex predators. Between North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean basins, for example, species in the Eastern Pacific exhibited either later maturation, lower fecundity, and/or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Western Atlantic. Parallel variations in life histories among trophic levels also occur in adjacent seas and between eastern vs. western ocean boundaries. For example, zooplankton and seabird species in cooler Barents Sea waters exhibit lower fecundity or greater annual survival than conspecifics in the Northeast Atlantic. Sea turtles exhibit a larger size and a greater reproductive output in the Western Pacific vs. Eastern Pacific. These examples provide evidence for food-web-wide modifications in life history strategies in response to environmental forcing. We hypothesize that such dichotomies result from frequency and amplitude shifts in resource availability over varying temporal and spatial scales. We review data that supports three primary mechanisms by which environmental forcing affects life history strategies: (1) food-web structure; (2) climate variability affecting the quantity and seasonality of primary productivity; (3) bottom-up vs. top-down forcing. These proposed mechanisms provide a framework for comparisons of ecosystem function among oceanic regions (or regimes) and are essential in modeling ecosystem response to climate change, as well as for creating dynamic ecosystem

  14. Temporal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and their responses to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恒龙; MIN; Gi-Sik; CHOI; Joong-Ki; AL-RASHEID; Khaled; A.; S.; 林晓凤; 朱明壮

    2010-01-01

    Variations in physical-chemical factors, species composition, abundance and biomass of nano-and micro-phytoplankton assemblages, as well as their responses to environmental factors, were investigated over a complete cycle (6 months) in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao, northern China. The aim was to establish the temporal patterns of phytoplankton communities and to evaluate protists as suitable bioindicators to water quality in mariculture systems. A total of 34 taxa with nine dominant spec...

  15. Use of response surface methodology to optimise environmental stress conditions on Penicillium glabrum, a food spoilage mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, Laurent; Vasseur, Valérie; Debaets, Stella; Barbier, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms often associated with spoilage and biodeterioration of a large variety of foods and feedstuffs. Their growth may be influenced by temporary changes in intrinsic or environmental factors such as temperature, water activity, pH, preservatives, atmosphere composition, all of which may represent potential sources of stress. Molecular-based analyses of their physiological responses to environmental conditions would help to better manage the risk of alteration and potential toxicity of food products. However, before investigating molecular stress responses, appropriate experimental stress conditions must be precisely defined. Penicillium glabrum is a filamentous fungus widely present in the environment and frequently isolated in the food processing industry as a contaminant of numerous products. Using response surface methodology, the present study evaluated the influence of two environmental factors (temperature and pH) on P. glabrum growth to determine 'optimised' environmental stress conditions. For thermal and pH shocks, a large range of conditions was applied by varying factor intensity and exposure time according to a two-factorial central composite design. Temperature and exposure duration varied from 30 to 50 °C and from 10 min to 230 min, respectively. The effects of interaction between both variables were observed on fungal growth. For pH, the duration of exposure, from 10 to 230 min, had no significant effect on fungal growth. Experiments were thus carried out on a range of pH from 0.15 to 12.50 for a single exposure time of 240 min. Based on fungal growth results, a thermal shock of 120 min at 40 °C or a pH shock of 240 min at 1.50 or 9.00 may therefore be useful to investigate stress responses to non-optimal conditions.

  16. Steady-state and dynamic gene expression programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to variation in environmental nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Miller, Darach; Athanasiadou, Rodoniki; Brandt, Nathan; Abdul-Rahman, Farah; Neymotin, Benjamin; Hashimoto, Tatsu; Bahmani, Tayebeh; Gresham, David

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth rate is regulated in response to the abundance and molecular form of essential nutrients. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), the molecular form of environmental nitrogen is a major determinant of cell growth rate, supporting growth rates that vary at least threefold. Transcriptional control of nitrogen use is mediated in large part by nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR), which results in the repression of specific transcripts in the presence of a preferred nitrogen sour...

  17. Long-term mountain tundra composition's responses to grazing pressure in the context of environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Patrick; Pyykkonen, Tuija; Eskelinen, Anu; Virtanen, Risto

    2013-04-01

    Strong changes in northern tundra in response to climate changes are expected and in particular an increasing shrubiness. However, global changes contain not only warming or shifts in snow-cover but also changes in land-use, e.g. for arctic low productive ecosystems changes in grazing pressure. Grazing could also represent an important driver of future Arctic tundra communities. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers of plant communities' composition remains largely unknown, in particular because short-term experiments provided to conflicting evidences. Here, we present the results from a long-term (23 years) experiment set up in 1989 at Kilpisjärvi in the north-western Finnish Lapland. The experiment consisted in the transplantation of twenty 40x50 cm blocks of Vaccinium myrtillus heath including 5-10 cm thick soil layer from a 660 m.a.s.l. dry slope to a snowbed 150m higher in elevation containing dry and wet sites. We considered the transplantation at higher altitude in snowbed conditions an increase in harsher conditions (shorter growing season, lower productivity). Half of the transplanted blocks were protected from herbivores and the percentage cover of each plant species was estimated in mid-august 2012 from a central 12.5 x12.5 cm area in each block. Our results showed that the dominance of the shrub V. myrtillus was strongly reduced as response to transplantation to snowbed. Consequently the competitive pressure also decreased and allowed an increase of the species richness. Soil moisture differences between installation locations induced divergence in plant communities' composition allowing the increase in abundance of subordinate species as bryophytes and graminoids in wet and dry sites respectively. Excluding herbivory, some species assumed high dominance reducing the community diversity. In the wet exclosures, quarter of the surface was covered by a moss and V. myrtillus co-dominated. The strongest changes occurred in dry

  18. Recreational Diving Impacts on Coral Reefs and the Adoption of Environmentally Responsible Practices within the SCUBA Diving Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ronan C.; Harvey, Chloe V.; Harvey, James J.; Kavanagh, Alan P.; McDonald, Meaghan; Stein-Rostaing, Vivienne R.; Turner, John R.

    2016-07-01

    Recreational diving on coral reefs is an activity that has experienced rapidly growing levels of popularity and participation. Despite providing economic activity for many developing coastal communities, the potential role of dive impacts in contributing to coral reef damage is a concern at heavily dived locations. Management measures to address this issue increasingly include the introduction of programmes designed to encourage environmentally responsible practices within the dive industry. We examined diver behaviour at several important coral reef dive locations within the Philippines and assessed how diver characteristics and dive operator compliance with an environmentally responsible diving programme, known as the Green Fins approach, affected reef contacts. The role of dive supervision was assessed by recording dive guide interventions underwater, and how this was affected by dive group size. Of the 100 recreational divers followed, 88 % made contact with the reef at least once per dive, with a mean (±SE) contact rate of 0.12 ± 0.01 per min. We found evidence that the ability of dive guides to intervene and correct diver behaviour in the event of a reef contact decreases with larger diver group sizes. Divers from operators with high levels of compliance with the Green Fins programme exhibited significantly lower reef contact rates than those from dive operators with low levels of compliance. The successful implementation of environmentally responsible diving programmes, which focus on influencing dive industry operations, can contribute to the management of human impacts on coral reefs.

  19. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  20. Air monitoring activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Environmental Response Team during the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.; Mickunas, D.; Campagna, P.; Burchette, S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducted air monitoring activities during the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. This paper describes ERT's response actions and analytical support. It covers ERT activities from the morning of September 11 to October 17, 2001 when ERT was alerted of anthrax activities in Washington, DC and Boca Raton, Florida. ERT members provided technical support regarding respirator/personnel protective equipment selection, decontamination and health and safety protocols. In the first few weeks, ERT was also providing analytical laboratory support to the EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the New York City Department of Health. ERT also provided on-site gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis via the Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) bus, providing real-time direct readings to the EPA and the New York Fire Department. Site boundary air monitoring stations were maintained until early November at which point the EPA Region 2 took over all monitoring responsibilities. Air sampling efforts were initially directed at worker health and safety and the surrounding environments. Air sampling was conducted for asbestos, acid gases, heavy metals, phosgene, mercury, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The sampling activities were later expanded to include chlorine, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Site assessment is still ongoing. What began as a typical emergency response air sampling effort soon became a huge air monitoring effort with the original six stations expanded to more than 20. ERT made every effort to collect, analyze, quality assure and transfer data for posting on publicly accessible website within less than 24 hours. It was noted that one of the lessons learned from the disaster is