WorldWideScience

Sample records for superfund environmental response

  1. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  2. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Section 120(e)(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting its operations. In a safe and environmentally sound manner. High priorities for the Department are identifying and correcting environmental problems at DOE facilities that resulted from past operations, and preventing environmental problems from occurring during present and future operations. In this regard, the Department is committed to the 30-year goal of cleanup of all facilities by the year 2019. DOE has issued an Order and guidance establishing policy and procedures for activities conducted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and has developed a Five-Year Plan, updated annually, that integrates planing for corrective activities, environmental restoration, and waste management operations at its facilities. During Calendar Year 1991 and early 1992, DOE made significant progress in reaching agreements with regulatory entities, undertaking cleanup actions, and initiating preventive measures designed to eliminate future environmental problems. These accomplishments are described

  3. Superfund Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.

  4. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund, Section 104(k); and CERCLA Section 104(d); ‘‘ ‘Discounted Loans’ Under Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund Grants’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund, Section 104(k); and CERCLA Section 104(d); ‘‘ ‘Discounted Loans’ Under Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund Grants’`

  5. 75 FR 49414 - Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...-0276. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angelo Carasea, Assessment and Remediation Division, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, (5204P), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... funds to a State, political subdivision, or Indian Tribe that assumes responsibility as the lead or...

  6. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  7. Superfund tio videos: Set A. Overview of superfund, response activities and responsibilities, site discovery, notification, and evaluation. Part 1. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses the development and framework of CERCLA and the Superfund Program and outlines the implementing rules that guide Superfund site cleanups. The Superfund response actions - remedial, removal, and enforcement - are reviewed. Section 2 outlines On-Scene Coordinator's (OSC) and Remedial Project Manager's (RPM) roles and responsibilities in Superfund removal, remedial, and enforcement activities. The other players involved in Superfund response activities also are identified. Section 3 describes how EPA learns of potential Superfund sites and lists the authorities that determine the requirements for site discovery. The procedures used to prioritize the sites and to identify and select sites for remediation are discussed

  8. Evaluating public participation in environmental decision-making: EPA's superfund community involvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Bruce. Engelbert

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses an 8-year, ongoing project that evaluates the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund community involvement program. The project originated as a response to the Government Performance and Results Act, which requires federal agencies to articulate program goals, and evaluate and report their progress in meeting those goals. The evaluation...

  9. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  10. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...

  11. Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  12. Superfund impasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    EPA recently reported to Congress on the status of the Superfund program. A review of the report reveals that Superfund is a costly, slow-moving juggernaut that consumes an ever-growing share of resources and threatens to overwhelm other, more pressing environmental issues. EPA was given a broad mandate to clean up hazardous-waste sites when Congress enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response. Compensation, and Liability Act in 1980 and established a $1.6 billion appropriation for a Superfund. In 1986 Congress extended the program for another five years and added $8.5 billion to complete the job-an overly optimistic estimate, as we shall see. Superfund is a huge program; the inventory of potentially hazardous waste sites is large and growing quickly. By the end of fiscal year 1987, EPA's inventory listed 27,571 hazardous-waste sites,and this number is increasing steadily at a rate of about 2500 each year. The General Accounting Office suggests that there may be as many as 150,000 such sites

  13. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  14. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  15. Superfund Removal Site Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  16. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  17. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  18. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  19. Stakeholder views of superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Nearly ten years have passed since the enactment of the federal Comprehensive Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), usually referred to as open-quotes Superfundclose quotes. Nearly four years have passed since CERCLA's major overhaul through the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Although much still remains to be done under Superfund, there is now enough experience to assess how effectively it is working. A study being undertaken by the University of Tennessee's Waste Management Research and Education Institute will supply a portion of that assessment. The study was completed in the fall of 1990. Our study examines two related issues: the resources that will be needed in the coming years to fulfill the mandate of Superfund and other hazardous waste remediation programs, and the site-level experience to date in implementing CERCLA and SARA. This chapter discusses only the open-quotes site-level experienceclose quotes effort, and only its methodological approach. The purpose of the open-quotes site-level experienceclose quotes effort is to explore what counts as a open-quotes successfulclose quotes site in the eyes of different stakeholders in a Superfund cleanup - e.g., the affected community, the potentially responsible parties (PRPs), state and local officials, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  20. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [CERCLA-04-2012-3763; FRL 9637-7] Anniston PCB Superfund Site... past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun County.... Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4...

  1. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  2. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoff, A.H.

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws

  3. Restoration principles and criteria: superfund program policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is responsible for implementing the long-term (non-emergency) portion of a key U.S. law regulating cleanup: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed 'Superfund'. The purpose of the Superfund program is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund program. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in a consistent manner as with chemical contamination, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals. This consistency is important since at every radioactively contaminated site being addressed under Superfund's primary program for long-term cleanup, the National Priorities List (NPL), chemical contamination is also present. (author)

  4. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...- traditional communication methods to make the significance and applicability of SRP-funded research... and Social Sciences Research, and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. [cir... Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training Program Strategic Plan; Request for Comments ACTION...

  5. EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] SITE [Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation] program seeks technology proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    EPA will issue an RFP to initiate the SITE-005 solicitation for demonstration of technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. This portion of the SITE program offers a mechanism for conducting a joint technology demonstration between EPA and the private sector. The goal of the demonstration program is to provide an opportunity for developers to demonstrate the performance of their technologies on actual hazardous wastes at Superfund sites, and to provide accurate and reliable data on that performance. Technologies selected must be of commercial scale and provide solutions to problems encountered at Superfund Sites. Primary emphasis in the RFP is on technologies that address: treatment of mixed, low level radioactive wastes in soils and groundwater; treatment of soils and sludges contaminated with organics and/or inorganics, materials handling as a preliminary step to treatment or further processing, treatment trains designed to handle specific wastes, are in situ technologies, especially those processes providing alternatives to conventional groundwater pump and treat techniques

  6. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  7. Restoration principles and criteria: Superfund programme policy for cleanup at radiation contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is responsible for implementing two key US laws regulating waste management and cleanup: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, CERCLA, nicknamed ''Superfund''. The purpose of the Superfund programme is to protect human health and the environment over the long term from releases or potential releases of hazardous substances from abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The focus of this paper is on Superfund, including how radiation is addressed by the Superfund programme. This paper provides a brief overview of the approach used by EPA to conduct Superfund cleanups at contaminated sites, including those that are contaminated with radionuclides, to ensure protection of human health and the environment. The paper addresses how EPA Superfund determines if a site poses a risk to human health and the framework used to determine cleanup levels. The theme emphasized throughout the paper is that within the Superfund remediation framework, radioactive contamination is dealt with in the identical way as chemical contamination. (author)

  8. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9607(a)(3), for response costs incurred by the Environmental Protection Agency..., Inc. associated with costs incurred by EPA at the Pioneer Smelting Superfund Site. The Department of... (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable to the U.S. Treasury or, if by e-mail or fax, forward a...

  9. Relating Magnetic Parameters to Heavy Metal Concentrations and Environmental Factors at Formosa Mine Superfund Site, Douglas County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in the field of environmental magnetism have led to exciting new applications for this field. Magnetic minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and tend to have an affinity for heavy metals. Hence, it has been demonstrated that magnetic properties are often significantly related to concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants. As a result, magnetic techniques have been used as proxy for determining hot spots of several types of pollution produced from a diversity of anthropogenic sources. Magnetic measurements are non-destructive and relatively inexpensive compared to geochemical analyses. The utility of environmental magnetic methods varies widely depending on biological, chemical and physical processes that create and transform soils and sediments. Applications in the direction of mapping heavy metals have been studied and shown to be quite useful in countries such as China and India but to date, little research has been done in the US. As such, there is need to expand the scope of research to a wider range of soil types and land uses, especially within the US. This study investigates the application of environmental magnetic techniques to mapping of heavy metal concentrations at the Formosa Mine Superfund Site, an abandoned mine about 25 miles southwest of Roseburg, OR. The soils and sediment at this site are derived from pyrite-rich bedrock which is weak in terms of magnetic susceptibility. Using hotspot analysis, correlation and cluster analyses, interactions between metals and magnetic parameters are investigated in relation to environmental factors such as proximity to seeps and adits. Preliminary results suggest significant correlation of magnetic susceptibility with certain heavy metals, signifying that magnetic methods may be useful in mapping heavy metal hotspots at this site. Further analysis examines the relation of various land use differences in magnetic signatures obtained throughout the Cow Creek watershed.

  10. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  11. 78 FR 44119 - Circle Environmental #1 Superfund Site; Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ..., Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a..., Terrell County, Georgia. The settlement addresses cost incurred by the agency in conducting a fund lead...

  12. 78 FR 76143 - Proposed CERCLA Settlement Relating to the Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site, Burlington County, New Jersey AGENCY: Environmental.... (``Settling Party''). The Settling Party is a potentially responsible party, pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, and thus is potentially liable for response costs incurred at or in connection Paul's Tank...

  13. Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A set of site boundaries for each site in EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) on EPA's Superfund National...

  14. Onondaga Lake: A Forsaken Superfund Site, or a Sampling Playground for Environmental Geochemistry Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmosky, C. C.; Harpp, K. S.

    2004-05-01

    Onondaga Lake, in Syracuse, NY, is described by the EPA as one of the most polluted lakes in the US. High levels of heavy metal and semi-volatile organic contamination provide an excellent case study that serves as the cornerstone for an environmental geochemistry course at Colgate University. Our course is designed to teach students basic environmental analysis skills including experimental design, sample preparation, analytical instrumentation operation, data processing and statistical analysis, and preparation of a collaborative scientific paper. Participating students generally have some background in environmental geology, but rarely more than one semester of chemistry. The Onondaga Lake project is the focus of the course for approximately half the semester. At the outset of the project, students are presented with a driving question that is answered through a series of guided field and lab investigations, such as an assessment of the environmental consequences of a proposed marina along the lakefront. The students' first task is to delve into the lake's environmental history, including identification of contaminants, location of point and non-point pollution sources, and clean-up efforts. Students then participate in 2 field trips to the site. First, students learn the geography of the lake system, collect sediment and water samples, and observe mitigation efforts at the wastewater treatment plant. The second trip is 2-3 weeks later, after students have assessed further sampling needs. Identification and quantification of organic compounds are accomplished by GC-MS, and heavy metal contents are determined by ICP-MS. Students compile their results, perform statistical analyses, and collaboratively draw their conclusions regarding the impact of the proposed project. The final product is a single report written by the entire class, an exercise in organization, cooperation, and planning that is usually the most challenging, but ultimately the most rewarding

  15. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Community Involvement at Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Pat; Walker, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Superfund program's statutory requirements for community involvement. It also discusses the efforts the Superfund program has made that go beyond these statutory requirements to involve communities. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implements the Superfund program under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). From the beginning of the Superfund program, Congress envisioned a role for communities. This role has evolved and expanded during the implementation of the Superfund program. Initially, the CERCLA statute had community involvement requirements designed to inform surrounding communities of the work being done at a site. CERCLA's provisions required 1) development of a community relations plan for each site, 2) establishment of information repositories near each site where all publicly available materials related to the site would be accessible for public inspection, 3) opportunities for the public to comment on the proposed remedy for each site and 4) development of a responsiveness summary responding to all significant comments received on the proposed remedy. In recognition of the need for people living near Superfund sites to be well-informed and involved with decisions concerning sites in their communities, SARA expanded Superfund's community involvement activities in 1986. SARA provided the authority to award Technical Assistance Grants (TAGs) to local communities enabling them to hire independent technical advisors to assist them in understanding technical issues and data about the site. The Superfund Community Involvement Program has sought to effectively implement the statutory community involvement requirements, and to go beyond those requirements to find meaningful ways to involve citizens in the cleanup of sites in their communities. We've structured our program around

  16. Centredale Manor Superfund Site in Rhode Island included on EPA List of Targeted for Immediate Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released the list of Superfund sites that Administrator Pruitt has targeted for immediate and intense attention. The Centredale Manor Restoration Project superfund site is one of the 21 sites on the list.

  17. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Superfund National Priority List Sites as part of the CIMC web service. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate,...

  18. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-1053, FRL-9243-2] Ward Transformer... entered into a five settlements for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Ward Transformer... Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-1053 or Site name Ward Transformer Superfund Site by one of the...

  19. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0729, FRL-9196-1] Florida Petroleum... entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum... No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0729 or Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site by one of the...

  20. 78 FR 23563 - LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9805-2; CERCLA-04-2013-3751] LWD, Inc. Superfund Site... costs concerning the LWD, Inc., Superfund Site located in Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky. The... V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name LWD, Inc., Superfund Site by one of the following...

  1. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9788-2; CERCLA-04-2013-3754] Ward Transformer Superfund Site... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina. Under the terms of the.... Submit your comments by Site name Ward Transformer Superfund Site by one of the following methods: [[Page...

  2. Environmental Ethics and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rouanet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p382 This paper resumes a previous discussion on Environmental Ethics and Irreversibility, which was presented in 2005. There I first faced the problem. Now I would like to reevaluate the issue. Was my paper “catastrophist”? Or was it, instead, realistic? Which are today the main issues confronting Environmental Ethics? Plainly speaking, what can we really do? These are some of the questions I would like to bring in to the debate with my colleagues and the public. In other words, instead of focusing in the aspect of “irreversibility”, I prefer here to focus on the “responsibility” of agents and institutions. It rescues the so-called “Principle of Responsibility”, by Hans Jonas. There is also some debate with Karl-Otto Appel and Habermas. If, on one hand, there are irreversible damages to nature, as the extinction of species and even of natural locations, as rivers and other natural accidents, there are, on the other hand, many actions that can and must be taken in order to preserve or deter the grave consequences of the environmental degradation. In this paper, I try to discuss some of the problems and propose some solutions, but the more important thing is to call everyone – individuals, groups, or institutions – to responsibility face the Earth, the Human and not-human beings, and mainly the future generations.

  3. CERCLA-linked environmental impact and benefit analysis: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amanda D; Fitzpatrick, Anne G; Mirchandani, Sera; Salmon, Matthew; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    This analysis focused on evaluating the environmental consequences of remediation, providing indicators for the environmental quality pillar of 3 "pillars" of the Portland Harbor Sustainability Project (PHSP) framework (the other 2 pillars are economic viability and social equity). The project an environmental impact and benefit analysis (EIBA) and an EIBA-based cost-benefit analysis. Metrics developed in the EIBA were used to quantify and compare remedial alternatives' environmental benefits and impacts in the human and ecological domains, as a result of remedial actions (relative to no action). The cost-benefit results were used to evaluate whether remediation costs were proportionate or disproportionate to the environmental benefits. Alternatives B and D had the highest overall benefit scores, and Alternative F was disproportionately costly relative to its achieved benefits when compared to the other remedial alternatives. Indeed, the costlier alternatives with larger remedial footprints had lower overall EIBA benefit scores-because of substantially more air emissions, noise, and light impacts, and more disturbance to business, recreational access, and habitat during construction-compared to the less costly and smaller alternatives. Put another way, the adverse effects during construction tended to outweigh the long-term benefits, and the net environmental impacts of the larger remedial alternatives far outweighed their small incremental improvements in risk reduction. Results of this Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-linked environmental analysis were integrated with indicators of economic and social impacts of remediation in a stakeholder values-based sustainability framework. These tools (EIBA, EIBA-based cost-benefit analysis, economic impact assessment, and the stakeholder values-based integration) provide transparent and quantitative evaluations of the benefits and impacts associated with remedial alternatives

  4. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.; Horak, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  5. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Superfund TIO videos: Set B. Financial management and SCAP. Part 8. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape covers various aspects of financial management for the Superfund Program. The importance of effective financial management and execution is discussed. The objectives and definitions of the Superfund Comprehensive Accomplishment Plan (SCAP) and the roles and responsibilities of Superfund personnel in the SCAP process are covered

  7. Superfund Sites as Anti-landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    2017-01-01

    Americans have used a range of narratives to make sense of their settlement and use of natural resources. This article focuses on narratives of environmental degradation after the United States passed legislation mandating the cleanup of toxic sites and provided a Superfund for that purpose. Thre...

  8. Corporate environmental responsibility. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European and U.S. industrial participants presented their environmental policies and programs. There is a difference of opinion between the European and U.S. industry representatives with regard to disclosure of environmental data. The coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES) had played a role in the recent evolution of industry environmental programs, especially as they relate to environmental performance measurement, communication of environmental issues and concerns with shareholders and the public, and issues related to public accountability and disclosure. An overview of accomplishments is given and a common agenda is offered. (DG)

  9. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, spring 1993 (Radium Chemical Site profile, Queens, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Radium Chemical hazardous waste site in Queens, New York was contaminated with radium, posing a grave potential threat to the community. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used the Superfund program to design a long-term cleanup for the site using input from citizens and the business community. Superfund staff: Mobilized a quick cleanup action to remove 10,000 small containers of radium; Developed a streamlined approach to long-term cleanup; Secured the site to reduce the possibility of radiation exposure to the local residents; Cooperated with the community to design a well-organized emergency response plan; and Educated local citizens about site hazards, incorporating community concerns into the cleanup process. The Radium Chemical site is a clear example of EPA's effective management and problem-solving strategies at Superfund sites

  10. Research Implementation and Quality Assurance Project Plan: An Evaluation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This project is a research collaboration between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC), for the purpose of evaluating the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technology for post-closure monitoring of residual contamination at delisted and closed hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act [CERCLA (also known as 'Superfund')] of 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986.

  11. 75 FR 67767 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. [FR Doc. 2010... Debtor's Portland Harbor Superfund Site; and (3) natural resource damages and assessment costs, incurred... should be addressed to the Acting Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division...

  12. Conceptualising environmental responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Downstream responsibility is rarely addressed in the academic literature and in corporate sustainability reporting. We conceptualise downstream responsibility for the example of carbon emissions, by establishing a terminology as well as a framework for quantifying downstream carbon footprints. By extracting emissions-intensive sales chains for a number of Australian industry sectors, and comparing these to emissions-intensive supply chains, we demonstrated the ability of input-output analysis to quantify emissions responsibility in both directions. We extend the definition of downstream responsibility beyond the product use and disposal phases, to include what we call 'enabled' emissions. This term implies that whatever is sold downstream enables our customers to operate and emit, irrespective of whether it is our product that is combusted, or that directly combusts fuels, or not. Our structural path analyses and threshold-capture relationships reveal stark differences between industries with regard to the data collection efforts necessary to achieve a reasonably complete footprint assessment. Industries appear to have their own specific carbon footprint profiles, and one cannot design generic relevance tests that tell which data to collect. Moreover we conclude that current completeness standards in carbon reporting cannot be satisfied using relevance thresholds. Input-output analysis and structural path analysis are excellent tools that can help companies undertake screening exercises, which in turn help prioritising and streamlining the collection of data needed to establish a corporate downstream carbon footprint. Compared to conventional manual approaches, hybrid life-cycle assessments assisted by input-output analysis and structural path analysis achieve more complete results, with substantially less staff, money and time. (author)

  13. FUSRAP adapts to the amendments of Superfund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, R.G.; Liedle, S.D.; Clemens, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    With the promulgation of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) federal facilities were required to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) in the same manner as any non-government entity. This situation presented challenges for the Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies involved in remedial action work because of the requirements under SARA that overlap other laws requiring DOE compliance, e.g., the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This paper outlines options developed to comply with CERCLA and NEPA as part of an active, multi-site remedial action program. The program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), was developed to identify, clean up, or control sites containing residual radioactive contamination resulting from the nation's early development of nuclear power. During the Manhattan Project, uranium was extracted from domestic and foreign ores and resulted in mill concentrates, purified metals, and waste products that were transported for use or disposal at other locations. Figure 1 shows the steps for producing uranium metal during the Manhattan Project. As a result of these activities materials equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radionuclides. Currently, FUSRAP includes 29 sites; three are on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites

  14. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9767-6; CERCLA-04-2012-3780] Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange County, Florida. DATES: The Agency...

  15. The remediation process: Approach and elements of the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program in a Superfund environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates a large industrial complex located at various production, processing, testing, and research and development installations across the country. During the 40+ years of operation, this complex generated and managed waste to then-current standards. However, some of these waste management practices have subsequently been proven to be inadequate for long-term environmental protection. The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established in 1989, when DOE's top priority changed from nuclear weapons production to environmental cleanup. The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within EM was tasked to ensure that risks to human health and the environment posed by DOE's past operations at its nuclear facilities and sites are eliminated or reduced to prescribed, safe levels. Since its creation, the ER Program has been one of the fastest growing programs in the Department, demonstrating the Secretary's commitment to the new clean-up priority. (The 1989 budget was $400 million, while the 1993 budget is $1.8 billion.) As new technologies are developed and new management strategies implemented, the program will continue to expand. This paper describes the environmental remediation process from its early assessment phase to the final compliance effort

  16. 75 FR 35456 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... of the draft guidelines please contact Rachel Lentz at (202) 566-2745. Please send any comments to Rachel Lentz at lentz.rachel@epa.gov no later than July 2, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The U.S...

  17. 78 FR 73525 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Many state programs also offer accompanying financial incentive programs... states and tribes that have the management and administrative capacity within their government required... identify the institutional controls relied on in the remedy and include relevant information concerning the...

  18. 76 FR 73622 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... tribe'' is defined in this document as it is defined in CERCLA section 101(36). Intertribal consortia... print at libraries, or other community gathering places. \\7\\ For further information on latitude and...

  19. 77 FR 69827 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... defined in CERCLA section 101(36). Intertribal consortia, as defined in the Federal Register Notice at 67... record including making it available on-line, in print at libraries, or other community gathering places...

  20. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental concern and environmentally responsible behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  2. 40 CFR 35.4040 - How many groups can receive a TAG at one Superfund site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many groups can receive a TAG at one Superfund site? 35.4040 Section 35.4040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Eligible? § 35.4040 How many groups can receive a TAG at one Superfund site? (a) Only one TAG may be...

  3. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (CIBA-GEIGY Corporation, McIntosh, Alabama)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    On March 31, 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reached an agreement with Ciba-Geigy Corporation in McIntosh, Alabama to clean up soil and ground water contaminated by DDT, herbicides, and chemicals. The agreement is one of the largest private party settlements in Superfund history, valued at approximately $120 million. EPA activities at the site included: conducting preliminary contamination investigations jointly with the Alabama Environmental Health Administration, beginning in 1979; designing a multi-phased cleanup that is responsive to the complex nature of the contamination and reduces potential risk to the local population and environment; and awarding a grant to a community group to help them participate in cleanup decisions. Ciba-Geigy, like EPA, has made consistent efforts to build and maintain good relations with the community. These efforts demonstrate the increasing trend toward cooperation between industries, local communities, and EPA at Superfund sites

  4. Superfund XV conference proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This conference was held November 29--December 1, 1994 in Washington, D.C..The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on Superfund. Papers are included on the following topics: bioremediation; building decontamination; environmental policy issues; federal environmental restoration; groundwater remediation; innovative sampling and analytical technologies; laboratory methods; metals management; mixed wastes; PCB waste management; remediation technology and case studies; and risk assessment. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Health Authority by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 greatly expanded the health authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. One of the federal agencies most affected by SARA is the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the U.S. Public Health Service. Among other responsibilities, ATSDR was mandated to conduct health assessments within strict time frames for each site on or proposed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. The author will review ATSDR's efforts to address this new statutory mandate, especially for federal facilities, and will focus on different conceptual frameworks for implementing the health assessment program

  6. 78 FR 47317 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9843-3; CERCLA-04-2013-3759] Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... settlement with Herbert N. Francis concerning the Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site located in Laurel Springs...

  7. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  8. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  9. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the CIMC...

  10. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants.

  11. Applicability of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to releases of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund, provided a $1.6 billion fund (financed by a tax on petrochemical feedstocks and crude oil and by general revenues) for the cleanup of releases of hazardous substances, including source, special nuclear or byproduct material, and other radioactive substances, from mostly inactive facilities. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized to require private responsible parties to clean up releases of hazardous substances, or EPA, at its option, may undertake the cleanup with monies from the Fund and recover the monies through civil actions brought against responsible parties. CERCLA imposes criminal penalties for noncompliance with its reporting requirements. This paper will overview the key provisions of CERCLA which apply to the cleanup of radioactive materials

  12. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  13. Responsible energy planning and environmental stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the idea that operating in the best interests of the environment is also in the best interests of shareholders. Topics discussed include utility environmental policy, cost-effective recycling of materials, environmental impact of new power sources, and energy efficiency. The author states that being environmentally responsible goes beyond good business, it is the right thing to do

  14. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  15. Place Attachment and Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Jerry J.; Kobrin, Katherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how an attachment to a local natural resource can influence environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) in an individual's everyday life. Reports four general and three specific behavioral indicators reflecting a single environmentally responsible latent construct. Investigates the place dependence and place identity's role on ERB using…

  16. 76 FR 81967 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental.... Cal.), with respect to the Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman Superfund Site in Mountain View, California (the..., which is attached as Appendix F to the First Amended Consent Decree. The Department of Justice will...

  17. Environmental pollution and plant responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S.B.; Agrawal, M. [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India)

    1999-11-01

    This is a comprehensive book that presents and analyses the most current research on the causal factors contributing to the deteriorating environmental quality and its effect on plant performance. It presents a holistic approach to environmental problem throughout the world; covers recent trends in understanding mechanism of action individually and in combination with other factors; evaluates recent trends of information on global climatic change issues and its consequences; and gives management strategies to be followed for abating the problem.

  18. An evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report represents a remote sensing research effort conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the EPA Office of Inspector General. The objective of this investigation was to explore the efficacy of remote sensing as a technology for postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-510, 42 U.S.C. §9601 et seq.), also known as \\"Superfund.\\" Five delisted Superfund sites in Maryland and Virginia were imaged with a hyperspectral sensor and visited for collection of soil, water, and spectral samples and inspection of general site conditions. This report evaluates traditional and hyperspectral imagery and field spectroscopic measurement techniques in the characterization and analysis of fugitive (anthropogenic, uncontrolled) contamination at previously remediated hazardous waste disposal sites.

  19. Challenge of superfund community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    Conducting a community relations effort in a community which is home to a Superfund site is a formidable challenge. Any education press, however appropriate, quickly falls victim to doubt, mistrust of fears of the very public intended to be served by the effort. While each site is uniquely different, the issues raised by affected communities in one part of the country are strikingly similar to those raised in other parts. Those most involved must join those most affected in seeking meaningful solutions and in building the trust that is so vital in moving forward with Superfund

  20. Considerations Regarding the Environmental Responsibility and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian-Marcel Nuta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The public policy tool of taxation may generate discouraging effects upon the economicagents – consumers or producers – but also could beused as incentives. High environmental taxationcould generate crowding effect in terms of responsibility. Sometimes a very sophisticated system ofenvironmental taxation is the basis for a highly regulated business environment and conformity butwith a lack of real responsible citizenship. We aretrying to see if the impact of taxation uponresponsibility is real and can affect the motivation for environmental responsible citizenship. Themain findings are related to the impact of regulating power of environmental taxes. Also there isevident the interest of entrepreneurs in environmentally responsible behavior and the less informationabout the benefits of responsible citizenship.

  1. Alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    A study is being conducted by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc. (EPS) under the Emerging Technology portion of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to study alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation. Alternating current electrocoagulation has proven to be effective in agglomerating and removing colloidal solids, metals and certain organic contaminants from surrogate soils prepared from the US EPA's Synthetic Soil Matrix. Treatments under a wide range of operating conditions have enabled the optimum parameter settings to be established for multiple phase separation. Electrocoagulation enables appreciably enhanced filtration and dewatering rates to be realized for metals- and diesel fuel-spiked surrogate soil slurries; such enhancements are prompted by growth in the mean particle size of the clays and particulates from typically < 10 microns to as much as 150 microns depending on the degree of electrocoagulation. Reduction in the total suspended solids content of clays in all slurries in excess of 90% can routinely be achieved. Bench-scale experiments of the metals-spiked surrogate soils indicate that electrocoagulation preferentially concentrates soluble metals into the sludge phase; excellent metals separation (Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd) can be realized. Experiments on surrogate wastes spiked with volatile organics suggest that this technology is not capable of effecting good volatile extractions from the aqueous phase. Reductions in excess of 80% in the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the diesel fuel-spiked surrogates can, however, be achieved

  2. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  3. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  4. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  5. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  6. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  7. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    . The connection of these findings to global warming warrant further investigation, but has the potential to change our perspective of climate change as a destabilizing factor in wildlife communities at large spatial scales. The potential for cold- and warm-adapted species to coexist during climate warming......Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation...... with climate change being proposed as one of the causes. The chapter investigates the evidence for recent increases in tropical precipitation and primary productivity to cause a recovery in migrant populations. It presents novel evidence for two dichotomies in the effect of such “re-greening”. Over yearly time...

  8. 77 FR 73675 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... recover past response costs incurred and other relief in connection with the B.F. Goodrich Superfund Site....25 million toward the settlement funds, as well as to participate in funding certain cost overruns... $9.95 million in cash contributions to the settlement funds. In return, the United States provides...

  9. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  10. A method for estimating the local area economic damages of Superfund waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    National Priority List (NPL) sites, or more commonly called Superfund sites, are hazardous waste sites (HWS) deemed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to impose the greatest risks to human health or welfare or to the environment. HWS are placed and ranked for cleanup on the NPL based on a score derived from the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), which is a scientific assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by HWS. A concern of the HRS is that the rank of sites is not based on benefit-cost analysis. The main objective of this dissertation is to develop a method for estimating the local area economic damages associated with Superfund waste sites. Secondarily, the model is used to derive county-level damage estimates for use in ranking the county level damages from Superfund sites. The conceptual model used to describe the damages associated with Superfund sites is a household-firm location decision model. In this model assumes that households and firms make their location choice based on the local level of wages, rents and amenities. The model was empirically implemented using 1980 census microdata on households and workers in 253 counties across the US. The household sample includes data on the value and structural characteristics of homes. The worker sample includes the annual earnings of workers and a vector worker attributes. The microdata was combined with county level amenity data, including the number of Superfund sites. The hedonic pricing technique was used to estimate the effect of Superfund sites on average annual wages per household and on monthly expenditures on housing. The results show that Superfund sites impose statistically significant damages on households. The annual county damages from Superfund sites for a sample of 151 counties was over 14 billion dollars. The ranking of counties using the damage estimates is correlated with the rank of counties using the HRS

  11. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  12. HISTORY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE US EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT (MMT) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents the history and evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. This includes a discussion of how the fundamental concepts of a performanc...

  13. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  14. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  15. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. The majority of the locations are derived from polygon centroids of digitized site boundaries. The remaining locations were generated from address geocoding and digitizing. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT.

  16. Speech Versus Action in Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanna Ferreira Peixoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of rethinking the consumption culture in contemporary society brings up the interest in researching how consumption habits are related to environmental preservation. Even though sustainable practices are valuable, the comparison amid how people act as consumers and their assumed ethical stance raises questions. Consumers advocate a concern for environmental issues but research shows that their consumption habits are still old fashioned. This study target the convergence and divergence between environmentally responsible speech and consumption behavior under the perspective of theories of action (Argyris, Putnam & Smith, 1985. Research utilized in-depth interviews and self-reports, using a logbook, to collect information about environmentally responsible discourse and consumption behavior of 11 participants. Data collection and analysis explore dimensions of environmentally responsible behavior (Stern, 1999, 2000: personal domain; behavioral domain; contextual domain; personal capabilities; and habits & routines. Results suggest that environmentally responsible behavior is not always consistent with the discourse due to influence of motivational issues (impotence, lack of interest, sacrifice, and convenience and contextual issues (financial situation, lack of public policies, time constraints, and culture.

  17. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  18. The Control of Hazardous Wastes and the Role of Environmental Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortner, Ray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at hazardous waste issues which are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency and state governments. Particular attention is given to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A case study of an abandoned acres superfund site is included with two related student…

  19. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  20. Incident Command System - Environmental Unit responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) for crisis management, used for response to oil spills by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company throughout its facilities, including the Trans Alaska Pipeline and the Valdez Marine Terminal, was described. Special attention was given to the Environmental Unit within the ICS which functions as a primary support unit for the Incident Operations Section. Details of the Unit's function were provided. These include the collection, evaluation and dissemination of information on all environmental issues concerning the crisis, provision of advice and direction on environmental aspects, and up-front agency interaction. A checklist of tasks is included. 7 refs

  1. Superfund Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes an inventory of program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the...

  2. Fiscal year 1995 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Ninth annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial action. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located. This report provides the status of ongoing activities being performed in support of CERCLA Section 120 at DOE facilities. This includes activities conducted to reach IAGs and progress in conducting remedial actions

  3. Fiscal year 1995 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Ninth annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial action. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located. This report provides the status of ongoing activities being performed in support of CERCLA Section 120 at DOE facilities. This includes activities conducted to reach IAGs and progress in conducting remedial actions.

  4. Fiscal year 1996 progress in implementing Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Tenth annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Public Law 96-510), commonly known as Superfund, in 1980. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Public Law 99-499), which amended CERCLA in 1986, added Section 120 regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites at Federal facilities. Under Section 120(e)(5) of CERCLA, each department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government responsible for compliance with Section 120 must submit an annual report to Congress concerning its progress in implementing the requirements of Section 120. The report must include information on the progress in reaching Interagency Agreements (IAGs), conducting remedial investigation and feasibility studies (RI/FSs), and performing remedial actions. Federal agencies that own or operate facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) are required to begin an RI/FS for these facilities within 6 months after being placed on the NPL. Remediation of these facilities is addressed in an IAG between the Federal agency, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and in some instances the state within which the facility is located.

  5. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  6. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  7. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  8. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  9. A motivational model for environmentally responsible behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a study examining whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are related to environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). The study analysed past environmental behavior, self-regulatory mechanisms (self-efficacy, satisfaction, goals), and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to ERBs in a sample of 156 university students. Results show that all the motivational variables studied are linked to ERB. The effects of self-efficacy on ERB are mediated by the intrinsic motivation responses of the participants. A theoretical model was created by means of path analysis, revealing the power of motivational variables to predict ERB. Structural equation modeling was used to test and fit the research model. The role of motivational variables is discussed with a view to creating adequate learning contexts and experiences to generate interest and new sensations in which self-efficacy and affective reactions play an important role.

  10. Responsibility for health: personal, social, and environmental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2007-08-01

    Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy concerning social responsibility for health has focused on society's obligation to provide access to healthcare. While ensuring access to healthcare is an important social responsibility, societies can promote health in many other ways, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health education, disease surveillance, urban planning and occupational health. Greater attention should be paid to strategies for health promotion other than access to healthcare, such as environmental and public health and health research.

  11. Exploring Additional Determinants of Environmentally Responsible Behavior: The Influence of Environmental Literature and Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Catherine; Vagias, Wade M.; DeWard, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that individuals who are knowledgeable and concerned about the environment will engage in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). We use data from a large scale Web survey hosted on National Geographic's Web site in 2001-2002 to investigate this premise. We examine whether reading three classic environmental books…

  12. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  13. 75 FR 22785 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement Under Section 122 of the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Leaman Tank Lines, Inc. Superfund Site Located in Logan Township, Gloucester County, NJ AGENCY..., Inc. (the ``Settling Party'') pursuant to Section 122 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622. The Settlement Agreement provides for Settling...

  14. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  15. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Mishenin; I. Yarova

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with arguments that the most effective mechanism for greening use of land resources is to increase the level of social and environmental responsibility. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use are formed.

  16. New York's new Superfund regulations: Implications for federal and other state programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavetto, C.S.; Rubinton, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    The need for cleaning up hazardous waste disposal sites was identified early in New York. In fact, New York's ''Superfund'' statute preceded the federal Superfund law thereby providing a model for CERCLA. Moreover, there are currently almost as many sites on New York's Registry of Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal sites as there are sites on the National Priorities List. While New York's law served as a model for the federal CERCLA, CERCLA, in turn, has served as a model for other states' statutes. Similarly, lessons learned from the implementation of state Superfund statutes such as New York's can be instructive for those whose work involves dealing with CERCLA-type issues. This is because the problems associated with site restoration and cleanup, such as exceedingly complex site review and evaluation processes, high transaction costs, and difficulties in prioritizing sites for clean-up based upon the threat or risk of environmental harm, are universal

  17. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9644-2; CERCLA-04-2012-3763] Anniston PCB Superfund Site... FR 11533 (FRL-9637-7), EPA posted a Notice of Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB... the settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB...

  18. Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schreuder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.

  19. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-07-16

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  20. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  1. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Indoor-Air Quality Implementation Plan. A report to Congress under Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986: radon gas and indoor air-quality research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The EPA Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan provides information on the direction of EPA's indoor air program, including the Agency's policy on indoor air and priorities for research and information dissemination over the next two years. EPA submitted the report to Congress on July 2, 1987 as required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. There are five appendices to the report: Appendix A--Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment; Appendix B--FY 87 Indoor Air Research Program; Appendix C--EPA Radon Program; Appendix D--Indoor Air Resource History (Published with Appendix C); Appendix E--Indoor Air Reference Data Base

  2. Stigma: The Psychology and Economics of Superfund (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study documents the long-term impacts of Superfund cleanup on property values in communities neighboring prominent Superfund sites, examining the sale prices of nearly 35,000 homes for up to a thirty-year period near six very large Superfund sites.

  3. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  4. Environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, T.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the conceptualization of environmentally responsible behavior and methods for measuring such behavior based on a review of previous studies. Four major scales for the extent to which an individual’s behavior is responsible behavior are discussed. Various theoretical backgrounds and cultures provide diverse conceptualizations of environmentally responsible behavior. Both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior has been identified in the past studies. This study also discusses the precedents of environmentally responsible behavior and with a general overview; it provides insight into improving future research on this subject.

  5. 76 FR 20287 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... may lead to the discovery of a significant environmental impact from this proposed rule. List of... engaged in activities associated with remediation efforts in the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site... activity can be performed without undue risk to environmental remediation efforts. Requests for waivers...

  6. Private-Sector Cleanup Expenditures and Transaction Costs at 18 Superfund Sites (1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfund allows the government either to clean up a site and recover its cost from the potentially responsible parties (PRPs) or to require the PRPs to undertake the cleanup themselves. This study examines private-sector expenditures and transaction-costs

  7. Environmental Protection Agency Award Recipient Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itemized Award Phase information. Information about the Recipient's Responsibilities Upon Notification of the Award, The EPA Project Officer Responsibilities, and EPA Grant Specialists Responsibilities.

  8. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees’ biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees’ pro-environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  9. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT FOR SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SUPERFUND SOILS (DRAFT FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report evaluates the performance of solidification as a method for treating solids from Superfund sites. Tests were conducted on four different artificially contaminated soils which are representative of soils found at the sites. Contaminated soils were solidified us...

  10. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  11. Education and Environmentalism: Ecological World Views and Environmentally Responsible Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Examined a subsample of students from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology to determine the extent to which an Ecological World View (EWV) has been adapted, an EWV related to environmental behavior, and the role education plays in the type of EWV adapted. Includes the Ecological World View Scale. (Contains 21 references.) (MDH)

  12. 75 FR 52778 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...) the Delaware Sand and Gravel Superfund Site in Delaware; (7) the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site in New... assessment costs relating to natural resource damages with respect to the Diamond Alkali Superfund Site; and... Georgia pursuant to the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q; the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387...

  13. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Acid rain Brownfields Drinking water Lead Mold PFAS Radon Superfund A-Z index | Browse environmental topics ... Beach Grants for Pacific Islands Territories New England PFAS Community Session, June 25 Idaho Delegated Pollutant Discharge ...

  14. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in

  15. Environmental reference of enterprises social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara K. Zuzek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some considerations to take over the realm of entrepreneurial responsibility for the environment. It discusses the concept of ecological trends responsibility. Evidence indicates inclusion of small and medium-sized enterprises in the area of responsibility. Business responsibilities towards the environment as a basis for making voluntary commitments are presented.

  16. Consumer and producer environmental responsibility. Comparing two approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Joao; Domingos, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Two different indicators of 'environmental responsibility' were independently proposed by Rodrigues et al. [Rodrigues, J., Domingos, T., Giljum, S., Schneider, F., 2006. Designing an indicator of environmental responsibility. Ecological Economics, 59 (3): 256-266.] and Lenzen et al. [Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann, T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61: 27-42.]. These indicators are both supposed to reflect the indirect effects of consumer and producer behavior in the generation of environmental pressure. In this paper we compare their mathematical properties and interpretation. We conclude that they have different implications for environmental policy. (author)

  17. The Effects of Message Framing on Response to Environmental Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel J.

    1995-01-01

    Explores how the framing of environmental communication influences attitudes and environmentally responsible behaviors. Finds that communication that discussed losses (rather than gains) to the current (rather than future) generation gave rise to the most positive responses and the highest levels of intent to participate in…

  18. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  19. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Campus, Islamabad 25000, Pakistan; Stress Physiology Lab Department of Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India; Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic ...

  20. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the "Rechtsstaat"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    definition relates to human activity in a very general and all-embracing manner. It is an ethical principle which is not based upon a binding legal source or on actual ... new dimension when it comes to planning and the calculation of costs.7 ... of no avail to look for a direct contribution to a solution for environmental protection.

  1. Operational Flexibility Responses to Environmental Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kent D.

    1994-01-01

    This study develops and tests a behavioral model of organizational changes in operational flexibility. Regression results using an international data set provide strong support for the general proposition that uncertainties associated with different environmental components--poitical, government policy, macroeconomic, competitive, input and product demand uncertainties--have different implications for firm internal, locational, and supploer flexibility. Slack acts as a buffer attenuating, a...

  2. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In no circumstances can the state legalize the ecological aspect, for this will presuppose state interference in the economic system, therefore violation a principle of the Rechsstaat. Environmental protection could thus easily be misused as the basis for allowing the state to directly manipulate the economic process. The state ...

  3. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  4. 77 FR 58989 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... paid $150,000 attributable to the costs of marketing and selling the Properties; (b) The Bank will pay... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9720-7] Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery... costs concerning the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site located in Cortland, Cortland County, New York...

  5. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9300-9] In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating... Taylor Lumber and Treating Site, which PWPO was acquiring, in exchange for several obligations related to...-553- 0705. Comments should reference the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site in Sheridan, Oregon...

  6. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assists corporations to better manage the effect of their activities on the environment. This article aims to study ISO 14001 implementation and its effects on the environmental responsibility. A model will be built, which covers the environmental management system, the components of organizational culture, being able to influence environmental standards implementation.

  8. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive....... Parameterization of the models we develop requires information on genetic and phenotypic variation and demography that will not always be available, meaning that simpler models will often be required to predict responses to environmental change. We consequently develop a method to examine whether the full...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assist...

  10. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  11. Response planning and environmental risk analysis, state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, E.R.; Marben, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), a multitasked study was undertaken to determine the relative risk of noncrude oil transport (including marine and freshwater), the status of spill response capability in the state, and the need and most appropriate locations for siting spill response deposits. The project used multidisciplinary transport and environmental data analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS) to enable various scenarios and data changes to be easily visualized. The evaluation concerned (a) designation of significant environmental risk areas, (b) environmentally sensitive areas and fish and wildlife likely to be affected, (c) the level of response capability appropriate for protecting the environment, (d) the adequacy of current capabilities for noncrude vessels, (e) the feasibility of establishing one or more response cooperatives for use by multiple carriers, and (f) other steps that could be taken to reduce the risk of a spill and facilitate control and cleanup

  12. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  13. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    is carried out based on a survey of residents of Denmark. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally responsible behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source separating compostable kitchen waste, and using public transportation for work...... of correlation between norm constructs and between norms and behaviour vary between behaviours. Hence, respondents seem to apply different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  14. Superfund Training/Tech Transfer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a collection of information resources, training, and other media related to hazardous waste site cleanup and characterization. A major part of...

  15. Concentration and trend of 1,4-dioxane in wells sampled during 2002–2017 in the vicinity of the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund Site, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.

    2017-09-25

    Industrial activities causing extensive groundwater contamination led to the listing of the Tucson International Airport Area (TIAA) as a Superfund Site in 1983. Early groundwater investigations identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE), in wells in the area. Several responsible parties were identified and cleanup activities began in the late 1980s. In 2002, the compound 1,4-dioxane was discovered in wells in the area and has since been detected in measurable concentrations throughout the site. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) classifies 1,4-dioxane as a likely human carcinogen.The purpose of this map is to present 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wells sampled from 2002 through mid-2017 in the TIAA Superfund Site area to indicate both the current status and trends in 1,4-dioxane groundwater contamination. This map includes data from wells in the commercial and residential community in the TIAA and does not include data from wells in suspected or confirmed source areas, such as Air Force Plant 44 and Tucson International Airport, or from wells within treatment facilities.

  16. Corporate environmental responsibility – a key determinant of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GĂNESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the trend of the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate reputation by focusing on a study of the European automotive sector. The starting point of our research is content analysis of the sustainability or social responsibility reports published in 2010, 2011, and 2012 by 13 businesses operating in the European automotive industry. Content analysis was carried out in order to identify the indicators used to assess corporate environmental responsibility. The methodology aimed to produce an evaluation model for corporate environmental responsibility based on the following variables reported by companies: carbon dioxide emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, and amount of waste. Corporate reputation of sampled organizations was assessed based on content analysis of the 2010, 2011, and 2012 reports of the Reputation Institute. We applied the correlation of panel data and emphasised the fact that high levels of corporate environmental responsibility sustain high levels of corporate reputation. The study highlights the theoretical considerations that support this relationship. As companies become increasingly accountable, the methodology described in our study can be developed in further research by using other variables to measure corporate environmental responsibility.

  17. Immigrant Children Promoting Environmental Care: Enhancing Learning, Agency and Integration through Culturally-Responsive Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of culturally-responsive environmental education to engage immigrant early adolescents. Our study suggests that environmental involvement can become a means and an end for children to bridge their school and home in agential ways. Drawing from a multi-phase study involving focus groups with children, parents, and…

  18. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  19. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  20. Urban Elementary Students' Views of Environmental Scientists, Environmental Caretakers and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews…

  1. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  2. Corporate Environmental Responsibility in Demand Networks (summary section only)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Research on corporate responsibility has traditionally focused on the responsibilities of companies within their corporate boundaries only. Yet this view is challenged today as more and more companies face the situation in which the environmental and social performance of their suppliers, distributors, industry or other associated partners impacts on their sales performance and brand equity. Simultaneously, policy-makers have taken up the discussion on corporate responsibility from the perspe...

  3. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  4. Features of legal mechanism environmental responsibility of citizens in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Шинкарьов

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. In this article it is examined the main conceptual approaches to understanding the legal arrangement for implementing citizens' environmental obligations. It is noted that despite the diversity of approaches to understanding the arrangement for implementing citizens' environmental responsibilities, most scientists include the concepts of: a a legal implementation arrangement, b the process of practical implementation, c the conditions and factors that influence it.  It is defined that the legal arrangement for implementing environmental obligations is guaranteed by prohibitions and legal regulations. In this case the regulatory legal act has two main functions:    1 prescribes the need to implement the legal obligation, determines it; 2 prescribes a result of the legal obligation implementation. Recent research and publications analysis. Particular attention is paid to the work of scientists in environmental law, including VI Andryeytseva, G. Anisimova, GI Baluk, AP Hetman M. Krasnov, II Karakash, V. Kostytsky, VV Nosik, M. Shulga, S. Shemshuchenko and others. However, most of them concerning coverage of only certain aspects, is a comprehensive analysis of the legal implementation mechanism is still lacking. It's analyzed the characteristics of the legal enforcement for implementing environmental responsibilities by citizens. It is determined that the legal arrangement for the implementation of environmental responsibilities is a part of a general arrangement of the law implementation. Ecological and legal arrangement for the implementation of environmental obligations is defined as a system of legal norms and legal relations by which the State provides the accomplishment of ecological  and legal regulations. Implementation of the constitutional obligations by the citizens is a process that is inherent in environmental responsibilities, in which there are several stages: 1 the ability to execute the obligations which are

  5. Stakeholder value-linked sustainability assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Sabine E; Fitzpatrick, Anne G; McNally, Amanda; Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory decisions on remediation should consider affected communities' needs and values, and how these might be impacted by remedial options; this process requires that diverse stakeholders are able to engage in a transparent consideration of value trade-offs and of the distribution of risks and benefits associated with remedial actions and outcomes. The Stakeholder Values Assessment (SVA) tool was developed to evaluate remedial impacts on environmental quality, economic viability, and social equity in the context of stakeholder values and priorities. Stakeholder values were linked to the pillars of sustainability and also to a range of metrics to evaluate how sediment remediation affects these values. Sediment remedial alternatives proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site were scored for each metric, based upon data provided in published feasibility study (FS) documents. Metric scores were aggregated to generate scores for each value; these were then aggregated to generate scores for each pillar of sustainability. In parallel, the inferred priorities (in terms of regional remediation, restoration, planning, and development) of diverse stakeholder groups (SGs) were used to evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the values-based sustainability assessment to diverse SG priorities. This approach, which addresses social indicators of impact and then integrates them with indicators of environmental and economic impacts, goes well beyond the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act's (CERCLA) 9 criteria for evaluating remedial alternatives because it evaluates how remedial alternatives might be ranked in terms of the diverse values and priorities of stakeholders. This approach identified trade-offs and points of potential contention, providing a systematic, semiquantitative, transparent valuation tool that can be used in community engagement. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018

  6. Responsible Tourism: Environmental Actions in Russian Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpina, Lolita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to examine the responsible tourism topic, to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the environmental practices in Russian hotel industry and to investigate the reasons and values to follow the environmentally-friendly programs. The thesis includes theoretical and empirical parts. The theoretical section is based on the special literature, studies, researches, articles and online sources. The theoretical part will be divided into two primal headings: re...

  7. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indic...

  8. Urban elementary students' views of environmental scientists, environmental caretakers and environmentally responsible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).

  9. Regional economic impact assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Hogan, Dylan; Edwards, Deborah A; Smith, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    The present paper describes a methodology for evaluating impacts of Superfund remedial alternatives on the regional economy in the context of a broader sustainability evaluation. Although economic impact methodology is well established, some applications to Superfund remedial evaluation have created confusion because of seemingly contradictory results. This confusion arises from failure to be explicit about 2 opposing impacts of remediation expenditures: 1) positive regional impacts of spending additional money in the region and 2) negative regional impacts of the need to pay for the expenditures (and thus forgo other expenditures in the region). The present paper provides a template for economic impact assessment that takes both positive and negative impacts into account, thus providing comprehensive estimates of net impacts. The paper also provides a strategy for identifying and estimating major uncertainties in the net impacts. The recommended methodology was applied at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, located along the Lower Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, USA. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed remedial alternatives that it estimated would cost up to several billion dollars, with construction durations possibly lasting decades. The economic study estimated regional economic impacts-measured in terms of gross regional product (GRP), personal income, population, and employment-for 5 of the USEPA alternatives relative to the "no further action" alternative. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:32-42. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  10. Photon energy response of an aluminum oxide TLD environmental dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Because of aluminum oxide's significant advantage in sensitivity (about a factor of 30) over LiF, minimal fading characteristics and ease of processing, aluminum oxide thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) are being phased in at Los alamos for environmental monitoring of photon radiation. The new environmental dosimeter design consists of a polyethylene holder, about 0. 5 cm thick, loaded with a stack of four aluminum oxide TLD chips, each 1 mm thick and 5 mm in diameter. As part of the initial evaluation of the new design, the photon energy response of the dosimeter was calculated over the range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Specific goals of the analysis included the determination of individual chip response in the stack, assessment of the response variation due to TLD material (i.e., LiF versus A1 2 O 3 ), and the effect of copper filtration in flattening the response

  11. Relationships among social and environmental responsibility and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of an economy can be achieved through socially responsible behavior of companies in both the balanced development of labour and environmental protection as well as in responsible consumption of non-renewable resources. This paper aims to highlight the impact of the implementation of quality management systems on increasing responsibility for companies on sustainable management of human and natural resources. First, we perform a quantitative analysis to determine the effects of the adoption of ISO 14000 on the evolution of greenhouse gases. Secondly, we take a qualitative research on the impact of the adoption of ISO 26000 as a national standard. Based on three essential factors of production (labour, nature and capital we propose a model of sustainable development based on the three pillars: social responsibility, environmental protection and business

  12. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs

  13. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. Extended Producer Responsibility and corporate performance: Effects of environmental regulation and environmental strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Benhong; Tu, Yu; Elahi, Ehsan; Wei, Guo

    2018-07-15

    While contemporary manufacturing technologies stimulate the industrial revolution and promote the rapidly changing global economy, it has caused enormous environmental negative externalities and managing the industrial waste remains a primary challenge, especially for fast developing countries such as China. Though existing studies explored the influence of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislations on environmental externalities, only fewer researches aimed at policy issues. Particularly, the relationship among environmental regulations, environmental strategies and corporate performance in the EPR system has not been deeply investigated. To fill this gap, this research will focus to assess the economic aspect and environmental performance associated with the environmental regulations and strategies. For this purpose, 208 cross-sectional questionnaires were administered with three major high-pollution industries, electrical and electronic, automobile and lead-acid storage battery industries. To accomplish this study objective, we employ a two-step approach: firstly, validity tests for environmental regulation and environmental strategy along with the corporate performance are performed by the factor analysis method, and secondly, the structural equation model is utilized to test the study hypotheses. Results reveal that command and control (CAC) and market-based incentive (MBI) environmental regulations are significantly impacting on the reactive environmental strategy (RES); however, the proactive environmental strategy (PES) only has a significant relationship with MBI regulation. On the other hand, RES only has a significant relationship with the enterprises economics performance, while PES has a statistically significant relationship with both economic and environmental performance of enterprises. Therefore, the central government and its local offices are strongly urged to coordinate the industries by making, implementing and monitoring necessary and

  15. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Environmental Assessment for the NASA First Response Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    NASA intends to construct a First Response Facility for integrated emergency response and health management. This facility will consolidate the Stennis Space Center fire department, medical clinic, security operations, emergency operations and the energy management and control center. The alternative considered is the "No Action Alternative". The proposed action will correct existing operational weaknesses and enhance capabilities to respond to medical emergencies and mitigate any other possible threats. Environmental impacts include are emissions, wetlands disturbance, solid waste generation, and storm water control.

  17. Corporate environmental responsibility – a key determinant of corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ganescu; Laura Dindire

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the trend of the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate reputation by focusing on a study of the European automotive sector. The starting point of our research is content analysis of the sustainability or social responsibility reports published in 2010, 2011, and 2012 by 13 businesses operating in the European automotive industry. Content analysis was carried out in order to identify the indicators used to assess corporate enviro...

  18. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Site Management Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This site management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program implements the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (EPA 1990), also known as an Interagency Agreement (IAG), hereafter referred to as ''the Agreement.'' The Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), hereafter known as ''the Parties,'' entered into this Agreement for the purpose of coordinating remediation activities undertaken on the ORR to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 refs., 17 figs

  20. Facilitating Comprehension, Connection and Commitment to Environmentally Responsible Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased awareness of the negative effects the building industry has on the environment, designs produced without considering sustainability of the planet can no longer be accepted. Although the concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility are not new to the field of interior design, a review of the literature reveals…

  1. On the Personal, Social and Environmental... A Response to Alistair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Response to Alistair Chadwick's Viewpoint Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for School-Based Environmental Educators. ... ago, at the Earth Summit and the advent of South Africa's democracy, there were great efforts to help us understand ecological issues in relation to social issues.

  2. Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems : Individual or Institutional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahlquist, J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The actions performed by individuals, as consumers and citizens, have aggregate negative consequences for the environment. The question asked in this paper is to what extent it is reasonable to hold individuals and institutions responsible for environmental problems. A distinction is made between

  3. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.

  5. Optimization Review: Carson River Mercury Superfund Site, Carson City, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) (Figure 1) is located in northwest Nevada and was designated a Superfund site in 1990 because of elevated mercury concentrations observed in surface water, sediments and biota inhabiting the site.

  6. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  7. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  8. In-Depth Case Studies of Superfund Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRI’s in-depth case studies explore Superfund reuse stories from start to finish. Their purpose is to see what redevelopment strategies worked, acknowledge reuse barriers and understand how communities overcame the barriers to create new reuse outcomes.

  9. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Enforcement Superfund Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enforcement Superfund Tracking System (ESTS) collects publicly available information from the California Secretary of State on businesses. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  11. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  12. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  13. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  14. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  15. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K E; Drake, K D

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  16. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  17. Chromosomal aberrations in Sigmodon hispidus from a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; McBee, K.; Lochmiller, R.; Burks, S.; Qualls, C.

    1995-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected from an EPA Superfund site located on an abandoned oil refinery. Three trapping grids were located on the refinery and three similar grids were located at uncontaminated localities which served as reference sites. Bone marrow metaphase chromosome preparations were examined for chromosomal damage. For each individual, 50 cells were scored for six classes of chromosomal lesions. For the fall 1991 trapping period, mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.33, 0.85, and 1.50 for the three Superfund grids., Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.55, 2.55, and 2.12 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 2.77, 0.86, and 1.9 from the Superfund grids, and 3.55, 2.77, and 2.50 from the reference grids. For the spring 1992 trapping period, more damage was observed in animals from both Superfund and reference sites; however, animals from Superfund grids had more damage than animals from reference grids. Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 3.50, 3.25, and 3.70 from the Superfund grids, and 2.40, 2.11, and 1.40 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 4.80, 4.25, and 5.50 from the Superfund grids, and 2.60, 2.33, and 1.50 from the reference grids. These data suggest animals may be more susceptible to chromosomal damage during winter months, and animals from the Superfund grids appear to be more severely affected than animals from reference grids

  18. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  19. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption

  20. Role of Hydrogeology in Professional Environmental Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to acquaint hydrogeology students how hydrogeological principles are applied in environmental engineering projects. This presentation outlines EPA's Superfund processes of site characterization, feasibility studies, and remediation processes.

  1. Estimating remediation costs for the Montclair radium superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Superfund Sites, located in Essex County, NJ, are contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials. The waste originated from radium processing facilities prevalent in the area during the early 1900s. The design for remediation of these sites is managed by Bechtel National, Inc. on behalf of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District, which administers the project through an interagency agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Design efforts for the project began in 1990. A portion of the scope, which is the topic of this article, was preparing the remediation costs estimates. These estimates were to be prepared from the detailed design packages; the Corps of Engineers required that the estimates were prepared using the Micro Computer-Aided Cost Estimating System (MCACES). This article discusses the design methods used, provides an overview of MCACES, and discusses the structure and preparation of the cost estimate and its uses. However, the main focus of the article is the methods used to generate the required project-specific cost estimate format for this project. 6 figs

  2. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  3. A strategy for end point criteria for Superfund remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1992-06-01

    Since the inception of cleanup for hazardous waste sites, estimating target cleanup levels has been the subject of considerable investigation and debate in the Superfund remediation process. Establishing formal procedures for assessing human health risks associated with hazardous waste sites has provided a conceptual framework for determining remediation goals and target cleanup levels (TCLs) based on human health and ecological risk consideration. This approach was once considered at variance with the concept of the pre-risk assessment period; that is, cleaning up to the background level, or using containment design or best available control technologies. The concept has been gradually adopted by the regulatory agencies and the parties responsible for cleanup. Evaluation of cleanup strategies at the outset of the planning stage will eventually benefit the parties responsible for cleanup and the oversight organizations, including regulatory agencies. Development of the strategies will provide an opportunity to promote an improvement in the pace and quality of many activities to be carried out. The strategies should help address the issues related to (1) improving remediation management activities to arrive at remediation as expeditiously as possible, (2) developing alternate remediation management activities, (3) identifying obstructing issues to management for resolution, (4) adapting the existing framework to correspond to the change in remediation statutes and guidelines, and (5) providing the basis for evaluating options for the record of decision process. This paper will discuss some of the issues and the research efforts that were addressed as part of the strategies requiring future discussion and comment

  4. Limited transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii exposed to environmental stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon W Ellison

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression although other factors may also play a role. We examined the transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to a variety of environmental signals expected to be encountered during its life cycle. R. rickettsii exposed to differences in growth temperature (25 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C, iron limitation, and host cell species displayed nominal changes in gene expression under any of these conditions with only 0, 5, or 7 genes, respectively, changing more than 3-fold in expression levels. R. rickettsii is not totally devoid of ability to respond to temperature shifts as cold shock (37 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C induced a change greater than 3-fold in up to 56 genes. Rickettsiae continuously occupy a relatively stable environment which is the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Because of their obligate intracellular character, rickettsiae are believed to be undergoing reductive evolution to a minimal genome. We propose that their relatively constant environmental niche has led to a minimal requirement for R. rickettsii to respond to environmental changes with a consequent deletion of non-essential transcriptional response regulators. A minimal number of predicted transcriptional regulators in the R. rickettsii genome is consistent with this hypothesis.

  5. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  6. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Irwansyah; Gianto; Andi Syahwia

    2016-01-01

    Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development ) and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility ) is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . T...

  7. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  8. Dynamism of Stimuli-Responsive Nanohybrids: Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Plazas-Tuttle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug delivery carriers, in tissue-engineered templates and scaffolds, adaptive clothing, smart surface coatings, electrical switches and in platforms for diversified functional applications. Such ANHs are composed of carbonaceous, metallic or polymeric materials with stimuli-responsive soft-layer coatings that enable them to perform such switchable functions. Since ANHs are engineered to dynamically transform under different exposure environments, evaluating their environmental behavior will likely require new approaches. Literature on polymer science has established a knowledge core on stimuli-responsive materials. However, translation of such knowledge to environmental health and safety (EHS of these ANHs has not yet been realized. It is critical to investigate and categorize the potential hazards of ANHs, because exposure in an unintended or shifting environment could present uncertainty in EHS. This article presents a perspective on EHS evaluation of ANHs, proposes a principle to facilitate their identification for environmental evaluation, outlines a stimuli-based classification for ANHs and discusses emerging properties and dynamic aspects for systematic EHS evaluation.

  9. Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In China, environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs play an important supervisory role to address ecological issues together with government regulation and enterprise implementation. This study examines the effect of ENGO presence on corporate environmental responsibility (CER performance, along with internal factors as covariate variables. With a sample of 677 enterprises, it operationalizes the independent variable in terms of the number of ENGOs within certain distances from each enterprise, and the dependent variable based on the corporate social responsibility report using the specific criteria in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI sustainability reporting guidelines. The results of Tobit regression analyses indicate that ENGO presence is conducive to CER performance, and asset size, power concentration, and industry type also make differences. The findings suggest that ENGOs are helpful in solving environment issues by bridging the gap between private and public sectors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Memorandum of Understanding Between U.S. EPA Superfund and U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are responsible for implementing the 'Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Consultation and Finality on Decommissioning and Decontamination of Contaminated Sites'. This paper provides a brief overview of the origin of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the major features of the MOU, and how the MOU has been implemented site specifically. EPA and NRC developed the MOU in response to direction from the House Committee on Appropriations to EPA and NRC to work together to address the potential for dual regulation. The MOU was signed by EPA on September 30, 2002 and NRC on October 9, 2002. The two agencies had worked on the MOU since March 2000. While both EPA and NRC have statutory authority to clean up these sites, the MOU provides consultation procedures between EPA and NRC to eliminate dual regulation. Under the MOU, EPA and NRC identified the interactions of the two agencies for the decommissioning and decontamination of NRC-licensed sites and the ways in which those responsibilities will be exercised. Except for Section VI, which addresses corrective action under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this MOU is limited to the coordination between EPA, when acting under its CERCLA authority, and NRC, when a facility licensed by the NRC is undergoing decommissioning, or when a facility has completed decommissioning, and the NRC has terminated its license. EPA believes that implementation of the MOU between the two agencies will ensure that future confusion about dual regulation does not occur regarding the cleanup and reuse of NRC-licensed sites. NRC and EPA have so far exchanged MOU consultation letters on eight NRC-licensed sites. EPA has responded to each consultation request with a letter expressing its views on actions

  11. 76 FR 70164 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... threat of release of hazardous substances at or in connection with the Armour Road Superfund Site located at 2251 Armour Road North Kansas City, Missouri. The Complaint alleged claims against Donald E. Horne...

  12. Toward identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P; Sedlak, David L; Barlaz, Morton A; Henry, Heather F; Muir, Derek C G; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Weber, Eric J; Arnold, Robert G; Ferguson, P Lee; Field, Jennifer A; Furlong, Edward T; Giesy, John P; Halden, Rolf U; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Howard, Philip H; Luthy, Richard G; Meyer, Anita K; Sáez, A Eduardo; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vulpe, Chris D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  13. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  14. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  15. Plant responses to environmental stresses-from gene to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-07-01

    Increasing global population, urbanization and industrialization are increasing the rate of conversion of arable land into wasteland. Supplying food to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that agriculturalists and plant scientists are currently confronting. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to survive under environmental extremes. New technological approaches are imperative. Conventional breeding methods have a limited potential to improve plant genomes against environmental stress. Recently, genetic engineering has contributed enormously to the development of genetically modified varieties of different crops such as cotton, maize, rice, canola and soybean. The identification of stress-responsive genes and their subsequent introgression or overexpression within sensitive crop species are now being widely carried out by plant scientists. Engineering of important tolerance pathways, like antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte accumulation, membrane-localized transporters for efficient compartmentation of deleterious ions and accumulation of essential elements and resistance against pests or pathogens is also an area that has been intensively researched. In this review, the role of biotechnology and its successes, prospects and challenges in developing stress-tolerant crop cultivars are discussed.

  16. Response of international shipping to the current environmental challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popek Marzenna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international shipping industry directly facilitates the growth of the world trade, economic development and improvement of the global living standards. As the world economy and population continue to expand, the volume of maritime trade is expected to increase significantly as well. Maritime transport already contributes significantly to the three pillars of sustainable development – social, environmental and economic. Maritime transportation is generally considered environmental friendly when compared to other transportation means, especially if the energy efficiency is measured per tonne transported/per mile. Nevertheless, emissions from the growing maritime transport sector represent a significant and growing source of air pollution. One of future goals in international shipping is to reduce CO2 emissions. The International Maritime Organization is the United agency responsible for the protection of the environment from the impact of maritime transport. All parts of shipping industry are examining a number of ways to reduce CO2 emissions, which are primarily linked to reducing fuel consumption. The paper identifies the main areas that should be addressed if maritime sustainable development is to be achieved. It presents analysis of activities focused on environmentally friendly solutions as a form of IMO support for realization of the strategy of sustainable development.

  17. Are We Meeting the Goal of Responsible Environmental Behavior: An Examination of Nature and Environmental Education Center Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah A.

    1991-01-01

    Through two surveys of nature and environmental centers throughout the United States, the author compares the centers' expressed goals with the goals of environmental education. These goals were determined by an accepted behavior model that is considered conducive to environmentally responsible behavior. (17 references) (MCO)

  18. An environmental BeO-OSL dosimeter for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Urso, Laura; Greiter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented to use measurements of localized absorbed dose in inner cities for production of high resolution maps of the radioactive contamination following a nuclear emergency or radiological attack. The doses are derived from luminescent detectors pre-fixed at places of high importance (e.g. public squares). For such an environmental dosimeter, BeO is used, which can be read out using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). A suitable casing of black Perspex has been developed to give a sufficiently accurate estimate of the air kerma value at the detector position. The dosimeter is characterized according to light tightness, dose response and angular photon energy dependence. A short overview of the approach for map production is also given. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive, environmentally stable BeO based OSL dosimeter has been developed for emergency response. ► The detector enables fast readouts and shows highly favorable dosimetric properties. ► A conceptual design is described to produce maps of radioactive contamination from localized dose measurements in urban areas.

  19. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  20. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  1. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE PRACTICE OF THE MANAGEMENT OF DOMESTIC ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of environmental responsibility as part of CSR is proved in the article. The general evaluation of the most significant environmental problems in Ukraine is given. The lack of interest in environmental protection in domestic business is identified (it’s indicated by the rapid increase in costs of utilities to pay the environmental tax, while the rate of growth of capital and current expenditure on environmental protection is minimal. The estimation of the level of implementation of environmental responsibility in the management practices of leading Ukrainian companies according to their non-financial reports is proved. The evaluation of environmental indicators by the standard GRI in reports of socially responsible companies are performed. The extremely low level of implementation of environmental responsibility in the practice of management of companies – ranking leaders at CSR in Ukraine is determined. The necessity of improving the environmental responsibility at all levels is substantiated.

  3. Case studies of community relations on DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program as models for Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, S.W.; Adler, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Ever since the US Department of Energy (DOE) created its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974, there has been a community relations program. The community relations effort has grown as FUSRAP has grown. With 20 of 46 sites now cleaned up, considerable experience in working with FUSRAP stakeholders has been gained. Why not share that experience with others who labor on the Superfund sites? Many similarities exist between the Superfund sites and FUSRAP. FUSRAP is a large, multiple-site environmental restoration program. The challenges range from small sites requiring remedial actions measurable in weeks to major sites requiring the full remedial investigation/feasibility study process. The numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States offer the same diversity, both geographically and technically. But before DOE offers FUSRAP's community relations experience as a model, it needs to make clear that this will be a realistic model. As experiences are shared, DOE will certainly speak of the efforts that achieved its goals. But many of the problems that DOE encountered along the way will also be related. FUSRAP relies on a variety of one- and two-way communication techniques for involving stakeholders in the DOE decision-making process. Some of the techniques and experiences from the case studies are presented

  4. Bet-hedging response to environmental variability, an intraspecific comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoux, Marie; Forcada, Jaume; Barbraud, Christophe; Croxall, John; Weimerskirchi, Henri

    2010-08-01

    A major challenge in ecology is to understand the impact of increased environmental variability on populations and ecosystems. To maximize their fitness in a variable environment, life history theory states that individuals should favor a bet-hedging strategy, involving a reduction of annual breeding performance and an increase in adult survival so that reproduction can be attempted over more years. As a result, evolution toward longer life span is expected to reduce the deleterious effects of extra variability on population growth, and consequently on the trait contributing the most to it (e.g., adult survival in long-lived species). To investigate this, we compared the life histories of two Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) populations breeding at South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and Kerguelen (Indian Ocean), the former in an environment nearly three times more variable climatically (e.g., in sea surface temperature) than the latter. As predicted, individuals from South Georgia (in the more variable environment) showed significantly higher annual adult survival (0.959, SE = 0.003) but lower annual reproductive success (0.285 chick per pair, SE = 0.039) than birds from Kerguelen (survival = 0.925, SE = 0.004; breeding success = 0.694, SE = 0.027). In both populations, climatic conditions affected the breeding success and the survival of inexperienced breeders, whereas the survival of experienced breeders was unaffected. The strength of the climatic impact on survival of inexperienced breeders was very similar between the two populations, but the effect on breeding success was positively related to environmental variability. These results provide rare and compelling evidence to support bet-hedging underlying changes in life history traits as an adaptive response to environmental variability.

  5. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  6. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  8. Responsibility to Nature? Hans Jonas and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.

  9. CORPORATE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE SERVICE SECTOR: A CASE STUDY FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akdemir Omur, Gokce; Ozbebek Tunc, Aysegul; Nemli Caliskan, Esra

    2012-01-01

    As the world is rapidly approaching its limits in terms of both environmental and social problems, businesses are increasingly expected to attend to issues of socially and environmentally responsible performance. In addition that demands for heightened levels of corporate social and environmental responsibility are being pressed through regulatory initiatives in many countries, corporations at the same time are realizing that being environmentally and socially responsible makes good business ...

  10. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  11. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  12. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CORPORATION; CURE ELECTROCOAGULATION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CURE electrocoagulation technology was demonstrated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), where water from the solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) was contaminat...

  13. Remediation System Evaluation, Douglas Road Landfill Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Douglas Road Landfill Superfund Site is located in St. Joseph County just north of Mishawaka,Indiana. The site consists of a 16-acre capped landfill located on an approximately 32-acre lot (includingthe land purchased in 1999 for a wetlands...

  14. DECISION ANALYSIS OF INCINERATION COSTS IN SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the decision-making process of the remedial design (RD) phase of on-site incineration projects conducted at Superfund sites. Decisions made during RD affect the cost and schedule of remedial action (RA). Decision analysis techniques are used to determine the...

  15. Students' Environmental Responsibility and Their Willingness to Pay for Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Sharmin; Celik, Bilge Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore environmental attitudes and how such attitudes, when combined with a specific cost, can affect environmental behavior. Environmental attitudes are important to study due to the rising belief by building occupants that they are owed safe, healthy, environmentally responsible, and comfortable living…

  16. Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

    2003-01-01

    Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

  17. Symbolic Beliefs as Barriers to Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, Richard R.; Fortner, Rosane W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory study that investigates how environmental beliefs relate to self-reported environmental behaviors. Includes a student sample (N=110) which was administered a 208-item instrument. Reports that based on survey results, most of the sample perceived themselves as environmentally aware and differed only in strength of attitudes.…

  18. 77 FR 46091 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, As Amended; Anaconda.... SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... fund up to $420,000 toward a response action by EPA to address releases from the Arimetco heap leach...

  19. Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Réale, Denis; Freitas, Carla; Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben M

    2018-06-11

    1.Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2.In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour in the wild. Specifically, our goal was to answer if individual differences in plasticity of space use to sea surface temperature could be explained by differences in personality along the reactive-proactive axis. 3.To address this question we first conducted repeated standard laboratory assays (i.e. open-field test, novel object test and mirror-stimulation test) to assess the personality type of 76 wild-caught Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Next, we released the fish back into the sea and monitored their spatial behaviour over large temporal (16 months) and spatial (a whole fjord) scales, using high-resolution acoustic tracking. 4. We demonstrate that 1) cod personality traits are structured into a proactive-reactive syndrome (proactive fish being more bold, exploratory and aggressive), 2) mean depth use of individuals is mainly driven by sea temperature and 3) personality is a significant predictor of home range changes in the wild, where reactive, but not proactive, individuals reduced their home range as sea temperature increased. 5. These findings expand our understanding of the ecological consequences of animal personality and the mechanisms shaping spatial dynamics of animals in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  20. Lineage-specific responses of microbial communities to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; McMahon, Katherine D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge facing microbial ecology is how to define ecologically relevant taxonomic units. To address this challenge, we investigated how changing the definition of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) influences the perception of ecological patterns in microbial communities as they respond to a dramatic environmental change. We used pyrosequenced tags of the bacterial V2 16S rRNA region, as well as clone libraries constructed from the cytochrome oxidase C gene ccoN, to provide additional taxonomic resolution for the common freshwater genus Polynucleobacter. At the most highly resolved taxonomic scale, we show that distinct genotypes associated with the abundant Polynucleobacter lineages exhibit divergent spatial patterns and dramatic changes over time, while the also abundant Actinobacteria OTUs are highly coherent. This clearly demonstrates that different bacterial lineages demand different taxonomic definitions to capture ecological patterns. Based on the temporal distribution of highly resolved taxa in the hypolimnion, we demonstrate that change in the population structure of a single genotype can provide additional insight into the mechanisms of community-level responses. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of examining ecological change in microbial communities across taxonomic scales while also providing valuable insight into the ecological characteristics of ecologically coherent groups in this system.

  1. Delegation of Authority Under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) - Decision Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum concerns how the Office of Enforcement (OE) proposed that two new authorities under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) be delegated to the Regional Administrators.

  2. The Effects of Recreation Experience, Environmental Attitude, and Biospheric Value on the Environmentally Responsible Behavior of Nature-Based Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  3. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  4. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  6. Soil gas radon response to environmental and soil physics variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Chen, C.; Holford, D.

    1991-01-01

    During the last three years a field study of soil gas radon activities conducted at Poamoho, Oahu, has shown that the primary environmental variables that control radon transport in shallow tropical soils are synoptic and diurnal barometric pressure changes and soil moisture levels. Barometric pressure changes drive advective transport and mixing of soil gas with atmospheric air; soil moisture appears to control soil porosity and permeability to enhance or inhibit advective and diffusive radon transport. An advective barrier test/control experiment has shown that advective exchange of soil gas and air may account for a substantial proportion of the radon loss from shallow soils but does not significantly affect radon activities at depths greater than 2.3 m. An irrigation test/control experiment also suggests that, at soil moisture levels approaching field capacity, saturation of soil macroporosity can halt all advective transport of radon and limit diffusive mobility to that occurring in the liquid phase. The results of the authors field study have been used to further refine and extend a numerical model, RN3D, that has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories to simulate subsurface transport of radon. The field data have allowed them to accurately simulate the steady state soil gas radon profile at their field site and to track transient radon activities under the influence of barometric pressure changes and in response to changes in soil permeability that result from variations in soil moisture levels. Further work is continuing on the model to enable it to properly account for the relative effects of advective transport of soil gas through cracks and diffusive mobility in the bulk soils

  7. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 8): Lowry Landfill, Aurora, CO, October 24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Please be advised that there is an error within Attachment E (Technical Evaluation of Proposed Ground-Water Treatment and Disposal Alternatives) of the ''Responsiveness Summary for the Second Explanation of Significant Differences, Lowry Landfill Superfund Site'' document. The evaluation table, which summarizes the rankings of the two cleanup alternatives, failed to include numerical values for State Acceptance and Community Acceptance. Enclosed is a copy of the table as it should have appeared in Attachment E. Copies of this errata sheet are being mailed to all recipients of the Responsiveness Summary

  8. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  9. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelbauer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW) [de

  10. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  11. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or ''Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  12. Response to the additional information request from the Terra Nova Environmental Assessment Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This document provides responses to the questions addressed to the proponents of the Terra Nova Development by the Environmental Assessment Panel. The questions and the responses concern hiring practices, labour relations, environmental and wildlife protection, impacts to the Grand Banks fishing industry, operating practices and the effects on offshore installations should extreme conditions of ice, weather, sea and wind occur simultaneously. References cited in response to individual questions are included following each response. Tabs., figs

  13. USA - Paper provided by the US delegation to the RWMC. Site Decontamination and Clean-up Under the U.S. EPA 'Superfund'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated and hazardous waste sites, including nuclear facilities, may be subject to clean-up under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabilities Act (CERCLA), commonly known as 'Superfund', authorises EPA to respond to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants that may endanger public health or the environment. The legislation defines hazardous substances to include radiation. Entry into Superfund: The EPA may be notified of a site potentially requiring clean up from any source. Potential sites are evaluated under a numerical hazard ranking system, and are then included on the clean-up list ('National Priorities List') if they meet an established threshold. Nuclear Facilities and Radioactively Contaminated Sites under Superfund: Any site may be subject to CERCLA action if EPA determines that it poses a hazard. There are three major types of sites that have been or are subject to action under this program: Federal nuclear facilities, Decommissioned facilities, Privately-owned, unlicensed sites Liabilities Under Superfund: The authorising legislation specifically provided for liability of persons responsible for releases of hazardous waste at uncontrolled sites. Liability under CERCLA is 'strict,' 'retroactive,' and 'joint and several'. Thus, the burden of proof for disproving liability is quite high, and that the extent of the liability is not limited to the share of the waste or hazardous substance contributed by a party. The EPA may pursue liable parties to recover past and future costs associated with clean-up, including direct costs and indirect costs incurred by both EPA and its contractors. Clean-Up Levels: Clean-up goals and technologies are established on a site-specific basis. In general, clean-up goals must meet risk requirements and be consistent with applicable standards. Other factors such as community acceptance, volume reduction

  14. Environmental Education and Behaviour: The Case of Corporate Social-Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the potential effects of environmental education on corporate behavior and social and environmental impact by examining connections between human behavior and environmental problems, the role of the modern corporation, a behavioral theory of the firm, and corporate social responsibility. (DC)

  15. 45 CFR 640.5 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental impact statement. 640.5 Section 640.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 640.5 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a) If...

  16. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  17. 77 FR 65380 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Gulf State Utilities--North Ryan Street Superfund Site, Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. The... will receive written comments relating to this notice and will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the...

  18. 75 FR 4071 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... (``CERCLA''), notice is hereby given that a proposed administrative cost recovery settlement concerning the T.H. Agriculture and Nutrition LLC former Superfund Site (THAN Site) in Fresno, California was... 107 of CERCLA against the following Respondents: T.H. Agriculture & Nutrition, LLC, Syngenta Crop...

  19. 76 FR 2134 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Seven Out, LLC and BCX, Inc. (``Settling Defendants'') in United States of America v. Seven Out LLC, and BCX, Inc., Case No. 3:11-cv-0009-UAMH-MCR (U.S.D.C. M.D. Fla.), with respect to the BCX Tank Superfund... at or from the Site. Financial information provided by the Settling Defendants indicated an inability...

  20. Proactive Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Energy Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concerns about environmental issues and the advancement of China’s “going global” strategy, a new issue-proactive corporate social responsibility has emerged. Proactive corporate environmental responsibility refers to business actions that go beyond regulatory requirements for supporting sustainable environmental development. This study examines the role of proactive corporate environmental responsibility on corporate financial performance in the Chinese energy industry by the multi-variables regression analysis of panel data. Using data of 264 firm-year observations from 2009–2014 in the energy industry, the results showed that Proactive corporate environmental responsibility has a positive effect on corporate financial performance passing the endogeneity test. The results also demonstrate that private ownership has stronger promotion on the relationship between proactive corporate environmental responsibility and corporate financial performance. This study helps to increase the body of knowledge about proactive corporate environmental responsibility of the emerging economy, provides insights into the corporate environmental responsibility practice, and government environmental regulation and policy.

  1. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  2. Corporate sustainability, social responsibility and environmental management : an introduction to theory and practice with case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Responsible behaviours are increasingly being embedded into new business models and strategies that are designed to meet environmental, societal and governance deficits. Therefore, the notions of Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management have become very popular among academia as corporations are moving beyond transparency, business ethics and stakeholder engagement. This book provides business students and scholars with a broad analysis on the subject ...

  3. The significance of environmental responsibility on airline customers' intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Merilä, Outi

    2015-01-01

    Operating in an energy intensive industry, airlines’ environmental performance is under constant scrutiny of the regulators and authorities. By contrast, it seems that not many airlines have considered gaining competitive advantage in by differentiating as an environmentally responsible carrier. The commissioning company for this Master’s Thesis was Finnair, and the intention of this study was to find out whether factors related to environmental responsibility affect Swedish...

  4. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Stingl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...

  5. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus. 4Department of ...... Transcriptomic analysis of sense and antisense strands of .... 2008 Stem cell transcriptome profiling via.

  6. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Ulrich

    2018-03-30

    Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...].

  7. Superfund/IGD: EF_NPL

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_NPL is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  8. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . Through Law No. 40 Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company , specifically in Article 74, in response to the action of the business world to social and environmental causes damages to society . But in application / CSR implementation will be undertaken by the company is not maximized with implications for the enforcement of environmental law.

  10. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the application of environmental politicies facilitates the identification of unknown costs and their next reaction. Moreover we try to determine, if these costs have a connection with the different environmental strategies, which are used. Design/methodology/approach: An empiric study was done through a telephonic survey all over Spain in 2012. The idea was to obtain a representative sample. From 943 companies, the survey was answered by 141 of them. Findings and Originality/value: It is shown the relationship between the costs behavior, knowledge of the unknown and hidden costs with the environmental strategies. Research limitations/implications: To dispose a bigger sample, this allowed us to obtain results in relationship with sectors type and to verify the result for regions. Practical implications: The organizations can be aware of costs reaction, depending on their action in the environmental area. Originality/value: Environmental politicies in the CSR field facilitate unknown or hidden costs detection and they allow their evaluation and the decisions about them. The obtained improvements can revert to the society due to the development of environmental politicies and they offer a competitive advantage for the company.

  11. Environmental Activities of the U.S. Coast Guard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramseur, Jonathan L; Reisch, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... laws and international agreements. As required by the Oil Pollution Act and the Superfund law, the USCG s pollution preparedness and response activities aim to reduce the impact of oil and hazardous substances spills...

  12. Reclamation of environmental liabilities at populated area, an environmental legacy with social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo V, Jairo; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry in Ecuador has had its own history since the first oil well was drilled in the country's Amazon region on February 16th /1967 and the environmental control of the activity has been evolving over the years. But at the same time it has been leaving traces behind at each one of the locations where a road has been opened, a platform has been build or a pipeline has been laid. Consequently the old practice of covering up spillages with a layer of clay or sand are being discovered today and providing evidence of the foot-print that has been caused to the environment. In the heart of the Ecuadorian Amazon region, where settlements were established on top of old crude spillages, such as Aguas Negras and Paraiso in Canton Cuyabeno, EnCanEcuador, in line with its philosophy of social responsibility and commitment to the environment, took on the restoration of these areas. For that purpose it had to reach an agreement with the communities affected and then temporarily dismantle the houses built in these areas and remove all the contaminated soil until they were sure it was free of hydrocarbons, thus ensuring the public health of these villages and the conservation of the environment. The sites, from which contaminated soil was removed, were then filled with clean soil and their houses rebuilt. During this operation it was possible to recover approximately 3,500 cubic meters of contaminated soil at a cost of $175,000. Land removed from the site was transported to our land farming remediation center, where, through a process of degradation with native bacteria from the zone, the bioremediation of the soil was achieved until it reached TPH limits below the levels regulated by government entities from our country. (author)

  13. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-12-31

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs.

  14. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs

  15. Social responsibility standards and global environmental accountability : a developing country perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Murthy, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that accountability, responsibility and governance go hand in hand. Evolving standards is a part of governance. Unless such a global perspective is adopted “Social Responsibility and the implications for Developing Countries”, which is the theme for this workshop, cannot be unraveled. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how Social Responsibility Standards and their relation to environmental sustainability cannot be addressed without relating it to Global Environmental ...

  16. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse and redevelopment of BRAC federal properties. When the BRAC program began in the early 1990s, EPA worked with DoD and the states to identify uncontaminated areas and these parcels were immediately made available for reuse. Since then EPA has worked with DoD to clean up the contaminated portions of bases. These are usually parcels that were training ranges, landfills, maintenance facilities and other past waste-disposal areas. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate, investigate, and clean up worst hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. EPA administers the Superfund program in cooperation with individual states and tribal governments. These sites include abandoned warehouses, manufacturing facilities, processing plants, and landfills - the key word here being abandoned.This data layer shows Superfund Sites that are located at BRAC Federal Facilities. Additional Superfund sites and other BRAC sites (those that are not Superfund sites) are included in other data layers as part of this web service.BRAC Superfund Sites shown in this web service are derived from the epa.gov website and include links to the relevant web pages within the attribute table. Data about BRAC Superfund Sites are located on their own EPA web pages, and CIMC links to those pages. The CIMC web service

  17. SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

  18. Smart moves in superfund - revitalization one year later. Volume 1, Number 3, January 1993. Bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The issue of the Smart Moves in Superfund bulletin series provides an update on the revitalization effort, highlighting National Priorities List (NPL) construction completions, accelerating cleanup, the Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model, risk assessment/risk management, contracts management, enforcement policy/equity, interagency cooperation, public forms, and state meetings

  19. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-2012- 3766; CERCLA-04-2012-3765] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County... costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County.... Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocessors by one of the following methods...

  20. Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility in an Emerging Economy: Through the Lens of Legitimacy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Bhattacharyya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to promote Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSER require an understanding of stakeholder attitudes toward enhanced responsibility. However, little is known about current attitudes on this subject, or the determinants of these attitudes. This study presents a survey of the attitudes of Indian managers, toward 18 social and 16 key contemporary environmental management issues. The findings indicate that respondents are concerned about a range of issues surrounding social responsibility. With respect to environmental responsibilities, Indian respondents were also strong in their support, and identified a select few issues to be more important over other environmental factors. Results indicated a positive attitude of Indian managers towards CSER. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA confirmed three distinct social and environmental factors for the respondents and provided a model of managerial attitudes towards CSER.

  1. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  2. Environmental Training Modules. Module 3 - Shipyard Incident Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    oxidizing or through fermentation ). • Absorption of oxygen (caused by the vessel itself or the contents stored in it). Shipyard HazMat Technician...environmental effects • May be difficult to find in bulk quantities. • * Dilute acetic acid ( vinegar ) Caustic spills have routinely been neutralized with

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how much are food manufacturing companies committed to caring for the environment as a main component of their CSR strategy. In order to fulfil the defined objectives of the paper, the primary and secondary sources of information were collected and used, as well as there was used the method of interview, using a questionnaire (total number of respondents was 100 food manufacturing companies. In our research the highest percentage of large, SMC and micro companies indicated the reduction of negative operational impacts as the most important commitment of companies in relation to environment. Most large companies invest to installing pollution reducing technology to improve environmental quality (67% and utilizing more environmentally friendly raw materials (51%. These areas indicated the highest percentage as well as for SMC. In the case of large companies there are more visible movements in environmental practices than in micro and small-medium companies.

  4. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... gasoline, batteries, and paint. Environmental pollutants such as metals pose serious risks to many aquatic organisms by changing genetic, .... ties of cortisol and its role in maintaining ion homeostasis. (Sheridan, 1994). Secretion of the steroid hormone cortisol by the interrenal tissue is a characteristic ...

  5. Games in Instruction Leading To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on instructional games designed to teach about environmental topics such as wetlands, pollution, endangered species, population, energy, and individual effects on the environment. Fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students (N=295) were tested, and significant results were found between students who played four games and those who did not…

  6. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  7. Geochemical Characteristics of TP3 Mine Wastes at the Elizabeth Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.; Muzik, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of the Elizabeth mine Superfund site in the Vermont copper belt poses challenges for balancing environmental restoration goals with issues of historic preservation while adopting cost-effective strategies for site cleanup and long-term maintenance. The waste-rock pile known as TP3, at the headwaters of Copperas Brook, is especially noteworthy in this regard because it is the worst source of surface- and ground-water contamination identified to date, while also being the area of greatest historical significance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of the historic mine-waste piles known as TP3 at the Elizabeth mine Superfund site near South Strafford, Orange County, VT. TP3 is a 12.3-acre (49,780 m2) subarea of the Elizabeth mine site. It is a focus area for historic preservation because it encompasses an early 19th century copperas works as well as waste from late 19th- and 20th century copper mining (Kierstead, 2001). Surface runoff and seeps from TP3 form the headwaters of Copperas Brook. The stream flows down a valley onto flotation tailings from 20th century copper mining operations and enters the West Branch of the Ompompanoosuc River approximately 1 kilometer downstream from the mine site. Shallow drinking water wells down gradient from TP3 exceed drinking water standards for copper and cadmium (Hathaway and others, 2001). The Elizabeth mine was listed as a Superfund site in 2001, mainly because of impacts of acid-mine drainage on the Ompompanoosuc River.

  8. Remediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund SiteRemediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company, Portland Plant, Superfund Site is located adjacent tothe Willamette River in Portland, Oregon and addresses contamination of soil, groundwater, and riversediments stemming from creosoting operations...

  9. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ľudmila Nagyová; Mária Holienčinová; Ingrida Košičiarová; Tomáš Holota

    2016-01-01

    The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how mu...

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...

  12. Transcriptional profiles of Treponema denticola in response to environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McHardy

    Full Text Available The periodontal pathogen T. denticola resides in a stressful environment rife with challenges, the human oral cavity. Knowledge of the stress response capabilities of this invasive spirochete is currently very limited. Whole genome expression profiles in response to different suspected stresses including heat shock, osmotic downshift, oxygen and blood exposure were examined. Most of the genes predicted to encode conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs were found to be induced under heat and oxygen stress. Several of these HSPs also seem to be important for survival in hypotonic solutions and blood. In addition to HSPs, differential regulation of many genes encoding metabolic proteins, hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators and transporters was observed in patterns that could betoken functional associations. In summary, stress responses in T. denticola exhibit many similarities to the corresponding stress responses in other organisms but also employ unique components including the induction of hypothetical proteins.

  13. Environmental guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.

  14. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  15. FTIR spectroscopic studies of bacterial cellular responses to environmental factors, plant-bacterial interactions and signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Kamnev, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern spectroscopic techniques are highly useful in studying diverse processes in microbial cells related to or incited by environmental factors. Spectroscopic data for whole cells, supramolecular structures or isolated cellular constituents can reflect structural and/or compositional changes occurring in the course of cellular metabolic responses to the effects of pollutants, environmental conditions (stress factors); nutrients, signalling molecules (communication factors), etc. This inform...

  16. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  17. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  18. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies/Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR. (author)

  19. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  20. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  1. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degr...

  2. In 1994, the Minister responsible for Environmental Affairs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Affairs and Tourism launched a process leading to ... To achieve this, the Chief Director of Marine & Coastal Management (MCM), the authority responsible for ... 1 Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. ... 3 Rural Research and Development Institute, University of Transkei, Private ...

  3. Manager’s Dilemma: Stockholders’ and Consumers’ Responses to Corporate Environmental Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayag Lal Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal that different stakeholders have different environmental preferences by demonstrating the managers’ dilemma of selecting an appropriate environmental strategy to achieve firms’ corporate goals. It analyzes the effects of firms’ efforts in environmental impact through actual environmental practices and environmental considerations in environmental management on stockholders’ and consumers’ responses by using the Newsweek Green Rankings 2012 for large US-based firms. The study uses the event study methodology and the ordinary least squares multivariate regression model conditioned with relevant firm and industry-specific characteristics. The results indicate that both stockholders and consumers appreciate corporate efforts in reducing environmental damage; however, consumers exhibit a significant and negative response against firms’ environmental management efforts. The conflicting results provide valuable insights into the alignment of environmental efforts for developing core competencies that lead firms toward sustainability. Further, this research makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature and provides guidelines for the formulation of public policies that encourage corporate environmental efforts to ensure simultaneous development of business and society.

  4. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialetto, G.; Venanzi, M.; Gaudioso, D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation Site Management Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This site management for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program implements the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (EPA 1990), also known as an Interagency Agreement (IAG), hereafter referred to as the Agreement.'' The Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), hereafter known as the Parties,'' entered into this Agreement for the purpose of coordinating remediation activities undertaken on the ORR to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  8. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  9. Theoretical Prerequisites for the Formation of the Concept of Environmentally Responsible Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazieva Tetiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the evolution of theoretical approaches to the problems related to the ecological and economic interaction of economic entities and clarify the essential characteristics of the economic component of environmentally responsible marketing. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, the evolution of marketing concepts is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the concepts “social marketing”, “environmental marketing” are systematized. As a result of the research, the advantages and disadvantages of the existing definitions of “green” marketing are highlighted. The main characteristics of the concept “environmentally responsible marketing” are formulated in the context of the concepts of sustainable development and socially responsible marketing. Prospects for further research in this area are: the infrastructure of environmentally responsible marketing; a conceptual justification of the methodology for building an environmentally responsible marketing system; factors and models of modern economic growth with consideration for the environmental factor, etc.

  10. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    , which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 458.1, and DOE Order 231.1. The environmental monitoring addressed by this plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, effluent and surveillance monitoring, and permit and regulatory compliance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). LLNL coordinates its ground water surveillance monitoring program with the CERCLA monitoring program to gain sampling efficiencies.

  11. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  12. Biomass cogeneration: industry response for energy security and environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacareza-Pacudan, L.; Lacrosse, L.; Pennington, M.; Dale Gonzales, A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass occurs in abundance in the highly agricultural-based countries of South-East Asia. If these are processed in the wood and agro-processing industries, large volumes of residues are generated. The residue are potential sources of energy which the industries can tap through the use of cogeneration systems, in order to meet their own thermal and electrical requirements. This will reduce the industry's dependence on power from the grid and thus increase their own self-sufficiency in terms of energy. Biomass cogeneration brings the environmental, as well as economic benefits to the industries. It makes use of clean and energy-efficient technologies and utilises biomass as fuels which cause less environment al pollution and the greenhouse effect, as against the use of fossil fuels. A particular mill that embarks on biomass cogeneration is also able to realise, among others, income from the export of excess electricity to the grid. Biomass residue if not used for other purposes have negative values as they need to be disposed of. They can, however, be profit-generating as well. (Author)

  13. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  14. Case study: Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Radium Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzella, R.; Seppi, P.; Watson, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Montclair/West Orange and Glen Ridge Radium Sites are located 12 miles west of New York City in three residential communities in Essex County, New Jersey. The sites are contaminated with waste materials from a local radium processing facility which ceased operations in 1926. Houses were subsequently constructed on or near the radium waste disposal areas. The waste material was also used as backfill, which caused contamination to be spread randomly over the communities. There are 769 properties between four townships that comprise the Superfund sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an aerial survey in 1981 which identified the boundaries of the sites. In 1985, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) began a pilot study to examine the feasibility of excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated material as a permanent solution. The study was interrupted when the permit for the disposal site was revoked by the state of Nevada. Since 1990 field testing has been completed on over 725 properties and remediation and restoration has been completed on 75 properties

  15. Who should do what in environmental management? Twelve principles for allocating responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from

  16. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition

  17. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  18. Risk analysis and priority setting for environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation's environmental problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. Numerous other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global warming, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex environmental problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency

  19. Phenotypic plasticity as an adaptive response to predictable and unpredictable environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to modify its phenotype in response to environmental changes as a consequence of an interaction between genes and environment (Bradshaw, 1965). Plasticity contributes to the vast phenotypic variation observed in natural populations. Many examples...... of a plastic response are expected to depend on the environmental conditions experienced by organisms. Thus, in populations exposed to a non-changing environment, the plastic machinery might be a waste of resources. Contrary, in populations experiencing varying environmental conditions, plasticity is expected...... such as anti-predator behaviours or the activation of mechanisms to prevent thermal stress injuries suggest that plasticity is an adaptive response, favoured by natural selection. At the same time, organisms do show limited plastic responses, indicating that this ability is not for free. Costs and benefits...

  20. Instrumentation for Examining Microbial Response to Changes In Environmental Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, J.; Storrs, A.; Wang, J.; Ouandji, C.; Arismendi, D.; Hernandez, J.; Sardesh, N.; Ibanez, C. R.; Owyang, S.; Gentry, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Automated Adaptive Directed Evolution Chamber (AADEC) is a device that allows operators to generate a micro-scale analog of real world systems that can be used to model the local-scale effects of climate change on microbial ecosystems. The AADEC uses an artificial environment to expose cultures of micro-organisms to environmental pressures, such as UV-C radiation, chemical toxins, and temperature. The AADEC autonomously exposes micro-organisms to slection pressures. This improves upon standard manual laboratory techniques: the process can take place over a longer period of time, involve more stressors, implement real-time adjustments based on the state of the population, and minimize the risk of contamination. We currently use UV-C radiation as the main selection pressure, UV-C is well studied both for its cell and DNA damaging effects as a type of selection pressure and for its related effectiveness as a mutagen; having these functions united makes it a good choice for a proof of concept. The AADEC roadmap includes expansion to different selection pressures, including heavy metal toxicity, temperature, and other forms of radiation. The AADEC uses closed-loop control to feedback the current state of the culture to the AADEC controller that modifies selection pressure intensity during experimentation, in this case culture density and growth rate. Culture density and growth rate are determined by measuring the optical density of the culture using 600 nm light. An array of 600 nm LEDs illuminate the culture and photodiodes are used to measure the shadow on the opposite side of the chamber. Previous experiments showed that we can produce a million fold increase to UV-C radiation over seven iterations. The most recent implements a microfluidic system that can expose cultures to multiple different selection pressures, perform non-survival based selection, and autonomously perform hundreds of exposure cycles. A scalable pump system gives the ability to pump in various

  1. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  2. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  3. Corporate Social responsibility in the petrochemical industry: Exploring current trends in social and environmental disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current trends indicate that we are entering a new phase of corporate responsibility reporting that more emphasis is paid on social responsibility, but significant variation still remains in the maturity of reporting content and styles in industries, and even in the same industry. This study explores the current trend of corporate social and environmental reporting in petrochemical industry. It offers a detailed review of the development of corporate social responsibility reporting, and of th...

  4. Lichen Parmelia sulcata time response model to environmental elemental availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.; Freitas, M.C.; Os, B. van; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2000-01-01

    Transplants of lichen Parmelia sulcata collected in an area previously identified as non polluted, were placed at six stations, five of which were near Power Plants and the other in an area expected to be a remote station. Together with the lichen transplants, two total deposition collection buckets and an aerosol sampler were installed. Lichens were recollected two every month from each station. At the same time the water collection buckets were replaced by new ones. The aerosol sampler filter was replaced every week, collection being effective only for 10 minutes out of every two hours; in the remote station aerosol filters were replaced only once a month, the collection rate being kept. Each station was run for a period of one year. Both lichens and aerosol filters were analysed by PIXE and INAA at ITN. Total deposition samples were dried under an infrared lamp, and afterwards acid digested and analysed by ICP-MS at the National Geological Survey of The Netherlands. Data for the three types of samples were then produced for a total of 16 elements. In this work we used the data set thus obtained to test a model for the time response of lichen Parmelia sulcata to a new environment. (author)

  5. Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E; Clusella-Trullas, S; Terblanche, J S

    2014-02-01

    Physiological responses to transient conditions may result in costly responses with little fitness benefits, and therefore, a trade-off must exist between the speed of response and the duration of exposure to new conditions. Here, using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, we examine this potential trade-off using a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model. Specifically, we explore and dissect the interactions between plastic physiological responses, treatment-duration and -intensity using an experimental approach. We then integrate these experimental results from organismal water-balance data and their plastic responses into a population dynamics model to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates. The results show evidence for the predicted trade-off for plasticity of water loss rate (WLR) and the duration of new environmental conditions. When altered environmental conditions lasted for longer durations, physiological responses could match the new environmental conditions, and this resulted in a lower WLR and lower rates of population decline. At shorter time-scales however, a mismatch between acclimation duration and physiological responses was reflected by reduced overall population growth rates. This may indicate a potential fitness cost due to insufficient time for physiological adjustments to take place. The outcomes of this work therefore suggest plastic water balance responses have both costs and benefits, and these depend on the time-scale and magnitude of variation in environmental conditions. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of plastic physiological responses and changes in population abundance in the context of environmental variability. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Guidance: Strategies to Achieve Timely Settlement and Implementation of RD/RA at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum recommends strategies to encourage PRPs to enter into a settlement using the model RD/RA Consent Decree; discusses the current model UAO; and suggests practical alternatives to expedite Superfund settlements and the cleanup process.

  7. Renton's Quendall Terminals on List of EPA Superfund Sites Targeted for Immediate, Intense Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the list of Superfund sites that Administrator Pruitt has targeted for intense and immediate attention, including the Quendall Terminals Site, a former creosote facility on the shore of Lake Washington in Renton, Washington.

  8. Ensuring the adequacy of cost share provisions in superfund state contracts. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The memorandum requests regional offices to re-examine existing Superfund State Contracts (SSCs) for Fund-financed remedial actions to verify that they adequately reflect incurred and projected remedial action costs

  9. Environmental and emergency response capabilities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's radiological air sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.C.

    1980-05-01

    Environmental and emergency response radiological air sampling capabilities of the Environmental Surveillance Group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. The air sampling program provides a supplementary check on the adequacy of containment and effluent controls, determines compliance with applicable protection guides and standards, and assesses potential environmental impacts on site environs. It also allows evaluation of potential individual and total population doses from airborne radionuclides that may be inhaled or serve as a source of external radiation. The environmental program is sufficient in scope to detect fluctuations and long-term trends in atmospheric levels of radioactivity originating onsite. The emergency response capabilities are designed to respond to both onsite unplanned releases and atmospheric nuclear tests

  10. Environmental and social responsibility reporting. Do Macedonian companies disclose those information and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrsik Jadranka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating environmental impact into financial reports is becoming standard practice in the 21st Century. Investors are aware of the need for environmentally correct operations since failures in this domain lower the price of shares. However, in terms of regulation, in most of the countries, environmental reporting remains voluntary. Institutions dealing with development and promotion of the modern accounting and financial reporting standards encourage companies to concurrently report for their environmental activities. The only question is how. Accounting may include information on the environmental impact only if it is quantitative and monetary. Since many nuances of the issues remain difficult to quantify, corporations opt to separately report on their environmental practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the accounting and stock market regulations and the practice of reporting for environmental impact of the operations of the leading Macedonian companies. We selected ten companies that make the Macedonian Stock Exchange Index and additional five companies with significant environmental impact. We reviewed their annual reports and interviewed their financial officers. The results show that the environmental and social responsibility reporting is left to the companies and their management and its perception of the need for keeping posted the major stakeholders and the most appropriate way to do it. As a consequence, many large Macedonian companies do not refer to these issues in their annual addressing to the stakeholders. The findings of this paper can motivate the regulatory body and the government to require more transparency and disclosure of the sustainability information.

  11. BUILDING THE NEW DIMENSION OF STRATEGIC CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Marian NASTASE; Oana - Catalina TAPURICA; Florin TACHE; Florin ANGHEL

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to emphasize the role of environmental leadership as main option for combining the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy with the business goals and targets in order to satisfy both shareholders’ interests and social interests, in terms of profit, productivity and social awareness. Under these circumstances, the paper describes the way environmental leadership is being built and introduced in the organizational culture of a company, regardless of its size, becoming a ver...

  12. Environmental Stress Responses and Biological Interactions Investigated in the Drosophila Model System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael

    on their ability to respond on a behavioral, physiological, morphological and/or evolutionary level according to the environmental cues. At the same time, if populations are small and fragmented, and have limited gene flow, environmental change and environmental stress might interact with intrinsic genetic stress...... such as inbreeding and genetic drift, which can exacerbate the effects of one or more environmental stresses. Furthermore, inbred populations often have low genetic variation that might constrain evolutionary responses to rapidly changing environments. This thesis investigates how, and to what extent, insect model......When organisms are faced with changes in their environment, they are forced to respond, if they are to maintain optimal function. Especially ectotherms must deal with environmental changes in e.g. temperature on a regular basis, and thus their survival and reproductive success depend...

  13. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy. PMID:29064451

  14. The Equator Principles, Project Finance and the Challenge of Social and Environmental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Equator Principles, launched in 2003 and revamped in 2006, are a set of voluntary principles designed to help private lenders make socially and environmentally responsible project financing decisions. This paper explores the impact of these principles on the disclosures of two signatory banks, focusing on type of information disclosures that have resulted and the substance of these disclosures. The work considers whether it is  possible to ascertain from publicly available information how the practices of the banks may have changed in order to focus on their stated social and environmental responsibilities. It is concluded that although the Equator Principles have marked the beginning of the banking sectors acknowledgement of their role in social and environmental responsibility, at this stage insufficient information is being disclosed to determine the impact these principles are having on actual banking practices.

  15. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-10-24

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  16. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  17. How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parviainen, Tuuli; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Kuikka, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    The highly globalized and competitive nature of the shipping industry poses serious governance challenges. Recently, the use of voluntary measures, such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, has been explored in terms of moving towards environmentally and socially responsible...... as well as safe shipping industry practices. Limited attention has been paid on the role of stakeholders such as consumers, employees, NGOs, and academia in pressuring the shipping industry towards greater environmental and social responsibility. Here, by applying stakeholder theory and drawing...... of multi-stakeholder pressure and action to promote the adoption of CSR activities, support the transparency, legitimacy, and enforcement of the practices, as well as widen the scope and focus of CSR initiatives and practices by focusing on a broad range of social and environmental issues. Finally...

  18. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  19. Typological review of environmental performance metrics (with illustrative examples for oil spill response).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Thomas P; Satterstrom, F Kyle; Linkov, Igor; Tuler, Seth P; Kay, Rebecca

    2007-07-01

    An intensification of interest in environmental assessment during the last 2 decades has driven corporate efforts to better document environmental goals, improve environmental management systems, and increase awareness of the environmental and ecological effects of business operations. This trend has been motivated partly by regulatory requirements (such as the Toxics Release Inventory in the United States) and partly by the inclination of some large manufacturing firms to embrace a broader social and environmental mission characterized as "sustainability" or "ecoefficiency." Moreover, the importance of measurable objectives in the US government has been recognized at least since the Government Performance Results Act of 1993, which was intended to both improve the efficiency of government and the confidence of the American public in government managers. However, in management of environmental crises - such as catastrophic oil or chemical spills - development of measurable performance standards has lagged. Consequently, government spill managers are unable to define success in terms that are easily communicated to public and other stakeholder groups, and they could be disadvantaged in their efforts to deploy response resources with maximum efficiency. In this paper, we present a typological review of environmental assessment measures and summarize some of the current practices and strategic goals among federal agencies with regard to oil and chemical spills. A general approach to organizing metrics for oil spill response, restoration, and recovery is also presented. The results could improve planning efforts and communication among different federal, state, and local agencies and public or stakeholder groups involved in spill management.

  20. Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E Scott; Metheny, Maura A

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of ground water and soil contamination at the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, uses technologies that reflect differences in hydrogeologic settings, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and costs of treatment. The poorly permeable glacial materials that overlie fractured bedrock at the W.R. Grace property necessitate use of closely spaced recovery wells. Contaminated ground water is treated with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation. At UniFirst, a deep well completed in fractured bedrock removes contaminated ground water, which is treated by hydrogen peroxide, UV oxidation, and granular activated carbon (GAC). The remediation system at Wildwood integrates air sparging, soil-vapor extraction, and ground water pumping. Air stripping and GAC are used to treat contaminated water; GAC is used to treat contaminated air. New England Plastics (NEP) uses air sparging and soil-vapor extraction to remove VOCs from the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water. Contaminated air and water are treated using separate GAC systems. After nine years of operation at W.R. Grace and UniFirst, 30 and 786 kg, respectively, of VOCs have been removed. In three years of operation, 866 kg of VOCs have been removed at Wildwood. In 15 months of operation, 36 kg of VOCs were removed at NEP. Characterization work continues at the Olympia Nominee Trust, Whitney Barrel, Murphy Waste Oil, and Aberjona Auto Parts properties. Risk assessments are being finalized that address heavy metals in the floodplain sediments along the Aberjona River that are mobilized from the Industri-Plex Superfund Site located a few miles upstream.

  1. Intracellular proteins produced by mammalian cells in response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.; Passini, Cheryl A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the response of mammalian cells to environmental stress is examined by reviewing results of studies where cultured mouse L cells and baby hamster kidney cells were exposed to heat shock and the synthesis of heat-shock proteins and stress-response proteins (including HSP70, HSC70, HSP90, ubiquitin, and GRP70) in stressed and unstressed cells was evaluated using 2D-PAGE. The intracellular roles of the individual stress response proteins are discussed together with the regulation of the stress response system.

  2. Geophysical logging and thermal imaging near the Hemphill Road TCE National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-03-27

    Borehole geophysical logs and thermal imaging data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey near the Hemphill Road TCE (trichloroethylene) National Priorities List Superfund site near Gastonia, North Carolina, during August 2014 through February 2015. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, surface geological mapping and borehole geophysical log and thermal imaging data collection, which included the delineation of more than 600 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations), was completed in five open borehole wells and two private supply bedrock wells. In addition, areas of possible groundwater discharge within a nearby creek downgradient of the study site were determined based on temperature differences between the stream and bank seepage using thermal imagery.

  3. CERCLA and RCRA requirements affecting cleanup of a hazardous waste management unit at a Superfund site: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) attempted to address both RCRA and CERCLA requirements at the fire training facility (FTF) by integrating a CERCLA removal action work plan with a RCRA closure plan. While the regulatory agencies involved with the FTF cleanup agreed the integrated document was a good idea, implementation proved complicated, owing to disposition of clean debris from a Superfund site, treatment of contaminated media, duration of cleanup activities, and cleanup certification. While all the complications have not been resolved, solutions to all have been proposed to Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA. Both agencies have worked closely with FEMP to find the most effective fulfillment of RCRA and CERCLA requirements

  4. Implementation of environmental compliance for operating radioactive liquid waste systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooyman, J.H.; Robinson, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses methods being implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continue operating while achieving compliance with new standards for liquid low level waste (LLLW) underground storage tank systems. The Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) required that the Department of Energy (DOE) execute a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) within 6 months of listing of the ORNL on the National Priorities List. An FFA for ORNL became effective January 1, 1992 among the EPA, DOE, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The agreement ensures that environmental impacts resulting from operations at the Oak Ridge Reservation are investigated and remediated to protect the public health, welfare, and environment

  5. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels

  6. Dose-response relationships for environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Brouwer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally mediated infectious disease transmission models provide a mechanistic approach to examining environmental interventions for outbreaks, such as water treatment or surface decontamination. The shift from the classical SIR framework to one incorporating the environment requires codifying the relationship between exposure to environmental pathogens and infection, i.e. the dose-response relationship. Much of the work characterizing the functional forms of dose-response relationships has used statistical fit to experimental data. However, there has been little research examining the consequences of the choice of functional form in the context of transmission dynamics. To this end, we identify four properties of dose-response functions that should be considered when selecting a functional form: low-dose linearity, scalability, concavity, and whether it is a single-hit model. We find that i middle- and high-dose data do not constrain the low-dose response, and different dose-response forms that are equally plausible given the data can lead to significant differences in simulated outbreak dynamics; ii the choice of how to aggregate continuous exposure into discrete doses can impact the modeled force of infection; iii low-dose linear, concave functions allow the basic reproduction number to control global dynamics; and iv identifiability analysis offers a way to manage multiple sources of uncertainty and leverage environmental monitoring to make inference about infectivity. By applying an environmentally mediated infectious disease model to the 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak, we demonstrate that environmental monitoring allows for inference regarding the infectivity of the pathogen and thus improves our ability to identify outbreak characteristics such as pathogen strain.

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Cherokee County Superfund Site, Cherokee County, KS, July 29, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the mining wastes at Operable Unit No. 07 of the Galena Subsite, which is part of the Cherokee County Superfund Site in Cherokee County, Kansas. The selected remedy includes actions for residential soils impacted by mining wastes and includes: Excavation and disposal of residential soils impacted by mining wastes; Health education for the general community and medical professionals; Institutional controls to guide future development in residential areas impacted by mining wastes; Treatability studies to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate stabilization as a future alternative; and Operation and maintenance of all remedy aspects including, but not limited to, health education, institutional controls, and long-term monitoring.

  8. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2013-06-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

  9. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10μg RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  10. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Responses to Environmental Change: Insights from Terrestrial Paleoecological Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, A. W. R.; Mackay, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Current understanding of ecological behaviour indicates that systems can experience sudden and abrupt changes in state, driven either by a large external change in environmental conditions (extrinsically forced), or the result of a set local feedbacks and site-specific interactions (intrinsically mediated responses). Responses mediated by intrinsic processes are notoriously diffi- cult to predict, they can occur as slow environmental variables gradually erode the resilience of the system eventually resulting in threshold transitions between alternative stable states. Finding ways to identify, model and predict such complex ecosystem behavior has been identified as a priority research challenge for both ecology and paleoecology. The paleoecological record can play a role in understanding the processes behind abrupt ecological change because it enables the reconstruction of processes occurring over decadal-centennial timescales or longer. Therefore, paleoecological data can be used to identify the existence of ecological thresholds and to investigate the environmental processes that can lead to loss of resilience and abrupt transitions between alternate states. In addition, incidences of abrupt vegetation changes in the past can serve as palaeoecological model systems; analogues of abrupt dynamics which can be used to test theories surrounding ecological responses to climate change. Here, I present examples from a range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holocene environmental changes from a coastal lagoon in the Galapagos Islands; Northern European vegetation changes since the last deglaciation; the North American hemlock decline) demonstrating evidence of abrupt ecosystem change. For each system I present a set of statistical techniques tailored to distin- guish between extrinsic versus intrinsically mediated ecological responses. Examples are provided from both single sites (i.e. landscape scale) and multiple sites (regional-continental scale). These techniques provide a

  11. Social and Environmental Responsibility and Local Sustainable Development: The Case of the Environmental Education Project and Asset – PEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the actions of social responsibility expressed by the Environmental and Heritage Education Project (PEAP, which has been  implemented in the Boa Vista and Moura communities, both located in Oriximiná, State of Pará. This project purported to promote the rescue and preservation of environmental and cultural heritage in local communities, developed in a partnership between the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Emilio Goeldi [a painter] Pará Museum] (MPEG, the private company Mineração Rio do Norte (Rio do Norte Mining (MRN and representatives of local communities. This study examines to what extent the actions of PEAP can be considered drivers of sustainable local development. To answer this question, the research focused on the implementation of the PEAP actions and their effects on the two communities under study. Specifically, we sought to identify potential social, cultural and economic impacts of the actions of PEAP on both communities, and to identify future expectations of social subjects involved. This is a case study that follows a qualitative approach. The data collected in documents and interviews were analyzed according to the concepts of sustainable local development, corporate social responsibility and tri-sector partnership. The study identified that the actions taken by the PEAP result of management practices and participatory social planning, and reflecting the redemption of traditional practices, socialization of information and income generation, which together contribute to sustainable local development.

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmentally Sound Technology in Endogenous Firm Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C. Chao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the “New Normal” economy, with more emphasis on economic growth driven by innovation than resource. This paper investigates the impacts of firms considering corporate social responsibility and environmentally sound technology by building a three-stage Cournot competition model with asymmetric cost. The sustainable development of economic and endogenous firm growth achieves the win–win result in the theoretical model. Using data from 31 firms in China, this paper empirically researches on the relationships among corporate social responsibility, environmentally sound technology and firm endogenous growth. The results show that: (1 Marginal cost decreased with the increase of innovation, as well as getting government research and development subsidy, which has a positive effect on firm growth. (2 Consumers respond positively to corporate social responsibility initiative, the reputation of the firm can be improved. At the same time, environmentally sound technology objectively reduces the marginal cost of competitors because of the technology spillover. (3 Profit of a firm undertaking corporate social responsibility partly decreases, which has a negative effect on firm growth. The contradiction between corporate social responsibility and profit of firm could be adjusted, such as socially responsible investment fund hosed by institutional investors.

  13. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  14. Magnetically responsive (nano) composites as perspective materials for environmental technology applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    -, č. 0 (2010), s. 85-90 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetically responsive materials * ( nano )biocomposites * environmental technology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  15. 75 FR 32503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Liability Act (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9607(a)(2), for response costs incurred by the Environmental... any claim the United States has associated with costs incurred by EPA at the Pioneer Smelting... of $7.75 (25 cents per page reproduction cost) payable to the U.S. Treasury or, if by e-mail or fax...

  16. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The

  17. Making the Case for Green Building: Cataloging the Benefits of Environmentally Responsible Design & Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex

    2008-01-01

    To those entrenched in the green building world, the benefits seem obvious. Why would anyone choose to build in a way that isn't comfortable, healthy, energy efficient, and environmentally responsible? Even within a single college or university project, different team members often have different reasons for promoting a green agenda. Architects…

  18. Visitation to Natural Areas on Campus and Its Relation to Place Identity and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined college students' visits to natural areas on campus and how these visits relate to place identity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The majority (76.5%) of the 115 participants visited the natural areas, and 55.7% of these students visited for a course requirement. Students who lived on campus, were younger, and…

  19. 7 CFR 1940.316 - Responsible officials for the environmental review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... submitted to the approval official for final determinations. The SEC will review the assessment and provide... adequacy of the assessment or the recommendations reached, the State Director, whether or not the approving... Law 103-354 official responsible for executing the environmental impact determination and...

  20. 75 FR 6220 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... settles claims for natural resource damages under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation... natural resource trustees for any unreimbursed assessment costs incurred by the State and Federal natural... Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to pubcomment...

  1. 78 FR 6131 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... agree to reimburse the United States and the State for natural resource damage assessment costs ($31,060... Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. [FR Doc. 2013-01761 Filed 1-28-13; 8:45 am] BILLING... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act On January 22, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a...

  2. Modern Methodology and Techniques Aimed at Developing the Environmentally Responsible Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Yelena V.; Zholdasbekova, Bibisara A.; Balabekov, Aidarhan T.; Kenzhebekova, Rabiga I.; Yessaliyev, Aidarbek A.; Larchenkova, Liudmila A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the positive impact of an environmentally responsible individual as the social unit able to live in harmony with the natural world, himself/herself and other people. The purpose of the article is to provide theoretical substantiation of modern teaching methods. The authors considered the experience of philosophy, psychology,…

  3. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee In Yoon; Gerard Kyle; Carena J. vanRiper; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Australians' perceptions of climate change, its impact on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and predictors of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Our hypothesized model suggested that general attitudes toward climate change, social pressure for engaging in ERBs (subjective norms), and perceived behavioral control (...

  4. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  5. The environmental education from the perspective of the managerial social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Javier Reyes-Solórzano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the concern for the environment in the organizational context has been growing demanding that the companies respect the environment for a sustainable development, this acquires it special relevance with the Managerial Social Responsibility, where the economic, social and environmental aspects are constituted in synthesis of the organizational ecological values. This reality imposes a necessity and a challenge: the environmental education, element that not alone it will guide the training in the company but rather it will project their activities toward the community for the solution of the environmental problems. For this, the relationship of the company and the community should propitiate the integration of the educational purposes of each one toward the adaptation and adjustment of the environmental problem, at the time that also promotes the potentialities to change and to transform the environment creatively.

  6. Enviromental Education as a Response to Chaos Socio-Environmental in the Context of Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayla Barbosa Pinto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the imbalance in the relation man-nature settled a social-environmental crisis, whose own humanity began to suffer the consequences of its consumerist onslaughts. Within this context, Environmental Education is a valuable tool, capable of freeing man from the living circle of consumerism and putting him on the axis of his own existence again. Thus, this study seeks to demonstrate that the equilibrium in the relationship between man and nature and the management of the socio-environmental crisis must start from the (re education of humanity regarding modernity and its effects, adopting for this the methodology of qualitative bibliographical research, Analysis of doctrine and scientific articles. Thus, the exploratory method of the proposed theme was used, pointing to environmental education as a response mechanism to the disorder imposed in the context of the risk society.

  7. Transcriptional responses of zebrafish to complex metal mixtures in laboratory studies overestimates the responses observed with environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ajay; Ivarsson, Per; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Berg, Håkan; Jass, Jana; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2017-04-15

    Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. However, risk assessment of metal exposure is often based on total metal levels and usually does not take bioavailability data, metal speciation or matrix effects into consideration. The continued development of biological endpoint analyses are therefore of high importance for improved eco-toxicological risk analyses. While there is an on-going debate concerning synergistic or additive effects of low-level mixed exposures there is little environmental data confirming the observations obtained from laboratory experiments. In the present study we utilized qRT-PCR analysis to identify key metal response genes to develop a method for biomonitoring and risk-assessment of metal pollution. The gene expression patterns were determined for juvenile zebrafish exposed to waters from sites down-stream of a closed mining operation. Genes representing different physiological processes including stress response, inflammation, apoptosis, drug metabolism, ion channels and receptors, and genotoxicity were analyzed. The gene expression patterns of zebrafish exposed to laboratory prepared metal mixes were compared to the patterns obtained with fish exposed to the environmental samples with the same metal composition and concentrations. Exposure to environmental samples resulted in fewer alterations in gene expression compared to laboratory mixes. A biotic ligand model (BLM) was used to approximate the bioavailability of the metals in the environmental setting. However, the BLM results were not in agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the BLM may be overestimating the risk in the environment. The present study therefore supports the inclusion of site-specific biological analyses to complement the present chemical based assays used for environmental risk-assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  9. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A. [Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University (United States); Ray, Paul D. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Shea, Damian [Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University (United States); Fry, Rebecca C., E-mail: rfry@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu{sup 2+} transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. - Highlights: • Toxicogenomic responses of environmental metal mixtures assessed • Induction of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F and MT1G by metal mixtures observed in placental cells • Higher gene induction in response to metal mixtures versus single metal treatments.

  10. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu 2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. - Highlights: • Toxicogenomic responses of environmental metal mixtures assessed • Induction of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F and MT1G by metal mixtures observed in placental cells • Higher gene induction in response to metal mixtures versus single metal treatments

  11. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  12. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  13. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  14. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  15. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  16. Evaluation of detector responses to natural environmental and fall-out gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instrument responses to the thorium, uranium and potassium components of the natural environmental as well as the fall-out radiation field were evaluated. The responses to the 137 Cs fall-out radiation field differ by less than 6% from the response at 0.662 MeV, except for that of the NaI scintillator. Differences of more than 30% were found in the responses of two energy compensated instruments to normal natural background radiation and to radiation from fresh fall-out. The best estimate of the terrestrial component of the dose rate measured was obtained by carrying out the following corrections of the measured readings: cosmic ray contribution and internal background subtraction with response correction, including 137 Cs calibration correction. After the Chernobyl accident the dose rate levels due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs fall-out were comparable to the natural background gamma radiation. The responses calculated as well as the results from measurements of the low level environmental exposure levels caused by the Chernobyl fall-out, confirmed the need to take into account the instrument response to natural as well as fall-out radiation fields. (author)

  17. [Environmental medicine in public health service--a social responsibility and its consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriene, B

    2001-02-01

    The special committee for "Environmental Medicine" established by the Federal Association of Doctors in the German Public Health Service presents its paper entitled "Environmental Medicine in the Public Health Service--A Social Responsibility and its Consequences: Propositions with regard to the situation, aims, strategies, and opportunities for action". The paper includes core ideas and responsibilities in the public health service. It aims at providing a number of guidelines for implementing "Environment and Health" ("Umwelt und Gesundheit"), an action programme by the Federal Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Health, as well as "Health 21" ("Gesundheit 21"), the framework concept "Health for all" for the WHO's European Region. The paper also aims at initiating and facilitating steps for joint action by the Public Health Service. These theses were passed on to Mrs. Andrea Fischer, the Federal Minister of Health, during a meeting with the Board of the Association. In Germany, environment-related public health protection is well established in the Public Health Departments and state institutes/departments within the scope of public health provision and disease prevention. Typical responsibilities include environmental hygiene and environment-related medical services which have increased in importance. The range of responsibilities and its current political importance are a result of environment-related public health risks, the social situation of the population, also with regard to health issues, and the scope of responsibilities and competencies by doctors and staff in the public health departments. With the people's demands for health, quality of life and life expectancy, this need for action increases. In this paper, judicial, professional, and personal consequence are presented which arise as public health authorities assume these responsibilities.

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness (P.93-104

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, Tax Aggressiveness

  19. Estimating risk at a Superfund site contaminated with radiological and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temeshy, A.; Liedle, J.M.; Sims, L.M.; Efird, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results for estimating carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects at a Superfund site that is radiologically and chemically contaminated. Risk to receptors from disposal of waste in soil and resulting contamination of groundwater, air, surface water, and sediment is quantified. Specific risk assessment components which are addressed are the exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and the resulting risk characterization. In the exposure assessment, potential exposure pathways are identified using waste disposal inventory information for soil and modeled information for other media. Models are used to calculate future radionuclide concentrations in groundwater, soil, surface water and air. Chemical exposure concentrations are quantified using site characterization data. Models are used to determine concentrations of chemicals in surface water and in air. Toxicity parameters used to quantify the dose-response relationship associated with the carcinogenic contaminants are slope factors and with noncarcinogenic contaminants are reference doses. In the risk characterization step, results from the exposure assessment and toxicity assessment are summarized and integrated into quantitative risk estimates for carcinogens and hazard induces for noncarcinogens. Calculated risks for carcinogenic contaminants are compared with EPA's target risk range. At WAG 6, the risk from radionuclides and chemicals for an on-WAG homesteader exceeds EPA's target risk range. Hazard indices are compared to unity for noncarcinogenic contaminants. At WAG 6, the total pathway hazard index for the on-WAG homesteader exceeds unity

  20. Population persistence of stream fish in response to environmental change: integrating data and models across space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B. H.; Schueller, P.; Bassar, R.; Coombs, J.; Rosner, A.; Sakrejda, K.; Kanno, Y.; Whiteley, A.; Nislow, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    For stream fishes, environmental variation is a key driver of individual body growth/movement/survival and, by extension, population dynamics. Identifying how stream fish respond to environmental variation can help clarify mechanisms responsible for population dynamics and can help provide tools to forecast relative resilience of populations across space. Forecasting dynamics across space is challenging, however, because it can be difficult to conduct enough studies with enough intensity to fully characterize broad-scale population response to environmental change. We have adopted a multi-scale approach, using detailed individual-based studies and analyses (integral projection matrix) to determine sensitivities of population growth to environmental variation combined with broad spatial data and analyses (occupancy and abundance models) to estimate patterns of population response across space. Population growth of brook trout was most sensitive to stream flow in the spring and winter, most sensitive to stream temperature in the fall and sensitive to both flow and temperature in the summer. High flow in the spring and winter had negative effects on population growth while high temperature had a negative effect in the fall. Flow had no effect when it was cold, but a positive effect when it was warm in the summer. Combined with occupancy and abundance models, these data give insight into the spatial structure of resilient populations and can help guide prioritization of management actions.

  1. Integrating environmental and genetic effects to predict responses of tree populations to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongli; O'Neill, Gregory A; Aitken, Sally N

    2010-01-01

    Climate is a major environmental factor affecting the phenotype of trees and is also a critical agent of natural selection that has molded among-population genetic variation. Population response functions describe the environmental effect of planting site climates on the performance of a single population, whereas transfer functions describe among-population genetic variation molded by natural selection for climate. Although these approaches are widely used to predict the responses of trees to climate change, both have limitations. We present a novel approach that integrates both genetic and environmental effects into a single "universal response function" (URF) to better predict the influence of climate on phenotypes. Using a large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) field transplant experiment composed of 140 populations planted on 62 sites to demonstrate the methodology, we show that the URF makes full use of data from provenance trials to: (1) improve predictions of climate change impacts on phenotypes; (2) reduce the size and cost of future provenance trials without compromising predictive power; (3) more fully exploit existing, less comprehensive provenance tests; (4) quantify and compare environmental and genetic effects of climate on population performance; and (5) predict the performance of any population growing in any climate. Finally, we discuss how the last attribute allows the URF to be used as a mechanistic model to predict population and species ranges for the future and to guide assisted migration of seed for reforestation, restoration, or afforestation and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

  2. Developing Environmentally Responsible Behaviours Through the Implementation of Argumentation- and Problem-Based Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlıoğlu, Pınar; Aydoğdu, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using argumentation and problem-based learning approaches on the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers. Experimental activities were implemented for 14 weeks for 52 class hours in an environmental education class within a science teaching department. A mixed method was used as a research design; particularly, a special type of Concurrent Nested Strategy was applied. The quantitative portion was based on the one-group pre-test and post-test models, and the qualitative portion was based on the holistic multiple-case study method. The quantitative portion of the research was conducted with 34 third-year pre-service science teachers studying at a state university. The qualitative portion of the study was conducted with six pre-service science teachers selected among the 34 pre-service science teachers based on the pre-test results obtained from an environmentally responsible behaviour scale. t tests for dependent groups were used to analyse quantitative data. Both descriptive and content analyses of the qualitative data were performed. The results of the study showed that the use of the argumentation and problem-based learning approaches significantly contributed to the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers.

  3. Plant responses to environmental stress: regulation and functions of the Arabidopsis TCH genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis TCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicates that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that at least a subset of the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  4. Toxicological Responses of Environmental Mixtures: Environmental Metals Mixtures Display Synergistic Induction of Metal-Responsive and Oxidative Stress Genes in Placental Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A.; Ray, Paul D.; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metals mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu2+ transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. PMID:26472158

  5. 75 FR 61765 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Superfund Research and Training Program. Date: October 26...-Tilotta, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of...

  6. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  7. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  8. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, M.A.; Kovac, C.P.; Norris, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  9. Environmental Responsibility: A Panacea for Operational Disturbances in Offshore West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, I.

    2002-01-01

    Reports from onshore E and P activities in Nigeria have shown that operating in the Niger Delta region poses some of the toughest challenges in the world. The region has witnessed a spate of attacks on oil and gas facilities, staff and contractors, consequently, major oil and gas players have to contend with complex operational uncertainties due to increase pressure from the local communities for improved environmental control measures.To effectively de-risk this region of this category of operational uncertainties, the industry must begin to see environmental performance as not only a measure of how well she can comply with existing environmental regulations, but also as a measure of how well she can pre-empt environmental pressures as well as maintain constant harmony with all concerned stakeholders and seeing herself as responsible to the environment with a view to improve performance.In this project, we have been able to develop SMART' models based on continous consultation, integrated management approach and continous improvement attitude (CIA). With a good FOCUS' approach, this will help in safe and effective operations, pre-empt pressures, maintain harmony with local communities and effectively manage operational disturbances within complex environmental settings like the Nigerian Niger Delta area. Finally, we are of the opinion that every industry that seeks to remain efficient and relevant in this millennium should constantly be looking for ways of becoming more environmentally responsible because no business can call itself efficient if it threatens the environment within which it operates.SMART is an acronym for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bond.FOCUS is an acronym for Fair, Objective, Consistent, Unbiased and Succint

  10. Behavioral and physiologic responses to environmental enrichment in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Dawn; Brown, Janine L; Rodden, Melissa D; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2007-09-01

    The ex situ population of maned wolves is not self-sustaining due to poor reproduction, caused primarily by parental incompetence. Studies have shown that environmental enrichment can promote natural parental behaviors in zoo animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral and physiological responses of maned wolves. During an 8-week experimental period, daily behavior observations and fecal sample collection were conducted on four adult wolves (2.2) individually housed in environments without enrichment. After 2 weeks, the wolves were chronologically provided with 2-week intervals of hiding dead mice around the exhibit, no enrichment, and introduction of boomer balls. Responses of the wolves to enrichment were assessed based on activity levels and exploratory rates, as well as the level of corticoid metabolites in fecal samples collected daily throughout the study period. Providing wolves with environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors (Pmaned wolves. There is evidence suggesting that providing animals with ability to forage for food is a more effective enrichment strategy than introducing objects. There is need for a longer term study to determine the impact of environmental enrichment in this species. Zoo Biol 26:331-343, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Response to Environmental Policy Institute report on Savannah River Plant high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In a recently published report entitled ''Deadly Crop in the Tank Farm,'' the Environmental Policy Institute (EPI) presented its opinions on the hazards associated with waste management practices at SRP. The EPI's allegations were based on selected published Department of Energy and Du Pont reports and on raw data from the unpublished 200-Area Fault Tree Data Bank that it obtained in 1983. Professional staff at SRP have reviewed the report in detail and have provided responses in this document to all significant EPI statements and recommendations. The responses are grouped into five major categories: Waste Management Operations -- Past and Present, Accidents and Risks, Worker Exposure and Cancer Epidemiology, Groundwater Contamination, and Long-Term Waste Management. An overview of the responses is provided in the Summary, and the detailed responses are presented in the body of the report. 55 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2004-01-01

    The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases......" in this context) and measurement error and it is moderated by perceived dissimilarity between the behaviors and by the (moral) importance of behaving in a responsible way towards the environment. These propositions are tested (and confirmed) by means of a mall-intercept survey of ordinary Danish shop...

  13. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  14. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  15. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro, Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  16. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Watson; Karen A. Hegtvedt; Cathryn Johnson; Christie L. Parris; Shruthi Subramanyam

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization) or from students’ peers (endorsement)—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context o...

  17. Environmental and social pressure as drivers of corporate social responsibility in a globalizing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haleem, Fazli; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Studies of drivers of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices that also explore the influence of company size and location are rare. This paper fills this gap by showing the extent to which environmental and social pressures affect the efforts companies put into implementing internal...... and external CSR practices and how size and location affect this relationship. The paper is based on data collected in 2013 using the sixth release of the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey....

  18. METABOLOMICS: A Tool to Assess the Physiological Response of Pseudomonas Strains to Environmental Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wordofa, Gossa Garedew

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of intracellular metabolites is a valuable approach for characterizing and understanding the biochemical processes in cellular systems. Their composition and level represent the molecular phenotype of an organism in response to genetic or environmental......120. These metabolites are not representative of the entire metabolome of P. taiwanensis VLB120, however, they have an essential role in central metabolism. The main chemical classification of these metabolites includes sugars phosphates, amino acids, organic acids, redox cofactors, nucleosides...

  19. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Casady, Grant M.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  20. Space Use Variation in Co-Occurring Sister Species: Response to Environmental Variation or Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Claire M. S.; Meynard, Christine; Watson, Johan; Rioux, Camille; Benhamou, Simon; Perez, Julie; du Plessis, Jurie J.; Avenant, Nico; Pillay, Neville; Ganem, Guila

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence often involves niche differentiation either as the result of environmental divergence, or in response to competition. Disentangling the causes of such divergence requires that environmental variation across space is taken into account, which is rarely done in empirical studies. We address the role of environmental variation versus competition in coexistence between two rodent species: Rhabdomys bechuanae (bechuanae) and Rhabdomys dilectus dilectus (dilectus) comparing their habitat preference and home range (HR) size in areas with similar climates, where their distributions abut (allopatry) or overlap (sympatry). Using Outlying Mean Index analyses, we test whether habitat characteristics of the species deviate significantly from a random sample of available habitats. In allopatry, results suggest habitat selection: dilectus preferring grasslands with little bare soil while bechuanae occurring in open shrublands. In sympatry, shrubland type habitats dominate and differences are less marked, yet dilectus selects habitats with more cover than bechuanae. Interestingly, bechuanae shows larger HRs than dilectus, and both species display larger HRs in sympatry. Further, HR overlaps between species are lower than expected. We discuss our results in light of data on the phylogeography of the genus and propose that evolution in allopatry resulted in adaptation leading to different habitat preferences, even at their distribution margins, a divergence expected to facilitate coexistence. However, since sympatry occurs in sites where environmental characteristics do not allow complete species separation, competition may explain reduced inter-species overlap and character displacement in HR size. This study reveals that both environmental variation and competition may shape species coexistence. PMID:25693176

  1. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  2. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  3. Biomarker responses to environmental contamination in estuaries: A comparative multi-taxa approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Reis-Santos, Patrick; França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2017-08-01

    Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems subjected to numerous anthropogenic pressures with consequent environmental quality degradation. In this study, multiple biomarker responses [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage (DNAd)] were determined in two fish (Dicentrarchus labrax and Pomatoschistus microps) and four macroinvertebrate species (Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon, Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana) from the Ria de Aveiro and Tejo estuaries over distinct months. Two sites per estuarine system were selected based on anthropogenic pressures and magnitude of environmental contamination. Antioxidant enzyme activities in fish species suggested a ubiquitous response to oxidative stress, while biotransformation and effect biomarkers exhibited higher spatial and temporal variation. In invertebrate species, biotransformation enzyme activity was clearly less variable than in fish evidencing lower xenobiotic transformation capability. Overall, largest biomarker responses were found in the most contaminated sites (Tejo), yet species-specific patterns were evident. These should be factored in multi-taxa approaches, considering that the differential functional traits of species, such as habitat use, life-stage, feeding or physiology can influence exposure routes and biomarker responses. The Integrated Biomarker Response index highlighted patterns in biomarker responses which were not immediately evident when analyzing biomarkers individually. Overall, results provided insights into the complexity of species responses to contamination in naturally varying estuarine environments. Ultimately, multi-taxa and multi-biomarker approaches provide a comprehensive and complementary view of ecosystem health, encompassing diverse forms of biological integration and exposure routes, and allow the validation of results among markers

  4. Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Jennifer C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT. The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for

  5. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  6. Chemical dechlorination of pesticides at a superfund site in Region II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, S.; Prince, J.

    1991-01-01

    Selecting technologies for cleaning up hazardous waste sites is a complex task, due in part to the rapidly changing nature of the state-of-the-art in technology. There is strong support for use of innovative technologies as specified in Section 121(b) of CERCLA. However, use of an innovative technology requires overcoming a variety of challenges. These challenges include: Screening potentially appropriate technologies, including innovative technologies, and selecting one or more potential innovative technologies for which preliminary results are promising; however, site-specific data are needed prior to technology evaluation. Evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed technology for the site through the use of treatability studies. Gaining acceptance for the innovative technology, which may employ new or unfamiliar concepts. Determining optimal design and operating parameters for full-scale remediation. This paper discusses the technology evaluation process and how that process supported the selection of an innovative technology for the Myers Property site, a Superfund site in Region II. A case study is presented showing how technology screening and laboratory treatability studies were used to evaluate an innovative technology (chemical dechlorination), which was selected as the technology for remediation of soils and sediments contaminated with pesticides at this environmentally sensitive site in New Jersey. The remedy selected by the U.S. EPA for this site designates chemical dechlorination as the selected technology, but does not specify any particular vendor or process. Rather, the remedy sets forth technology performance standards and recommends certain design tasks which may be used to select a particular chemical process. This paper discusses he of these design tasks as they might apply to innovative technologies, using chemical dechlorination as a model

  7. Can standard sequential extraction determinations effectively define heavy metal species in superfund site soils?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Williamson, Connie A.; Collins, Wesley K.; Dahlin, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Speciation and distribution of heavy metals in soils controls the degree to which metals and their compounds are mobile, extractable, and plant-available. Consequently, speciation impacts the success of remediation efforts both by defining the relationship of the contaminants with their environment and by guiding development and evaluation of workable remediation strategies. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center (Albany, OR), under a two-year interagency project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), examined the suitability of sequential extraction as a definitive means to determine species of heavy metals in soil samples. Representative soil samples, contaminated with lead, arsenic, and/or chromium, were collected by EPA personnel from two Superfund sites, the National Lead Company site in Pedricktown, NJ, and the Roebling Steel, Inc., site in Florence, NJ. Data derived from Tessier=s standard three-stage sequential-extraction procedure were compared to data from a comprehensive characterization study that combined optical- and scanning-electron microscopy (with energy-dispersive x-ray and wavelength-dispersive x-ray analyses), x-ray diffraction, and chemical analyses. The results show that standard sequential-extraction procedures that were developed for characterizing species of contaminants in river sediments may be unsuitable for sole evaluation of contaminant species in industrial-site materials (particularly those that contain larger particles of the contaminants, encapsulated contaminants, and/or man-made materials such as slags, metals, and plastics). However, each sequential extraction or comprehensive characterization procedure has it=s own strengths and weaknesses. Findings of this study indicate that the use of both approaches, during the early stages of site studies, would be a best practice. The investigation also highlights the fact that an effective speciation study does not simply identify metal contaminants as

  8. Response of seagrass indicators to shifts in environmental stressors: A global review and management synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Roca, G.

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrass-based indicators are widely used to assess coastal ecosystem status, there is little universality in their application. Matching the plethora of available indicators to specific management objectives requires a detailed knowledge of their species-specific sensitivities and their response time to environmental stressors. We conducted an extensive survey of experimental studies to determine the sensitivity and response time of seagrass indicators to ecosystem degradation and recovery. We identified seagrass size and indicator type (i.e. level of biological organization of the measure) as the main factors affecting indicator sensitivity and response time to degradation and recovery. While structural and demographic parameters (e.g. shoot density, biomass) show a high and unspecific sensitivity, biochemical/physiological indicators present more stressor-specific responses and are the most sensitive detecting early phases of environmental improvement. Based on these results we present a simple decision tree to assist ecosystem managers to match adequate and reliable indicators to specific management goals. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  10. Superconducting Super Collider: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Comment/response document: Summary and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This volume is divided into five parts as follows: Summary and Index; Letters submitted by commenters in response to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) from date of issue through October 17, 1988; Transcripts of testimony at the public hearings conducted by the DOE in the vicinity of each site alternative; Letters postmarked after October 17, 1988; and Comment responses to both the letters and the testimony. This summary and index is published as a guide to the reader in reviewing this document. The summary is of the approximately 7000 comments received by the DOE from a total of about 5700 commenters. It was prepared as a general reference and guide to the readers of this volume. The Index follows the summary. The first index is an alphabetical listing of commenters (of both letters and transcripts) and indicates the number each commenter was assigned. The commenter numbers guide the reader to DOE comment responses in Volume 2B which are in numerical order

  11. A multi-detector neutron spectrometer with nearly isotropic response for environmental and workplace monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M., E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.e [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bedogni, R. [INFN-LNF Frascati National Laboratory-U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Moraleda, M.; Delgado, A.; Romero, A. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Esposito, A. [INFN-LNF Frascati National Laboratory-U.F. Fisica Sanitaria, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2010-01-21

    This communication describes an improved design for a neutron spectrometer consisting of {sup 6}Li thermoluminescent dosemeters located at selected positions within a single moderating polyethylene sphere. The spatial arrangement of the dosemeters has been designed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the response matrix for 56 log-equidistant energies from 10{sup -9} to 100 MeV, looking for a configuration that permits to obtain a nearly isotropic response for neutrons in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. The feasibility of the proposed spectrometer and the isotropy of its response have been evaluated by simulating exposures to different reference and workplace neutron fields. The FRUIT code has been used for unfolding purposes. The results of the simulations as well as the experimental tests confirm the suitability of the prototype for environmental and workplace monitoring applications.

  12. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  13. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  14. Plant-phytopathogen interactions: bacterial responses to environmental and plant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Simon; Hommais, Florence; Nasser, William; Reverchon, Sylvie

    2017-05-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria attack numerous agricultural crops, causing devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. They survive in diverse environments, both in plants, as pathogens, and also outside their hosts as saprophytes. Hence, they are confronted with numerous changing environmental parameters. During infection, plant pathogens have to deal with stressful conditions, such as acidic, oxidative and osmotic stresses; anaerobiosis; plant defenses; and contact with antimicrobial compounds. These adverse conditions can reduce bacterial survival and compromise disease initiation and propagation. Successful bacterial plant pathogens must detect potential hosts and also coordinate their possibly conflicting programs for survival and virulence. Consequently, these bacteria have a strong and finely tuned capacity for sensing and responding to environmental and plant stimuli. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the signals and genetic circuits that affect survival and virulence factor expression in three important and well-studied plant pathogenic bacteria with wide host ranges and the capacity for long-term environmental survival. These are: Ralstonia solanacerarum, a vascular pathogen that causes wilt disease; Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a biotrophic tumorigenic pathogen responsible for crown gall disease and Dickeya, a brute force apoplastic pathogen responsible for soft-rot disease. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  16. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  17. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  18. Using Remote Sensing Mapping and Growth Response to Environmental Variability to Aide Aquatic Invasive Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Schlick, Greg; Genovese, Vanessa; Wilson, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    Management of aquatic weeds in complex watersheds and river systems present many challenges to assessment, planning and implementation of management practices for floating and submerged aquatic invasive plants. The Delta Region Areawide Aquatic Weed Project (DRAAWP), a USDA sponsored area-wide project, is working to enhance planning, decision-making and operational efficiency in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Satellite and airborne remote sensing are used map (area coverage and biomass density), direct operations, and assess management impacts on plant communities. Archived satellite records enable review of results following previous climate and management events and aide in developing long-term strategies. Examples of remote sensing aiding effectiveness of aquatic weed management will be discussed as well as areas for potential technological improvement. Modeling at local and watershed scales using the SWAT modeling tool provides insight into land-use effects on water quality (described by Zhang in same Symposium). Controlled environment growth studies have been conducted to quantify the growth response of invasive aquatic plants to water quality and other environmental factors. Environmental variability occurs across a range of time scales from long-term climate and seasonal trends to short-term water flow mediated variations. Response time for invasive species response are examined at time scales of weeks, day, and hours using a combination of study duration and growth assessment techniques to assess water quality, temperature (air and water), nitrogen, phosphorus, and light effects. These provide response parameters for plant growth models in response to the variation and interact with management and economic models associated with aquatic weed management. Plant growth models are to be informed by remote sensing and applied spatially across the Delta to balance location and type of aquatic plant, growth response to altered environments and

  19. Phase I Source Investigation, Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P; Evans, Nathan R

    2002-12-18

    This report represents Phase I of a multi-phase approach to a source investigation of DDT at the Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California, the former site of a pesticide packaging plant, and the adjacent waterway, the Lauritzen Channel. Potential identified sources of contamination were from sloughed material from undredged areas (such as side banks) and from outfall pipes. Objectives of Phase I included the (1) evaluation of pesticide concentrations associated with discharge from outfalls, (2) identification of additional outfalls in the area, (3) identification of type, quantity, and distribution of sediment under the Levin pier, (4) quantification of pesticide concentrations in sediment under the pier, and (5) evaluation of sediment structure and slope stability under the pier. Field operations included the collection of sediment directly from inside the mouths of outfall pipes, when possible, or the deployment of specially designed particle traps where direct sampling was problematic. Passive water samplers were placed at the end of known outfall pipes and analyzed for DDT and other pesticides of concern. Underwater dive surveys were conducted beneath the Levin pier to document type, slope, and thickness of sediment. Samples were collected at locations of interest and analyzed for contaminants. Also sampled was soil from bank areas, which were suspected of potentially contributing to continued DDT contamination of the Lauritzen Channel through erosion and groundwater leaching. The Phase I Source Investigation was successful in identifying significant sources of DDT contamination to Lauritzen Channel sediment. Undredged sediment beneath the Levin pier that has been redistributed to the channel is a likely source. Two outfalls tested bear further investigation. Not as well-defined are the contributions of bank erosional material and groundwater leaching. Subsequent investigations will be based on the results of this first phase.

  20. Business Environmental Responsibility in the Hospitality Industry = Okoljska odgovornost podjetij v turistični industriji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah Kasim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the literature is reviewed and analyzed to establish the connection between tourism and the physical environments. The review shows an inevitable link between tourism activities with both environments. This and the strong tourism growth in the past, implies that tourism has far-reaching negative impacts that must be mitigated, not only for the good of the physical environments, but also for the sustainability of the industry itself. The review also indicates a slow integration of responsible environmental considerations into tourism planning and development due to lack of consensus about the importance of sustainable tourism as the industry’s new direction, lack of a single comprehensive meaning of sustainable tourism to ease operationalizing the concept, and the flawed acceptance of alternative tourism as the answer for all tourism ills. The paper ends by confirming the need for a new way of thinking that takes into consideration the fragmented nature of the industry and a collective and conscious effort of all tourism businesses, governmental policymakers and planners as well as the key stakeholders (the society, the NGOS, the CBOS and the tourists to prioritize environmental issues in their daily undertakings. It also highlights the environmental impacts of a hotel operation and stresses the need for hotels, as one of the key tourism businesses to deal with its environmental obligations.

  1. Mining web-based data to assess public response to environmental events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, YoonKyung; Stow, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    We explore how the analysis of web-based data, such as Twitter and Google Trends, can be used to assess the social relevance of an environmental accident. The concept and methods are applied in the shutdown of drinking water supply at the city of Toledo, Ohio, USA. Toledo's notice, which persisted from August 1 to 4, 2014, is a high-profile event that directly influenced approximately half a million people and received wide recognition. The notice was given when excessive levels of microcystin, a byproduct of cyanobacteria blooms, were discovered at the drinking water treatment plant on Lake Erie. Twitter mining results illustrated an instant response to the Toledo incident, the associated collective knowledge, and public perception. The results from Google Trends, on the other hand, revealed how the Toledo event raised public attention on the associated environmental issue, harmful algal blooms, in a long-term context. Thus, when jointly applied, Twitter and Google Trend analysis results offer complementary perspectives. Web content aggregated through mining approaches provides a social standpoint, such as public perception and interest, and offers context for establishing and evaluating environmental management policies. - The joint application of Twitter and Google Trend analysis to an environmental event offered both short and long-term patterns of public perception and interest on the event

  2. One stimulus-Two responses: Host and parasite life-history variation in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Cleveland, Jessica A; Minchella, Dennis J

    2016-11-01

    Climate change stressors will place different selective pressures on both parasites and their hosts, forcing individuals to modify their life-history strategies and altering the distribution and prevalence of disease. Few studies have investigated whether parasites are able to respond to host stress and respond by varying their reproductive schedules. Additionally, multiple environmental stressors can limit the ability of a host to respond adaptively to parasite infection. This study compared both host and parasite life-history parameters in unstressed and drought-stressed environments using the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, in its freshwater snail intermediate host. Snail hosts infected with the parasite demonstrated a significant reproductive burst during the prepatent period (fecundity compensation), but that response was absent in a drought-stressed environment. This is the first report of the elimination of host fecundity compensation to parasitism when exposed to additional environmental stress. More surprisingly, we found that infections in drought-stressed snails had significantly higher parasite reproductive outputs than infections in unstressed snails. The finding suggests that climate change may alter the infection dynamics of this human parasite. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. How Do Plants and Phytohormones Accomplish Heterophylly, Leaf Phenotypic Plasticity, in Response to Environmental Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokuto Nakayama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant species are known to respond to variations in environmental conditions. Many plant species have the ability to alter their leaf morphology in response to such changes. This phenomenon is termed heterophylly and is widespread among land plants. In some cases, heterophylly is thought to be an adaptive mechanism that allows plants to optimally respond to environmental heterogeneity. Recently, many research studies have investigated the occurrence of heterophylly in a wide variety of plants. Several studies have suggested that heterophylly in plants is regulated by phytohormones. Herein, we reviewed the existing knowledge on the relationship and role of phytohormones, especially abscisic acid, ethylene, gibberellins, and auxins (IAA, in regulating heterophylly and attempted to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate heterophylly.

  4. Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions statement of principles for a made in Canada solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions has come up with a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that includes immediate actions with a realistic time frame. The plan addresses air quality as a whole and is not limited to greenhouse gases alone. The plan keeps capital in Canada to invest in new environmental technologies. It also negotiates agreements with economic sectors on emissions performance targets, and it implements energy conservation awareness campaigns that promote the reduction of energy consumption.The plan considers trade relationships with the United Sates and recognizes Canada's role as an important energy exporter. Under the proposed plan, both generators and consumers of renewable energy would receive incentives for their efforts in addressing the climate change challenge

  5. Genetics and evolution of function-valued traits: understanding environmentally responsive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Many central questions in ecology and evolutionary biology require characterizing phenotypes that change with time and environmental conditions. Such traits are inherently functions, and new 'function-valued' methods use the order, spacing, and functional nature of the data typically ignored by traditional univariate and multivariate analyses. These rapidly developing methods account for the continuous change in traits of interest in response to other variables, and are superior to traditional summary-based analyses for growth trajectories, morphological shapes, and environmentally sensitive phenotypes. Here, we explain how function-valued methods make flexible use of data and lead to new biological insights. These approaches frequently offer enhanced statistical power, a natural basis of interpretation, and are applicable to many existing data sets. We also illustrate applications of function-valued methods to address ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral hypotheses, and highlight future directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  7. Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867 tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferrari

    Full Text Available The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26 was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl and non-electrolyte (mannitol media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysis. Tadpoles survived in electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions up to 200 mOsm. The discriminant function was the best tool to describe the responses of the animals to external environmental stress under experimental conditions. The results were compared with those obtained in previous studies using a protocol of acute exposure to the same media used in this study. It was concluded that a multivariate analysis is an appropriate approach to describe the responses of tadpoles to changes in the environmental physicochemical parameters, and b progressive and acute acclimation to the experimental solutions induced similar responses.

  8. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism in transcriptional regulatory regions and expression of environmentally responsive genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuting; Tomso, Daniel J.; Liu Xuemei; Bell, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome are DNA sequence variations that can alter an individual's response to environmental exposure. SNPs in gene coding regions can lead to changes in the biological properties of the encoded protein. In contrast, SNPs in non-coding gene regulatory regions may affect gene expression levels in an allele-specific manner, and these functional polymorphisms represent an important but relatively unexplored class of genetic variation. The main challenge in analyzing these SNPs is a lack of robust computational and experimental methods. Here, we first outline mechanisms by which genetic variation can impact gene regulation, and review recent findings in this area; then, we describe a methodology for bioinformatic discovery and functional analysis of regulatory SNPs in cis-regulatory regions using the assembled human genome sequence and databases on sequence polymorphism and gene expression. Our method integrates SNP and gene databases and uses a set of computer programs that allow us to: (1) select SNPs, from among the >9 million human SNPs in the NCBI dbSNP database, that are similar to cis-regulatory element (RE) consensus sequences; (2) map the selected dbSNP entries to the human genome assembly in order to identify polymorphic REs near gene start sites; (3) prioritize the candidate polymorphic RE containing genes by searching the existing genotype and gene expression data sets. The applicability of this system has been demonstrated through studies on p53 responsive elements and is being extended to additional pathways and environmentally responsive genes

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 3: Comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy''s (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE''s Environmental Management Program. This volume provides responses to public comments on the Draft SEIS-II. Comments are related to: Alternatives; TRU waste; DOE credibility; Editorial; Endorsement/opposition; Environmental justice; Facility accidents; Generator site operations; Health and safety; Legal and policy issues; NEPA process; WIPP facilities; WIPP waste isolation performance; Purpose and need; WIPP operations; Site characterization; Site selection; Socioeconomics; and Transportation

  11. Male endocrine response to seasonally varying environmental and social factors in a neotropical primate, Cebus capucinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Jack, Katharine M; Ziegler, Toni E; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-04-01

    Circannual variation in reproduction is pervasive in birds and mammals. In primates, breeding seasonality is variable, with seasonal birth peaks occurring even in year-round breeders. Environmental seasonality is reportedly an important contributor to the observed variation in reproductive seasonality. Given that food availability is the primary factor constraining female reproduction, predictions concerning responsiveness to environmental seasonality focus on females, with studies of males focusing primarily on social factors. We examined the influence of both environmental and social factors on male fecal testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoids (fGC) in moderately seasonally breeding white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. Over 17 months, we collected 993 fecal samples from 14 males in three groups. We used LMM to simultaneously examine the relative effects of photoperiod, fruit biomass, rainfall, temperature, female reproductive status (i.e., number of periovulatory periods, POPs), and male age and dominance rank on monthly fT and fGC levels. Male age and rank had large effects on fT and fGC. Additionally, some hormone variation was explained by environmental factors: photoperiod in the previous month (i.e., lagged photoperiod) was the best environmental predictor of monthly fT levels, whereas fGC levels were best explained by lagged photoperiod, fruit biomass, and rainfall. POPs predicted monthly fT and fGC, but this effect was reduced when all variables were considered simultaneously, possibly because lagged photoperiod and POP were highly correlated. Males may use photoperiod as a cue predicting circannual trends in the temporal distribution of fertile females, while also fine-tuning short-term hormone increases to the actual presence of ovulatory females, which may occur at any time during the year. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Methodology for Assessing the Quality of Agribusiness Activity Based on the Environmentally Responsible Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Antonovna Anfinogentova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research and development of quality evaluation methods of agro-industrial enterprises activity in the regional economy with the use of the ecological approach. The hypothesis of the study is that the activity of the economic entities (as well as of agribusiness must be assessed not only in the context of economic efficiency and effectiveness, but also in the context of environmental ethics and environmental aggression. As the initial data, we have used the indicators of economic statistics of Russian agrarian-oriented regions, as well as the data received from management reporting on the sample of enterprises of three regions (the Belgorod and Moscow regions, Krasnodar Territory. The article offers the economic and mathematical approach for measuring the level of the environmental responsibility of agro-industrial enterprises on the basic formula of the Mandelbrot set and statistical indicator of Hurst. Our scientific contribution is the development of a modified methodology for assessing the quality of the activity of agro-industrial enterprises using the parameter characterizing the level of environmental ethics and environmental aggression of these entities. The main result of the study is the approbation of the method, which has shown its practical applicability and relative coherence with certain indicators of regional ecological statistics. The proposed method is characterized by the integration of the different mathematical approaches and as an adaptive assessment tool that can be used to assess the quality of the activity of both agro-industrial enterprises and enterprises of other industries and fields of the economy. In the further works, the authors plan to develop methodological approaches to the assessment of the quality of agro-industrial products. At the same time, the main attention will be paid to the ecological and social component of the quality.

  13. A Micro and Mesocosm Approach to Understanding the Response of Branched GDGTs to Environmental Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sosa, P.; Tierney, J. E.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2017-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are membrane lipids with 15 known structures. Thought to be synthesized by bacteria, they are found in peatlands, soils, near-shore marine sediments and lakes. Previous studies have reported a correlation between the number and position of methyl groups and cyclopentane moieties in these lipids with environmental factors such as pH and temperature, leading to the creation of the methylation and cyclisation indices (MBT and CBT respectively). Although an empirical relationship between these structural modifications and environmental conditions has been described, the source organism for these molecules remains unknown. Lacking pure cultures of brGDGT producing bacteria, a different approach is necessary to study their response to environmental perturbations under controlled conditions. To this end, we studied the production of brGDGTs in water from two fishing lakes in Arizona using a series of microcosms, comprised by 1L flasks filled with environmental water; and mesocosm experiments, where two 20L tanks were filled with either lake water or lake water and synthetic sediments. This experimental design allowed us to modify environmental factors while preserving the natural conditions of the sample. Our experiments point to a production of brGDGTs on the suspended particulate matter in the water column, which appears to contribute to some extent to the presence of this molecules on lake sediments. Furthermore, we observed a shift in the ratio between 5' and 6' isomers related to both the presence of a carbon source and temperature. Limited oxygen availability appears to correlate with higher brGDGT concentration. Notably, we find that methylation decreases with increasing temperature in our experiments at a rate that is roughly in agreement with empirical observations. To our knowledge, these experiments provide the first evidence of growth and alteration of brGDGTs under laboratory conditions, which could be

  14. Germination Response of Four Alien Congeneric Amaranthus Species to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Hua; Lv, Shuang-Shuang; Bhattacharya, Saurav; Fu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination is the key step for successful establishment, growth and further expansion of population especially for alien plants with annual life cycle. Traits like better adaptability and germination response were thought to be associated with plant invasion. However, there are not enough empirical studies correlating adaptation to environmental factors with germination response of alien invasive plants. In this study, we conducted congeneric comparisons of germination response to different environmental factors such as light, pH, NaCl, osmotic and soil burials among four alien amaranths that differ in invasiveness and have sympatric distribution in Jiangsu Province, China. The data were used to create three-parameter sigmoid and exponential decay models, which were fitted to cumulative germination and emergence curves. The results showed higher maximum Germination (Gmax), shorter time for 50% germination (G50) and the rapid slope (Grate) for Amaranthus blitum (low-invasive) and A. retroflexus (high-invasive) compare to intermediately invasive A. spinosus and A. viridis in all experimental regimes. It indicated that germination potential does not necessarily constitute a trait that can efficiently distinguish highly invasive and low invasive congeners in four Amaranthus species. However, it was showed that the germination performances of four amaranth species were more or less correlated with their worldwide distribution area. Therefore, the germination performance can be used as a reference indicator, but not an absolute trait for invasiveness. Our results also confirmed that superior germination performance in wide environmental conditions supplementing high seed productivity in highly invasive A. retroflexus might be one of the reasons for its prolific growth and wide distribution. These findings lay the foundation to develop more efficient weed management practice like deep burial of seeds by turning over soil and use of tillage agriculture to control

  15. MicroRNAs in inflammation and response to injuries induced by environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkoly, Enikö; Pivarcsi, Andor

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate basic biological processes by posttranscriptional suppression of their target genes. Altered miRNA expression may lead to widespread gene expression changes and has been implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the role of miRNAs in inflammation and in the response to environmental agents and pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, ethanol, carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dioxin, and UV radiation.

  16. MicroRNAs in inflammation and response to injuries induced by environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonkoly, Enikoe [Molecular Dermatology Research Group, Unit of Dermatology and Venerology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Pivarcsi, Andor, E-mail: andor.pivarcsi@ki.se [Molecular Dermatology Research Group, Unit of Dermatology and Venerology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate basic biological processes by posttranscriptional suppression of their target genes. Altered miRNA expression may lead to widespread gene expression changes and has been implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the role of miRNAs in inflammation and in the response to environmental agents and pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, ethanol, carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dioxin, and UV radiation.

  17. Synthesis of environmentally responsive organic materials by application of ion track holes in polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Hideki; Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Katakai, Ryoichi; Spohr, R; Vetter, J

    1997-03-01

    Polymer films were irradiated by heavy ion beams and etched by a concentrated alkali solution to produce particle track membranes (PTMs). Then the PTMs were chemically modified by grafting such monomers as amino acid group containing methacryloyl and N-isopropylacrylamide the polymers of which are known as environmentally responsive hydrogels. The size of pores of the modified PTMs under different temperatures in water was followed by electron microscopy. The pore was controlled from an open state to a completely closed state by changing temperature. The conductivity through the membrane was measured by changing the temperature of the cell. (author)

  18. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available

  19. Plastic response by a small cervid to supplemental feeding in winter across a wide environmental gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ossi, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hebblewhite, M.; Morellet, N.; Ranc, N.; Sandfort, R.; Kroeschel, M.; Kjellander, P.; Mysterud, A.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Heurich, M.; Soennichsen, L.; Šustr, Pavel; Berger, A.; Rocca, M.; Urbano, F.; Cagnacci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e01629. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : deer capreolus-capreolus * white-tailed deer * home-range size * moose alces-alces * roe deer * climate-change * habitat selection * red deer * seasonal migration * snow-cover * artificial feeding * climate behavioral responses * climate change * roe deer * winter severity * ungulate management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  20. Optimization Evaluation: Lee Chemical Superfund Site, City Of Liberty, Clay County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lee Chemical Superfund Site (site) is located along Missouri Highway 210 in Liberty, Missouri, approximately 15 miles east of Kansas City, Missouri. Currently, the site is a vacant lot of approximately2.5 acres in a flat alluvial plain.

  1. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Community Involvement at Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.; Walker, St.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the EPA Superfund program's statutory requirements for community involvement. It also discusses the efforts the Superfund program has made that go beyond these statutory requirements to involve communities, and what lessons have been learned by EPA when trying to conduct meaningful community involvement at sites. In addition, it discusses tools that EPA has designed to specifically enhance community involvement at radioactively contaminated Superfund sites. In summary, the Superfund program devotes substantial resources to involving the local community in the site cleanup decision making process. We believe community involvement provides us with highly valuable information that must be available to carefully consider remedial alternatives at a site. We also find our employees enjoy their jobs more. Rather than fighting with an angry public they can work collaboratively to solve the problems created by the hazardous waste sites. We have learned the time and resources we devote at the beginning of a project to developing relationships with the local community, and learning about their issues and concerns is time and resources well spent. We believe the evidence shows this up-front investment helps us make better cleanup decisions, and avoids last minute efforts to work with a hostile community who feels left out of the decision-making process. (authors)

  2. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: RECLAMATION OF LEAD FROM SUPERFUND WASTE MATERIAL USING SECONDARY LEAD SMELTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This process involves incorporating lead-contaminated Superfund waste with the regular feed to a secondary lead smelter. Since secondary lead smelters already recover lead from recycled automobile batteries, it seems likely that this technology could be used to treat waste from ...

  3. 77 FR 21433 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA will prohibit activities that would disturb the seabed, such... or capped are arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, PAHs and PCBs. The metal contaminants were... installed in the designated regulated navigation area, pursuant to the remediation efforts of the U.S...

  4. Remediation System Evaluation, Tutu Wellfield Superfund Site, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tutu Wellfield Superfund Site is a 1.5 square mile site located on the eastern end of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) within the upper Turpentine Run surface drainage basin in the Anna’s Retreat area.

  5. Learning from Katrina: environmental health observations from the SWCPHP response team in Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Boatright, Daniel T; Woodson, Paul; Clinkenbeard, Rodney E; Brand, Michael W

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina provided an opportunity to observe the public health and medical care response system in practice and provided vital lessons about identifying and learning critical response measures as well as about ineffective investments of time and effort. The Southwest Center for Public Health Preparedness (SWCPHP) response team, while working among evacuees housed at Reliant Park in Houston, Texas, made a number of observations related to environmental public health. This summary reports firsthand observations which are, to a great extent, supported by the Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned report, and it provides a contextual backdrop for improvement in the areas of volunteer and citizen preparedness training and education. Katrina provided an opportunity to see public health in a highly stressed practice setting and to identify and reinforce the fundamental tenets of public health with which all individuals responding to an event should be familiar. Knowledge gained from Katrina should be integrated into future efforts related to disaster response planning; specifically, it is imperative that volunteers receive standardized training in the areas of incident command systems (ICS), basic hygiene, transmission of disease, and food and water safety principles.

  6. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  7. An appraisal of biological responses and network of environmental interactions in non-mining and mining impacted coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Malik, A; Jineesh, V.K.; Fernandes, S.O.; Das, A; Pandey, S.S.; Kanolkar, G.; Sujith, P.P.; Velip, D.; Shaikh, S.; Helekar, S.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    iron brought from the hinterlands. We hypothesize that there could be a shift in biological response along with changes in network of interactions between environmental and biological variables in these mining and non-mining impacted regions, lying 160...

  8. Designing a Likert-Type Scale to Predict Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Undergraduate Students: A Multistep Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; D'Costa, Ayres

    1995-01-01

    Describes an attempt to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior. Presents a six-step psychometric process used to develop the Environmental Action Internal Control Index (EAICI) for undergraduate students. Contains 54 references. (JRH)

  9. Hazardous materials emergency response training program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) as the engineering vocational training arm of the Texas A ampersand M University system has conducted oil-spill, hazardous-material, and related safety training for industry since 1976 and fire suppression training since 1931. In 1987 TEEX conducted training for some 66,000 persons, of which some 6000 were in hazardous-materials safety training and 22,000 in fire suppression or related fields. Various laws and regulations exist relative to employee training at an industrial facility, such as the Hazard Communication Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or more commonly Superfund), the Community Right to Know Law, and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Titles I and III. The TEEX programs developed on the foundation emphasize the hands-on approach (60% field exercises) to provide a comprehensive training curriculum resulting in regulatory compliance, an effective emergency response capability, a prepared community, and a safe work environment

  10. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level......We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene...... expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic (1)H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led...

  11. ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR CORPORATE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY: ACTIVE, PARTICIPATIVE, AND JUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Firmansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, will be assessed the implementation of corporate social responsibility by coal corporate to look for an alternative model of corporate social responsibility and environtment protection in the context of protecting and managing of natural resources with environmentally concept. Juridical with conceptual approach, the source analysis data technique derived from literature studies and documents. Dalam penelitian ini akan dikaji pelaksanaan tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dan lingkungan oleh perusahaan batubara untuk kemudian mencari model alternatif tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dan lingkungan dalam konteks perlindungan dan pengelolaan sumberdaya alam yang berwawasan lingkungan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah yuridis normatif dengan pendekatan undangundang dan pendekatan konseptual, sumber data yang digukana diperoleh dari studi kepustakaan, teknik analisa data diperoleh dari studi literatur dan dokumen.

  12. Meteorological monitoring for environmental/dose assessment and emergency response modeling: How much is enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    In evaluation the effectiveness and appropriateness of meteorological monitoring programs, managers responsible for planning and operating emergency response or environmental/dose assessment systems must routinely question whether enough meteorological data are being obtained to adequately support system applications. There is no simple answer or cookbook procedure that can be followed in generating an appropriate answer to this question. The answer must be developed through detailed consideration of the intended applications for the data, the capabilities of the models that would use the data, pollutant release characteristics, terrain in the modeling region, the size of the modeling domain, and the distribution of human population in the modeling domain. It is recommended that manager consult meteorologists when assessing these factors; the meteorologist's detailed knowledge of, and experience in, studying atmospheric transport and diffusion should assist the manager in determining the appropriate level of meteorological monitoring. 1 ref

  13. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingna Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  14. 40 CFR 312.25 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cleanup liens. 312.25 Section 312.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS INNOCENT LANDOWNERS, STANDARDS FOR... cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental...

  15. Pengaruh Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Dan Environmental Performance Terhadap Economic Performance Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Novitasari; Heriningsih, Sucahyo

    2012-01-01

    This research is aimed to examine effect Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) Disclosure and EnvironmentalPerformance on Economic Performance.This research used Corporate Social Responsibility Index (CSDI) asmeasure of CSR, Proper Index as measure of Environmental Performance and Return on Equity (ROE) asmeasure of Economic Performance. The samples of this research are 11 manufactur firms listed at IndonesianStock Exchange year 2006 until 2009. The research hyphotesis were tested using mu...

  16. Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W.

    1983-05-01

    Human response to severe environmental stress is conceived and implemented by individuals, but must be approved by the group. These decisions are made with respect to perceived circumstances. Societies are enmeshed within adaptive systems that provide a matrix of opportunities and constraints for a wide range of potential behavioral variability. Such systems repeatedly readjust to short-term crises, e.g., droughts, but persistent and severe environmental stress may require substantial revision of adaptive strategies. The Sahel drought of 1968-1973 is an example of a brief but severe crisis, recurring along the Saharan margins perhaps once every 30 years. Closer inspection shows links between intensified intertribal warfare and ecological stress in the lower Omo Valley. The decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom during the 12th century B.C., in response to economic stagnation, sociopolitical instability, dynastic weakness, foreign pressures, and poor Nile floods over 50-70 years, represents a more complex and fundamental modification, with systemic simplification lasting 450 years. Such insights can be applied to future, global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric CO 2. Simulation and paleoclimatic experience suggest a drier climate for the North American and Soviet breadbaskets, to threaten world food supplies at a time of maximum demographic pressures and declining resources. Public perception and remedial planning should receive the attention of Quaternary scientists, in order to preempt an involuntary, global, systemic simplification.

  17. A quantitative model to assess Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Lucena, R

    2014-01-01

    The awareness of the impact of human activities in society and environment is known as "Social Responsibility" (SR). It has been a topic of growing interest in many enterprises since the fifties of the past Century, and its implementation/assessment is nowadays supported by international standards. There is a tendency to amplify its scope of application to other areas of the human activities, such as Research, Development and Innovation (R + D + I). In this paper, a model of quantitative assessment of Social Responsibility in Environmental Science and Technology (SR EST) is described in detail. This model is based on well established written standards as the EFQM Excellence model and the ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on SR. The definition of five hierarchies of indicators, the transformation of qualitative information into quantitative data and the dual procedure of self-evaluation and external evaluation are the milestones of the proposed model, which can be applied to Environmental Research Centres and institutions. In addition, a simplified model that facilitates its implementation is presented in the article. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bay of Fundy tidal energy : a response to the strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Tidal in-stream energy conversion is an emerging technology to harness sea power. These energy conversion devices are similar to underwater windmills. The government of Nova Scotia is interested in understanding the potential effects of these devices on the Bay of Fundy. As a result, it commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) that was completed in the spring of 2008. This document presented a response to the SEA. It discussed Nova Scotia's specific approach to tidal energy as well as the province's broader approach to marine renewable energy in the Bay of Fundy, with specific responses to each recommendation in the SEA. The energy context was presented, with particular reference to energy strategy; emissions; legal requirements; production costs; and carbon costs. The report also discussed tidal lagoon technology as well as a demonstration facility called the Fundy Tidal Energy Centre. The objectives of the SEA were also described and recommendations were presented. Recommendations were grouped under several key themes such as sustainability principles; allowing the demonstration of tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) technologies; marine renewable energy legislation; research program; Mi'kmaq ecological knowledge study; provincial standard for ecological data; Bay of Fundy socioeconomic background study; marine renewable energy demonstration program; siting demonstration projects; and environmental assessment of the demonstration facility. figs

  19. The USEPA environmental response team TAGA at work at the Hart building fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickunas, D.B.; Turpin, R. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States). Environmental Response Team; Blaze, S.; Wood, J. [Lockheed Martin Inc., Edison, NJ (United States). Response Engineering and Analytical Contract

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the fumigation activities conducted at the Hart Senate Office building in Washington, DC in October 2001 following the delivery of a letter containing anthrax. Anthrax spores were dispersed in areas within the office. The United States States Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Response Team (USEPA/ERT) was responsible for the decontamination activities. Chlorine dioxide was chosen as the anthrax sporicide after a detailed technical review and consultation with scientific experts. ERT provided continuous, near real-time ambient air monitoring during the fumigation process. The monitoring was conducted to ensure that the nearby residences were not impacted by the chlorine dioxide fumigant. The monitoring plan required the use of a Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA), a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer mounted in a mobile laboratory. The monitoring activities of ERT's mobile laboratory were outlined in this paper along with the logistical and technical aspects of the air monitoring. More than 130 hours of TAGA monitoring was performed and 2.3 million data points were collected. No chlorine or chlorine dioxide concentrations were observed above the action limits during any fumigation event. The building was cleared by the health and regulatory agencies and re-opened in January 2002. It was concluded that TAGA is an excellent technology to monitor these compounds because is is extremely sensitive and selective. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Didier

    2018-04-25

    Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA). T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  1. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Salmon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria. In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs, rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA. T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  2. Evaluation of response function of moderating-type neutron detector and application to environmental neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwai, Satoshi; Katsuki, Shinji; Kamata, Masashi.

    1983-08-01

    The energy-dependent response function of a multi-cylinder moderating-type BF 3 counter, so-called Bonner counter, was calculated by the time-dependent multi-group Monte Carlo code, TMMCR. The calculated response function was evaluated experimentally for neutron energy below about 50 keV down to epithermal energy by the time-of-flight method combining with a large lead pile at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo and also above 50 keV by using the monoenergetic neutron standard field a t the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The time delay in the polyethylene moderator of the Bonner counter due to multiple collisions with hydrogen was analyzed by the TMMCR code and used for the time-spectrum analysis of the time-of-flight measurement. The response function obtained by these two experiments showed good agreement with the calculated results. This Bonner counter having a response function evaluated from thermal to MeV energy range was used for spectrometry and dosimetry of environmental neutrons around some nuclear facilities. The neutron spectra and dose measured in the environment around a 252 Cf fission source, fast neutron source reactor and electron synchrotron were all in good agreement with the calculated results and the measured results with other neutron detectors. (author)

  3. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  4. Examining responses of ecosystem carbon exchange to environmental changes using particle filtering mathod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Attention has been paid to the agricultural field that could regulate ecosystem carbon exchange by water management and residual treatments. However, there have been less known about the dynamic responses of the ecosystem to environmental changes. In this study, focussing on paddy field, where CO2 emissions due to microbial decomposition of organic matter are suppressed and alternatively CH4 emitted under flooding condition during rice growth season and subsequently CO2 emission following the fallow season after harvest, the responses of ecosystem carbon exchange were examined. We conducted model data fusion analysis for examining the response of cropland-atmosphere carbon exchange to environmental variation. The used model consists of two sub models, paddy rice growth sub-model and soil decomposition sub-model. The crop growth sub-model mimics the rice plant growth processes including formation of reproductive organs as well as leaf expansion. The soil decomposition sub-model simulates the decomposition process of soil organic carbon. Assimilating the data on the time changes in CO2 flux measured by eddy covariance method, rice plant biomass, LAI and the final yield with the model, the parameters were calibrated using a stochastic optimization algorithm with a particle filter method. The particle filter method, which is one of the Monte Carlo filters, enable us to evaluating time changes in parameters based on the observed data until the time and to make prediction of the system. Iterative filtering and prediction with changing parameters and/or boundary condition enable us to obtain time changes in parameters governing the crop production as well as carbon exchange. In this study, we focused on the parameters related to crop production as well as soil carbon storage. As the results, the calibrated model with estimated parameters could accurately predict the NEE flux in the subsequent years. The temperature sensitivity, denoted by Q10s in the decomposition rate of

  5. Micro-evolutionary responses and adaptive costs of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutilleul, M.

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary evolution of organisms is largely dependent on anthropogenic disturbances. In particular, pollution amplifies the intensity or the quantity of selection pressures on populations. However, these changes may have negative effects on the life, growth and reproduction of individuals, the demographics of the population, and its phenotypic and genetic characteristics over generations. Thus, micro-evolutionary changes are likely to occur in response to selection pressures. These phenomenon lead to collateral damages: adaptive costs. For example, a reduction of genetic diversity in a population entails a decrease in its potential to adapt to other stressors. Populations can be more susceptible to many environmental changes, especially with the increase of human activities. Hence in an ecological risk assessment, studying the mechanisms of action and immediate adverse effects of pollutants on organisms is no longer sufficient. It is also necessary to expand our knowledge on the evolution of populations in polluted environment. In this context, our study aims to determine the micro-evolutionary response of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stressors, and to measure their costs of adaptation. Populations were experimentally exposed for 22 generations to a high concentration of uranium, sodium chloride or an alternation of both these pollutants. The analysis of phenotypic and genetic changes, observed through measures of life history traits, was accomplished using several quantitative genetics techniques. In particular, we confirmed the genetic differentiation between populations with an increase of resistance in populations exposed to different pollutions. The speed of evolutionary responses depended on the conditions of exposure and their effects on the expression of the genetic structure of traits (e.g. G matrix). Micro-evolutionary changes were linked to costs of adaptation, such as reduced fertility in stressful novel

  6. Superfund TIO videos: Set A. Settlement tools and practices, win-win negotiations, closeout, records management, authorities and liabilities. Part 5. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into 5 sections. Section 1 provides an overview of settlement activities including conducting an information exchange, issuing general notice letters, initiating special notice procedures, receiving good faith offers (GFO), negotiating and settlements, and pursuing enforcement actions. Section 2 covers the types of negotiations that commonly involve OSCs and RPMs. The characteristics of a negotiating style that satisfy all the parties as well as methods for preparing and conducting this type of negotiation are outlined. Section 3 deals with post-removal site control arrangements and other closeout requirements for a removal site, such as completing necessary paperwork. The remedial project closeout procedures also are covered, including the remedial closeout report, operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) arrangements, transfer of site responsibility, and deletion from the National Priorities List (NPL). Section 4 discusses the purpose, procedures, roles and responsibilities associated with records management under Superfund. Section 5 outlines the response authority provided by CERCLA to OCSs and RPMs

  7. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  8. Issuance of Final Guidance: Ecological Risk Assessment and Risk Management Principles for Superfund Sites, October 7, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to help Superfund risk managers make ecological risk management decisions that are based on sound science, consistent across Regions, and present a characterization of site risks that is transparent to the public.

  9. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    ensuring that this work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, and DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, which require the publication of an annual report that characterizes the site's environmental management performance. To summarize, the general regulatory drivers for this environmental monitoring plan are ISO 14001, DOE Order 450.1A, DOE Order 5400.5, and DOE Order 231.1. The environmental monitoring addressed by this plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, effluent and surveillance monitoring, and permit and regulatory compliance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). LLNL coordinates its ground water surveillance monitoring program with the CERCLA monitoring program to gain sampling efficiencies. (See LLNL [1992] and LLNL [2008] for information about LLNL's CERCLA activities).

  13. Joint responsibility between the EU and Member States for non-performance of obligations under multilateral environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.; Morgera, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  14. Joint Responsibility between the EU and Member States for Non-Performance of Obligations under Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  15. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  16. Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerly Adriana S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified

  17. Complex response of white pines to past environmental variability increases understanding of future vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Iglesias

    Full Text Available Ecological niche models predict plant responses to climate change by circumscribing species distributions within a multivariate environmental framework. Most projections based on modern bioclimatic correlations imply that high-elevation species are likely to be extirpated from their current ranges as a result of rising growing-season temperatures in the coming decades. Paleoecological data spanning the last 15,000 years from the Greater Yellowstone region describe the response of vegetation to past climate variability and suggest that white pines, a taxon of special concern in the region, have been surprisingly resilient to high summer temperature and fire activity in the past. Moreover, the fossil record suggests that winter conditions and biotic interactions have been critical limiting variables for high-elevation conifers in the past and will likely be so in the future. This long-term perspective offers insights on species responses to a broader range of climate and associated ecosystem changes than can be observed at present and should be part of resource management and conservation planning for the future.

  18. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  19. Varying boreal forest response to Arctic environmental change at the Firth River, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu-Hayles, Laia; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott; Frank, David

    2011-01-01

    The response of boreal forests to anthropogenic climate change remains uncertain, with potentially significant impacts for the global carbon cycle, albedo, canopy evapotranspiration and feedbacks into further climate change. Here, we focus on tree-ring data from the Firth River site at treeline in northeastern Alaska, in a tundra–forest transition region where pronounced warming has already occurred. Both tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies were developed to identify the nature of tree growth and density responses to climatic and environmental changes in white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant Arctic treeline species. Good agreement was found between the interannual fluctuations in the TRW chronology and summer temperatures from 1901 to 1950, whereas no significant relationships were found from 1951 to 2001, supporting evidence of significant divergence between TRW and summer temperature in the second half of the 20th century. In contrast to this unstable climatic response in the TRW record, the high frequency July–August temperature signal in the MXD series seems reasonably stable through the 20th century. Wider and denser rings were more frequent during the 20th century, particularly after 1950, than in previous centuries. Finally, comparison between the tree-ring proxies and a satellite-derived vegetation index suggests that TRW and MXD correlate with vegetation productivity at the landscape level at different times of the growing season.

  20. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  1. Influence of a chlor-alkali superfund site on mercury bioaccumulation in periphyton and low-trophic level fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Chalmers, Ann T.; Broadley, Hannah J.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Brian P.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2015-01-01

    In Berlin, New Hampshire, USA, the Androscoggin River flows adjacent to a former chlor-alkali facility that is a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site and source of mercury (Hg) to the river. The present study was conducted to determine the fate and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) to lower trophic-level taxa in the river. Surface sediment directly adjacent to the source showed significantly elevated MeHg (10–40× increase, mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 20.1 ± 24.8 ng g–1 dry wt) and total mercury (THg; 10–30× increase, mean ± SD: 2045 ± 2669 ng g–1 dry wt) compared with all other reaches, with sediment THg and MeHg from downstream reaches elevated (3–7× on average) relative to the reference (THg mean ± SD: 33.5 ± 9.33 ng g–1 dry wt; MeHg mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.21 ng g–1 dry wt). Water column THg concentrations adjacent to the point source for both particulate (0.23 ng L–1) and dissolved (0.76 ng L–1) fractions were 5-fold higher than at the reference sites, and 2-fold to 5-fold higher than downstream. Methylmercury production potential of periphyton material was highest (2–9 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt) adjacent to the Superfund site; other reaches were close to or below reporting limits (0. 1 ng g–1 d–1 dry wt). Total Hg and MeHg bioaccumulation in fauna was variable across sites and taxa, with no clear spatial patterns downstream of the contamination source. Crayfish, mayflies, and shiners showed a weak positive relationship with porewater MeHg concentration.

  2. Proceedings of the 34. AMOP technical seminar on environmental contamination and response 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 34th AMOP Arctic and marine oilspill conference was held in Banff, Alberta, Canada, from October 4th to October 6th, 2011. The aim of the Arctic and marine oilspill program (AMOP), which was started in 1978 by Environment Canada, is to help improve understanding of oil spills which occur in the Arctic marine environment and the technology for cleaning them up. This technical seminar is held every year by the Emergencies Science and Technology Section (ESTS) of Environment Canada and provides attendees with the opportunity to hear about some of the latest technologies and to discuss with other experts in the field of Arctic and marine environmental contamination and response. 38 out of the 61 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  3. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  4. History meets palaeoscience: Consilience and collaboration in studying past societal responses to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldon, John; Mordechai, Lee; Newfield, Timothy P; Chase, Arlen F; Izdebski, Adam; Guzowski, Piotr; Labuhn, Inga; Roberts, Neil

    2018-03-27

    History and archaeology have a well-established engagement with issues of premodern societal development and the interaction between physical and cultural environments; together, they offer a holistic view that can generate insights into the nature of cultural resilience and adaptation, as well as responses to catastrophe. Grasping the challenges that climate change presents and evolving appropriate policies that promote and support mitigation and adaptation requires not only an understanding of the science and the contemporary politics, but also an understanding of the history of the societies affected and in particular of their cultural logic. But whereas archaeologists have developed productive links with the paleosciences, historians have, on the whole, remained muted voices in the debate until recently. Here, we suggest several ways in which a consilience between the historical sciences and the natural sciences, including attention to even distant historical pasts, can deepen contemporary understanding of environmental change and its effects on human societies.

  5. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  6. History and social responses to environmental tax reform in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Jackson, Tim; Gilbert, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a short history of fuel taxation and the Climate Change Levy in the UK. The research described was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. Interviews were conducted with selected policy makers and companies. Focus groups were conducted with quota samples of the general public. The research shows that the problem that ETR faces in terms of public acceptance is not so much outright hostility to environmental taxation as conceptual problems with the design. Similar conceptual problems were also found in the interviews with business people. These can be summarised as lack of trust about use of the revenues, difficulty in understanding the purpose of a tax shift and a desire for incentives for good behaviour as well as perceived 'penalties' for bad behaviour

  7. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  8. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  9. Avian migrants adjust migration in response to environmental conditions en route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...... covering the entire migration period every year from observatories located in the Middle East and northern Europe, we show that passage of the Sahara Desert is delayed and correlated with improved conditions in the wintering areas. By contrast, migrants travel more rapidly through Europe, and adjust...... the migration cycle, or whether recently reported phenological changes are caused by plastic behavioural responses or evolutionary change. Here, we investigate how environmental conditions in the wintering areas as well as en route towards breeding areas affect timing of migration. Using data from 1984 to 2004...

  10. Mandatory Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibilities in the New Indonesian Limited Liability Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Un Oppusunggu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On 16 August 2007 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono signed the Bill of Limited Liability Company, as approved by the Parliament, and consequently it became the Law No. 40 of Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company. The law revokes the then existing Law No. 1 of Year 1995. This law has 14 chapters and 161 articles, and introduces new provision on, inter alia, corporate social and environmental responsibilities (CSER. The legislators have specifically dedicated Chapter V and its Article 74 to this effect. CSER is defined as commitment of the Company to participate in sustainable economic development with the intention of increasing the living quality and beneficial environment for the Company itself, the surrounding communities, and public in general. This article discusses CSER as stipulated in the Law in relation the logic of a limited liability company. It analyzes the necessity of stipulating it in the Law in relation to the objective of a limited liability company.

  11. Corporate Social-Environmental Responsibility as an Attraction and Retention Factor for Young Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates if company social-environmental responsibility (SER is an attraction and retention factor for young professionals in two studies. The first study, an experiment, investigates whether such practices influence the attraction exerted by the company as a prospect employer among undergraduate students, considering different wage and professional development conditions. The second study, a survey, investigates the impact of company SER on voluntary turnover among trainees, controlling for individual differences and satisfaction with income, growth and interests. The results suggest that SER is an important element in the attractiveness exercised by companies as they recruit young professionals, and in the retention of trainees, since it is statistically associated with the likelihood of them leaving their companies after disputed selection processes and expensive training programs.

  12. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  13. Study of response of radiation monitors for environmental dose equivalent measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Macilene N.; Khoury, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental dose equivalent H * (10), is the magnitude recommended by ICRU 39 for environmental monitoring in fields of radiation of photons. Most of the equipment used for area monitoring, only quantifies the magnitudes exposure or dose not being designed to this new magnitude. In Brazil, particularly, is not yet regulated the use of H * (10). However, with the revision of the standard 3.01 it will necessary the use of monitors that allow the achievement of measures according to H * (10). The transition for using new magnitudes will be a slow process and the contribution that the laboratories of metrology of ionizing radiation in the country can give is, at first, promote and create the habit of using the unit Sievert (Sv) in the calibration of the instruments, and that is the unit recommended for H * (10). In a second step, the tests for determining the response of the instruments for H * (10) should be made and this is the harder step, taking into account the large number of area monitors around the country. These tests will provide information about the limitations of the instrument to the new magnitude, that is, the range where the instrument will have the best performance in quantification of new magnitude. This paper evaluates the performance for H * (10), with the variation of energy and angle of incidence of radiation, of three of the most used monitors in the country

  14. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Environmental response nanosilica for reducing the pressure of water injection in ultra-low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peisong; Niu, Liyong; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    The super-hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are applied to alter the wettability of rock surface from water-wet to oil-wet. The aim of this is to reduce injection pressure so as to enhance water injection efficiency in low permeability reservoirs. Therefore, a new type of environmentally responsive nanosilica (denote as ERS) is modified with organic compound containing hydrophobic groups and "pinning" groups by covalent bond and then covered with a layer of hydrophilic organic compound by chemical adsorption to achieve excellent water dispersibility. Resultant ERS is homogeneously dispersed in water with a size of about 4-8 nm like a micro-emulsion system and can be easily injected into the macro or nano channels of ultra-low permeability reservoirs. The hydrophobic nanosilica core can be released from the aqueous delivery system owing to its strong dependence on the environmental variation from normal condition to injection wells (such as pH and salinity). Then the exposed silica nanoparticles form a thin layer on the surface of narrow pore throat, leading to the wettability from water-wet to oil-wet. More importantly, the two rock cores with different permeability were surface treated with ERS dispersion with a concentration of 2 g/L, exhibit great reduce of water injection pressure by 57.4 and 39.6%, respectively, which shows great potential for exploitation of crude oil from ultra-low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  17. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sunna 535-nm photo-fluorescent film dosimeter response to different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.K.; Kovacs, A.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, S.D.; Puhl, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations on the influence of environmental variabilities on the red fluorescence component of the Sunna Model γ photo-fluorescent dosimeter TM have previously been reported. This present paper describes the environmental effects on the response of the green fluorescence component of the same dosimeter, which is manufactured using the injection molding technique. The results presented include temperature, relative humidity, and light influences both during and after irradiation. The green fluorescence signal shows a significant dependence on irradiation temperature below room temperature at 1%/ deg. C. Above room temperature (approximately 24-60 deg. C), the irradiation temperature effect varies from -0.1%/ deg. C to 1.0%/ deg. C, depending on the absorbed dose level. For facilities with irradiation temperatures between 30 deg. C and 60 deg. C and absorbed dose levels above 10 kGy, irradiation temperature effects are minimal. Light-effects results indicate that the dosimeter is influenced by ultraviolet and blue wavelengths during irradiation as well as during the post-irradiation stabilization period (approximately 22 h), requiring the use of light-tight packaging. Results also show that the dosimeter exhibits negligible effects from ambient moisture during and after irradiation when in the range of 33-95% relative humidity

  19. Communication of Social and Environmental Responsibility in the Mission, Vision and Values of BM&FBovespa and Fortune 500 companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Cristiane de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines evidence of the socio-environmental alignment of companies listed on the Novo Mercado segment of the BM&FBovespa and in the Fortune 500, using content analysis of the mission, vision and values published by these organizations. Data were collected from the websites of the 233 companies that made up the research sample. Findings reveal that 90 of the companies investigated showed some evidence of social and environmental concerns in the dimensions analyzed. Indication of socio-environmental concerns appeared more frequently with regard to the dimension "values." Among the 42 terms encountered that refer to environmental concern, "sustainable" and "sustainability" appeared most frequently among the companies listed on BM&FBovespa, while "integrity", "ethics" and "social responsibility" were those more often used by the Fortune 500 companies. Results suggest that social and environmental disclosure is still incipient. Moreover, it is observed that organizations evincing some degree of concern in their missions, visions and values cannot necessarily be seen as socially and environmentally responsible, because the inclusion of this information in their texts is not proof that the company carries out actions of socio-environmental responsibility.

  20. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed geophysical logs from 20 test wells and 23 residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site in East Fishkill, New York, from 2006 through 2010 as part of an Interagency Agreement to provide hydrogeologic technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2. The geophysical logs collected include caliper, gamma, acoustic and optical televiewer, deviation, electromagnetic-induction, magnetic-susceptibility, fluid-property, and flow under ambient and pumped conditions. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with single-well aquifer test data and drilling logs to characterize the lithology, fabric, fractures, and flow zones penetrated by the wells. The results of the geophysical log analysis were used as part of the hydrogeologic characterization of the site and in the design of discrete-zone monitoring installations in the test wells and selected residential wells.