WorldWideScience

Sample records for superficial corneal foreign

  1. Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects Corpo estranho corneal superficial: aspectos laboratoriais e epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednajar Tavares Macedo Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine by bacterioscopy and culture the microorganisms carried by corneal foreign body and their sensitivity to antibiotics by antibiotic sensitivity test. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out and information was collected on 101 patients who presented with corneal foreign body at the São Paulo Hospital Eye Emergency Service. Prior to any treatment, a sample of the ipsilateral inferior conjunctival fornix and the foreign body were collected and immersed in thioglycolate broth. Samples were sown on solid culture media including blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. Bacterioscopic examination using Gram and Giemsa staining and sensitivity test were performed. Positive foreign body culture results were compared to ipsilateral conjunctival fornix culture to exclude possible normal flora growth. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients were males with a mean age of 35 years and in 62.4% (95% confidence interval: 52.2 - 71.8% had the right eye was affected. Foreign body positive cultures were achieved in 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.7 - 42.7% of the cases. The microorganisms isolated from the foreign body culture were identified as: Streptococcus, alpha-hemolytic (n=4, Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative (n=4, Corynebacterium xerosis (n=3, unidentified Gram-positive bacillus (n=2, Moraxella sp (n=1, Serratia sp (n=1, Acynetobacter sp (n=1. The microbial sensitivity test showed that 95% of the cases were sensitive to chloramphenicol and 90% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, these being antibiotics used in our routine service. CONCLUSION: Superficial corneal foreign body acts as important contaminant vector and the great majority of isolated bacteria were sensitive to the antibiotic prophylaxis used in the treatment.OBJETIVOS: Identificar por meio de cultura e bacterioscopia os microrganismos veiculados por corpo estranho corneal e sua sensibilidade aos antibióticos em teste de antibiograma. M

  2. Pentacam-based phototherapeutic keratectomy outcome in superficial corneal opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK as an alternative treatment to keratoplasty using the Pentacam to assess depth of dense opacities.Methodology: PTK was performed in eleven eyes of ten patients with superficial corneal opacities after assessment by Scheimpflug images of the Pentacam for central corneal thickness (CCT and opacity level and depth.Results: The best-corrected spectacle visual acuity (BCSVA significantly improved. The preoperative mean logMAR was 0.85 (0.14 decimal equivalent, 6/42 Snellen's equivalent, and the final postoperative mean logMAR was 0.58 (0.26 decimal equivalent, 6/23 Snellen's equivalent. The mean preoperative CCT was 465.64 ± 71.94 µm. The mean programmed ablation depth was 142.09 ± 47.58 µm. The programmed ablation depth was correlated to mean logMAR early (1 month and not correlated later (6 months. None of the eyes lost lines of BCSVA or developed serious complications, such as keratectasia, delayed epithelialization, or corneal melting.Conclusion: Corneal scars extending beyond the anterior one-fifth of the cornea can be treated safely and effectively by PTK due to the smoothing effect, with reduction of the cylinder rather than complete opacity removal. This can decrease the need for keratoplasty.Keywords: phototherapeutic keratectomy, PTK, corneal opacities, Pentacam

  3. Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy in superficial corneal degenerations: Efficacy in a rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Aparna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the applicability and efficacy of superficial keratectomy with transplantation of preserved amniotic membrane in superficial corneal degenerations in a rural population of Northern India in terms of visual improvement and surface regularization. Settings: Peripheral referral center in rural north India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective non-comparative interventional case series where 24 eyes of 20 farmers from peripheral rural areas (M:F = 19:1 with visually significant superficial degenerative disorders (15 eyes with climatic droplet keratopathy one of which was associated with Salzmann nodular degeneration and nine eyes with band-shaped keratopathy were subjected to amniotic membrane transplantation (single or multiple layer combined with superficial keratectomy. Subjective and objective outcomes after surgery were evaluated and analyzed and statistical significance of the outcomes in various disorders was evaluated. Results: Eighty-eight per cent (21 eyes had symptomatic relief from distressing preoperative symptoms while postoperative visual improvement by two or more lines was achieved in 23 eyes (96% over a mean follow-up period of 26.8 ± 10.2 months. The surface irregularity present preoperatively was relieved in 23 cases while postoperative decline of vision with visually significant scarring was seen in one case (4%, which was labeled as failure. Conclusions: Amniotic membrane transplant with superficial keratectomy helped achieve subjective comfort, visual rehabilitation and clinical regularization of the corneal surface in superficial corneal degenerations during the mean followup of 26.8 ± 10.2 months in rural setups.

  4. UUnilateral corneal edema caused by a hidden foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, V; Tello, A; Frederick, G A; Laiton, A N

    2017-09-01

    A middle-aged adult male was referred to our institution due to unilateral corneal edema for a possible corneal transplant. At first, the patient denied a history of trauma. A small foreign body, which had been overlooked by the primary ophthalmologist, was detected by gonioscopy, embedded in the anterior chamber angle. It was successfully surgically removed and visual results were good. In any patient with unilateral unexplained corneal edema, it is necessary to rule out the presence of a foreign body in the anterior chamber. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis of superficial ocular lesions and corneal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gritz, D.C.; Storey-Held, K. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    1994-02-01

    The potential of a rapid noninvasive diagnostic system to detect tissue abnormalities on the surface of the eye has been investigated. The optical scatter signal from lesions and normal areas on the conjunctival sclera of the human eye were measured in vivo. It is possible to distinguish nonpigmented pingueculas from other lesions. The ability of the system to detect malignancies could not be tested because none of the measured and biopsied lesions were malignant. Optical scatter and fluorescence spectra of bacterial and fungal suspensions, and corneal irritations were also collected. Both scattering and fluorescence show potential for diagnosing corneal infections.

  6. Induced astigmatism after diamond burr superficial keratectomy for recurrent corneal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Janie H; Choi, David M

    2009-11-01

    To report a case of induced astigmatism after diamond burr superficial keratectomy (DBSK) for recurrent corneal erosion (RCE). Case report. Review of clinical findings in a 54-year-old women with ocular history of a scleral buckling procedure for a retinal detachment from blunt trauma and phacoemulsification with intraocular lens placement. The patient presented with RCE after trauma with a mascara brush to the OD and was treated with DBSK. Postoperatively, she developed significant astigmatism. In the third postoperative week after the DBSK procedure, the patient reported of worsening vision. On corneal topography, the patient was found to have 4 diopters of induced astigmatism. The astigmatic error was followed closely by serial corneal topography; a gradual decrease in the amount of astigmatism occurred over the course of 30 weeks. Forme fruste keratoconus was suspected in the patient's contralateral eye, based on corneal topographic analysis. Induced corneal astigmatism is a previously undescribed complication that can occur after DBSK. It is unclear whether the induced astigmatism in our patient was caused by the DBSK procedure alone or whether the patient had decompensated structural integrity from forme fruste keratoconus or blunt corneal trauma or both. The authors recommend that corneal topographic analysis be appropriately considered before DBSK for RCE and that corneal astigmatism be seen as a potential complication of the procedure.

  7. Change in Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness, Corneal Thickness, Volume and Topography after Superficial Cauterization for Conjunctivochalasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ye, Cong; Ng, Paul K F; Li, Emmy Y M; Yuen, Hunter K L; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-07-17

    We evaluated the change in tear film lipid layer thickness, corneal thickness, volume and topography after superficial cauterization of symptomatic conjunctivochalasis. Bilateral superficial conjunctival cauterization was performed in 36 eyes of 18 patients with symptomatic conjunctivochalasis. The mean age of patients (12 males, 6 females) was 68.6 ± 10.9 years (range: 44-83 years). Preoperatively, 28 eyes (77.8%) had grade 1 conjunctivochalasis, and 8 eyes (22.2%) had grade 2 conjunctivochalasis. At 1 month postoperatively, the severity of conjunctivochalasis decreased significantly (p corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness and corneal volume decreased significantly postoperatively (p corneal thickness and volume were observed after surgical correction of conjunctivochalasis.

  8. Tarantula Hairs as Corneal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Stagg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of tarantula hairs found in the cornea and discuss treatment. Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with a 6-week history of right ocular irritation that began after letting his pet tarantula crawl on his face. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye revealed the presence of approximately 16 dark foreign bodies that had the appearance of small hairs. The foreign bodies were removed from the nasal region of the right cornea using Jewelers forceps, and the patient was prescribed a combination neomycin, polymyxin B, and dexamethasone ointment (Maxitrol®, given 4 times per day. Results: The patient presented for follow-up 2 weeks later, with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: Effective treatment of keratitis caused by tarantula hairs includes taking a detailed history, conducting a careful slit-lamp examination, removal of any accessible hairs, and initiation of treatment with a topical steroid as determined by the clinical picture.

  9. Pantoea ananatis as a Cause of Corneal Infiltrate after Rice Husk Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Geetha; Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya; DSilva, Sean Socrates; Prajna, N. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an agricultural worker presenting with corneal infiltrate following ocular injury with a rice husk. On examination, a superficial corneal foreign body was removed and sent for culture, which grew Pantoea ananatis. This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical case report of Pantoea ananatis causing corneal infiltrate. PMID:22461671

  10. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Corneal Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa; Abelson, Mark

    2015-03-03

    Purpose. To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. Methods. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the Opencv computer vision library. Images (N=229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of fifty-four photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0-4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlations (CCC) and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Results. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by Investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of Investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred=1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (p<0.0001). CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% C.I. (0.884, 0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in standard deviation between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. Conclusion. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multi-centered clinical trials of dry eye.

  11. Superficial keratectomy and topical mitomycin C as therapy for a corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, K; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, A

    2008-04-01

    A 10-year-old female West Highland white terrier was presented with refractory hyperplastic keratitis of the left cornea of one month's duration. At this time, a vascularised and rough lesion 5 mm in diameter was observed on the left cornea. No other abnormality was recognised on the affected eye. The corneal neoplasm was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. For two months after the surgery, 0.04 percent mitomycin C (MMC) eye drops were applied as adjuvant chemotherapy. Primary corneal squamous cell carcinoma with no history of keratoconjunctivitis sicca is rare in dogs. In the present report, surgical removal of the neoplasm was combined with the topical administration of the anticancer drug mitomycin C and a good prognosis was obtained. The result indicates that the combination treatment used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for corneal squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  12. UTILIZATION OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Triticum vulgare (BANDVET® AFTER SUPERFICIAL KERATECTOMY IN DOMESTIC CATS AFFLICTED WITH CORNEAL SEQUESTRUM. UTILIZAÇÃO DO EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Triticum vulgare (BANDVET® APÓS CERATECTOMIA SUPERFICIAL EM SEQÜESTRO CORNEAL FELINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Laus

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Corneal sequestrum is an affliction of cats, which is not well defined. The lesion is characterized by degeneration of collagen, followed by accumulation in the cornea of a darkened pigment of variable intensity. Various treatments are adopted taking into account the depth and stage of the lesion, where lamellar keratectomy is the option most often taken. In the present work, four cases are described of Persian breed cats afflicted with corneal sequestrum, that were submitted to lamellar keratectomy followed by third eyelid flap or conjunctival pedicle flap, and afterward treated topically with the aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (Bandvet®, without adverse effects. The results obtained showed that Bandvet®, despite that it is a pharmaceutical not for ophthalmic use, can be employed in cats after superficial keratectomy.

    KEY WORDS: Corneal sequestrum, feline, keratectomy, Triticum vulgare

    De causa não bem definida, o seqüestro de córnea é uma afecção que incide sobre os felinos. A lesão caracteriza-se pela degeneração do colágeno, seguida de acúmulo de pigmento enegrecido, de intensidade variável, na córnea. As alternativas terapêuticas são adotadas levando-se em conta a profundidade e o estágio da lesão, sendo a ceratectomia lamelar a opção mais utilizada. No presente trabalho, descrevem-se quatro casos de felinos da raça Persa acometidos por seqüestro de córnea, que foram submetidos à ceratectomia lamelar seguida de flap de terceira pálpebra ou de enxerto pediculado de conjuntiva e, posteriormente, tratados com extrato aquoso de Triticum vulgare (Bandvet®, topicamente, sem resultados adversos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o Bandvet®, a despeito de não se tratar de fármaco para uso oftálmico, pode ser empregado em felinos ap

  13. 伴角膜水肿的角膜异物新的联合手术效果观察%Clinical observation of new method for removal of corneal foreign bodies with corneal edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of annular separation and whole foreign body removal combined with hypertonic glucose eye drops in the treatment of corneal iron foreign bodies with corneal edema.Methods One hundred and eight eyes of 108 patients of corneal iron foreign bodies with corneal edema were randomly devided into observation group (54 patients, 54 eyes) and control group (54patients, 54 eyes).The patients in observation group underwent annular separation whole foreign body removal, then were given levofloxacin eye drops , recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and 50% glucose eye drops.The patients in control group underwent annular separation whole foreign body removal, then were given the eye drops as observation group except for 50% glucose eye drop.Patients visited on the 2, 4, 6, 8 d after removal of corneal foreign bodies.The ocular symptoms, corneal edema and wound healing of the cornea were observed.Central corneal thickness was measured using OCT.Results On the 4th day after removal of corneal foreign bodies, the cure rate was 70.37% in the observation group and 48.15% in control group (x2 =39.19, P =0.028).On the 6th day after removal of corneal foreign bodies, the cure rate was 96.30% in the observation group and 87.04% in control group (x2 =64.36, P =0.035).The average time of corneal edema cure was (3.92 ±0.18) days in the observation group and (4.75 ±0.25) days in control group (t =5.32, P =0.023).The average time of corneal wound healing was (5.25 ± 0.15) days in the observation group and (6.95 ± 0.21) days in control group (t =4.59, P =0.016).Conclusion Annular separation and whole corneal foreign body removal combined with hypertonic glucose eyedrops for treatment of corneal iron foreign bodies with corneal edema is remarkably effective, it can significantly accelerate detumescence and shorten the course.%目的 观察伴角膜水肿的角膜铁屑异物施行环形分离整体剔出术联合高渗

  14. [The effect of Solcoseryl eye gel in combination with neomycin and bacitracin on the healing of corneal lesions after foreign body removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, P

    1983-09-01

    The effect of Solcoseryl on the healing rate of corneal lesions after foreign body removal was assessed in a double-blind study. Solcoseryl is a protein-free hemodialysate which is widely used to stimulate tissue repair processes. The healing rate was determined by means of photodocumentation which was complete in 82 out of 92 cases. The Solcoseryl group showed in significantly faster healing rate and a lower tendency to development of corneal opacities than the control group. No side-effects were observed which could be attributed to either of the drugs used in the study.

  15. Repercusión del tratamiento ocular crónico y la exposición a pantallas de ordenador sobre la integridad de la superficie ocular. Diseño de biomarcadores y nuevas terapias para preservar la transparencia corneal y la función visual

    OpenAIRE

    Galbis Estrada, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nuestros ojos deben mantenerse humedos y lubrificados para permitir la transparencia corneal y la visión nítida. La lágrima es esencial para la estabilidad del epitelio corneal y conjuntival. Cuando es deficiente o se adhiere con dificultad a la superficie ocular, origina un amplio rango de signos y síntomas, cuyo máximo exponente es la xerosis, falta de transparencia corneal y pérdida de la visión. El tratamiento médico del paciente con ojo seco (OS) debe ser etiológico, sintomático, ...

  16. Creation of a realistic model for removal of a metallic corneal foreign body for less than $75.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayegh, Julie Sami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic corneal foreign bodies (MCFBs are one of the most common causes of ocular injury presenting to the emergency department. Delays in removal, or forceful attempts to remove the MCFB can lead to infection, further injury to the eye, and worsening of vision. In order to prevent these underlying complications, it is imperative for the medical provider to properly master this technique. As current trends in simulation become more focused on patient safety, task-trainers can provide an invaluable learning experience for residents, medical students and physicians. Models made from bovine eyes, agar plates, gelatin, and corneas created from glass and paraffin wax have been previously been created.One study also used a rubber glove filled with water to simulate intraocular measurement with a Tonopen. However the use of corneas created from ballistics gel for MCFB removal and intraocular pressure measurement has not been studied. We propose a realistic, sustainable, cost-effective MCFB task-trainer to introduce the fundamental skills required for MCFB removal and measurement of intraocular pressure with a Tonopen. A pilot survey study performed on medical students and emergency medicine resident physicians showed an increase in comfort levels performing both MCFB removal and measurement of intraocular pressure with a Tonopen after using this task-trainer.

  17. Corneal foreign bodies--first aid, treatment, and outcomes. Skills review for an occupational health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J K; Scibilia, J; Hezoucky, N

    2001-05-01

    Eye injuries from foreign body incidents remain prevalent in the workplace setting. Often the professional nurse provides the first line of treatment. The informal class presented at the authors' facility offered a comprehensive, organized presentation of a common injury encountered in the practice of occupational health nursing. Strenghts of the presentation included handouts demonstrating eye eversion technique and a flip chart summarizing the content to be placed in each medical station as quick reference. One challenge involved presenting the information to all nurses. The site encompasses four locations and some nurses function as the only staff in the plant for a given shift. With the support of administration and some creative scheduling, 10 of 17 nurses attended one of three classes offered in one morning, and the remaining 7 were able to view the class on videotape. Videotaping the presentation also provided material for future orientation, as well as an opportunity for review. Overall analysis found this a worthwhile offering relevant to practice. A brief formal written evaluation indicated the objectives for the class were achieved and elicited subjects for future topics. Informal chart reviews to check for documentation of visual acuity testing and eversion of the upper lid for foreign body injuries is another outcome measure currently in progress. In addition, a performance improvement project could be accomplished easily by retrospective chart review of assessment and treatment documentation, and tracking of revisits and referrals. Knowledge of current standards in the assessment, first aid, and treatment of eye injuries is every occupational health nurse's responsibility. However, prevention of foreign body injuries is far superior to any treatment modality available. As highly visible leaders within the occupational setting, nurses can be advocates and role models for safe work practices. Occupational health nurses may promote safe eye practices by

  18. Microscopia confocal cuantitativa del haze corneal y correlación con la ametropía a tratar en cirugía refractiva de superficie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas Alvarez

    2016-07-01

    Conclusiones: El grosor del haze corneal obtenido en pacientes intervenidos con excímer láser mediante la técnica LASEK es dependiente de la magnitud de la ametropía a tratar, y adquiere su mayor valor a los 3 meses de posoperatorio. La magnitud de la ametropía no es el único factor influyente en la aparición y grosor del haze. En córneas transparentes en el posoperatorio de LASEK siempre existe algún grado de haze corneal morfométrico.

  19. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laceration? Corneal Laceration Diagnosis Corneal Laceration Treatment What Is Corneal Laceration? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: ... A Harrison MD Sep. 01, 2016 The cornea is the clear front window of the eye . A ...

  20. Corneal stromal dystrophies: a clinical pathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Barbosa Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Corneal dystrophy is defined as bilateral and symmetric primary corneal disease, without previous associated ocular inflammation. Corneal dystrophies are classified according to the involved corneal layer in superficial, stromal, and posterior dystrophy. Incidence of each dystrophy varies according to the geographic region studied. PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of stromal corneal dystrophies among corneal buttons specimens obtained by penetrating keratoplasty (PK in an ocular pathology laboratory and to correlate the diagnosis with patient age and gender. METHODS: Corneal button cases of penetrating keratoplasty from January-1996 to May-2009 were retrieved from the archives of The Henry C. Witelson Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory and Registry, Montreal, Canada. The cases with histopathological diagnosis of stromal corneal dystrophies were stained with special stains (Peroxid acid Schiff, Masson trichrome, Congo red analyzed under polarized light, and alcian blue for classification and correlated with epidemiological information (age at time of PK and gender from patients' file. RESULTS: 1,300 corneal buttons cases with clinical diagnose of corneal dystrophy were retrieved. Stromal corneal dystrophy was found in 40 (3.1% cases. Lattice corneal dystrophy was the most prevalent with 26 cases (65%. Nineteen were female (73.07% and the PK was performed at average age of 59.3 years old. Combined corneal dystrophy was found in 8 (20% cases, 5 (62.5% of them were female and the average age of the penetrating keratoplasty was 54.8 years old. Granular corneal dystrophy was represented by 5 (12.5% cases, and 2 (40% of them were female. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed at average age of 39.5 years old in granular corneal dystrophy cases. Macular corneal dystrophy was present in only 1 (2.5% case, in a 36 years old female. CONCLUSION: Systematic histopathological approach and evaluation, including special stains in all stromal

  1. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related People with Advanced Keratoconus May Have A Future Alternative to Full Corneal ... 2016 Corneal Collagen Cross-linking Approved to Treat Keratoconus in U.S. Aug 01, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, ...

  2. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lost sight from a corneal scar as a child. Now that I’m older, will a corneal transplant help me? May 15, 2015 Why Do My Eyes Burn After Inserting My Contacts? Feb 27, 2015 Dark ...

  3. Corneal Abrasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lead to a serious condition called a corneal ulcer . That's why it's important to see a doctor to get a corneal abrasion checked out. What Causes a Corneal ... and land on your cornea, tears help to wash the particles away. Sometimes, ...

  4. A native-like corneal construct using donor corneal stroma for tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering holds great promise for corneal transplantation to treat blinding diseases. This study was to explore the use of natural corneal stroma as an optimal substrate to construct a native like corneal equivalent. Human corneal epithelium was cultivated from donor limbal explants on corneal stromal discs prepared by FDA approved Horizon Epikeratome system. The morphology, phenotype, regenerative capacity and transplantation potential were evaluated by hematoxylin eosin and immunofluorescent staining, a wound healing model, and the xeno-transplantation of the corneal constructs to nude mice. An optically transparent and stratified epithelium was rapidly generated on donor corneal stromal substrate and displayed native-like morphology and structure. The cells were polygonal in the basal layer and became flattened in superficial layers. The epithelium displayed a phenotype similar to human corneal epithelium in vivo. The differentiation markers, keratin 3, involucrin and connexin 43, were expressed in full or superficial layers. Interestingly, certain basal cells were immunopositive to antibodies against limbal stem/progenitor cell markers ABCG2 and p63, which are usually negative in corneal epithelium in vivo. It suggests that this bioengineered corneal epithelium shared some characteristics of human limbal epithelium in vivo. This engineered epithelium was able to regenerate in 4 days following from a 4mm-diameter wound created by a filter paper soaked with 1 N NaOH. This corneal construct survived well after xeno-transplantation to the back of a nude mouse. The transplanted epithelium remained multilayer and became thicker with a phenotype similar to human corneal epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that natural corneal stroma is an optimal substrate for tissue bioengineering, and a native-like corneal construct has been created with epithelium containing limbal stem cells. This construct may have great potential for clinical use in

  5. Bilateral acute corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, T F; Leibowitz, H M

    1985-04-01

    A 38-year-old man with brittle, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and bilateral severe dry eyes with recurrent corneal ulcers developed atypical band-shaped calcifications of both corneas during a 24-hour period. Serum calcium, phosphate, and carbon dioxide levels all were within normal limits. The patient was mildly uremic but was not in renal failure. When EDTA chelation failed to clear the deposits, partial keratectomies were performed in both eyes and the specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy, including energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Microscopic studies revealed an atypical calcific keratopathy which involved neither Bowman's layer nor the most superficial stromal lamellae. The deposits were confined to deeper lamellae in the anterior stroma and by electron microscopy were composed of extracellular crystalline aggregates. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of these aggregates confirmed the presence of calcium and phosphate. Corneal dessication appeared to be a major contributing factor in the rapid formation of these deposits.

  6. Corneal Laceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs. These drugs thin the blood and may increase bleeding. After you have finished protecting the eye, see a physician immediately. Next Corneal Laceration Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers I lost sight from a corneal scar as a child. Now that I’m older, ...

  7. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration ... Laceration Treatment What Is Corneal Laceration? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es una Laceración de la Córnea? Written ...

  8. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration Sections What Is Corneal Laceration? ...

  9. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration Sections What Is Corneal Laceration? ...

  10. Value of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in corneal wound repair after corneal foreign body elimination%重组人表皮生长因子修复角膜异物剔除后角膜创面的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宏杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨重组人表皮生长因子( recombinant human epidermal growth factor ,rhEGF)对角膜异物剔除后角膜创面的修复效果。方法:选取2012-01/2013-01来我院就诊的角膜异物患者102例188眼为研究对象,根据随机数字表法分为治疗组和对照组。两组患者均于裂隙灯下剔除角膜异物,术后治疗组患眼应用重组人表皮生长因子衍生物滴眼液联合妥布霉素进行治疗,对照组患眼仅应用妥布霉素治疗。比较两组治疗3d后的疗效。结果:治疗后3d,治疗组的治愈率(93.7%)明显高于对照组治愈率(76.6%),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组荧光素染色阴性率为90.4%,高于对照组的46.8%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:rhEGF能够特异性和角膜上皮细胞受体结合,缩短损伤的角膜上皮的创伤愈合时间,加速愈合,是一种治疗外伤性角膜上皮缺损的有效方法。%AIM: To investigate the repair efficacy of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on corneal epithelium after corneal foreign body eliminating operation. METHODS:There were 102 patients with corneal foreign body ( 188 affected eyes ) chosen for the study. All patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table. Both groups received corneal foreign body elimination by slit lamp.Postoperatively, the treatment group was given eye drops containing epidermal growth factor ( JinYinShu) combined with tobramycin while the control group was only administrated with tobramycin. Treatment effects were compared 3d after treatment. RESULTS: Three days after treatment, the cure rate in the treatment group ( 93.7%), was significantly higher than that in the control group (76.6%) (P<0.05).In the treatment group, fluorescein staining was negative in 90.4%of the cases, significantly higher than that in the control group (46.8%) (P<0

  11. 角膜板层清创联合无缝线羊膜移植术治疗表浅真菌性角膜炎%Clinical observation of corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for the treatment of superficial fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张皇; 艾明

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation for the treatment of superficial fungal keratitis. ●METHODS:Totally 22 cases (22 eyes) with superficial fungal keratitis were referred to our hospital from April 2012 to October 2013. The patients with persistent cornea ulcer after treatment of local and systemic antifungal drugs underwent corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation, and the recipient bed was covered with an amniotic membrane using fibrin sealant during the operation. All patients were still given topical antifungal therapy for 1 -2mo after operation. The followed- up time was 3mo or above. We observed the corneal healing and amniotic membrane adhesion by split lamp microscope, and investigated the transformation of amniotic membrane and fungal infection recurrence with confocal microscope. ●RESULTS: Corneal edema and anterior chamber reaction of 21 patients disappeared gradually, and no amniotic membrane graft dissolved and shed off within 1-2wk postoperatively. Two weeks after operation, the graft integrated into the corneal and the corneal wounds' thickness increased gradually, the corneal epithelium reconstructed and corneas became clear. Four weeks after operation, the corneal scarring developed gradually and fluorescence staining was negative. Nineteen cases' amniotic membranes that adhered with the cornea dissolved 4wk after operation. There were different degrees of corneal nebula or macula remained 3mo postoperatively. All patients' vision improved in varying degrees, except in 1 case with fungal keratitis who had been cured by lamellar keratoplasty. ●CONCLUSlON:Corneal lamellar debridement combined with sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation can effectively remove the foci of inflammation, improve the local efficacy, shorten the operation time, relieve the postoperative reaction, and promote cornea union

  12. Dorsally located corneal dermoid in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J LoPinto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 2-month-old, male kitten was presented for evaluation of unilateral blepharospasm and epiphora involving the right eye. Ocular examination revealed conjunctivitis, a superficial corneal ulcer, reflex anterior uveitis and a haired mass within the dorsal cornea of the right eye. The mass was subsequently removed surgically via a lamellar keratectomy. Histologic evaluation of the mass via light microscopy revealed it to be comprised of normal-haired skin with mild inflammation. One week after surgical removal and medical management of the corneal ulcer, all ocular clinical signs had resolved with minimal corneal scarring. On re-examination 6 months following surgical excision of the mass, the kitten was noted to be comfortable with no significant corneal scarring. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a dorsally located corneal dermoid in a cat.

  13. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 People with Advanced Keratoconus May Have A Future Alternative to Full Corneal Transplantation Nov 29, 2016 Combating Eye Injuries from Air Guns Aug 30, ...

  14. Corneal transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lenses to achieve the best vision. Laser vision correction may be an option if you have nearsightedness, ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Corneal Disorders Refractive Errors Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  15. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Corneal Laceration? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  16. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself. A corneal laceration is a very serious injury and requires immediate medical attention to avoid severe ... Dangerous for Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, ...

  17. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself. A corneal laceration is a very serious injury and requires immediate medical attention to avoid severe ... 27, 2015 Dark Spot in Vision After Blunt Trauma Dec 21, 2014 Pain a Year After Eyelid ...

  18. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself. A corneal laceration is a very serious injury and requires immediate medical attention to avoid severe ... and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, ...

  19. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2017 People with Advanced Keratoconus May Have A Future Alternative to Full Corneal Transplantation Nov 29, 2016 Combating Eye Injuries from Air Guns Aug 30, ... Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  20. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by something sharp flying into the eye. It can also be caused by something striking the eye ... If the corneal laceration is deep enough it can cause a full thickness laceration. This is when ...

  1. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Corneal Laceration? Written By: Daniel Porter ...

  2. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... By: Devin A Harrison MD Sep. 01, 2017 The cornea is the clear front window of the eye . A corneal laceration is a cut on the cornea. It is usually caused by something sharp ...

  3. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself. A corneal laceration is a very serious injury and requires immediate medical attention to avoid severe ... 27, 2015 Dark Spot in Vision After Blunt Trauma Dec 21, 2014 Pain a Year After Eyelid ...

  4. Corneal Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard

    Corneal transplantation has been performed for more than 100 years. Until 15 years ago the state-of-the art type of transplantation was penetrating keratoplasty, but since the start of this millennium, newly designed surgical techniques have developed considerably. Today, the vast majority of ker...

  5. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration ... After Eyelid Scratch Jul 28, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es una Laceración de la Córnea? Find ...

  6. Corneal topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Koch-Jensen, P.; Østerby, Ole

    1993-01-01

    The central corneal zone is depicted on keratoscope photographs using a small target aperture and a large object distance. Information on the peripheral area is included by employing a hemispherical target with a dense circular and radial pattern. On a 16 mm (R = 8 mm) reference steel sphere...

  7. Corneal chromoblastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, K; Miller, D; Pflugfelder, S C

    1997-03-01

    We sought to illustrate the difficulty in managing uncommon, pigmented mold-related corneal ulceration and to highlight the role of itraconazole in treating these patients. We describe the management and clinical course of a patient with a recurring corneal infection caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi and discuss this experience in the light of existing literature on management of cutaneous chromoblastomycosis. A corneal ulcer caused by this organism healed initially on treatment with topical and systemic antifungal medication, but infection recurred in the deep stroma 4 months after cessation of therapy. After failure to respond to a further period of medical therapy, a small therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Culture of a fibrinous membrane from the anterior iris surface demonstrated intraocular fungal infection, and postoperatively, an episode of marked fibrinous uveitis developed, suggesting the presence of viable intraocular fungal elements. A large penetrating keratoplasty was therefore performed with excision of involved iris in combination with extracapsular cataract extraction. F. pedrosoi was again cultured from the fibrinous membrane adherent to the iris and from the anterior lens capsule. Postoperatively the patient received a 5-month course of systemic itraconazole, and no further recurrences have been encountered after a further 2 months. F. pedrosoi is the organism most commonly isolated from the chronic cutaneous mycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and is relatively resistant to medical therapy. As has been reported for cutaneous disease, surgery in combination with systemic itraconazole may provide the best chance of cure in corneal chromoblastomycosis.

  8. Feline corneal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Phillip Anthony

    2005-05-01

    The cornea is naturally transparent. Anything that interferes with the cornea's stromal architecture, contributes to blood vessel migration, increases corneal pigmentation, or predisposes to corneal edema, disrupts the corneas transparency and indicates corneal disease. The color, location, and shape and pattern of a corneal lesion can help in determining the underlying cause for the disease. Corneal disease is typically divided into congenital or acquired disorders. Congenital disorders, such as corneal dermoids are rare in cats, whereas acquired corneal disease associated with nonulcerative or ulcerative keratitis is common. Primary ocular disease, such as tear film instability, adenexal disease (medial canthal entropion, lagophthalmus, eyelid agenesis), and herpes keratitis are associated with the majority of acquired corneal disease in cats. Proliferative/eosinophilic keratitis, acute bullous keratopathy, and Florida keratopathy are common feline nonulcerative disorders. Nonprogressive ulcerative disease in cats, such as chronic corneal epithelial defects and corneal sequestration are more common than progressive corneal ulcerations.

  9. Corneal invasion of ocular surface squamous neoplasia after clear corneal phacoemulsification: in vivo confocal microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Angelo; Martone, Gianluca; Pichierri, Patrizia; Tosi, Gian Marco; Caporossi, Aldo

    2008-06-01

    We describe an unusual case of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) that occurred in a male patient after superonasal clear corneal phacoemulsification with extensive papillomatous corneal invasion near a side port. The features of the macroscopic invasion of the corneal superficial layers were analyzed by in vivo confocal analysis using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II. After OSSN was diagnosed, topical mitomycin-C 0.02% eyedrops were prescribed 4 times a day in a cyclic manner (3 cycles of 1 week on drops followed by 1 week off). After 1 month (second cycle), the natural visual acuity was 20/20, the corneal epithelium had healed completely, and the limbal lesion had regressed markedly. The patient remained asymptomatic without recurrence during a 6-month follow-up.

  10. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal...

  11. First Identification of a Triple Corneal Dystrophy Association: Keratoconus, Epithelial Basement Membrane Corneal Dystrophy and Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Mazzotta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the observation of a triple corneal dystrophy association consisting of keratoconus (KC, epithelial basement membrane corneal dystrophy (EBMCD and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD. Methods: A 55-year-old male patient was referred to our cornea service for blurred vision and recurrent foreign body sensation. He reported bilateral recurrent corneal erosions with diurnal visual fluctuations. He underwent corneal biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug tomography, in vivo HRT confocal laser scanning microscopy and genetic testing for TGFBI and ZEB1 mutations using direct DNA sequencing. Results: Biomicroscopic examination revealed the presence of subepithelial central and paracentral corneal opacities. The endothelium showed a bilateral flecked appearance, and the posterior corneal curvature suggested a possible concomitant ectatic disorder. Corneal tomography confirmed the presence of a stage II KC in both eyes. In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a concomitant bilateral EBMCD with hyperreflective deposits in basal epithelial cells, subbasal Bowman's layer microfolds and ridges with truncated subbasal nerves as pseudodendritic elements. Stromal analysis revealed honeycomb edematous areas, and the endothelium showed a strawberry surface configuration typical of FECD. The genetic analysis resulted negative for TGFBI mutations and positive for a heterozygous mutation in exon 7 of the gene ZEB1. Conclusion: This is the first case reported in the literature in which KC, EBMCD and FECD are present in the same patient and associated with ZEB1 gene mutation. The triple association was previously established by means of morphological analysis of the cornea using corneal Scheimpflug tomography and in vivo HRT II confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  12. Corneal ulcers in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynn B; Pinard, Chantale L

    2013-01-01

    Corneal ulceration is commonly diagnosed by equine veterinarians. A complete ophthalmic examination as well as fluorescein staining, corneal cytology, and corneal bacterial (aerobic) and fungal culture and sensitivity testing are necessary for all infected corneal ulcers. Appropriate topical antibiotics, topical atropine, and systemic NSAIDs are indicated for all corneal ulcers. If keratomalacia (melting) is observed, anticollagenase/antiprotease therapy, such as autologous serum, is indicated. If fungal infection is suspected, antifungal therapy is a necessity. Subpalpebral lavage systems allow convenient, frequent, and potentially long-term therapy. Referral corneal surgeries provide additional therapeutic options when the globe's integrity is threatened or when improvement has not been detected after appropriate therapy.

  13. 角膜板栗刺异物伤15例的临床观察%Clinical observation of 15 cases of corneal foreign body injuries caused by chestnut thorns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小兰; 蔡苏博; 周龙芳; 姚珂珺; 黄小雨; 王平; 张虹; 李贵刚

    2016-01-01

    antifungal drugs. For the patients complicated with fungal keratitis, besides surgery of removing chestnut thorn and antifungal drugs, anterior chamber irrigation and corneal stroma injection with fluconazole solution were given to treat the disease.If necessary, amniotic membrane transplantation or keratoplasty was also given to the patients complicated with fungal keratitis. After that, the effectiveness of those methods and the factors affecting progression were analyzed.?RESULTS:For 11 patients without fungal keratitis, the average time between corneal injury and receiving treatment at Tongji Hospital was 1-7 (2.42±2.15) d and for 4 patients complicated with fungal keratitis, the average time was 3-30 (18.25±4.35)d.Among 15 cases, statistics suggested that the average number of chestnut thorn in patients complicated with fungal keratitis was 4.5, and all the chestnut thorn penetrated the cornea into the anterior chamber.The average number of chestnut thorn in patients without fungal keratitis was 3.5, and the proportion of chestnut thorn penetrated the cornea into the anterior chamber was 28.5%.After treatment, all patients had no new fungal keratitis or other complications.Those results indicated that the different treatments for the patients with or without fungal keratitis were all effective.?CONCLUSION:The factors affecting the progression of cornea foreign body injury caused by chestnut thorn are the number of chestnut thorn, whether chestnut thorn penetrate the cornea into the anterior chamber, time since injury, active anti -fungal therapy. If patients complicated with fungal keratitis could be treated with antifungal agents and anterior chamber irrigation or corneal stroma injection using fluconazole solution without delay, the progress of fungal keratitis could be effectively controlled, and favorable conditions for further therapy such as amniotic membrane transplantation or keratoplasty could be provided.

  14. Corneal transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000243.htm Corneal transplant - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a corneal transplant. Most of the tissue of your cornea (the ...

  15. Evidence-based Homoeopathy: A case of corneal abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sudhakar Sathye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus within the layers of cornea. It is usually endogenous in origin and commonly found near the limbal blood vessels close to corneal margin. Treatment in modern medicine is use of local and systemic antibiotics. Homoeopathy has mentioned medicines for corneal abscess. A case reported was a female of 68 years of age suffering from symptoms of redness, dull pain, and foreign body sensation in the right eye and was diagnosed as corneal abscess. The homoeopathic medicine Hepar sulphuris 200C was prescribed on the basis of pathology. Abscess was reduced considerably within 5 days and it was absorbed completely in 21 days. No recurrence of abscess was observed thereafter. Ocular photographs during follow-up visits have provided documentary evidence about the effectiveness of homoeopathic Hepar sulphuris 200C in corneal abscess.

  16. Patching for corneal abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chris H L; Turner, Angus; Lim, Blanche X

    2016-07-26

    Published audits have demonstrated that corneal abrasions are a common presenting eye complaint. Eye patches are often recommended for treating corneal abrasions despite the lack of evidence for their use. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of the eye patch when used to treat corneal abrasions. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of patching for corneal abrasion on healing and pain relief. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2016), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2016), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenGrey) (January 1995 to May 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 9 May 2016. We also searched the reference lists of included studies, unpublished 'grey' literature and conference proceedings and contacted pharmaceutical companies for details of unpublished trials. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared patching the eye with no patching to treat simple corneal abrasions. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Investigators were contacted for further information regarding the quality of trials. The primary outcome was healing at 24, 48 and 72 hours while secondary outcomes included measures of pain, quality of life and adverse effects. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included 12 trials which

  17. Corneal mucus plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  18. Superficies de segundo orden

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Salazar, Luis Álvaro

    1987-01-01

    Este trabajo se propone poner al alcance de estudiantes de primeros semestres de carreras de aplicación de la matemática, un algoritmo proporcionado por el álgebra lineal, para tratar con mas generalidad, agilidad y libertad unos objetos de la geometría analítica de no fácil manipulación por otros métodos y que se conocen como superficies de segundo orden o superficies cuádricas. En este orden de ideas, el autor considera importante que con este tratamiento se incluya este tema en una asignat...

  19. Characterization of Corneal Indentation Hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Match W L; Dongming Wei; Leung, Christopher K S

    2015-01-01

    Corneal indentation is adapted for the design and development of a characterization method for corneal hysteresis behavior - Corneal Indentation Hysteresis (CIH). Fourteen porcine eyes were tested using the corneal indentation method. The CIH measured in enucleated porcine eyes showed indentation rate and intraocular pressure (IOP) dependences. The CIH increased with indentation rate at lower IOP ( 25 mmHg). The CIH was linear proportional to the IOP within an individual eye. The CIH was positively correlated with the IOP, corneal in-plane tensile stress and corneal tangent modulus (E). A new method based on corneal indentation for the measurement of Corneal Indentation Hysteresis in vivo is developed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to introduce the corneal indentation hysteresis and correlate the corneal indentation hysteresis and corneal tangent modulus.

  20. Corneal lesion as the initial manifestation of tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Pin; Lin, Pei-Yu; Lee, Ni-Chung; Niu, Dau-Ming; Lee, Shui-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2006-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type II (Richner-Hanhart syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase and subsequently increasing level of serum tyrosine. We report the case of a 2-year-old girl who was referred due to bilateral corneal lesions. Slit-lamp examination showed small granular white deposits arranged in a dendritic pattern in the superficial central cornea of both eyes. Physical examination revealed painful, non-pruritic, hyperkeratotic plaques on the soles, palms and fingertips. Mental evaluation demonstrated developmental delay for her age. Blood examination revealed serum tyrosine level to be 1868 microM (normal range, 30-110 microM), which decreased to 838 microM with 2-month diet on tyrosine and phenylalanine restriction. The corneal and skin lesions resolved completely. However, the corneal deposits recurred a month later as her mother failed to strictly control the diet because the little girl was losing weight and activity. With specific formula and adjusted diet regimen, the corneal lesions decreased again. Corneal pseudodendritic deposits may be the initial manifestation in patients with tyrosinemia type II. Early diagnosis and intervention with diet control are crucial for preventing permanent visual and developmental deficits. Corneal deposits can be one of the parameters in monitoring the efficacy of diet control.

  1. Limbal stem cells: Central concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinny; J; Yoon; Salim; Ismail; Trevor; Sherwin

    2014-01-01

    A strong cohort of evidence exists that supports the localisation of corneal stem cells at the limbus. The distinguishing characteristics of limbal cells as stem cells include slow cycling properties, high proliferative potential when required, clonogenicity, absence of differentiation marker expression coupled with positive expression of progenitor markers, multipotency, centripetal migration, requirement for a distinct niche environment and the ability of transplanted limbal cells to regenerate the entire corneal epithelium. The existence of limbal stem cells supports the prevailing theory of corneal homeostasis, known as the XYZ hypothesis where X represents proliferation and stratification of limbal basal cells, Y centripetal migration of basal cells and Z desquamation of superficial cells. To maintain the mass of cornea, the sum of X and Y must equal Z and very elegant cell tracking experiments provide strong evidence in support of this theory. However, several recent stud-ies have suggested the existence of oligopotent stem cells capable of corneal maintenance outside of the limbus. This review presents a summary of data which led to the current concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis and discusses areas of controversy surrounding the existence of a secondary stem cell reservoir on the corneal surface

  2. Current status of corneal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Kum; Hara, Hidetaka

    2015-11-01

    Corneal allo-transplantation is a well-established technique to treat corneal blindness. However, the limited availability of human donors demands the exploration of alternative treatments such as corneal xenotransplantation (e.g., pigs as donors) and bioengineered corneas. Since the first attempt of corneal xenotransplantation using a donor pig cornea in 1844, great advances have been made in the development of genetically-engineered pigs, effective immunosuppressive protocols and the establishment of guidelines for the conduction of clinical trials. We highlight immunological and physio-anatomical barriers of corneal xenotransplantation, recent progress of corneal xenotransplantation in non-human-primates studies, and regulatory guidelines to conduct clinical trials for corneal xenotransplantation.

  3. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  4. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  5. Aspergillus terreus recovered from a corneal scraping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A 52 year old, healthy male presented to his optometrist complaining of redness and irritation in the right eye. A foreign body was removed from the eye. The patient was started on ophthalmic solutions of vigamox and systane. At 48 hours, the patient reported increased redness, limited vision, and yellow discharge from the eye. The patient was referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Physical assessment revealed a superlative central infiltrate (extreme, centrally located injury that had permeated the cornea), diffuse corneal haze, and edema with a 3- to 4+ conjunctival injection and a 1 millimeter hypopyon (an effusion of pus into the anterior chamber of the eye). Corneal scrapings were collected for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal cultures. The patient was then prescribed. vancomycin, tobramycin, and natamycin ophthalmic eyedrops. On day three, fungal culture results indicated possible fungal forms seen. On day 12, results from the fungal culture of the corneal scraping revealed the causative agent to be Aspergillus terreus. Voriconazole eyedrops were added to the treatment regimen and continued for 10 weeks. The physician order for a fungal culture as well as laboratory data providing the final identification of Aspergillus terreus and laboratory comments indicating an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (> 2 microg/mL) to amphotericin B is associated with treatment failure positively impacted the patient outcome. After completion of the treatment regimen, a photo-therapeutic keratectomy (PTK) was performed in an attempt to remove the dense corneal scarring caused by the fungal infection.

  6. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  7. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  8. Equine corneal surgery and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Heidi M

    2004-08-01

    Corneal disease is common in equine ophthalmology and requires vigilant monitoring and appropriate therapy to optimize the outcome. Many equine corneal diseases, particularly those that progress rapidly, may benefit from surgical intervention. These include descemetoceles, deep corneal lacerations and ulcers, corneal perforation/iris prolapse, ulcerative keratitis, corneal stromal abscesses, and corneoscleral neoplasia. Indications for corneal transplantation include optical, tectonic, therapeutic, and cosmetic purposes. Corneal transplantation is most often implemented in equine patients for tectonic and therapeutic reasons when a cornea is compromised by corneal stromal abscess, iris prolapse, or neoplasia. This article provides an outline of when to consider surgical intervention for corneal disease, the procedures available and expected outcomes, and how appropriate early surgical intervention can dramatically improve the end result.

  9. Pirfenidone nanoparticles improve corneal wound healing and prevent scarring following alkali burn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Chowdhury

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of pirfenidone nanoparticles on corneal re-epithelialization and scarring, major clinical challenges after alkali burn. METHODS: Effect of pirfenidone on collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA synthesis by TGFβ induced primary corneal fibroblast cells was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Pirfenidone loaded poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and their cellular entry was examined in primary corneal fibroblast cells by fluorescence microscopy. Alkali burn was induced in one eye of Sprague Dawley rats followed by daily topical treatment with free pirfenidone, pirfenidone nanoparticles or vehicle. Corneal re-epithelialization was assessed daily by flourescein dye test; absence of stained area indicated complete re-epithelialization and the time for complete re-epithelialization was determined. Corneal haze was assessed daily for 7 days under slit lamp microscope and graded using a standard method. After 7 days, collagen I deposition in the superficial layer of cornea was examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pirfenidone prevented (P<0.05 increase in TGF β induced collagen I and α-SMA synthesis by corneal fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner. Pirfenidone could be loaded successfully within PLGA nanoparticles, which entered the corneal fibroblasts within 5 minutes. Pirfenidone nanoparticles but not free pirfenidone significantly (P<0.05 reduced collagen I level, corneal haze and the time for corneal re-epithelialization following alkali burn. CONCLUSION: Pirfenidone decreases collagen synthesis and prevents myofibroblast formation. Pirfenidone nanoparticles improve corneal wound healing and prevent fibrosis. Pirfenidone nanoparticles are of potential value in treating corneal chemical burns and other corneal fibrotic diseases.

  10. Superficies de placer

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Gatti, Romina

    2012-01-01

    La presente tesis cuenta con 28 pinturas en distintos formatos y tama- ños a través de los cuales la artista investiga diferentes objetos de su entorno cotidiano que le resultan agradables y pueden llegar a transformar anímicamente. De esta manera se van construyendo superficies ideales, relacionadas principalmente con lo cotidiano y lo intimo, lo orgánico, lo industrial, el diseño textil y lo abstracto. Es un intento por generar o prolongar una sensación visual de agrado y placer a tra...

  11. Central corneal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  12. Effects of diabetic keratopathy on corneal optical density, central corneal thickness, and corneal endothelial cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Lin, Tao; Pan, Yingzhe

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic keratopathy is an ocular complication that occurs with diabetes. In the present study, the effect of diabetic keratopathy on corneal optical density, central corneal thickness, and corneal endothelial cell count was investigated. One hundred and eighty diabetic patients (360 eyes) were enrolled in the study during the period from March, 2012 to March, 2013. The patients were divided into three age groups: 10 years, with 60 patients per group (120 eyes). During the same period, 60 healthy cases (120 eyes) were selected and labeled as the normal control group. The Pentacam was used to measure the corneal optical density, and central corneal thickness. Specular microscopy was used to examine the corneal endothelial cell density. The coefficient of partial correlation was used to control age and correlate the analysis between the corneal optical density, corneal endothelial cell density, and central corneal thickness. The stage of the disease, the medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness was analyzed in the diabetes group. The corneal optical density in the diabetes group increased compared with that of the normal control group. The medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness were positively correlated with the course of the disease. However, the corneal endothelial cell density was not associated with the course of diabetes. There was a positive association between the medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness of the diabetic patients. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness were sensitive indicators for early diabetic keratopathy.

  13. A corneal mold to restore normal corneal dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, C A; Kornmehl, E W; York, S; Forman, J S

    1986-01-01

    A corneal mold is described that provides an MK corneal button of normal thickness and curvature from an edematous, post-mortem button. The uniform, processed tissue can then be used for experimental refractive surgery.

  14. Corneal Topography Analysis of Stromal Corneal Dystrophies

    OpenAIRE

    Kocluk, Yusuf; Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha; Burcu, Ayse; Ornek, Firdevs

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to compare the corneal topography and tomography parameters of macular corneal dystrophy (MCD), granular corneal dystrophy (GCD) and lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) patients obtained by Scheimpflug imaging system. Methods: The charts, photographs and topography images of patients were reviewed retrospectively. This study included 73 eyes of 73 patients (28 MCD, 20 GCG and 25 LCD patients). Topography images were obtained by Pentacam (Oculus Optikgerate, Wetzlar, Germany...

  15. Corneal Tattooing (keratopigmentation) to restore cosmetic appearance in severely impaired eyes with new mineral micronized pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Alio, Jorge L; Sirerol, Belucha; Walewska - Szafran, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To investigate keratopigmentation (KTP) with new mineral micronized pigments as a surgical alternative to improve cosmetic appearance in severely-impaired eyes. Methods: 40 eyes underwent KTP alternatively to invasive cosmetic reconstructive surgery. Corneal staining with mineral micronized pigments was performed using either an intralamellar or superficial technique. Results: One year postoperatively, all but two patients (95%) were sat...

  16. [Corneal sensibility following epikeratophakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, H; Grabner, G; Baumgartner, I; Reim, M

    1992-07-01

    The postoperative rate of reinnervation following corneal surgery is widely considered to be a useful indicator of the healing process. This study reports the corneal sensitivity of 14 patients following epikeratophakia for different indications (myopia, aphakia and keratoconus) after time periods ranging from 7 to 104 weeks. All transplants were clear at the time of measurement. A newly developed aesthesiometer (using a low electric current for stimulation) was employed. Nine positions on the operated eye were chosen for the measurements, five locations of the non-operated fellow eye served as controls. On the operated eye the corneal sensitivity peripheral to the trephination were significantly reduced at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions as compared to the other eye. The 3 and 6 o'clock locations showed no significant difference. On the epikeratophakia lenticule the sensitivity was significantly reduced at all points, the center showing the largest difference (p less than 0.001). No correlation with age, sex or the indication for the procedure was observed. Although there was a trend of a positive correlation between the postoperative time period and the central corneal sensitivity, the follow-up was too short to reach significant levels. The nearly complete lack of corneal sensitivity, particularly in the center of the transplant is therefore well compatible with its long-time survival, even when the lenticule has been prepared with the cryolathe and lyophilized for transportation.

  17. Examination of the Restoration of Epithelial Barrier Function Following Superficial Keratectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hutcheon, Audrey E. K.; Sippel, Kimberly C.; Zieske, James D.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 hours to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was a...

  18. Protective Effects of Trehalose on the Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Aragona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE, the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.

  19. Comparison of the effects of various lubricant eye drops on the in vitro rabbit corneal healing and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutescu, R Michael; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert

    2017-03-02

    Ingredients of lubricant eye drops are potentially harmful to the ocular surface. The products Optive, Optive Fusion, Neopt were tested regarding corneal irritability versus Vismed Multi and 0.01% benzalkonium chloride as negative and positive control, respectively. Formulas (30-40μl per hour) were applied hourly in-vitro for six days on rabbit corneas (n=5, per product) cultured in artificial anterior chambers (EVEIT system). Initially, four corneal abrasions (2.4-4.6mm(2)) were induced. All defects were monitored during drop application by fluorescein stains and photographs. To ensure corneal vitality, glucose and lactate concentrations in artificial anterior chamber fluids were determined photometrically. All products showed a complete corneal healing on day 2. Thereafter, all five Optive-treated corneas developed progressive fluorescein-positive epithelial lesions until day six (24.96μm, ±21.45μm, p0.5) while Vismed Multi did not adversely affect the corneal integrity. Glucose/lactate concentrations remained unchanged while lubricants were applied. Histology revealed epithelial loss and severe alterations of the superficial stroma for Optive. Optive Fusion displayed a comparable pathology. Neopt did not significantly affect the corneal healing and integrity. This study suggested a cumulative corneal toxicity of Optive and, to a lesser extent, Optive Fusion most likely caused by its oxidative preservative, SOC. Clinical data are needed to clarify the application frequency at which corneal toxicity might occur. Neopt and Vismed Multi did not affect the corneal integrity.

  20. Corneal alterations induced by topical application of commercial latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wensheng; Dong, Nuo; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Zhenhao; Hu, Jiaoyue; Xie, Hui; Pan, Juxin; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin) and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, β-catenin) proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier integrity of corneal

  1. Corneal alterations induced by topical application of commercial latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Chen

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin (PG analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT, rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, β-catenin proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier

  2. MICRO DIATHERMOCOAGULATION IN THE TREATMENT OF INFECTIOUS CORNEAL ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kasparova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To improve the treatment of early infectious corneal ulcers by combining microdiathermocoagulation (MDC, external autocytokinotherapy, and antiviral and/or antibacterial therapy. patients and methods. The study enrolled 2 groups of outpatients (a total of 112 patients, 112 eyes who either showed no improvement or deteriorated under 7-day to 1.5-month therapeutic treatment. Group I included 70 patients (70 eyes with superficial corneal ulcers due to herpes virus infection under antiviral therapy (instillations and periocular injections of Poludan (PolyA:PoliU as well as Zovirax 3% ophthalmic ointment, group II — 42 patients (42 eyes with early-stage purulent corneal ulcers under instillations of modern antibiotics (current-generation fluoroquinolones. results and discussion. The combination of MDC and external autocytokinotherapy is the most effective treatment for torpid herpetic ulcerative keratitis that allows a reliable reduction in the recovery period: from 24.1±2.2 days (therapeutic treatment only down to 9.2±1.3 days (both methods plus antiviral therapy. Moreover, MDC is the treatment of choice in outpatients with purulent corneal ulcer in its early stage. The healing period in this case can be also reliably reduced (р<0.05 from 18.6±1.9 days (MDC plus antibacterial therapy. Hence, MDC is a highly effective urgent method of treatment available to ambulatory care patients with herpetic keratitis and early-stage purulent corneal ulcers. External autocytokinotherapy shows a pronounced anti-inflammatory and regenerative effect. When applied together, MDC and external autocytokinotherapy act synergistically and provide twice as short treatment periods. MDC as well as its combination with external autocytokinotherapy, if started early, allow to avoid keratoplasty in most patients with herpetic keratitis and early-stage purulent corneal ulcers.

  3. Localization and Expression of Zonula Occludins-1 in the Rabbit Corneal Epithelium following Exposure to Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhao; Chen, Lelei; Xie, Hui; Dong, Nuo; Chen, Yongxiong; Liu, Zuguo

    2012-01-01

    Preservatives are a major component of the ophthalmic preparations in multi-dose bottles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a common preservative used in ophthalmic preparations, on the localization and expression of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo. BAC at 0.005%, 0.01%, or 0.02% was topically applied to one eye each of albino rabbits at 5 min intervals for a total of 3 times. The contralateral untreated eyes served as controls. The following clinical indications were evaluated: Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. The structure of central cornea was examined by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability to carboxy fluorescein. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of ZO-1, 2, occludin, claudin-1, Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. The expression of ZO-1 in the corneal epithelium was also examined by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Exposure to BAC resulted in higher rose Bengal staining scores while no significant changes in BUT, Schirmer and corneal florescein scores. It also induced corneal epithelial cell damage, dispersion of ZO-1 and ZO-2 from their normal locus at the superficial layer and disruption of epithelial barrier function. However, the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in the corneal epithelium were not affected by BAC treatment. Exposure to BAC can quickly impair the corneal epithelium without tear deficiency. BAC disrupts the tight junctions of corneal epithelium between superficial cells in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo. PMID:22815857

  4. Localization and expression of zonula occludins-1 in the rabbit corneal epithelium following exposure to benzalkonium chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Chen

    Full Text Available Preservatives are a major component of the ophthalmic preparations in multi-dose bottles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC, a common preservative used in ophthalmic preparations, on the localization and expression of zonula occludens (ZO-1 in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo. BAC at 0.005%, 0.01%, or 0.02% was topically applied to one eye each of albino rabbits at 5 min intervals for a total of 3 times. The contralateral untreated eyes served as controls. The following clinical indications were evaluated: Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. The structure of central cornea was examined by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability to carboxy fluorescein. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of ZO-1, 2, occludin, claudin-1, Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. The expression of ZO-1 in the corneal epithelium was also examined by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Exposure to BAC resulted in higher rose Bengal staining scores while no significant changes in BUT, Schirmer and corneal florescein scores. It also induced corneal epithelial cell damage, dispersion of ZO-1 and ZO-2 from their normal locus at the superficial layer and disruption of epithelial barrier function. However, the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in the corneal epithelium were not affected by BAC treatment. Exposure to BAC can quickly impair the corneal epithelium without tear deficiency. BAC disrupts the tight junctions of corneal epithelium between superficial cells in the rabbit corneal epithelium in vivo.

  5. Corneal refractive surgery: Is intracorneal the way to go and what are the needs for technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Ivarsen, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Corneal refractive surgery aims to reduce or eliminate refractive errors of the eye by changing the refractive power of the cornea. For the last 20 years controlled excimer laser ablation of corneal tissue, either directly from the corneal stromal surface or from the corneal interior after creation of a superficial corneal flap has become widely used to correct myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Recently, an intrastromal refractive procedure whereby a tissue lenticule is cut free in the corneal stroma by a femtosecond laser and removed through a small peripheral incision has been introduced. This procedure avoids creation of a corneal flap and the potential associated risks while avoiding the slow visual recovery of surface ablation procedures. Precise intrastromal femtosecond laser cutting of the fine lenticule requires very controlled laser energy delivery in order to avoid lenticule irregularities, which would compromise the refractive result and visual acuity. This newly introduced all-femtosecond based flap-free intracorneal refractive procedure has been documented to be a predictable, efficient, and safe procedure for correction of myopia and astigmatism. Technological developments related to further improved cutting quality, hyperopic and individualized treatments are desirable.

  6. Our experience with Solcoseryl Eye-Gel in the treatment of corneal lesions. A randomised double-blind study (with 1 color plate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, W; Herrmann, R; Körner, W F; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel versus a 2.4% cysteine eye-gel was carried out under controlled conditions (randomised and double-blind) on a total of 61 patients with corneal lesions (52 foreign body injuries, 9 corneal erosions). The results showed a marked superiority of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel with respect to more rapid healing and also with respect to the possible subsequent development of a corneal macula.

  7. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  8. Genetics of corneal endothelial dystrophies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitra Kannabiran

    2009-12-01

    The corneal endothelium maintains the level of hydration in the cornea. Dysfunction of the endothelium results in excess accumulation of water in the corneal stroma, leading to swelling of the stroma and loss of transparency. There are four different corneal endothelial dystrophies that are hereditary, progressive, non-inflammatory disorders involving dysfunction of the corneal endothelium. Each of the endothelial dystrophies is genetically heterogeneous with different modes of transmission and/or different genes involved in each subtype. Genes responsible for disease have been identified for only a subset of corneal endothelial dystrophies. Knowledge of genes involved and their function in the corneal endothelium can aid understanding the pathogenesis of the disorder as well as reveal pathways that are important for normal functioning of the endothelium.

  9. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  10. MicroRNA-145 regulates human corneal epithelial differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Ka-Wai Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic factors, such as microRNAs, are important regulators in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells and progenies. Here we investigated the microRNAs expressed in human limbal-peripheral corneal (LPC epithelia containing corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs and early transit amplifying cells, and their role in corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human LPC epithelia was extracted for small RNAs or dissociated for CEPC culture. By Agilent Human microRNA Microarray V2 platform and GeneSpring GX11.0 analysis, we found differential expression of 18 microRNAs against central corneal (CC epithelia, which were devoid of CEPCs. Among them, miR-184 was up-regulated in CC epithelia, similar to reported finding. Cluster miR-143/145 was expressed strongly in LPC but weakly in CC epithelia (P = 0.0004, Mann-Whitney U-test. This was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization on corneal rim cryosections showed miR-143/145 presence localized to the parabasal cells of limbal epithelium but negligible in basal and superficial epithelia. With holoclone forming ability, CEPCs transfected with lentiviral plasmid containing mature miR-145 sequence gave rise to defective epithelium in organotypic culture and had increased cytokeratin-3/12 and connexin-43 expressions and decreased ABCG2 and p63 compared with cells transfected with scrambled sequences. Global gene expression was analyzed using Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray and GeneSpring GX11.0. With a 5-fold difference compared to cells with scrambled sequences, miR-145 up-regulated 324 genes (containing genes for immune response and down-regulated 277 genes (containing genes for epithelial development and stem cell maintenance. As validated by qPCR and luciferase reporter assay, our results showed miR-145 suppressed integrin β8 (ITGB8 expression in both human corneal epithelial cells

  11. Surgical therapies for corneal perforations: 10 years of cases in a tertiary referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokogawa H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Yokogawa, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Yamazaki, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report surgical therapies for corneal perforations in a tertiary referral hospital.Methods: Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients (aged 62.4±18.3 years with surgically treated corneal perforations from January 2002 to July 2013 were included in this study. Demographic data such as cause of corneal perforation, surgical procedures, and visual outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.Results: The causes of corneal perforation (n=31 were divided into infectious (n=8, 26% and noninfectious (n=23, 74% categories. Infectious causes included fungal ulcer, herpetic stromal necrotizing keratitis, and bacterial ulcer. The causes of noninfectious keratopathy included corneal melting after removal of a metal foreign body, severe dry eye, lagophthalmos, canaliculitis, the oral anticancer drug S-1, keratoconus, rheumatoid arthritis, neurotrophic ulcer, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and unknown causes. Initial surgical procedures included central large corneal graft (n=17, small corneal graft (n=7, and amniotic membrane transplantation (n=7. In two cases the perforation could not be sealed during the first surgical treatment and required subsequent procedures. All infectious keratitis required central large penetrating keratoplasty to obtain anatomical cure. In contrast, several surgical options were used for the treatment of noninfectious keratitis. After surgical treatment, anatomical cure was obtained in all cases. Mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity was better at 6 months (logMAR 1.3 than preoperatively (logMAR 1.8.Conclusion: Surgical therapies for corneal perforations in our hospital included central large lamellar/penetrating keratoplasty, small peripheral patch graft, and amniotic membrane transplantation. All treatments were effective. Corneal

  12. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Somabhai Katara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  13. A Clinical Microbiological Study of Corneal Ulcer Patients at Western Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Dhanjibhai Patel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40% patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26% corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14% corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%, followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%, and blunt trauma (3, (11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%, followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%. Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  14. A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somabhai Katara, Rajesh; Dhanjibhai Patel, Nilesh; Sinha, Mala

    2013-07-13

    Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40%) patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26%) corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14%) corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%)), followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%)), and blunt trauma (3, (11%)). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%)), followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%)). Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy.

  15. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  16. [The pre- and intraoperative localization of superficially situated metallic objects in the head and neck area using a metal detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Mosgau, S; Schmelzeisen, R

    1992-01-01

    For prevention of infections and with regard to forensic implications foreign bodies lost in the soft tissues should be taken out. A good alternative for the localization of metallic objects superficially situated in the soft tissues of the oral facial region, other than the use of radiographic means and stereotactic localization, is the use of a metal detector. This method can be used without complication before or during each operation demonstrated by two clinical cases. Its use avoids a large-scale tissue removal and exposure in the search of foreign bodies in superficial soft tissues. It is a non invasive simple method for localization of metallic foreign bodies.

  17. Corneal Densitometry for Quantification of Corneal Deposits in Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Philip; Holtick, Udo; Schaub, Friederike; Tuchscherer, Armin; Hermann, Manuel M; Scheid, Christoph; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn O

    2017-04-01

    To assess the capability of Scheimpflug-based densitometry of the cornea to quantify light chain deposits in patients with active monoclonal gammopathies. This is a case-control study in which data from a leading tertiary university center in myeloma care were analyzed. Ten eyes of 5 patients with monoclonal gammopathy and 26 eyes of 13 healthy controls undergoing clinical evaluation and Scheimpflug-based measurements were included in the study. The main outcome measures were densitometry data of the 4 corneal layers-anterior layer (AL), central layer (CL), posterior layer, and total layer (TL)-in 4 different annuli (central annular zone 0-2 mm, intermediate annular zone 2-6 mm, peripheral annular zone 6-10 mm, and total annular zone 0-12 mm). In 8 eyes of 4 patients with IgG-based gammopathy, corneal light backscatter was highest in the AL and decreased with increasing corneal depth. The peripheral annular zone showed a higher densitometry value compared with the corneal center. Compared with healthy controls, the AL (P < 0.001), the CL (P < 0.001), and the TL (P < 0.001) had significantly higher corneal light backscatter in patients with gammopathy in the total and the peripheral annular zones. In one patient with predominantly IgA-based disease, corneal light backscatter was not elevated. Scheimpflug-based densitometry of the cornea is able to quantify opacification by immunoglobulin G light chain deposits in monoclonal gammopathies. This noninvasive technique can complement presently used in vivo confocal microscopy and corneal photography to objectivize corneal changes. Densitometry might allow monitoring of corneal immunoglobulin deposits in follow-up examinations.

  18. Invisible shield: Review of the corneal epithelium as a barrier to UV radiation, pathogens, and other environmental stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is comprised of the cornea and conjunctiva, which are structures that not only protect the eye but also enable vision. The corneal epithelium is the most superficial layer of the cornea, and therefore first line of defense against external assaults. Damage to this highly specialized structure could lead to vision loss, making it an important structure to investigate and understand. Here, we conducted a search of the current literature on the mechanisms the corneal epithelium has adapted against three frequent insults: UV-radiation, pathogens, and environmental assaults. This review systematically examines the corneal epithelium's response to each assault in order to maintain its role as an invisible shield. The goal of this review is to provide insight into some of the critical functions the corneal epithelium performs that may be valuable to current regenerative studies.

  19. Invisible Shield: Review of the Corneal Epithelium as a Barrier to UV Radiation, Pathogens, and Other Environmental Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Hasan; Seykora, John T; Lee, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    The ocular surface is comprised of the cornea and conjunctiva, which are structures that not only protect the eye but also enable vision. The corneal epithelium is the most superficial layer of the cornea, and therefore first line of defense against external assaults. Damage to this highly specialized structure could lead to vision loss, making it an important structure to investigate and understand. Here, we conducted a search of the current literature on the mechanisms the corneal epithelium has adapted against three frequent insults: UV-radiation, pathogens, and environmental assaults. This review systematically examines the corneal epithelium's response to each assault in order to maintain its role as an invisible shield. The goal of this review is to provide insight into some of the critical functions the corneal epithelium performs that may be valuable to current regenerative studies.

  20. Experimental Study of Plasmid TGF-β1 DNA Gene Transfer with Lipofectamine into Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琼; 胡燕华; 姜发纲; 陈宏

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether the TGF-β1 plasmid DNA carried by lipofectamine could be introduced into cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, specific expression of the plasmid pMAM TGF-β1in the cultured corneal epithelial cells was studied. Two days after 12 h of transfection of pMAMTGF-β1 mediated by lipofectamine into the cultured corneal epithelial cells, the TGF-β1 protein expression specific for pMAMTGF-β1 in the cells was detected by means of immunohistochemical staining and the positive rate was 23. 37 %. The results suggested that foreign plasmid DNA could be effectively delivered into cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells by means of lipofectamine, and this will provide a promising method of studying TGF-β1 on the mechanism of physiology and pathology concerned with corneal epithelial cells.

  1. Cytokeratin patterns in corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium. An immunofluorescence study with PKK-1, 8.12, 8.60, and 4.62 anticytokeratin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, M I; Weinreb, R N

    1990-11-01

    The authors examined immunofluorescently the specific cytokeratin staining patterns of corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium with PKK-1, 8.12, 4.62, and 8.60 monoclonal anticytokeratin antibodies. Observations were made on unfixed frozen postmortem human tissue. The PKK-1 antibody stain was observed in all layers of corneal epithelium but only in suprabasal layers of limbal and conjunctival epithelium. By contrast, the 8.12 antibody stain was observed only in the superficial layer of corneal epithelium but through all layers of limbal and conjunctival epithelium. The 4.60 antibody stain was seen in focal areas of corneal and limbal epithelium and through all layers of conjunctival epithelium. The 8.60 antibody stain was not present in the three epithelia. These immunofluorescence studies showed unique cytokeratin patterns among layers in corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium.

  2. Epidemiology and aetiological diagnosis of corneal ulceration in Madurai, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M; Gonzales, C A; George, C; Cevallos, V; Mascarenhas, J M; Asokan, B; Wilkins, J; Smolin, G; Whitcher, J P

    1997-11-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors predisposing to corneal ulceration in Madurai, south India, and to identify the specific pathogenic organisms responsible for infection. All patients with suspected infectious central corneal ulceration presenting to the ocular microbiology and cornea service at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, from 1 January to 31 March 1994 were evaluated. Sociodemographic data and information pertaining to risk factors were recorded, all patients were examined, and corneal cultures and scrapings were performed. In the 3 month period 434 patients with central corneal ulceration were evaluated. A history of previous corneal injury was present in 284 patients (65.4%). Cornea cultures were positive in 297 patients (68.4%). Of those individuals with positive cultures 140 (47.1%) had pure bacterial infections, 139 (46.8%) had pure fungal infections, 15 (5.1%) had mixed bacteria and fungi, and three (1.0%) grew pure cultures of Acanthamoeba. The most common bacterial pathogen isolated was Streptococcus pneumoniae, representing 44.3% of all positive bacterial cultures, followed by Pseudomonas spp (14.4%). The most common fungal pathogen isolated was Fusarium spp, representing 47.1% of all positive fungal cultures, followed by Aspergillus spp (16.1%). Central corneal ulceration is a common problem in south India and most often occurs after a superficial corneal injury with organic material. Bacterial and fungal infections occur in equal numbers with Streptococcus pneumoniae accounting for the majority of bacterial ulcers and Fusarium spp responsible for most of the fungal infections. These findings have important public health implications for the treatment and prevention of corneal ulceration in the developing world.

  3. Orbital cellulitis and corneal ulcer due to Cedecea: First reported case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeremy D; Fernandez de Castro, Juan P; Compton, Chris; Lee, Harold; Nunery, William

    2016-06-01

    Cedecea is a gram-negative bacterium from the family Enterobacteriaceae, rarely associated with human infection. We report the first case of an orbital cellulitis and corneal ulcer due to Cedecea in a patient who sustained a motor vehicle accident and was then found to have a retained wooden orbital foreign body.

  4. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into corneal epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhichong; LIU Jingbo; GE Jian; HUANG Bing; GAO Qianying; LIU Bingqian; WANG Linghua; YU Ling; FAN Zhigang; LU Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Our project was to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be induced to differentiate into corneal epithelia by superficial corneoscleral limbal stroma. To achieve this goal, ES-GFP cell line D3 was pre-induced by retinoic acid (RA). The pre-induced cells were seeded on deepithelialized superficial corneoscleral slices (SCSS) to form a monolayer, and divided into three groups. Group 1 was cultured and passaged in vitro for direct detection. Group 2 was exposed to air-liquid interfaces for 10 days and implanted into the subcutaneous layer of nude mice for 2 weeks for further induction in vivo. Group 3 was cultured in vitro without any inducing factors for control. There were no teratomas found in nude mice which were implanted with differentiated ES cells after two weeks. The differentiated cells showed an appearance of epithelia both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of CK3, P63 and PCNA was detected by immunohistochemical staining in the differentiated cells in group 1 and 2. Microvillis and zonula occludens were observed on the surface of the differentiated cells under an electron microscope. In the control group, ES cells differentiated freely without any inducing factors. Most cells were shed and formed a neuronal dendrite-like structure, and a minority of cells appeared polymorphic. These results demonstrate that ES cells can differentiate into corneal epithelia on the surface of SCSS under the controlled condition. Differentiated ES cells could be used as epithelial seeding cells for the reconstruction of ocular surface and corneal tissue engineering in the future.

  5. Superficial Automated Keratopigmentation for Iris and Pupil Simulation Using Micronized Mineral Pigments and a New Puncturing Device: Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alejandra E; Amesty, Maria A; El Bahrawy, Mohammed; Rey, Severino; Alio Del Barrio, Jorge; Alio, Jorge L

    2017-09-01

    To study the outcomes and tolerance of micronized mineral pigments for corneal tattooing, using a superficial automated keratopigmentation (SAK) technique in an experimental animal model and a new puncture device to inject the pigments into the corneal stroma. Forty eyes of 40 New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. The animals were divided into groups A and B. Both groups underwent SAK using a new automated keratopigmentation device. Micronized mineral pigments were injected through the epithelium into the corneal stroma to replicate the iris color in 25 eyes (group A), and black color was used to replicate the pupil in 15 eyes (group B). Slit-lamp examination was performed to evaluate the outcome. Histopathological examination was also performed to ascertain the presence of pigment dispersion, inflammation, and/or neovascularization. All 40 eyes showed good cosmetic appearance after keratopigmentation. No intraoperative complications were detected. At the first week, mild or moderated conjunctival injection was observed in 13 eyes and transitory corneal epithelial defects were also detected in 27 eyes. Examination was unremarkable 2, 4, and 6 months after surgery. No neovascularization was detected in any case in the histopathology study. SAK using a new automated puncture device and micronized mineral pigments achieved good cosmetic outcomes for iris and pupil simulation. This method could be a valid alternative to treat serious cosmetic eye problems that affect the superficial cornea or functional problems, such as photophobia or diplopia secondary to iris defects or trauma.

  6. [Methods for sealing of corneal perforations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilă, O; Totu, Lăcrămioara; Călugăru, M

    2012-01-01

    A variety of corneal pathology can lead to corneal ulcers and perforations. A deep corneal ulcer may need surgical treatment to allow good volume restoration and reepithelisation. Corneal perforation must be sealed and when the perforation is large, the task of repairing the defect can be underwhelming. The elegant solution is the corneal transplant, but this is not always readily available, especially in undeveloped countries. We present here two cases with different solutions to seal the perforated cornea: the first one has a large peripheral defect and it is successfully sealed with scleral patch and the second one is central with small perforation and is successfully sealed with multilayered amniotic membrane. Both cases are followed for over 12 months and demonstrate good corneal restoration (both on clinical examination and corneal topography). Sclera and amniotic membrane can be used to seal corneal defects when corneal transplant is not readily available.

  7. Corneal collagen crosslinking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Nir; Varssano, David

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KCN) is an ectatic disorder with progressive corneal thinning and a clinical picture of corneal protrusion, progressive irregular astigmatism, corneal fibrosis and visual deterioration. Other ectatic corneal disorders include: post-LASIK ectasia (PLE) and pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD). Corneal crosslinking (CXL) is a procedure whereby riboflavin sensitization with ultraviolet A radiation induces stromal crosslinks. This alters corneal biomechanics, causing an increase in corneal stiffness. In recent years, CXL has been an established treatment for the arrest of KCN, PLE and PMD progression. CXL has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of corneal infections, chemical burns, bullous keratopathy and other forms of corneal edema. This is a current review of CXL - its biomechanical principles, the evolution of CXL protocols in the past, present and future, indications for treatment, treatment efficacy and safety.

  8. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios...

  9. Superficie

    OpenAIRE

    Corna, Pablo María

    2015-01-01

    En la época posclásica del derecho romano se buscó, por parte del Estado y ciudadanos, utilizar ciertos terrenos que formaban parte de su patrimonio para arrendarlos por largo término —y a veces a perpetuidad— a personas que tenían el derecho de edificar o plantar mediante el pago de un precio llamado pensio o solárium. En el siglo II de nuestra era ya era utilizado para asentar tribus romanizadas en la frontera del imperio como para el cultivo de vid y los olivos que demoran varios años e...

  10. Corneal Topographic Changes After Eyelid Ptosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Gustavo; Battendieri, Remo; Riso, Monica; Traina, Salvatore; Poscia, Andrea; DʼAmico, Giovanni; Caporossi, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the corneal topography and the topographic changes after ptosis surgery on patients affected by congenital and acquired blepharoptosis. Twenty eyes of 17 patients affected by acquired and congenital ptosis underwent surgical correction through anterior levator complex tightening. Computerized tomography (Syrius Sistem; CSO) was used to analyze any change in corneal astigmatism (CYL), simulated keratometry, anterior corneal symmetry index front, apical keratometry front, and central corneal thickness. Visual acuity, margin reflex distance, and levator function were also measured. After surgical ptosis repair, corneal topography demonstrated a reduction in average keratometry of 0.15 ± 0.47 diopters (D) and in corneal astigmatism of 0.26 ± 1.12 D. Significant differences were found in apical keratometry front (-1.84 ± 1.76 D) and in best-corrected visual acuity (-0.18 ± 0.06 logMAR) in the postoperative examinations. Central corneal thickness did not show significant differences between preoperative and postoperative examinations. Postoperative topographic maps showed a reduction of symmetry index front (0.10 ± 0.64 D). Eyelid ptosis modifies anterior corneal surface inducing refractive errors and modifying corneal astigmatism in patients, thus affecting the quality of vision. The surgical correction of blepharoptosis induces anterior corneal surface modification, restoring corneal symmetry and regular corneal astigmatism. Postoperative corneal topography showed normal corneal contours.

  11. Corneal collagen cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov II Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening by using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and UVA to increase the formation of intra- and interfibrillar covalent bonds by photosensitized oxidation. Keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior segment of the corneal stroma all the way down to a depth of about 300 microns has been described and a demarcation line between the treated and untreated cornea has been clearly shown. It is important to ensure that the cytotoxic threshold for the endothelium has not been exceeded by strictly respecting the minimal corneal thickness. Confocal microscopy studies show that repopulation of keratocytes is already visible 1 month after the treatment, reaching its pre-operative quantity and quality in terms of functional morphology within 6 months after the treatment. The major indication for the use of CXL is to inhibit the progression of corneal ectasias, such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. CXL may also be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of iatrogenic keratectasia, resulting from excessively aggressive photoablation. This treatment has also been used to treat infectious corneal ulcers with apparent favorable results. Combination with other treatments, such as intracorneal ring segment implantation, limited topography-guided photoablation and conductive keratoplasty have been used with different levels of success.

  12. [Neurotrophic keratopathy--studies on substance P and the clinical significance of corneal sensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, T; Nakamura, M; Konma, T; Ofuji, K; Nagano, K; Tanaka, T; Enoki, M; Reid, T W; Brown, S M; Murphy, C J; Mannis, M J

    1997-12-01

    previously reported that interleukin 6 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) facilitate corneal epithelial wound healing by activating the expression of fibronectin receptor (integrin). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that substance P and IGF-1 increased expression of mRNA for integrins alpha 5 and beta 1 in cultured corneal epithelial cells and also increased the number of cells that attached to a fibronectin matrix. These findings strongly suggest that substance P and IGF-1 synergistically increase corneal epithelial migration by activating the expression of integrin. Tachykinins share a five amino acid sequence, phenylalanine-free amino acid-glycine-leucine-methionine amide (FXGLM), at the C-terminus. Studying substance P, we found that a four amino acid sequence at the C-terminus, FGLM, was the minimum amino acid sequence for the synergistic effect on corneal epithelial migration. Structurally similar tetrapeptides mimicking other members of the tachykinin family isoleucine-glycine-leucine-methionine amide (IGLM), valine-glycine-leucine-methionine amide (VGLM), tyrosine-glycine-leucine-methionine amide (YGLM), and the tripeptide glycine-leucine-methionine amide (GLM) did not have any synergistic effect with IGF-1. Based on these findings in vitro, we investigated the effect of eye drops containing substance P plus IGF-1 or FGLM plus IGF-1 on the epithelial wound closure of rabbit corneas in vivo. Both combinations significantly facilitated corneal epithelial wound closure. In a clinical setting, the administration of substance P plus IGF-1 effectively treated corneal epithelial defects in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome, a disease in which corneal epithelial defects persist because of loss of corneal sensation and hypolacrimation. In a patient with neurotrophic keratopathy due to trigeminal nerve paralysis following surgery, eye drops containing FGLM plus IGF-1 eliminated superficial punctate staining. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  13. Meesmann Corneal Dystrophy; a Clinico-Pathologic, Ultrastructural and Confocal Scan Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the microstructural features of Meesmann corneal dystrophy (MCD in two patients. Case Report: The first patient was a 10-year-old boy who presented with bilateral visual loss, diffuse corneal epithelial microcystic changes, high myopia and amblyopia. With a clinical impression of MCD, automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in his left eye. Histopathologic examination of the corneal button disclosed epithelial cell swelling and cyst-like intracytoplasmic inclusions. The cells contained moderate amounts of periodic acid-Schiff-positive and diastase-sensitive material (glycogen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous vacuoles and moderate numbers of electron-dense membrane-bound bodies in the cytoplasm, similar to lysosomes, some engulfed by the vacuoles. The second patient was a 17-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis of MCD and episodes of recurrent corneal erosion. On confocal scan examination of both corneas, hyporeflective round-shaped areas measuring 6.8 to 41.4 μm were seen within the superficial epithelium together with irregular and ill-defined high-contrast areas in the sub-basal epithelial region. The subepithelial nervous plexus was not visible due to regional hyperreflectivity. Conclusion: This case report further adds to the microstructural features of Meesmann corneal dystrophy and suggests confocal scan as a non-invasive method for delineating the microstructural appearance of this rare dystrophy.

  14. Evaluation of Factors Limiting Corneal Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Yoeruek, Efdal; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias

    2016-11-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate factors limiting corneal donation at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively studied all hospital deaths from January 2012 to December 2015, considering each deceased patient as a potential corneal donor. During this period an ophthalmic resident managed corneal donor procurement on a full-time basis. Various factors limiting corneal donation were examined. RESULTS Among the 3412 deaths, 2937 (86.1%) displayed nonfulfillment of corneal donation. Consent for corneal donation was obtained in 475 cases (13.9%). The mean annual corneal donation rate was 13.9 donors per 100 deaths (range: 11.2-17.8). The leading causes of nonfulfillment of corneal donations were refusal to donate (49.8%, 1698 cases) and medical contraindications (23.6%, 805 cases). After next-of-kin interview of 2173 potential donors (109 potential donors were excluded because of logistical problems), willingness to participate in corneal donation was present in 475 cases (21.9%), whereas in 1698 cases (78.1%) corneal donation was refused. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed refusal to donate is the most important factor limiting corneal donation. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about corneal donation through public education and media are necessary to address the corneal shortage.

  15. Corneal Biomechanical Findings in Contact Lens Induced Corneal Warpage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatnejad, Mojgan; Beheshtnejad, Amir Hooshang; Ghaffary, Seyed Reza; Hassanpoor, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the difference in biomechanical properties between contact lens induced corneal warpage and normal and keratoconic eyes. Method. Prospective observational case control study, where 94 eyes of 47 warpage suspicious and 46 eyes of 23 keratoconic patients were included. Warpage suspected cases were followed until a definite diagnosis was made (warpage, normal, or keratoconus). Results. 44 eyes of 22 patients had contact lens related corneal warpage. 46 eyes of 23 people were diagnosed as nonwarpage normal eyes. 46 eyes of 23 known keratoconus patients were included for comparison. The mean age of the participants was 23.8 ± 3.8 years, and 66.2% of the subjects were female. The demographic and refractive data were not different between warpage and normal groups but were different in the keratoconus group. The biomechanical properties (corneal hysteresis or CH and corneal resistance factor or CRF) were different with the highest value in the warpage group followed by normal and keratoconus groups. CRF was 10.08 ± 1.75, 9.23 ± 1.22, and 7.38 ± 2.14 and CH was 10.21 ± 1.57, 9.59 ± 1.21, and 8.69 ± 2.34 in the warpage, normal, and keratoconus groups, respectively. Conclusion. Corneal biomechanics may be different in people who develop contact lens induced warpage. PMID:27688908

  16. Aloe vera: an in vitro study of effects on corneal wound closure and collagenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Elizabeth M; Labelle, Amber; Chandler, Heather L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effects of an aloe vera solution on (i) the viability and wound healing response of corneal cells and (ii) the ability to alter collagenase and gelatinase activities. Primary cultures of corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts were prepared from grossly normal enucleated canine globes and treated with an aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-2 mg/mL). Cellular viability was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A corneal wound healing model was used to quantify cellular ingrowth across a defect made on the confluent surface. Anticollagenase and antigelatinase activities were evaluated by incubating a bacterial collagenase/gelatinase with aloe solution (doses ranging from 0.0-500 μg/mL) and comparing outcome measures to a general metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1, 10-phenanthroline, and canine serum (doses ranging from 0.0-100%). None of the concentrations of aloe solution tested significantly affected the viability of corneal epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Concentrations ≤175 μg/mL slightly accelerated corneal epithelial cell wound closure; this change was not significant. Concentrations ≥175 μg/mL significantly (P ≤ 0.001) slowed the rate of corneal fibroblast wound closure, while aloe concentrations Aloe solution did not alter the ability for collagenase to degrade gelatin or collagen Type I but increased the ability for collagenase to degrade Type IV collagen. Although additional experiments are required, lower concentrations of aloe solution may be beneficial in healing of superficial corneal wounds to help decrease fibrosis and speed epithelialization. An increase in collagenase activity with aloe vera warrants further testing before considering in vivo studies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Management of a Small Paracentral Corneal Perforation Using Iatrogenic Iris Incarceration and Tissue Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kobayashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention for corneal perforation is indicated when the anterior chamber does not reform within a short period of time. Herein, we report the successful management of a small paracentral corneal perforation using autologous iris incarceration and tissue adhesive. Case: A 41-year-old man developed a small paracentral corneal perforation (0.5 mm in size in the right eye, while the treating physician attempted to remove the residual rust ring after removal of a piece of metallic foreign body. Observations: The eye was initially managed with a bandage soft contact lens to ameliorate the aqueous leakage; however, without success. Iatrogenic iris incarceration of the wound was first induced, followed by application of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to the perforated site. As a result, the anterior chamber was immediately reformed and maintained. Complete corneal epithelialization of the perforation was achieved in 2 months without visual compromises. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive with iatrogenic incarceration of the autologous iris was effective in treating this type of small corneal perforation. This technique is simple and potentially useful for small paracentral corneal perforations outside the visual axis and without good apposition.

  18. The Superficial Stromal Scar Formation Mechanism in Keratoconus: A Study Using Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Wang, Shuting; Zhang, Peicheng; Sui, Wenjie; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ting; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of superficial stromal scarring in advanced keratoconus using confocal microscopy, the keratocyte density, distribution, micromorphology of corneal stroma, and SNP in three groups were observed. Eight corneal buttons of advanced keratoconus were examined by immunohistochemistry. The keratocyte densities in the sub-Bowman's stroma, anterior stroma, and posterior stroma and the mean SNP density were significantly different among the three groups. In the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group, activated keratocyte nuclei and comparatively highly reflective ECM were seen in the sub-Bowman's stroma, while fibrotic structures with comparatively high reflection were visible in the anterior stroma in advanced keratoconus. The alternating dark and light bands in the anterior stroma of the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group showed great variability in width and direction. The wide bands were localized mostly in the posterior stroma that corresponded to the Vogt striae in keratoconus and involved the anterior stroma only in advanced keratoconus. Histopathologically, high immunogenicity of α-SMA, vimentin, and FAP was expressed in the region of superficial stromal scarring. In vivo confocal microscopy revealed microstructural changes in the keratoconic cone. The activation of superficial keratocytes and abnormal remodeling of ECM may both play a key role in the superficial stromal scar formation in advanced keratoconus.

  19. The Superficial Stromal Scar Formation Mechanism in Keratoconus: A Study Using Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Wang, Shuting; Zhang, Peicheng; Sui, Wenjie; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ting; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of superficial stromal scarring in advanced keratoconus using confocal microscopy, the keratocyte density, distribution, micromorphology of corneal stroma, and SNP in three groups were observed. Eight corneal buttons of advanced keratoconus were examined by immunohistochemistry. The keratocyte densities in the sub-Bowman's stroma, anterior stroma, and posterior stroma and the mean SNP density were significantly different among the three groups. In the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group, activated keratocyte nuclei and comparatively highly reflective ECM were seen in the sub-Bowman's stroma, while fibrotic structures with comparatively high reflection were visible in the anterior stroma in advanced keratoconus. The alternating dark and light bands in the anterior stroma of the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group showed great variability in width and direction. The wide bands were localized mostly in the posterior stroma that corresponded to the Vogt striae in keratoconus and involved the anterior stroma only in advanced keratoconus. Histopathologically, high immunogenicity of α-SMA, vimentin, and FAP was expressed in the region of superficial stromal scarring. In vivo confocal microscopy revealed microstructural changes in the keratoconic cone. The activation of superficial keratocytes and abnormal remodeling of ECM may both play a key role in the superficial stromal scar formation in advanced keratoconus. PMID:26885515

  20. The Superficial Stromal Scar Formation Mechanism in Keratoconus: A Study Using Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism of superficial stromal scarring in advanced keratoconus using confocal microscopy, the keratocyte density, distribution, micromorphology of corneal stroma, and SNP in three groups were observed. Eight corneal buttons of advanced keratoconus were examined by immunohistochemistry. The keratocyte densities in the sub-Bowman’s stroma, anterior stroma, and posterior stroma and the mean SNP density were significantly different among the three groups. In the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group, activated keratocyte nuclei and comparatively highly reflective ECM were seen in the sub-Bowman’s stroma, while fibrotic structures with comparatively high reflection were visible in the anterior stroma in advanced keratoconus. The alternating dark and light bands in the anterior stroma of the mild-to-moderate keratoconus group showed great variability in width and direction. The wide bands were localized mostly in the posterior stroma that corresponded to the Vogt striae in keratoconus and involved the anterior stroma only in advanced keratoconus. Histopathologically, high immunogenicity of α-SMA, vimentin, and FAP was expressed in the region of superficial stromal scarring. In vivo confocal microscopy revealed microstructural changes in the keratoconic cone. The activation of superficial keratocytes and abnormal remodeling of ECM may both play a key role in the superficial stromal scar formation in advanced keratoconus.

  1. Foreign Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lee W.

    2006-01-01

    The admirable ideal of "total" immersion in a foreign culture privileges students who plan early on for foreign study, establish early language fluency and elect majors and activities that make it easier to leave campus. Other students often find that they lack the language skills to qualify for many foreign programs or are unable to reconcile…

  2. Reconstruction of Rabbit Corneal Layer Composed of Corneal Fibroblasts and Corneal Epithelium on the Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have employed the cryopreserved amniotic membrane(CAM) and corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of a severely damaged burned cornea, with corneal epithelial cells cultured on an amniotic membrane (AM). The lyophilized amniotic membrane (LAM) has a higher graft take and a longer shelf life; it is easier to store and safer because of gamma irradiation. Two Teflon rings(Ahn's supporter) were made for culturing the cells on the LAM, and were then used to support the LAM. To reconstruct a corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and epithelium, the corneal fibroblasts were first cultivated on the stromal side of LAM for five days, followed by epithelial cells culture on the epithelial side, by using the air-liquid interface culture. The reconstructed corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells has a much healthier basal layer of corneal epithelium than the reconstructed corneal epithelium, which was got by using only corneal epithelial cells, and resembles the epithelium of normal corneas, without the horny layer. Thus, the reconstruction of the corneal layer by using a LAM is considered to be a good in vitro model, not only for its application in toxicological test kits, but also for transplantation in patients with a severely damaged cornea.

  3. Corneal biomechanics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Alcón, Natividad

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanics is often defined as 'mechanics applied to biology'. Due to the variety and complexity of the behaviour of biological structures and materials, biomechanics is better defined as the development, extension and application of mechanics for a better understanding of physiology and physiopathology and consequently for a better diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury. Different methods for the characterisation of corneal biomechanics are reviewed in detail, including those that are currently commercially available (Ocular Response Analyzer and CorVis ST). The clinical applicability of the parameters provided by these devices are discussed, especially in the fields of glaucoma, detection of ectatic disorders and orthokeratology. Likewise, other methods are also reviewed, such as Brillouin microscopy or dynamic optical coherence tomography and others with potential application to clinical practice but not validated for in vivo measurements, such as ultrasonic elastography. Advantages and disadvantages of all these techniques are described. Finally, the concept of biomechanical modelling is revised as well as the requirements for developing biomechanical models, with special emphasis on finite element modelling.

  4. Glass wool tripod foreign bodies in the eye: first ever reported case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baile, Rahul B; Meghana, Sahasrabuddhe-Chitnis; Pattiwar, Madhuri S

    2014-01-01

    We present three cases of unusual corneal/conjunctival foreign bodies that were not visible on standard slit lamp examination. All patients presented with complaints of foreign body sensation in the affected eyes. One patient had visited an ophthalmologist prior to presentation to our center and was diagnosed and treated for conjunctivitis. On slit lamp examination minimal congestion was seen hence, all the patients were diagnosed with conjunctivitis with corneal epithelial defects by the residents. However, because the patients complained of foreign body sensation, fluorescein staining of the affected eye was performed. On examination, the corneas had epithelial defects and linear scratch marks. We suspected a foreign body in upper palpebral conjunctiva (UPC). Examination after eyelid eversion indicated tripod-shaped glassy foreign bodies embedded deep within the UPC. We present cases of an unusual type of glassy tripod-shaped foreign body which may go undetected even on slit lamp examination. Fluorescein staining may aid in the detection of these foreign bodies.

  5. Corneal Decompensation after Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Caucasian man referred for decreased vision after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. Slit lamp examination revealed diffuse corneal edema. Despite intensive topical treatment including steroids, corneal edema did not resolve; on the contrary, it advanced to bullous keratopathy. Corneal edema after SLT is an exceptionally rare complication and in all of the previous reports edema resolved with medical treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting persistent corneal edema after SLT.

  6. Progress of research on corneal collagen cross-linking for corneal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Ren Xiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking(CXLcould increase the mechanical strength, biological stability and halt ectasia progression due to covalent bond formed by photochemical reaction between ultraviolet-A and emulsion of riboflavin between collagen fibers in corneal stroma. Corneal melting is an autoimmune related noninfectious corneal ulcer. The mechanism of corneal melting, major treatment, the basic fundamental of ultraviolet-A riboflavin induced CXL and the clinical researches status and experiment in CXL were summarized in the study.

  7. Ocular dimensions, corneal thickness, and corneal curvature in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla K Maharana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute corneal hydrops is a condition characterized by stromal edema due to leakage of aqueous through a tear in descemet membrane. The patient presents with sudden onset decrease in vision, photophobia, and pain. Corneal thinning and ectasias combined with trivial trauma to the eye mostly by eye rubbing is considered as the underlying cause. With conservative approach self-resolution takes around 2 to 3 months. Surgical intervention is required in cases of non-resolution of corneal edema to avoid complications and for early visual rehabilitation. Intracameral injection of air or gas such as perflouropropane is the most common surgical procedure done. Recent investigative modality such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography is an extremely useful tool for diagnosis, surgical planning, and postoperative follow up. Resolution of hydrops may improve the contact lens tolerance and visual acuity but most cases require keratoplasty for visual rehabilitation.

  9. Posterior Corneal Surface Stability after Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cagini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate posterior corneal surface variation after femtosecond laser-assisted keratomileusis in patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism. Patients were evaluated by corneal tomography preoperatively and at 1, 6, and 12 months. We analyzed changes in the posterior corneal curvature, posterior corneal elevation, and anterior chamber depth. Moreover, we explored correlation between corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, percentage of ablated corneal tissue, and preoperative corneal thickness. During follow-up, the posterior corneal surface did not have a significant forward corneal shift: no significant linear relationships emerged between the anterior displacement of the posterior corneal surface and corneal ablation depth, residual corneal thickness, or percentage of ablated corneal tissue.

  10. Detecting Foreign Bodies in a Head Laceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Fowler

    2015-01-01

    are not identified prior to wound closure. The importance of imaging of lacerations was underscored by a recent case where a 20-year-old male collided with a friend’s mouth on a trampoline sustaining a simple, superficial scalp laceration. The wound was evaluated in typical fashion including irrigation and local exploration and was prepared for closure. The friend was then evaluated and noted to have multiple extensive dental fractures. An increased index of suspicion generated further evaluation of the first patient’s wound. Plain radiography obtained of the first patient’s skull was noted to have bony foreign bodies consistent with teeth, which were then removed after further exploration. Superficial wounds are common and complications arising from retained foreign bodies are a potential source of substantial morbidity and consequently medical litigation. This case serves as a reminder to be vigilant and maintain a high index of suspicion regarding the potential for foreign body.

  11. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  12. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  13. Progress in corneal wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal epithelium, and

  14. [Corneal manifestations in systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz Ventura, J; De Nova, E; Moreno-Montañés, J

    2008-01-01

    Systemic diseases affecting the cornea have a wide range of manifestations. The detailed study of all pathologies that cause corneal alteration is unapproachable, so we have centered our interest in the most prevalent or characteristic of them. In this paper we have divided these pathologies in sections to facilitate their study. Pulmonar and conective tissue (like colagen, rheumatologic and idiopathic inflamatory diseases), dermatologic, cardiovascular, hematologic, digestive and hepatopancreatic diseases with corneal alteration are described. Endocrine and metabolic diseases, malnutrition and carential states are also studied, as well as some otorhinolaryngologic and genetic diseases that affect the cornea. Finally, a brief report of ocular toxicity induced by drugs is referred.

  15. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  16. Corneal Regeneration After Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane; Hanneken, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) remodels corneal stroma to compensate refractive errors. The removal of epithelium and the ablation of stroma provoke the disruption of corneal nerves and a release of several peptides from tears, epithelium, stroma and nerves. A myriad of cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases participate in the process of corneal wound healing. Their balance will determine if reepithelization and stromal remodeling are appropriate. The final aim is to achieve corneal transparency for restoring corneal function, and a proper visual quality. Therefore, wound-healing response is critical for a successful refractive surgery. Our goal is to provide an overview into how corneal wounding develops following PRK. We will also review the influence of intraoperative application of mitomycin C, bandage contact lenses, anti-inflammatory and other drugs in preventing corneal haze and post-PRK pain. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  18. Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pythinen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeaekkoe, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ilkko, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-02-01

    We describe a rare entity, superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, due to multiple small episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage from any source. Non-specific neurological findings are associated with deposition of iron-containing pigments in the leptomeninges and superficial layers of the cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates characteristic low signal in the meninges. (orig.)

  19. Corneal stroma microfibrils

    KAUST Repository

    Hanlon, Samuel D.

    2015-03-01

    Elastic tissue was first described well over a hundred years ago and has since been identified in nearly every part of the body. In this review, we examine elastic tissue in the corneal stroma with some mention of other ocular structures which have been more thoroughly described in the past. True elastic fibers consist of an elastin core surrounded by fibrillin microfibrils. However, the presence of elastin fibers is not a requirement and some elastic tissue is comprised of non-elastin-containing bundles of microfibrils. Fibers containing a higher relative amount of elastin are associated with greater elasticity and those without elastin, with structural support. Recently it has been shown that the microfibrils, not only serve mechanical roles, but are also involved in cell signaling through force transduction and the release of TGF-β. A well characterized example of elastin-free microfibril bundles (EFMBs) is found in the ciliary zonules which suspend the crystalline lens in the eye. Through contraction of the ciliary muscle they exert enough force to reshape the lens and thereby change its focal point. It is believed that the molecules comprising these fibers do not turn-over and yet retain their tensile strength for the life of the animal. The mechanical properties of the cornea (strength, elasticity, resiliency) would suggest that EFMBs are present there as well. However, many authors have reported that, although present during embryonic and early postnatal development, EFMBs are generally not present in adults. Serial-block-face imaging with a scanning electron microscope enabled 3D reconstruction of elements in murine corneas. Among these elements were found fibers that formed an extensive network throughout the cornea. In single sections these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (~10nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly

  20. Corneale crosslinking voor progressieve keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Robert P L; Soeters, Nienke; Godefrooij, Daniel A.; De Koning-Tahzib, Nayyirih G.

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconus is a corneal disease with onset typically occurring during puberty or early adulthood. The cornea progressively thins and acquires a cone-like shape which negatively affects visual acuity. In the early stages, visual acuity can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. In more

  1. Corneale crosslinking voor progressieve keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Robert P L; Soeters, Nienke; Godefrooij, Daniel A.; De Koning-Tahzib, Nayyirih G.

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconus is a corneal disease with onset typically occurring during puberty or early adulthood. The cornea progressively thins and acquires a cone-like shape which negatively affects visual acuity. In the early stages, visual acuity can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. In more advance

  2. Terahertz sensing of corneal hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul S; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bourges, Jean Louis; Hubschman, Jean Pierre; Bennett, David B; Taylor, Zachary D; Lee, H; Brown, Elliott R; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O

    2010-01-01

    An indicator of ocular health is the hydrodyanmics of the cornea. Many corneal disorders deteriorate sight as they upset the normal hydrodynamics of the cornea. The mechanisms include the loss of endothelial pump function of corneal dystophies, swelling and immune response of corneal graft rejection, and inflammation and edema, which accompany trauma, burn, and irritation events. Due to high sensitivity to changes of water content in materials, a reflective terahertz (300 GHz and 3 THz) imaging system could be an ideal tool to measure the hydration level of the cornea. This paper presents the application of THz technology to visualize the hydration content across ex vivo porcine corneas. The corneas, with a thickness variation from 470 - 940 µm, were successfully imaged using a reflective pulsed THz imaging system, with a maximum SNR of 50 dB. To our knowledge, no prior studies have reported on the use of THz in measuring hydration in corneal tissues or other ocular tissues. These preliminary findings indicate that THz can be used to accurately sense hydration levels in the cornea using a pulsed, reflective THz imaging system.

  3. Assessment of corneal epithelial integrity after acute exposure to ocular hypotensive agents preserved with and without benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Jess T; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Lakshman, Neema; Petroll, W Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The corneal toxicity of 2 intraocular pressure-lowering agents was compared in a rabbit cornea model with New Zealand White rabbits. Corneal epithelial morphology and cell size were assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy. Baseline microscopic examinations were performed on 1 eye of each animal. Two weeks later, the eyes were bathed for 3 min in travoprost 0.004% preserved without benzalkonium chloride (BAK( or latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% BAK; the eyes were then rinsed with balanced salt solution, and the corneas were again examined by confocal microscopy (n=4/group). A second group of animals was exposed to the medications through a dosing regimen of 1 drop/min (lpar3 drops total) (n=4/group). In eyes treated with travoprost without BAK (3-min bath), superficial epithelial cells were similar to baseline, as indicated by their visible cell borders and bright nuclei. In contrast, the surface cells in eyes treated with latanoprost were significantly smaller and brighter and had less distinct borders. Surface cell size was significantly smaller as compared with baseline size and as compared with rabbits treated with travoprost without BAK for 3 min. Similar effects on corneal epithelial cell morphology were observed with the 1-drop/min dosing regimen. In this rabbit model, travoprost 0.004% preserved without BAK did not cause corneal epithelial toxicity; latanoprost 0.005% induced superficial cell loss, most likely caused by the presence of a relatively high concentration of BAK (0.02%).

  4. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  5. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  6. Cochlear implantation in superficial siderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong-Sun; Song, Jae-Jun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Young Ho; Koo, Ja-Won

    2006-08-01

    Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system has been thought to be a rare condition that generates progressive hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and dementia. The main cause of hearing loss by SS is thought to be neuronal. Because there is no histopathologic report of the human temporal bone in SS, there is a debate about the possibility of cochlear involvement. We present a 25-year-old man who was investigated for bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular failure after head trauma. On brain MRI, SS of the central nervous system was detected. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed no response on both sides. However, integrity of the eighth nerve was proved by the electrical ABR test on the right side and the patient benefited significantly from cochlear implantation. The sensorineural hearing loss in SS seems to be related to cochlear damage as well as neuronal damage. So, cochlear implantation would be a hearing rehabilitation modality for the sensorineural hearing loss caused by SS.

  7. Silicon superficial texturing bypulsed laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce, L.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Texturing of silicon surfaces with pulsed laser is made. The method is based on the formation of laser- induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS. The process is temporary characterized through the dynamic reflectance, thus determining the formation threshold of the structure. Relation between the different textures and the spectral reflectance of the samples before and after the treatment is also characterized. The mean value of spectral reflectance decreases up to a 6 %.

    Se realiza el texturado de superficies de silicio con un láser pulsado mediante la formación de una estructura periódica inducida por láser (LIPSS. Se caracteriza el proceso mediante reflectancia dinámica, determinándose el umbral de formación de la estructura. Se caracteriza el nivel de texturado midiendo la reflectancia espectral de las muestras antes y después del tratamiento. El valor medio de la reflectancia espectral disminuye hasta el 6 %.

  8. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  9. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  10. Clinical applications of corneal confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tavakoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitra Tavakoli1, Parwez Hossain2, Rayaz A Malik11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Manchester and Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK; 2University of Southampton, Southampton Eye Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel clinical technique for the study of corneal cellular structure. It provides images which are comparable to in-vitro histochemical techniques delineating corneal epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane and the corneal endothelium. Because, corneal confocal microscopy is a non invasive technique for in vivo imaging of the living cornea it has huge clinical potential to investigate numerous corneal diseases. Thus far it has been used in the detection and management of pathologic and infectious conditions, corneal dystrophies and ecstasies, monitoring contact lens induced corneal changes and for pre and post surgical evaluation (PRK, LASIK and LASEK, flap evaluations and Radial Keratotomy, and penetrating keratoplasty. Most recently it has been used as a surrogate for peripheral nerve damage in a variety of peripheral neuropathies and may have potential in acting as a surrogate marker for endothelial abnormalities.Keywords: corneal confocal microscopy, cornea, infective keratitis, corneal dystrophy, neuropathy

  11. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in conjunction with mitomycin C in corneal macular and granular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Yuksel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcomes, recurrence patterns, safety, and efficacy of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK in conjunction with mitomycin C (MMC for corneal macular and granular diystrophies. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD that caused superficial corneal plaque opacities, and Group 2 included patients with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD. Patients in both groups were pre-, peri-, and postoperatively evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (VA, best spectacle-corrected VA, presence of mild or significant recurrence, and time of recurrence. Results: Eighteen eyes (nine with MCD and nine with GCD of 18 patients (10 men and eight women were included. PTK was performed for each eye that was included in this study. The mean ablation amount was 117.8 ± 24.4 µm and 83.5 ± 45.7 µm in MCD and GCD, respectively, (p=0.18. The postoperative improvement of the mean VA was similar between the two groups before recurrences (p>0.43 and after recurrences (p>0.71. There were no statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate and the recurrence-free period for any recurrence type. Conclusion: PTK was an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for patients with MCD and GCD. PTK in conjunction with MMC was similarly effective for both groups in terms of recurrence and visual outcomes.

  12. Patch graft for corneal perforation following trivial trauma in bilateral terrien′s marginal degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A young female presented with blurred vision in the left eye after she rubbed her eye. On examination of both eyes, she had 360° thinning adjacent to the limbus, lipid deposition and superficial vascularization with a perforation in the left eye. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral Terrien′s marginal degeneration (TMD with perforation. Corneal topography of the right eye revealed high oblique astigmatism confirming the diagnosis. A peripheral patch graft was performed for the left eye. At 18 months postoperatively, the best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. The graft was clear. Topography of right eye was stable, and the left eye had oblique astigmatism. Bilateral advanced TMD in a young patient presenting with corneal perforation following trivial trauma is extremely uncommon. Patch graft may be an option for restoring the globe integrity in such cases. Regular follow-up is necessary as the condition progresses slowly.

  13. Corneal tattooing (keratopigmentation) with new mineral micronised pigments to restore cosmetic appearance in severely impaired eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Jorge L; Sirerol, Belucha; Walewska-Szafran, Anna; Miranda, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    To investigate keratopigmentation (KTP) with new mineral micronised pigments as a surgical alternative to improve cosmetic appearance in severely impaired eyes. 40 eyes underwent KTP alternatively to invasive cosmetic reconstructive surgery. Corneal staining with mineral micronised pigments was performed using an intralamellar or superficial technique. One year postoperatively, all but two patients (95%) were satisfied. Pigmented eyes were improving patient's appearance. Eight cases needed a second KTP. Two patients with preoperative corneal oedema did not obtain an adequate cosmetic appearance due to progressive pigment clearance observed from 6 months postoperatively. Three eyes with traumatic aniridia observed good cosmetic outcome and a significant reduction in glare. KTP achieves good cosmetic results and is associated with high patient satisfaction, avoiding extensive and mutilating reconstructive surgery.

  14. Visual outcome after corneal transplantation for corneal perforation and iris prolapse in 37 horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Plummer, C. E.; Mangan, B.;

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation.......We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation....

  15. Colloidal silver-based nanogel as nonocclusive dressing for multiple superficial pellet wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmshaktu, Ganesh Singh; Singhal, Aanshu; Pangtey, Tanuja

    2016-01-01

    A good dressing is mandatory to an uncomplicated wound healing, especially when foreign particles contaminate the wound. Various forms of dressing preparations are available for use and differ in chemical composition and efficacy. Silver has been a known agent with good antimicrobial and healing properties and recent times has seen an upsurge in various silver-based dressing supplements. We describe our report of use and efficacy of a silver nanoparticle- based gel dressing in the healing of multiple superficial firearm pellet wounds.

  16. Determination of corneal image-forming properties from corneal topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, R K; Bogan, S J; Waring, G O

    1993-01-01

    Keratometry provides useful information about the cornea's image-forming properties, such as corneal astigmatism, but is inaccurate on irregular corneas. Quantitative corneal topographic information is now obtainable on irregular corneas, but is difficult for the clinician to interpret. We developed a method to determine the spherical power, astigmatism, and topographic irregularity of a cornea by finding the best-fit spherocylinder that was closest to its measured topography. Keratometric measurements and two videokeratographs were gathered prospectively on 262 normal and abnormal corneas. The best-fit measurements of spherical power, astigmatism, and topographic irregularity were reproducible with one standard deviation of 0.75 diopter or better; agreement with keratometric measurements in normal eyes was good (0.60 diopter or better). Topographic irregularity averaged 0.1 diopter on precision spheres, 0.4 diopter on 146 normal eyes, 0.8 diopter on 29 eyes after radial keratotomy, 2.0 diopters on 58 eyes after penetrating keratoplasty, and 3.0 diopters on 29 eyes with advanced keratoconus. We conclude the following: basic corneal image-forming properties can be measured from videokeratographs; the properties can be determined, by our methods, on irregular corneas in which keratometry is unreliable; and topographic irregularity provides a measure of irregular astigmatism.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lattice corneal dystrophy type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corneal dystrophy type I lattice corneal dystrophy type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Lattice corneal dystrophy type I is an eye disorder that affects the clear, ...

  18. Immunoglobulins in granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H U; Bojsen-Møller, M; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    Three patients with granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I underwent corneal grafting, and cryostat sections of the corneal buttons were examined immunohistochemically for immunoglobulins. Positive results were obtained for IgG, Kappa-, and Lambda chains with immunofluorescence technique...

  19. Polar Value Analysis of Corneal Astigmatism in Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Rae Rho; Min-Ji Kim; Choun-Ki Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and the average corneal power change in symmetric intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation. Methods. The study included 34 eyes of 34 keratoconus patients who underwent symmetric Intacs SK ICRS implantation. The corneal pocket incision meridian was the preoperative steep meridian. Corneal power data were obtained before and 3 months after Intacs SK ICRS implantation using scanning-slit topography. Polar value analysis was ...

  20. [Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirskiĭ, V N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. The data on the presence of stem (clonogenic) cell pool in the corneal tissues (epithelium, endothelium, stroma) are given; these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. Particular attention is given to the successes of translational medicine in the treatment of corneal tissue fibrosis. The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. Gene therapy provides more opportunities; one of its main objectives is the suppression of the myofibroblast proliferation responsible for the development of fibrosis.

  1. Obtaining corneal tissue for keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Martínez-Cantullera, A; Calatayud Pinuaga, M

    2016-10-01

    Cornea transplant is the most common tissue transplant in the world. In Spain, tissue donation activities depend upon transplant coordinator activities and the well-known Spanish model for organ and tissue donation. Tissue donor detection system and tissue donor evaluation is performed mainly by transplant coordinators using the Spanish model on donation. The evaluation of a potential tissue donor from detection until recovery is based on an exhaustive review of the medical and social history, physical examination, family interview to determine will of the deceased, and a laboratory screening test. Corneal acceptance criteria for transplantation have a wider spectrum than other tissues, as donors with active malignancies and infections are accepted for kearatoplasty in most tissue banks. Corneal evaluation during the whole process is performed to ensure the safety of the donor and the recipient, as well as an effective transplant. Last step before processing, corneal recovery, must be performed under standard operating procedures and in a correct environment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Asfericidad corneal y calidad de imagen retiniana en cirugía refractiva

    OpenAIRE

    González Anera, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    En esta Memoria de Doctorado se ha justificado la necesidad de seguir investiganco sobre los algoritmos que se emplean en cirugía refractiva. Hemos estudiado cómo se modifica la calidad de la imagen retiniana en sujetos sometidos a cirugía refractiva. Para ello, una de nuestras intenciones ha sido caracterizar la superficie corneal anterior mediante el modelo de conicoide, es decir, presentando cierto grado de asfericidad, con objeto de poder modificar algunos parámetros para así optimizar la...

  3. In vivo confocal microscopy of an apparent deep stroma corneal dystrophy: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A 41-year-old white woman was referred to our Department to rule out the presence of a Fuch's corneal dystrophy. On slit-lamp biomicroscopy, small bilateral punctuate opacities appearing mostly in the posterior stroma were observed, suggesting a differential diagnosis of pre-Descemet's dystrophy as opposed to Cornea Farinata. Confocal microscopy in the central cornea of both eyes revealed the normal appearance of superficial and basal epithelial layers. However throughout the full thickness of the cornea fine highly refractive granules, localized both in the keratocytes cytoplasm and in the stroma matrix were noted. In both eyes abnormal polymegatism and pleomorphism was observed. PMID:20062640

  4. Endoscopy-guided vitreoretinal surgery following penetrating corneal injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Motoko Kawashima1, Shinichi Kawashima2, Murat Dogru1,3, Makoto Inoue4, Jun Shimazaki1,51Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Kyorin Eye Center, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanIntroduction: Severe ocular trauma requires emergency surgery, and a fresh corneal graft may not always be available. We describe a case of perforating eye injury with corneal ­opacity, suspected endophthalmitis, and an intraocular foreign body. The patient was successfully treated with a two-step procedure comprising endoscopy-guided vitrectomy followed by corneal transplantation. This surgical technique offers a good option to vitrectomy with simultaneous keratoplasty in emergency cases where no graft is immediately available and there is the ­possibility of infection due to the presence of a foreign body.Case presentation: A 55-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital with a ­perforating corneal and lens injury sustained with a muddy ferrous rod. Primary corneal sutures and lensectomy were performed immediately. Vitreoretinal surgery was required due to ­suspected endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, dialysis and necrosis of the peripheral retina. Instead of conventional vitrectomy, endoscopy-guided vitreous surgery was performed with the Solid Fiber Catheter AS-611 (FiberTech, Tokyo, Japan due to the presence of corneal opacity and the unavailability of a donor cornea. The retina was successfully attached with the aid of a silicon oil tamponade. Following removal of the silicon oil at 3 months after surgery, penetrating keratoplasty and intraocular lens implantation with ciliary sulcus suture fixation were performed. At 6 months after penetrating

  5. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  7. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  8. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  9. [E-PTFE Membrane for the Management of Perforated Corneal Ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, D; Pahor, A

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To present the surgical management of perforated corneal ulcer using PRECLUDE® Pericardial Membrane, composed of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE; GORE-TEX®), as an alternative surgical procedure in patients at high risk of graft rejections and to evaluate side effects for a prolonged period. Patients and Methods: The study included all patients who were admitted to our department and underwent surgical repair of perforated corneal ulcer with the e-PTFE membrane between 2010 and 2015. In total, 8 patients (8 eyes) were enrolled. Medical records of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. The operation was performed under peribulbar anaesthesia. Non-absorbable, microporous, watertight 0.1 mm thick e-PTFE membrane was used to close the corneal ulcer. The membrane was cut to overlap the defect adequately and to achieve the desired tissue attachment without preparing the conjunctiva or superficial trephination of the cornea. The membrane was fixed to the healthy cornea with several non-absorbable sutures (Prolene® 10.0), in order to achieve the proper stress without wrinkling. Results: Five of 8 patients were treated for systemic immunological diseases. Sjögren's syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients, granulomatosis with polyangiitis in one, vasculitis with a history of previous sclerokeratitis in one and systemic lupus erythematosus in one. In 2 patients, corneal perforation was observed as a complication of corneal infection and in one patient as a late complication of a severe chemical burn. Corneal perforations were successfully covered with e-PTFE membrane in all patients. E-PTFE membrane was well tolerated in all patients and the eye was always preserved. After 3 to 4 months, the membrane was removed in 7 patients. The underlying cornea was thin, firm, stable and vascularised. In one patient with Sjögren's syndrome, the e-PTFE membrane is still in place. Conclusion: Surgical management of perforated corneal ulcer using E-PTFE membrane

  10. The SULFs, extracellular sulfatases for heparan sulfate, promote the migration of corneal epithelial cells during wound repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Maltseva

    Full Text Available Corneal epithelial wound repair involves the migration of epithelial cells to cover the defect followed by the proliferation of the cells to restore thickness. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs are ubiquitous extracellular molecules that bind to a plethora of growth factors, cytokines, and morphogens and thereby regulate their signaling functions. Ligand binding by HS chains depends on the pattern of four sulfation modifications, one of which is 6-O-sulfation of glucosamine (6OS. SULF1 and SULF2 are highly homologous, extracellular endosulfatases, which post-synthetically edit the sulfation status of HS by removing 6OS from intact chains. The SULFs thereby modulate multiple signaling pathways including the augmentation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. We found that wounding of mouse corneal epithelium stimulated SULF1 expression in superficial epithelial cells proximal to the wound edge. Sulf1⁻/⁻, but not Sulf2⁻/⁻, mice, exhibited a marked delay in healing. Furthermore, corneal epithelial cells derived from Sulf1⁻/⁻ mice exhibited a reduced rate of migration in repair of a scratched monolayer compared to wild-type cells. In contrast, human primary corneal epithelial cells expressed SULF2, as did a human corneal epithelial cell line (THCE. Knockdown of SULF2 in THCE cells also slowed migration, which was restored by overexpression of either mouse SULF2 or human SULF1. The interchangeability of the two SULFs establishes their capacity for functional redundancy. Knockdown of SULF2 decreased Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in THCE cells. Extracellular antagonists of Wnt signaling reduced migration of THCE cells. However in SULF2- knockdown cells, these antagonists exerted no further effects on migration, consistent with the SULF functioning as an upstream regulator of Wnt signaling. Further understanding of the mechanistic action of the SULFs in promoting corneal repair may lead to new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of corneal injuries.

  11. Corneal tomography and biomechanics in primary pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanathi, M; Goel, Sahil; Ganger, Anita; Agarwal, Tushar; Dada, T; Khokhar, Sudarshan

    2017-05-13

    To study the Scheimpflug's imaging and corneal biomechanics in primary pterygium. A prospective observational study of 55 patients with unilateral primary nasal pterygium was done. The normal fellow eyes of patients with pterygium were taken as controls. Clinical parameters noted included visual acuity, values of corneal curvature by doing Scheimpflug imaging, wavefront aberrations in terms of higher and lower-order aberrations and corneal hysteresis (CH) as well as corneal resistance factor (CRF) values by using ocular response analyzer. Of the total 55 patients, mean age was 43.0 + 11.4 years (range: 20-72 years). Mean LogMar uncorrected visual acuity in pterygium eyes and control eyes was 0.21 + 0.20 and 0.12 + 0.15, respectively (p = 0.016). On Scheimpflug imaging the mean anterior corneal curvature values (Ka1/Ka2 D) were 41.09 + 3.38/44.33 + 2.29 in pterygium eyes, 43.13 + 1.79/43.98 + 2.17 in control eyes (p  0.05). Analysis of corneal aberrations showed significantly higher corneal wavefront aberrations in pterygium eyes. Highest correlation of corneal astigmatism was noted with corneal area encroached by pterygium (ρ = 0.540 for LOA and 0.553 for HOA) and distance from pupillary center (ρ = 0.531 for LOA and 0.564 for HOA). Corneal biomechanical parameters including CH and CRF were found to be lower in the pterygium eyes, though not statistically significant (p value 0.60 and 0.59, respectively). Pterygium leads to deterioration of visual performance not only by causing refractive and topographic changes but also by causing a significant increase in corneal wavefront aberrations.

  12. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuthinee N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Naidu Vinuthinee,1,2 Anuar Azreen-Redzal,1 Jaafar Juanarita,1 Embong Zunaina2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia Abstract: A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. Keywords: corneal ulcer, pediatric trauma, ocular injury

  13. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lapid-Gortzak; C.P. Nieuwendaal; A.R. Slomovic; L. Spanjaard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. Methods: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  14. Corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lisha

    2000-01-01

    Background. Cellular proliferation plays an important role in both physiological and pathological processes. Epithelial hyperplasia in the epithelium, excessive scar formation in retrocorneal membrane formation and neovascularization are examples of excessive proliferation of cornea cells. Lack of proliferative ability causes corneal degeneration. The degree of proliferative and metabolic activity will directly influence corneal transparency and very evidently refractive res...

  15. Corynebacterium macginleyi isolated from a corneal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ruoff

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of Corynebacterium macginleyi from the corneal ulcer culture of a patient, later enrolled in the Steroids for Corneal Ulcer Trial (SCUT. To our knowledge this is the first published report from North America of the recovery of C. macginleyi from a serious ocular infection.

  16. Corneal Topographical Changes Flollowing Strabismus Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaiGH; WangZ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To study corneal topographical changes after strabismus surgery.Methods:Computer-aided corneal topography was used in 43 strabismus patients(45 eyes)one or two days prior to and six or seven ays after strabismus surgery.The spherical and cylindrical equivalents were calculated based on the simulated keratometry.Results:After the surgery,only the changes at 3mm in the inferior quadrant were statistically significant.The changes at 3mm in the rest quadrants and the changes at 7mm were no significant.Significant changes in spherical equivalent were found post-operatively.neither the horizontal nor the verical meridional equivalent showed significant changes after surgery.Conclusions:The results of corneal topographical changes following strabismus surgery in our preliminary study indicated the little effect of strabismus surgery on corneal curvature and corneal astigmatism.

  17. Corneal neovascularization and contemporary antiangiogenic therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chang, Hua-Ming; Lin, Tai-Chi; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chien, Ke-Hung; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chen, San-Ni; Chen, Yan-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Corneal neovascularization (NV), the excessive ingrowth of blood vessels from conjunctiva into the cornea, is a common sequela of disease insult that can lead to visual impairment. Clinically, topical steroid, argon laser photocoagulation, and subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab have been used to treat corneal NV. Sometimes, the therapies are ineffective, especially when the vessels are large. Large vessels are difficult to occlude and easily recanalized. Scientists and physicians are now dedicated to overcoming this problem. In this article, we briefly introduce the pathogenesis of corneal NV, and then highlight the existing animal models used in corneal NV research-the alkali-induced model and the suture-induced model. Most of all, we review the potential therapeutic targets (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor) and their corresponding inhibitors, as well as the immunosuppressants that have been discovered in recent years by corneal NV studies.

  18. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  19. Corneal Regeneration by Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK Using Decellularized Corneal Matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihide Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of DALK using a decellularized corneal matrix obtained by HHP methodology. Porcine corneas were hydrostatically pressurized at 980 MPa at 10°C for 10 minutes to destroy the cells, followed by washing with EGM-2 medium to remove the cell debris. The HHP-treated corneas were stained with H-E to assess the efficacy of decellularization. The decellularized corneal matrix of 300 μm thickness and 6.0 mm diameter was transplanted onto a 6.0 mm diameter keratectomy wound. The time course of regeneration on the decellularized corneal matrix was evaluated by haze grading score, fluorescein staining, and immunohistochemistry. H-E staining revealed that no cell nuclei were observed in the decellularized corneal matrix. The decellularized corneal matrices were opaque immediately after transplantation, but became completely transparent after 4 months. Fluorescein staining revealed that initial migration of epithelial cells over the grafts was slow, taking 3 months to completely cover the implant. Histological sections revealed that the implanted decellularized corneal matrix was completely integrated with the receptive rabbit cornea, and keratocytes infiltrated into the decellularized corneal matrix 6 months after transplantation. No inflammatory cells such as macrophages, or neovascularization, were observed during the implantation period. The decellularized corneal matrix improved corneal transparency, and remodelled the graft after being transplanted, demonstrating that the matrix obtained by HHP was a useful graft for corneal tissue regeneration.

  20. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Syed Muneeb; Imran, Muhammad; Qazi, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery are an uncommon vascular lesion of the external carotid system and most often the result of blunt head trauma. The frequency of pseudoaneurysms of the superficial temporal artery developing after craniotomy is exceedingly low and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of this type in a 45-year-old male who underwent craniotomy for excision of meningioma. One month postoperatively, the craniotomy flap exhibited an enormous diffuse pulsate swelling. The suspected diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm arising from superficial temporal artery was confirmed on angiography. Surgical excision was done and no recurrences of the tumor or aneurysm were noted on subsequent follow up. PMID:26501064

  1. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  2. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets.

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  4. Comparison between lamellar keratoplasties produced by conjunctival pedicle and free corneal autografts. Experimental study in the dog (Canis familiaris - LINNAEUS, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Laus

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of conjunctival pedicle and corneal autografts, for experimental healing of superficial keratectomies in dogs (Canis familiaris was performed. It was carried out by using 24 animals, and the technical procedures were analysed according to clinical, histologic and scanning electron microscopy parameters, in early and late postoperative periods. The obtained results are believed to represent feasible methods of proteresis, applied to the healing ophthalmic surgery. There were few, irrelevant differences between the two tested techniques.

  5. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  6. Corneal sensitivity in five horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Santos de Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine and compare corneal sensitivity values in different regions of the cornea in five horse breeds. One hundred and forty five healthy horses, adults of both sexes, of the following breeds - Arabian horse (AH; n=20, Mangalarga Marchador (MM; n=50, Pure Blood Lusitano (PBL; n=35, Quarter Horse (QH; n=20, Brazilian Sport Horse (BSH; n=20-were investigated. Corneal touch threshold (CTT was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer in five different corneal regions. Measurements of the median central CTT were: 4.50±0.50cm (AH, 3.50±0.56cm (MM, 3.00±0.25cm (PBL, 2.50±0.44cm (QH and 2.50±0.00cm (BSH. The central region was the most sensitive and the dorsal region the least sensitive corneal region for all breeds. CTT values differed for corneal regions and horse breeds. The CTT values were different among the corneal regions and the horse breeds. Arabian horses presented higher sensitivity values being the most sensitive in all of the corneal regions.

  7. Corneal topographic changes following retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey RM

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effect of retinal/ vitreoretinal surgeries on corneal elevations. Methods Patients who underwent retinal/ vitreoretinal surgeries were divided into 3 groups. Scleral buckling was performed in 11 eyes (Group 1. In 8 (25% eyes, vitreoretinal surgery was performed along with scleral buckling (Group 2. In 12 eyes, pars plana vitrectomy was performed for vitreous hemorrhage (Group 3. An encircling element was used in all the eyes. The parameters evaluated were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, change in axial length, and corneal topographic changes on Orbscan topography system II, preoperative and at 12 weeks following surgery. Results There was a statistically significant increase in anterior corneal elevation in all the three groups after surgery (p = 0.003, p = 0.008 & p = 0.003 respectively. The increase in posterior corneal elevation was highly significant in all the three groups after surgery (p = 0.0000, p = 0.0001 & p = 0.0001 respectively. The increase in the posterior corneal elevation was more than the increase in the anterior elevation and was significant statistically in all the three groups (group I: p = 0.02; group II: p = 0.01; group III: p = 0.008. Conclusions Retinal/ vitreoretinal surgeries cause a significant increase in the corneal elevations and have a greater effect on the posterior corneal surface.

  8. Differences between real and predicted corneal shapes after aspherical corneal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anera, Rosario G.; Villa, César; Jiménez, José R.; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Jiménez del Barco, Luis

    2005-07-01

    We study the differences between real and expected corneal shapes, using an aspherical ablation algorithm with a known equation and avoiding the limitation imposed by most studies of refractive surgery in which the ablation equations are not known. We have calculated the theoretical corneal shape predicted by this algorithm, comparing this shape with the real corneal topography. The results indicate that the deviations that appear in the corneal shape are significant for visual performance and for the correction of eye aberrations. If we include in this analysis the effect of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the cornea, we can reduce corneal differences, but they will remain significant. These results confirm that it is essential to minimize corneal differences to achieve effective correction in refractive surgery.

  9. Umbilical cord blood serum therapy for the management of persistent corneal epithelial defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elif; Erdem; Meltem; Yagmur; Inan; Harbiyeli; Hande; Taylan-Sekeroglu; Reha; Ersoz

    2014-01-01

    AIM:Toevaluatetheroleofumbilical cord blood serum(CBS) therapy in cases with persistent corneal epithelial defects(PED).METHODS:Sixteen eyes of 14 patients with PED who were resistant to conventional treatment were treated with 20% umbilical cord serum eye drops. Patients were followed-up weekly until epithelization was complete.The collected data included the grade of corneal lesion(Grade I: epithelial defect +superficial vascularization,Grade II: epithelial defect +stromal edema, Grade III:corneal ulcer +stromal melting), the size of epithelial defect(pretreatment, 7th, 14 thand 21stdays of treatment),and follow-up time was evaluated retrospectively.RESULTS:The mean size of epithelial defect on two perpendicular axes was 5.2×4.6-mm2(range: 2.5-8 mm×2.2-9 mm2). Mean duration of treatment was 8.3 ±5wk.CBS therapy was effective in 12 eyes(75%) and ineffective in 4 eyes(25%). The epithelial defects in 4ineffective eyes were healed with amniotic membrane transplantation and tarsorrhaphy. The rate of complete healing was 12.5% by 7d, 25% by 14 d, and 75% by 21 d.The healing time was prolonged in Grade III eyes in comparison to eyes in Grade I or Grade II.CONCLUSION:The results of the current study indicated the safety effectiveness of CBS drops in the management of PED. The grade of disease seems have a role on the healing time.

  10. Tracer Studies of the Influence of Foreign Substances at the Surface of the Electrodes. II Influence in electro crystallization phenomena; Accion de las sustancias extranas en la superficies de los electrodos. Estudio mediante radiotrazadores. II. Influencia en los procesos de electrocristalizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llopis, J.; Gamboa, J. M.; Arizmendi, L.

    1963-07-01

    The action of foreign substances present on the surface of the electrodes, in electro crystallization phenomena, has been studied. The number of Ag crystals per square centimeter of Pt electrode varies with the polishing, the current density and the presence of multilayers of stearic acid. The statistical distribution of Ag crystals without and with multilayers and their influence on the concentration index and the deformation of Ag crystals has been studied. the size of these crystals increases as the current density decreases. (Author) 16 refs.

  11. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The human corneal epithelium is usually described as a 50-µm-thick layer of regular stratified squamous non-keratinized cells with a thickness of 5-7 cells. The purpose of this study is systemically to revisit the histopathological appearance of 100 corneas. METHODS: 5-µm-thick sections...... in Bowman's membrane. No intraepithelial microcysts, as found in Meesmann corneal dystrophy, were observed. CONCLUSION: The total corneal thickness was higher than reported in in vivo studies and with a wider variation. This may be an effect of uncontrolled swelling and dehydration during preparation...

  12. Polar Value Analysis of Corneal Astigmatism in Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Chang Rae; Kim, Min-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) and the average corneal power change in symmetric intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation. Methods. The study included 34 eyes of 34 keratoconus patients who underwent symmetric Intacs SK ICRS implantation. The corneal pocket incision meridian was the preoperative steep meridian. Corneal power data were obtained before and 3 months after Intacs SK ICRS implantation using scanning-slit topography. Polar value analysis was used to evaluate the SIA. Hotelling's trace test was used to compare intraindividual changes. Results. Three months postoperatively, the combined mean polar value for SIA changed significantly (Hotelling's T2 = 0.375; P = 0.006). The SIA was 1.54 D at 99° and the average corneal power decreased significantly by 3.8 D. Conclusion. Intacs SK ICRS placement decreased the average corneal power and corneal astigmatism compared to the preoperative corneal power and astigmatism when the corneal pocket incision was made at the preoperative steep meridian. PMID:27795856

  13. Polar Value Analysis of Corneal Astigmatism in Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Rae Rho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and the average corneal power change in symmetric intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS implantation. Methods. The study included 34 eyes of 34 keratoconus patients who underwent symmetric Intacs SK ICRS implantation. The corneal pocket incision meridian was the preoperative steep meridian. Corneal power data were obtained before and 3 months after Intacs SK ICRS implantation using scanning-slit topography. Polar value analysis was used to evaluate the SIA. Hotelling’s trace test was used to compare intraindividual changes. Results. Three months postoperatively, the combined mean polar value for SIA changed significantly (Hotelling’s T2=0.375; P=0.006. The SIA was 1.54 D at 99° and the average corneal power decreased significantly by 3.8 D. Conclusion. Intacs SK ICRS placement decreased the average corneal power and corneal astigmatism compared to the preoperative corneal power and astigmatism when the corneal pocket incision was made at the preoperative steep meridian.

  14. Superficial Urothelial Cancer in the Prostatic Urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Kirkali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU. The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12—40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  15. Superficial urothelial cancer in the prostatic urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkali, Ziya; Canda, A Erdem

    2006-02-28

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a multifocal disease of the urinary tract that can also involve the prostatic urethra (PU). The exact incidence of superficial involvement of the PU in patients with bladder TCC is not well known. Bladder TCC may involve the prostate in 12-40% of the patients and the degree of involvement can include urethral mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma of the gland, which has been shown to affect the outcome. Risk factors for superficial urothelial cancer in the PU are high-grade, multifocal bladder TCC and presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the bladder. While visible tumors are easy to detect and resect, controversy still exists regarding the optimal technique to identify prostatic involvement by TCC. Prostatic urethral sampling by a transurethral resection biopsy or a cold-cup biopsy, particularly in the high-risk group of bladder cancer patients, has been recommended for detecting prostatic urethral involvement. Management of superficial prostatic involvement by TCC is also unclear. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the value of conservative treatment options with intravesical agents when there is superficial involvement of the PU. Particularly, intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of superficial involvement of the PU by TCC. Close follow-up by cystoscopy and PU biopsy at 3-month intervals, particularly in intermediate and high-risk patients who respond to intravesical therapy and in whom cystectomy is appropriate, is recommended in order to detect persistent tumor, recurrences, or progression.

  16. Foreign grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, a national research grants program, offers opportunities for support of research in Burma, Guinea, India, and Pakistan in astrophysics and earth sciences; anthropology, archeology, and related disciplines; systematic and environmental biology; and museum programs.Grants in the local currencies of the countries are awarded to U.S. institutions for research by senior scientists; collaborative programs involving host country institutions are welcome. Awards are determined on the basis of competitive scholarly review.

  17. Surgical compensation of presbyopia with corneal inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-05-01

    Presbyopia, the physiological change in near vision that develops with ageing, gradually affects individuals older than 40 years and is a growing cause of visual disability due to ageing demographics of the global population. The routine use of computers and 'smartphones', combined with the affluence of the 'baby boomers' generation has set high standards for near vision correction. Corneal inlays are a relatively new treatment modality that is effective at compensating for presbyopia. The dimensions of these devices vary from 2 to 3.8 mm in diameter and 5 to 32 μm in thickness. They are implanted in the anterior corneal stroma of the non-dominant eye, most commonly, in a femtosecond laser created corneal pocket. They improve near vision by increasing the depth of focus, creating a hyper-prolate region of increased central cornea power or providing a refractive add power. This article reviews the literature on the efficacy and safety of corneal inlays.

  18. Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia with corneal furrow degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old man presented with redness of left eye since six months. Examination revealed bilateral corneal furrow degeneration. Left eye lesion was suggestive of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, encroaching on to cornea. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT confirmed peripheral corneal thinning. Fluorescein angiography confirmed intrinsic vascularity of lesion. Patient was managed with "no touch" surgical excision, dry keratectomy without alcohol, cryotherapy, and primary closure. Pathologic examination of removed tissue confirmed clinical diagnosis. Management of this particular case required modification of standard treatment protocol. Unlike the alcohol-assisted technique of tumor dissection described, ethyl alcohol was not used for risk of corneal perforation due to underlying peripheral corneal thinning. Likewise, topical steroids were withheld in the post-operative period. Three weeks post-operatively, left eye was healing well. Hence, per-operative usage of absolute alcohol and post-operative use of topical steroids may be best avoided in such eyes.

  19. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne

    2010-05-01

    To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve.

  20. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    OpenAIRE

    Adroaldo Lunardelli; Richard Beraldini Alvarenga; Maria Luiza Assmann; Dário Eduardo de Lima Brum; Mirna Adolfina Barison

    2014-01-01

    Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pert...

  1. Asphericity analysis using corneal wavefront and topographic meridional fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; de Ortueta, Diego

    2010-03-01

    The calculation of corneal asphericity as a 3-D fit renders more accurate results when it is based on the corneal wavefront aberrations rather than on the corneal topography of the principal meridians. A more accurate prediction could be obtained for hyperopic treatments compared to myopic treatments. We evaluate a method to calculate corneal asphericity and asphericity changes after refractive surgery. Sixty eyes of 15 consecutive myopic patients and 15 consecutive hyperopic patients (n=30 each) are retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative and 3-month-postoperative topographic and corneal wavefront analyses are performed using corneal topography. Ablations are performed using a laser with an aberration-free profile. Topographic changes in asphericity and corneal aberrations are evaluated for a 6-mm corneal diameter. The induction of corneal spherical aberrations and asphericity changes correlates with the achieved defocus correction. Preoperatively as well as postoperatively, asphericity calculated from the topography meridians correlates with asphericity calculated from the corneal wavefront in myopic and hyperopic treatments. A stronger correlation between postoperative asphericity and the ideally expected/predicted asphericity is obtained based on aberration-free assumptions calculated from corneal wavefront values rather than from the meridians. In hyperopic treatments, a better correlation can be obtained compared to the correlation in myopic treatments. Corneal asphericity calculated from corneal wavefront aberrations represents a 3-D fit of the corneal surface; asphericity calculated from the main topographic meridians represents a 2-D fit of the principal corneal meridians. Postoperative corneal asphericity can be calculated from corneal wavefront aberrations with higher fidelity than from corneal topography of the principal meridians. Hyperopic treatments show a greater accuracy than myopic treatments.

  2. Transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus: qualitative investigation by in vivo HRT II confocal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Aldo; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Paradiso, Anna Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This was a qualitative investigation of corneal microstructural modifications in keratoconic patients undergoing experimental transepithelial crosslinking (TE CXL). Ten patients with keratoconus intolerant to gas-permeable rigid contact lenses were enrolled. Corneal thickness was in the range 350-390 µm at the thinnest point measured by Visante AC optical coherence tomography system (Zeiss, Jena, Germany). All patients underwent TE CXL with 0.1% riboflavin-15% dextran solution supplemented with TRIS plus sodium EDTA (Ricrolin TE, Sooft Italia) according to Siena protocol. In vivo Heidelberg retinal tomograph II laser scanning confocal analysis (Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany) was performed with the following follow-up: preoperative and postoperative assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months. The following morphologic parameters were evaluated: epithelium, subepithelial, and anterior stroma nerve plexi, keratocytes apoptosis, stromal changes, and the endothelium. After TE CXL, epithelial cells showed apoptosis, with mosaic alterations gradually disappearing. Keratocytes apoptosis was variable, superficial, and uneven, with a maximum depth of penetration at about 140 µm, measured from the surface of epithelium. Treatment respected subepithelial and stromal nerves that did not disappear. No variation in cell count or endothelial mosaic was observed. In vivo confocal analysis of corneal modifications induced by TE CXL showed a limited apoptotic affect of this treatment, about one-third of classic epi-off crosslinking procedure. The TE CXL respected sub-basal and anterior stroma nerve fibers, resulting safe for corneal endothelium. According to limited penetration, its mid- to long-term efficacy needs to be determined in different clinical settings related to patient age and keratoconus progression.

  3. [Neovascularization corneal regression in patients treated with photodynamic therapy with verteporfin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Dávalos, César David; Carrasco-Quiroz, Arturo; Rivera-Díez, Dirce

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la neovascularización corneal es una condición que amenaza la visión, por lo general, se asocia a trastornos inflamatorios o infecciosos de la superficie ocular. Uno de los tratamientos actuales es la terapia fotodinámica, el uso de un fotosensibilizador para ocluir los vasos ha producido con éxito la trombosis microvascular con un daño mínimo al tejido normal circundante. El objetivo de este artículo es determinar cuantitativamente el porcentaje de regresión en la neovascularización corneal que presentan los pacientes tratados con terapia fotodinámica con verteporfirina. Métodos: estudio de tratamiento de antes y después; experimental, analítico, prospectivo y longitudinal. Resultados: de los 25 neovasos analizados, 8 vasos (32 %) presentaron al mes una oclusión total del 100 %, 15 vasos (60 %) una oclusión parcial en el rango de 15.3 al 85.1 %, y 2 vasos (8 %) empeoramiento en la vascularización corneal. El promedio del área de neovascularización corneal disminuyó significativamente en un 70 % de 0.147 ± 0.118 mm2 a 0.045 ± 0.046 mm2, (p terapia fotodinámica. No se reportaron efectos adversos. Conclusiones: la terapia fotodinámica con verteporfina es un procedimiento seguro y efectivo para reducir la neovascularización de la córnea y puede utilizarse para inhibir la angiogénesis en la córnea.

  4. Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Contact Lens-Related Corneal Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a novel technique of adapting a swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA to image corneal vascularization. Methods. In this pilot cross-sectional study, we obtained 3 × 3 mm scans, where 100,000 A-scans are acquired per second with optical axial resolution of 8 μm and lateral resolution of 20 μm. This was performed with manual “XYZ” focus without the anterior segment lens, until the focus of the corneoscleral surface was clearly seen and the vessels of interest were in focus on the corresponding red-free image. En face scans were evaluated based on image quality score and repeatability. Results. We analyzed scans from 10 eyes (10 patients with corneal vascularization secondary to contact lens use in 4 quadrants, with substantial repeatability of scans in all quadrants (mean image quality score 2.7 ± 0.7; κ=0.75. There was no significant difference in image quality scores comparing quadrants (superior temporal: 2.9 ± 0.6, superior nasal: 2.8 ± 0.4, inferior temporal: 2.5 ± 0.9, and inferior nasal: 2.4 ± 1.0; P=0.276 and able to differentiate deep and superficial corneal vascularization. Conclusion. This early clinical study suggests that the swept-source OCTA used may be useful for examining corneal vascularization, which may have potential for clinical applications such as detecting early limbal stem cell damage.

  5. Update on pathologic diagnosis of corneal infections and inflammations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta K Vemuganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent types of corneal specimen that we received in our pathology laboratory is an excised corneal tissue following keratoplasty. Several of these cases are due to corneal infections or the sequelae, like corneal scar. Advances in the histological and molecular diagnosis of corneal infections and inflammations have resulted in rapid and accurate diagnosis of the infectious agent and in the overall understanding of the mechanisms in inflammatory diseases of the cornea. This review provides an update of histopathological findings in various corneal infections and inflammations.

  6. Survival and integration of tissue-engineered corneal stroma in a model of corneal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Nie, Xin; Hu, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Deng, Zhihong; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

    2007-08-01

    Tissue-engineered replacement of diseased or damaged tissue has become a reality for some types of tissue, such as skin and cartilage. Tissue-engineered corneal stroma represents a promising concept to overcome the limitations of cornea replacement with allograft. In this study, porcine cornea was decellularized by a series of extraction methods, and the in vivo biocompatibility of the scaffold was measured subcutaneously in rabbits (n = 8). These were not acutely rejected and no abscesses were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining at the 8th week, indicating that the scaffolds had good biocompatibility. To investigate the potential value of clinical applications, rabbit stromal keratocytes were implanted onto decellularized scaffolds to fabricate tissue-engineered corneal stroma. Allograft, tissue-engineered corneal stroma, or scaffolds were implanted into a model of corneal ulcer. The survival and reconstruction of corneal transplantation were morphologically evaluated by light and electron microscopy until the 32nd week after implantation. Experiments involving transplantation indicated that the epithelial and stromal defect healed quickly, with improvement in corneal clarity. The integration of the graft was accompanied by neurite ingrowth from the host tissue. By 16 weeks after transplantation, the cornea had gradually regained an intact state similar to that of normal cornea. Our results demonstrate that the tissue-engineered corneal stroma with allogenetic cells is a promising therapeutic method for corneal injury.

  7. Foreign Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When the Fourth Session of the 11th National People’s Congress was held on March 5-14 and drew the nation’s attention, expats in Beijing also followed the meeting. Beijing Review reporter Liu Xinlian interviewed foreign nationals completing their master’s degrees in public administration at School of Public Policy and Management of Tsinghua University about the government work report delivered by Premier Wen Jiabao and the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) approved at the session.

  8. Deep and superficial skin scrapings from a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Jennifer A; Tarigo, Jaime; Tater, Kathy C; Grindem, Carol B

    2007-03-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat housed at the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory Animal Research facility as part of a research colony was examined because of mulifocal skin lesions. The lesions consisted of patchy alopecia with mild crusting of the periauricular region, neck, and dorsum; periauricular excoriations; marked dorsal seborrhea and scaling; and generalized erythematous papules. A moderate amount of ceruminous exudate was present in both ear canals. Results of testing for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were positive. An ear swab specimen and superficial and deep skin scrapings were obtained, mounted with oil on glass slides, and coverslipped for microscopic examination. Two populations of mites were observed: a large population of slender, long (approximately 200 microm), adult mites with long, tapering abdomens that comprised two-thirds of the total body length; and a smaller population of more translucent and shorter mites (approximately 100 microm) with wide, blunt abdomens that had prominent transverse ridges. The interpretation was demodicosis, with Demodex cati and D gatoi co-infection. Histologic sections of biopsies from skin lesions on the neck, dorsum, and periauricular area contained a mild perivascular and perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Diffusely within the follicular lumina and occasionally within the superficial keratin, a myriad of Demodex organisms were observed. Intrafollicular mites were compatible in appearance with D cati whereas those in the corneal layer were suggestive of D gatoi. Demodicosis is an uncommon disease of cats, and rare cases of dual infection have been documented, occasionally in FIV-infected cats. The dual infection emphasizes the importance of doing both superficial and deep skin scrapings and of recognizing the unique microscopic features of different Demodex mites.

  9. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management.

  10. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MARGINAL SUPERFICIAL PERIODONTIUM AT MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Premises: Sexual hormones may affect the general health condition of women, as early as puberty, continuing during pregnancy and also after menopause. Variations of the hormonal levels may cause different – either local or general – pathological modifications. Sexual hormones may also affect periodontal status, favourizing gingival inflammations and reducing periodontal resistance to the action of the bacterial plaque. Scope: Establishment of the correlations between the debut or the manifestation of menopause and the modifications produced in the superficial periodontium. Materials and method: Clinical and paraclinical investigations were performed on female patients with ages between 45 and 66 years, involving macroscopic, microscopic and radiological recording of the aspect of the superificial periodontium (gingiva. Results: Analysis of the histological sections evidenced atrophic and involutive modifications in the marginal superficial periodontium of female patients at menopause. Conclusions: Sexual hormones intervene in the histological equilibrium of the marginal superficial periodontium, influencing the periodontal health status, which explains the correlation between the subjective symptomatology specific to menopause and the histopatological aspect at epithelial level.

  11. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmation of corneal overriding due to improper suturing of full-thickness corneal laceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukevcilioglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We herein present a case with corneal overriding due to improper suturing of a full-thickness corneal laceration. There was a 2.5-mm difference between horizontal and vertical white-to-white measurements in the cornea. However, slit lamp examination failed to demonstrate the exact architecture of the laceration. Ultrasound biomicroscopy defined the wound edges thoroughly and confirmed the presence of corneal overriding. Six weeks after suture enhancement, the abnormal oval appearance of the cornea was absent and correct apposition of the corneal edges was seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used in preoperative surgical planning of cases with complicated corneal lacerations. It can be used to adjust and enhance wound architecture in eyes with penetrating injury.

  12. Changes on the corneal thickness and curvature after orthokeratology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Iwane; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the corneal thickness and curvature changes after Orthokeratology contact lens wear, using the ORBSCAN II corneal topography system, corneal thickness and corneal curvature were measured on one hundred and twenty eyes of sixty patients before and after wearing the custom rigid gas permeable contact lenses for Orthokeratology. The contact lenses were specially designed for each eye. The subjects wore the orthokeratology lenses for approximately Four hours with their eyes closed. The corneal thickness of the subjects was increased on fifty-five eyes at not only the peripheral zone but also the center of the cornea. The average increase of central and peripheral corneal thickness was 18 micrometer and 22micrometer, respectively. The mean anterior curvature of corneal surface changed 1.25D. The mean posterior curvature of corneal endothelium side changed 0.75D.

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... or computed tomography (CT). top of page How is the procedure performed? There are a number of ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... soft tissues. About 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through ... account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed ...

  17. Acute Corneal Hydrops 3 Years after Intra-corneal Ring Segments and Corneal Collagen Cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonios, Rafic; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Hamadeh, Adib; Jarade, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 15-year-old male with allergic conjunctivitis and keratoconus, who underwent uneventful intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the right eye. During the follow-up periods, the patient was noted to have several episodes of allergic conjunctivitis that were treated accordingly. At the 2 years postoperatively, he presented with another episode of allergic conjunctivitis and progression of keratoconus was suspected on topography. However, the patient was lost to follow-up, until he presented with acute hydrops at 3 years postoperatively. There are no reported cases of acute corneal hydrops in cross-linked corneas. We suspect the young age, allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing may be a risk factors associated with possible progression of keratoconus after CXL. Prolonged follow-up and aggressive control of the allergy might be necessary in similar cases. PMID:26957859

  18. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human corneal surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Tălu, Mihai; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In the description and analysis of human corneal surface are used various mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the cornea. Mathematical models are important into the biomechanics of the cornea to model the corneal behavior. Corneal biomechanics also has the potential to improve outcomes in refractive surgery. The objective of this paper is to present the most representative mathematical models currently used for modeling of human corneal in optics and biomechanics fields.

  19. The molecular genetics of the corneal dystrophies--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintworth, Gordon K

    2003-05-01

    The pertinent literature on inherited corneal diseases is reviewed in terms of the chromosomal localization and identification of the responsible genes. Disorders affecting the cornea have been mapped to human chromosome 1 (central crystalline corneal dystrophy, familial subepithelial corneal amyloidosis, early onset Fuchs dystrophy, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy), chromosome 4 (Bietti marginal crystalline dystrophy), chromosome 5 (lattice dystrophy types 1 and IIIA, granular corneal dystrophy types 1, 2 and 3, Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy), chromosome 9 (lattice dystrophy type II), chromosome 10 (Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy), chromosome 12 (Meesmann dystrophy), chromosome 16 (macular corneal dystrophy, fish eye disease, LCAT disease, tyrosinemia type II), chromosome 17 (Meesmann dystrophy, Stocker-Holt dystrophy), chromosome 20 (congenital hereditary endothelial corneal dystrophy types I and II, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy), chromosome 21 (autosomal dominant keratoconus) and the X chromosome (cornea verticillata, cornea farinata, deep filiform corneal dystrophy, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, Lisch corneal dystrophy). Mutations in nine genes (ARSC1, CHST6, COL8A2, GLA, GSN, KRT3, KRT12, M1S1and TGFBI [BIGH3]) account for some of the corneal diseases and three of them are associated with amyloid deposition in the cornea (GSN, M1S1, TGFBI) including most of the lattice corneal dystrophies (LCDs) [LCD types I, IA, II, IIIA, IIIB, IV, V, VI and VII] recognized by their lattice pattern of linear opacities. Genetic studies on inherited diseases affecting the cornea have provided insight into some of these disorders at a basic molecular level and it has become recognized that distinct clinicopathologic phenotypes can result from specific mutations in a particular gene, as well as some different mutations in the same gene. A molecular genetic understanding of inherited corneal diseases is leading to a better appreciation of the

  20. Contact lens rehabilitation following repaired corneal perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual outcome following repair of post-traumatic corneal perforation may not be optimal due to presence of irregular keratometric astigmatism. We performed a study to evaluate and compare rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in visual rehabilitation following perforating corneal injuries. Method Eyes that had undergone repair for corneal perforating injuries with or without lens aspiration were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses. The fitting pattern and the improvement in visual acuity by contact lens over spectacle correction were noted. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients that had undergone surgical repair of posttraumatic corneal perforations were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses for visual rehabilitation. Twenty-four eyes (60% required aphakic contact lenses. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of ≥ 6/18 in the snellen's acuity chart was seen in 10 (25% eyes with spectacle correction and 37 (92.5% eyes with the use of contact lens (p Conclusion Rigid gas permeable contact lenses are better means of rehabilitation in eyes that have an irregular cornea due to scars caused by perforating corneal injuries.

  1. Corneal Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Chaidaroon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a rare case of keratitis infected by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Methods: A patient who was diagnosed as fungal keratitis caused by B. hawaiiensis was retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical characteristics, risk factors, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcomes. Results: A 63-year-old man with a history of trauma and saw dust in the left eye presented with a corneal ulcer. Eye examination revealed whitish infiltration with a feathery edge and small brownish deposits in the anterior stroma of the left cornea. Numerous septate hyphal fragments were detected in a corneal specimen, and nucleotide sequence analysis identified B. hawaiiensis. Treatment was started with 5% natamycin eyedrops and oral itraconazole. Subsequently, a corneal plaque developed which did not respond to medication and debridement. The patient underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Conclusions: B. hawaiiensis is a rare cause of corneal phaeohyphomycosis. A brownish pigmented infiltration is an important diagnostic clue, however microbiologic studies are required to obtain a definite diagnosis. Although antifungal medication and debridement are the mainstay of most corneal fungal infection, therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty can prevent morbidity related to this fungal infection.

  2. Corneal Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidaroon, Winai; Supalaset, Sumet; Tananuvat, Napaporn; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a rare case of keratitis infected by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Methods A patient who was diagnosed as fungal keratitis caused by B. hawaiiensis was retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical characteristics, risk factors, laboratory findings, treatments, and outcomes. Results A 63-year-old man with a history of trauma and saw dust in the left eye presented with a corneal ulcer. Eye examination revealed whitish infiltration with a feathery edge and small brownish deposits in the anterior stroma of the left cornea. Numerous septate hyphal fragments were detected in a corneal specimen, and nucleotide sequence analysis identified B. hawaiiensis. Treatment was started with 5% natamycin eyedrops and oral itraconazole. Subsequently, a corneal plaque developed which did not respond to medication and debridement. The patient underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Conclusions B. hawaiiensis is a rare cause of corneal phaeohyphomycosis. A brownish pigmented infiltration is an important diagnostic clue, however microbiologic studies are required to obtain a definite diagnosis. Although antifungal medication and debridement are the mainstay of most corneal fungal infection, therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty can prevent morbidity related to this fungal infection. PMID:27721785

  3. Corneal trephination with the femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltendorf, Christian; Schroeter, Jan; Bug, Reinhold; Kohnen, Thomas; Deller, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and cut quality of corneal trephination in human donor corneal tissue with the femtosecond laser. Twelve human corneoscleral discs were inserted in an artificial anterior chamber. After corneal thickness measurement and tonometry, the cornea was mounted on a femtosecond laser (FEMTEC; 20/10 Perfect Vision, Heidelberg, Germany) through a contact lens (patient interface). Trephination was performed with diameters of 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5 mm in 3 corneas each. The corneal button was removed from the corneoscleral disc in 2 of the 3 corneas in each case. The cut was not manipulated in the remaining corneas to enable histologic detection of possible tissue bridges. The cut edges were macroscopically and light-microscopically examined for quality. Corneal buttons and corneoscleral discs could be separated by blunt dissection in all cases. Tissue bridges were more common in thicker edematous corneas than in thinner ones. Both the macro- and microscopic examination disclosed smooth rectilinear cut margins with a perpendicular cut edge. This feasibility study shows that the femtosecond laser enables sufficient trephination of human donor corneas.

  4. Corneal reconstruction by stem cells and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjamaa O

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Olli ArjamaaDepartment of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Almost 300 million people are visually impaired worldwide due to various eye diseases such as cataracts, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal diseases. Notably, ten million people are blind because of severe ocular surface diseases and the majority of cases occur in developing countries. Blinding ocular surface diseases have, however, become treatable by grafting of surface layers, or by full-thickness transplantation of the cornea. As the demand for human corneal tissue for surface reconstruction and transplantation far exceeds the supply, methods are being developed to supplement tissue donation. Xenotransplantation of the cornea or cells from genetically modified pigs may become one of the solutions. Transplantation of limbal stem cells within tissue biopsies, to restore the transparency of the cornea is another remarkable method, which has shown its potential in several clinical studies. The combination of stem cell technology and engineering of biocompatible tissue equivalent, still at preclinical stage, has shown us how synthetic corneal tissue is able to guide cultured corneal stromal stem cells of human origin, to become native-like stroma, the most important layer of the cornea. These findings give hope for a large-quantity production of biomaterial for corneal reconstruction. As such, clinical ophthalmologists should become more familiar with the methods of laboratory science.Keywords: eye, grafting, keratoplasty, xenotransplantation, cell reservoir, biocompatible tissue equivalent

  5. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  6. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  7. Estructura electrónica de superficies: estados de superficie y estados resonantes del calcio

    OpenAIRE

    H. Herrera; César Mora

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos un estudio detallado de la estructura electrónica de bandas de superficies orientadas (001) y (110) de cristales cúbicos centrados en la cara del Ca. Para nuestro estudio utilizamos la aproximación de enlace fuerte y el método de acoplamiento de la función de Green de superficie. Primero, construimos hamiltonianos de enlace fuerte en el formalismo de Slater Koster (SK). Utilizamos una base ortogonal de nueve orbitales atómicos (spd) por átomo en la celda unitaria....

  8. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  9. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  10. Corneal stromal dystrophies: a clinical pathologic study Distrofia corneana estromal: um estudo clínicopatológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Barbosa Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Corneal dystrophy is defined as bilateral and symmetric primary corneal disease, without previous associated ocular inflammation. Corneal dystrophies are classified according to the involved corneal layer in superficial, stromal, and posterior dystrophy. Incidence of each dystrophy varies according to the geographic region studied. PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of stromal corneal dystrophies among corneal buttons specimens obtained by penetrating keratoplasty (PK in an ocular pathology laboratory and to correlate the diagnosis with patient age and gender. METHODS: Corneal button cases of penetrating keratoplasty from January-1996 to May-2009 were retrieved from the archives of The Henry C. Witelson Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory and Registry, Montreal, Canada. The cases with histopathological diagnosis of stromal corneal dystrophies were stained with special stains (Peroxid acid Schiff, Masson trichrome, Congo red analyzed under polarized light, and alcian blue for classification and correlated with epidemiological information (age at time of PK and gender from patients' file. RESULTS: 1,300 corneal buttons cases with clinical diagnose of corneal dystrophy were retrieved. Stromal corneal dystrophy was found in 40 (3.1% cases. Lattice corneal dystrophy was the most prevalent with 26 cases (65%. Nineteen were female (73.07% and the PK was performed at average age of 59.3 years old. Combined corneal dystrophy was found in 8 (20% cases, 5 (62.5% of them were female and the average age of the penetrating keratoplasty was 54.8 years old. Granular corneal dystrophy was represented by 5 (12.5% cases, and 2 (40% of them were female. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed at average age of 39.5 years old in granular corneal dystrophy cases. Macular corneal dystrophy was present in only 1 (2.5% case, in a 36 years old female. CONCLUSION: Systematic histopathological approach and evaluation, including special stains in all stromal

  11. Corneal nerve microstructure in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Stuti L; Kersten, Hannah M; Roxburgh, Richard H; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2017-03-03

    Ocular surface changes and blink abnormalities are well-established in Parkinson's disease. Blink rate may be influenced by corneal sub-basal nerve density, however, this relationship has not yet been investigated in Parkinson's disease. This case-control study examined the ocular surface in patients with moderately severe Parkinson's disease, including confocal microscopy of the cornea. Fifteen patients with moderately severe Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr grade 3 or 4) and fifteen control participants were recruited. Ophthalmic assessment included slit-lamp examination, blink rate assessment, central corneal aesthesiometry and in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. The effect of disease laterality was also investigated. Of the 15 patients with Parkinson's disease, ten were male and the mean age was 65.5±8.6years. The corneal sub-basal nerve plexus density was markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (7.56±2.4mm/mm(2)) compared with controls (15.91±2.6mm/mm(2)) (pParkinson's disease (0.79±1.2mBAR) and the control group (0.26±0.35mBAR), p=0.12. Sub-basal nerve density was not significantly different between the eye ipsilateral to the side of the body with most-severe motor symptoms, and the contralateral eye. There was a significant positive correlation between ACE-R scores and sub-basal corneal nerve density (R(2)=0.66, p=0.02). This is the first study to report a significant reduction in corneal sub-basal nerve density in Parkinson's disease and demonstrate an association with cognitive dysfunction. These results provide further evidence to support the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in Parkinson's disease, previously thought to be a central nervous system disorder.

  12. Normal corneal endothelial cell density in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewete T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temitope Ewete,1 Efeoghene Uchenna Ani,2 Adegboyega Sunday Alabi1 1MeCure Eye Center, Lagos, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the corneal endothelial cell density of adults at the MeCure Eye Center and to determine the relationship between age, sex, and corneal endothelial cell density. Methods: This study was a retrospective study looking at those records of individuals who had undergone specular microscopy or corneal endothelial cell count measurement at the MeCure Eye Center. Results: The endothelial cell characteristics of 359 healthy eyes of 201 volunteers were studied. The mean corneal endothelial cell density (MCD was 2,610.26±371.87 cells/mm2 (range, 1,484–3,571 cells/mm2. The MCD decreased from 2,860.70 cells/mm2 in the 20–30-year age group to 2,493.06 cells/mm2 in the >70-year age group, and there was a statistically significant relationship between age and MCD with a P-value of <0.001. There was no statistically significant correlation between sex and corneal endothelial cell density (P=0.45. Conclusion: This study shows that endothelial cell density in Nigerian eyes is less than that reported in the Japanese, American, and Chinese eyes, and is comparable to that seen in Indian and Malaysian eyes. Keywords: corneal, endothelial cell density, Nigerian

  13. Clear Corneal Phacovitrectomy with Posterior Capsulorhexis and IOL Implantation in Management of Selective Vitreoretinal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest V. Boiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe our technique, clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis (CCPV, for the management of selected posterior segment intraocular foreign body (IOFB, posteriorly dislocated lens fragments (PDLF, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR cases. Methods. This was a single-center retrospective interventional case series. In 21 patients (21 eyes we performed phacovitrectomy through three clear corneal tunnel incisions (CCTI and posterior capsulorhexis to remove IOFB (n=8, PDLF from the vitreous cavity after complicated phacoemulsification (n=6, and vitreous hemorrhage and epiretinal membranes in PDR (n=7. The procedure was completed with implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic IOL through the CCTI. Results. The mean visual acuity (logMAR was 0.90 preoperative and improved to 0.26 over a mean follow-up of 8.7 months (range, 6–12 months. The intraocular lens was implanted into the capsular bag (n=12 or onto the anterior capsule (n=9. One PDR patient experienced an intraprocedural complication, hemorrhage from isolated fibrovascular adhesions. One IOFB patient developed apparent anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy and required a repeat intervention. Conclusion. Selected vitreoretinal IOFB, PDLF, and PDR cases can be successfully managed by a combined surgical approach involving clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis and implantation of an IOL, with good visual outcome and a low complication rate.

  14. Clear Corneal Phacovitrectomy with Posterior Capsulorhexis and IOL Implantation in Management of Selective Vitreoretinal Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Ernest V; Churashov, Sergey V; Kulikov, Alexei N; Maltsev, Dmitrii S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe our technique, clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis (CCPV), for the management of selected posterior segment intraocular foreign body (IOFB), posteriorly dislocated lens fragments (PDLF), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) cases. Methods. This was a single-center retrospective interventional case series. In 21 patients (21 eyes) we performed phacovitrectomy through three clear corneal tunnel incisions (CCTI) and posterior capsulorhexis to remove IOFB (n = 8), PDLF from the vitreous cavity after complicated phacoemulsification (n = 6), and vitreous hemorrhage and epiretinal membranes in PDR (n = 7). The procedure was completed with implantation of a hydrophobic acrylic IOL through the CCTI. Results. The mean visual acuity (logMAR) was 0.90 preoperative and improved to 0.26 over a mean follow-up of 8.7 months (range, 6-12 months). The intraocular lens was implanted into the capsular bag (n = 12) or onto the anterior capsule (n = 9). One PDR patient experienced an intraprocedural complication, hemorrhage from isolated fibrovascular adhesions. One IOFB patient developed apparent anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy and required a repeat intervention. Conclusion. Selected vitreoretinal IOFB, PDLF, and PDR cases can be successfully managed by a combined surgical approach involving clear corneal phacovitrectomy with posterior capsulorhexis and implantation of an IOL, with good visual outcome and a low complication rate.

  15. Removal of intraocular foreign body in anterior chamber angle with prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ming; Yan, Hua; Cai, Jin-Hong; Li, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a novel approach in removal of anterior chamber angle foreign body (ACFB) using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps. Data of 42 eyes of 42 patients who had undergone removal of ACFB using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps from January 2008 to October 2013 were collected and analyzed. Twenty eyes in group A received the conventional approach by using toothed forceps through corneal limbus incision, and 22 eyes in group B underwent the novel method through the opposite corneal limbus incision. The success rate of ACFB once removal was 75% (15/20) in group A, and 100% (22/22) in group B. The average operation time of group A was significantly longer compared with group B (34.9±9.88min vs 22.13±8.85min; Pprism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps is a safer, more effective, and convenient technique compared with the conventional approach.

  16. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical crosslinking is widely applied in ophthalmology. Its biochemical effect is due to the release of singlet oxygen that promotes anaerobic photochemical reaction. Keratoconus is one of the most common corneal ectasia affecting 1 in 250 to 250 000 persons. Currently, the rate of iatrogenic ectasia following eximer laser refractive surgery increases due to biomechanical weakening of the cornea. Morphologically and biochemically, ectasia is characterized by corneal layers thinning, contact between the stroma and epithelium resulting from Bowman’s membrane rupture, chromatin fragmentation in keratocyte nuclei, phagocytosis, abnormal staining and arrangement of collagen fibers, enzyme system disorders, and keratocyte apoptosis. In corneal ectasia, altered enzymatic processes result in the synthesis of abnormal collagen. Collagen packing is determined by the activity of various extracellular matrix enzymes which bind amines and aldehydes of collagen fiber amino acids. In the late stage, morphological changes of Descemet’s membrane (i.e., rupture and detachment develop. Abnormal hexagonal-shaped keratocytes and their apoptosis are the signs of endothelial dystrophy. The lack of analogs in domestic ophthalmology encouraged the scientists of Ufa Eye Research Institute to develop a device for corneal collagen crosslinking. The parameters of ultraviolet (i.e., wavelength, exposure time, power to achieve the desired effect were identified. The specifics of some photosensitizers in the course of the procedure were studied. UFalink, a device for UV irradiation of cornea, and photosensitizer Dextralink were developed and adopted. Due to the high risk of endothelial damage, this treatment is contraindicated in severe keratoconus (CCT less than 400 microns. Major effects of corneal collagen crosslinking are the following: Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity increase by 328.9 % (on average, temperature tolerance increase by 5

  17. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical crosslinking is widely applied in ophthalmology. Its biochemical effect is due to the release of singlet oxygen that promotes anaerobic photochemical reaction. Keratoconus is one of the most common corneal ectasia affecting 1 in 250 to 250 000 persons. Currently, the rate of iatrogenic ectasia following eximer laser refractive surgery increases due to biomechanical weakening of the cornea. Morphologically and biochemically, ectasia is characterized by corneal layers thinning, contact between the stroma and epithelium resulting from Bowman’s membrane rupture, chromatin fragmentation in keratocyte nuclei, phagocytosis, abnormal staining and arrangement of collagen fibers, enzyme system disorders, and keratocyte apoptosis. In corneal ectasia, altered enzymatic processes result in the synthesis of abnormal collagen. Collagen packing is determined by the activity of various extracellular matrix enzymes which bind amines and aldehydes of collagen fiber amino acids. In the late stage, morphological changes of Descemet’s membrane (i.e., rupture and detachment develop. Abnormal hexagonal-shaped keratocytes and their apoptosis are the signs of endothelial dystrophy. The lack of analogs in domestic ophthalmology encouraged the scientists of Ufa Eye Research Institute to develop a device for corneal collagen crosslinking. The parameters of ultraviolet (i.e., wavelength, exposure time, power to achieve the desired effect were identified. The specifics of some photosensitizers in the course of the procedure were studied. UFalink, a device for UV irradiation of cornea, and photosensitizer Dextralink were developed and adopted. Due to the high risk of endothelial damage, this treatment is contraindicated in severe keratoconus (CCT less than 400 microns. Major effects of corneal collagen crosslinking are the following: Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity increase by 328.9 % (on average, temperature tolerance increase by 5

  18. Corneal Topographic Analysis in Patients with Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the corneal curvature of 161 eyes in 101 patients, aged from 50 to 80 years (mean: 63 years), with senile cataract using the Topographic Modeling System (IMS) preoperatively. The results revealed that mean surface asymmetry index (SAD was 0. 36 and mean surface regularity index (SRI) 0. 79. Simulated keratometry reading (Sim K) was 44. 46 D, and 43. 56 D. Minimun K reading was 42. 60 D. The same patterns of corneal topography in both eyes were 50% in 60 patients who had binocular examination....

  19. Bessel Function Model for Corneal Topography

    CERN Document Server

    Okrasiński, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a new nonlinear mathematical model for corneal topography formulated as two-point boudary value problem. We derive it from first physical principles and provide some mathematical analysis. The existence and uniqeness theorems are proved as well as various estimates on exact solution. At the end we fit the simplified model based on Modified Bessel Function of the First Kind with the real corneal data consisting of matrix of 123x123 points and obtain an error of order of 1%.

  20. Colletotrichum graminicola: a new corneal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband, D C; Shah, M; Seedor, J A

    1997-05-01

    We report the first case of an ocular infection with the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola causing keratitis in a 27-year-old man. Twenty-four months after a postoperative course complicated by recurrent fungal keratitis requiring two penetrating keratoplasties, two anterior chamber washouts, a conjunctival flap, and medical treatment with topical natamycin, intracameral amphotericin B, and oral fluconazole. The patient has shown no signs of fungal recurrence despite a failed corneal graft. C. graminicola is a new corneal pathogen and should be included in the differential diagnosis of mycotic keratitis.

  1. Research on inhibition of corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Hui Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corneal transparency is the basis of the normal physiological functions.However, corneal neovascularization(CNVmay occur in the infection, mechanical and chemical injury or under other pathological conditions,which make the cornea lose original transparency and severe visual impairment. In recent years, along with the development of immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry and other disciplines, there is more in-depth understanding on the CNV, and clinical treatment of CNV has made new breakthroughs. This article provides an overview of the inhibition of CNV.

  2. Superficial microcirculation flow measurement using polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiwei; Morgan, S. P.; Xiao, Yunshi

    2008-12-01

    Depth discrimination of polarized light is used in investigating laser Doppler measurement of the superficial microcirculation in tissue. Using polarization Monte Carlo simulation, temporal point spread function and power spectral distribution of backscattered polarization remaining light firstly are used to prove polarized light to be valid in measuring moving blood cell perfusion and mean flow velocity. Then simulation of layered medium model demonstrate that relationships between blood flow perfusion and mean frequency shift are linear to medium flowing velocity, and the Doppler shift information in polarization remaining light mainly comes from lower layer medium up to about 14 times of mean free path (MFP) of medium investigated and can be considered that Doppler effects come only from lower layer of the medium. Simulations in three-layer tissue model show that moving blood cell perfusion and mean blood cell moving velocity calculated from polarization remaining are much more sensitive to lower layer flow velocity variation, and more irrelevant to deeper layer flow rate fluctuations, that further confirms Doppler measurement from polarization remaining light to be effective for superficial microcirculation in tissue. Factors affecting Laser Doppler measurement like medium absorption, percentage of moving particles in blood detector size are discussed.

  3. Reversible corneal toxicity of retained intracameral Perfluoro-n-octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S Alharbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old female presented with intracameral retained perfluoro-n-octane (PFO following previous retinal reattachment surgery. After 4 years of follow-up without related sequelae, the patient complained of a gradual decrease in vision secondary to corneal edema with whitish corneal precipitate inferiorly corresponding to the area of retained PFO. Three weeks after anterior chamber washout, corneal edema resolved and the patient obtained 20/40 visual acuity. Even though PFO considered to have a relatively good safety profile, early anterior chamber washout may prevent corneal toxicity and avoid later persistent corneal decompensation.

  4. Current status of accelerated corneal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mrochen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal cross-linking with riboflavin is a technique to stabilize or reduce corneal ectasia, in diseases such as keratoconus and post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia. There is an interest by patient as well as clinicians to reduce the overall treatment time. Especially, the introduction of corneal cross-linking in combination with corneal laser surgery demands a shorter treatment time to assure a sufficient patient flow. The principles and techniques of accelerated corneal cross-linking is discussed.

  5. Corneal heat scar caused by photodynamic therapy performed through an implanted corneal inlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Mariko; Kanamori, Tomomi; Tomita, Minoru

    2013-11-01

    A 60-year-old man had a combination of laser in situ keratomileusis and Kamra corneal inlay implantation to correct presbyopia. Although the outcome was favorable postoperatively, central serous chorioretinopathy was observed in the left eye along with a decrease in the uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities and the corrected near visual acuity (CNVA). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was later performed in a university hospital. After PDT, the patient experienced a decline in the visual acuity and came to our clinic a month after the PDT. Degeneration and a scar were observed at the location of the inlay due to the heat and burning. Flattening of the corneal topography was also observed where the corneal scar was located, along with a significant decrease in CDVA in the left eye. Prior to any surgery in which the corneal inlay is an impediment, surgeons should take advantage of the reversibility of the Kamra inlay by explanting the inlay.

  6. The Effect of Corneal Epithelium on Corneal Curvature in Patients with Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Emine Kalkan; Uysal, Betul Seher; Sarac, Ozge; Ugurlu, Nagehan; Yulek, Fatma; Cagil, Nurullah; Aslan, Nabi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corneal epithelium on corneal curvature in patients with keratoconus. This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. Fifty-nine eyes of 47 patients diagnosed as keratoconus and for whom corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) was recruited in this study. This study is a single-center clinical trial. Pregnancy, lactation, connective tissue disease, corneal thickness below 350 μm, severe dry eyes, or scar of corneal surgery were exclusion criteria. Before and during CXL procedure after removing the corneal epithelium, maximum values of corneal apical curvature, simulated keratometry 1 (Sim-K1), simulated keratometry 2 (Sim-K2), temporal and inferior curvature values, all of which are 1.5 mm from the corneal center, were calculated. These values before and after removal of epithelium were compared statistically. Mean age of patients was 23.30 ± 5.5 (12-38) years. Twenty-eight (59%) were male while 19 (41%) were female. Mean values measured before and after removing the corneal epithelium were: apical curvature; 59.19 ± 7.2 (47.06-82.40) diopter (D) and 61.70 ± 8.8 (49.19-92.66) D (p = 0.001), SimK1; 47.57 ± 4.3 (39.14-64.57) D and 48.23 ± 4.3 (41.89-66.70) D (p = 0.001), SimK2; 52.04 ± 5.3 (43.56-69.34) D and 53.34 ± 5.6 (43.73-70.89) D (p = 0.001), inferior curvature; 53,85 ± 5.2 (43.47-76.56) D and 55.05 ± 5.8 (44.56-81.93) D (p = 0.002), temporal curvature 49.49 ± 5.1 (41.50-71.03) D and 51.53 ± 5.4 (41.58-73.34) D (p = 0.001), respectively. In keratoconus patients during CXL treatment, after removing the corneal epithelium, more steepness is detected in the curvature of the steeper area of the cornea. When evaluating patients with keratoconus, the masking effect of corneal epithelium on values of curvature should be taken into consideration.

  7. Congenital Unilateral Corneal Anaesthesia with Microphthalmos: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Voyatzis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital corneal anaesthesia (CCA is an uncommon condition difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 20-month-old boy who presented with unilateral congenital corneal anaesthesia. The child was referred with a persistent corneal epithelial defect, unresponsive to symptomatic local treatment for over 10 months. Intensive topical treatment and strict corneal protection led to quick corneal healing. Congenital corneal anaesthesia occurs either alone or in association with neurological diseases or systemic congenital abnormalities. It is important to search for corneal anaesthesia in children with chronic ulcerations of the cornea and self-inflicted injuries. Early diagnosis and treatment are important due to the risk of poor visual prognosis. Management of CCA should aim for the prevention of epithelial defects and is a life-long process.

  8. Corneal Higher Order Aberrations in Granular, Lattice and Macular Corneal Dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi-Yaguchi, Yukari; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuyama, Yumi; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in granular, lattice and macular corneal dystrophies. Methods This retrospective study includes consecutive patients who were diagnosed as granular corneal dystrophy type2 (GCD2; 121 eyes), lattice corneal dystrophies type 1, type 3A (LCDI; 20 eyes, LCDIIIA; 32 eyes) and macular corneal dystrophies (MCD; 13 eyes), and 18 healthy control eyes. Corneal HOAs were calculated using anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and the correlations between HOAs and visual acuity were analyzed. Results HOAs of the total cornea within 4 mm diameter were significantly larger in GCD2 (0.17 ± 0.35 μm), in LCDI (0.33 ± 0.27), LCDIIIA (0.61 ± 1.56) and in MCD (0.23 ± 0.18), compared with healthy controls (0.09 ± 0.02μm, all P GCD2 (0.32 ± 0.48), in LCDI (0.60 ± 0.46), LCDIIIA (0.83 ± 2.29) and in MCD (0.44 ± 0.24), compared with healthy controls (0.19 ± 0.06, all P GCD2, there was no significant correlation between logMAR and HOAs (r = 0.113, P = 0.227). In MCD, LCDI and LCDIIIA, logMAR was positively significantly correlated with HOAs (r = 0.620 and P = 0.028, r = 0.587 and P = 0.007, r = 0.614 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Increased HOAs occur in eyes with corneal dystrophies, especially in eye with LCD and MCD. Larger amount corneal HOAs are associated with poorer visual acuity in patients with LCD and MCD. PMID:27536778

  9. Glass wool tripod foreign bodies in the eye: First ever reported case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul B Baile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of unusual corneal/conjunctival foreign bodies that were not visible on standard slit lamp examination. All patients presented with complaints of foreign body sensation in the affected eyes. One patient had visited an ophthalmologist prior to presentation to our center and was diagnosed and treated for conjunctivitis. On slit lamp examination minimal congestion was seen hence, all the patients were diagnosed with conjunctivitis with corneal epithelial defects by the residents. However, because the patients complained of foreign body sensation, fluorescein staining of the affected eye was performed. On examination, the corneas had epithelial defects and linear scratch marks. We suspected a foreign body in upper palpebral conjunctiva (UPC. Examination after eyelid eversion indicated tripod-shaped glassy foreign bodies embedded deep within the UPC. We present cases of an unusual type of glassy tripod-shaped foreign body which may go undetected even on slit lamp examination. Fluorescein staining may aid in the detection of these foreign bodies.

  10. The relationship between central corneal thickness and corneal curvature in adult Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Iyamu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide average values for central corneal thickness (CCT and corneal curvature (CC and also to determine a regression model for the relationship between CCT and CC in adult Nigerians without glaucoma.Methods: A total of 95 subjects consisting of 56 males and 39 females aged between 20 and 69 years with mean age of 47.1 ± 14.1 years were recruited for the study. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry (SW-1000P ultrasound pachymeter, Tianjin Suowei Electronic Technology, China and corneal curvature was measured by keratometry (Bausch & Lomb keratometer H-135A, USA.Results: The average values of 550.1 ± 33.1µm and 43.0 ± 1.1 D were obtained for CCT and CC respectively. CCT significantly correlated with age (p=0.01, and the regression model predicts a decrease of 6.0 µm in CCT per decade. No significant association was found between CC and age (p=0.56. Also, no significant association was found between CCT and CC (p=0.07. Female subjects had significantly steeper corneas than their male counterparts.Conclusion: Central corneal thickness decreases with increasing age. Neither CCT nor age appear to be significantly correlated with corneal curvature. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 44-50

  11. CORNEAL STROMAL THINNING: A RARE CORNEAL COMPLICATION AFTER BARE SCL ERA PTERYG I UM EXCISION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Bare sclera technique without using any anti - mitotic drugs are commonly employed in rural population. Corneal dellen formation and recurrence of pterygium are more common in these cases. But the corneal complication like stromal thinning, necrosis of corne a and sclera are not common. The corneal epithelium is a highly differentiated cell type that is self - renewing. Also corneal epithelium is important for the stromal replacement in the situations like chemical, thermal burns, ocular surgery like pterygium s urgery. Interference with status of stem cell replacement and as a consequent to it, stromal thinning is occurring in the pterygium surgery. P atient 1: A 68 yr s. old male patient underwent pterygium surgery ( B aresclera excision technique. After 30 days he developed corneal thinning with the punched out partial stromal loss without perforation or descmetocele or scleral thinning. Patient 2: A 60yr s. old male patient underwent pterygium surgery 2months back, he developed same type of corneal thinning. Both P atients were treated with tear drops and improved. CONCLUSION : The stromal thinning in these two cases is may be due to chemical factors like collagenase which might have been released from the traumatised conjunctival epithelial cells causing thinning wit hout replacement of stroma by limbal stem cells.

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of mice corneal tissues reveals angiogenesis-related proteins involved in corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minqian; Tao, Yimin; Feng, Yifan; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Fei; Zhou, Hu

    2016-07-01

    Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced in Balb/c mice by alkali burns in the central area of the cornea with a diameter of 2.5mm. After fourteen days, the cornea from one eye was collected for histological staining for CNV examination, while the cornea from the other eye of the same mouse was harvested for proteomic analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic approach was applied to analyze five normal corneal tissues (normal group mice n=5) and five corresponding neovascularized corneal tissues (model group mice n=5). A total of 2124 proteins were identified, and 1682 proteins were quantified from these corneal tissues. Among these quantified proteins, 290 proteins were significantly changed between normal and alkali burned corneal tissues. Of these significantly changed proteins, 35 were reported or predicted as angiogenesis-related proteins. Then, these 35 proteins were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software, resulting in 26 proteins enriched and connected to each other in the protein-protein interaction network, such as Lcn-2, αB-crystallin and Serpinf1 (PEDF). These three significantly changed proteins were selected for further Western blotting validation. Consistent with the quantitative proteomic results, Western blotting showed that Lcn-2 and αB-crystallin were significantly up-regulated in CNV model, while PEDF was down-regulated. This study provided increased understanding of angiogenesis-related proteins involved in corneal vascular development, which will be useful in the ophthalmic clinic of specifically target angiogenesis.

  13. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra X Crawford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD. Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17 th and 18 th centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19 th century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of

  14. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexandra Z; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles Nj

    2013-09-01

    This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17(th) and 18(th) centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19(th) century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of corticosteroids. Recent

  15. Corneal injuries from liquid detergent pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael E; West, Constance E

    2014-10-01

    Laundry and dishwasher detergent "pods" were introduced to the United States market in 2010 and are sold by several manufacturers. They represent a high percentage of household cleaning product exposure in the United Kingdom. We present a consecutive case series of 10 children seen in a 9-month period with corneal injuries from exposure to liquid detergent pods.

  16. Evaluation and Treatment of Perioperative Corneal Abrasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira L. Segal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate perioperative risk factors for corneal abrasion (CA and to determine current care for perioperative CA in a tertiary care setting. Methods. Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. In Operating Room and Post-Anesthesia Care Units patients, a comparison of cases and controls was evaluated to elucidate risk factors, time to treatment, and most common treatments prescribed for corneal abrasions. Results. 86 cases of corneal abrasion and 89 controls were identified from the 78,542 surgical procedures performed over 2 years. Statistically significant risk factors were age (P=0.0037, general anesthesia (P<0.001, greater average estimated blood loss (P<0.001, eyes taped during surgery (P<0.001, prone position (P<0.001, trendelenburg position (P<0.001, and supplemental oxygen en route to and in the Post-Anesthesia Care Units (P<0.001. Average time to complaint was 129 minutes. 94% of cases had an inpatient ophthalmology consult, with an average time to consult of 164 minutes. The most common treatment was artificial tears alone (40%, followed by combination treatment of antibiotic ointment and artificial tears (35.3%. Conclusions. Trendelenburg positioning is a novel risk factor for CA. Diagnosis and treatment of perioperative corneal abrasions by an ophthalmologist typically require three hours in the tertiary care setting.

  17. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  18. Peptide Amphiphiles in Corneal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miotto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in effort towards creating alternative therapies have led to exciting breakthroughs in the attempt to bio-fabricate and engineer live tissues. This has been particularly evident in the development of new approaches applied to reconstruct corneal tissue. The need for tissue-engineered corneas is largely a response to the shortage of donor tissue and the lack of suitable alternative biological scaffolds preventing the treatment of millions of blind people worldwide. This review is focused on recent developments in corneal tissue engineering, specifically on the use of self-assembling peptide amphiphiles for this purpose. Recently, peptide amphiphiles have generated great interest as therapeutic molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we introduce this rapidly developing field, and examine innovative applications of peptide amphiphiles to create natural bio-prosthetic corneal tissue in vitro. The advantages of peptide amphiphiles over other biomaterials, namely their wide range of functions and applications, versatility, and transferability are also discussed to better understand how these fascinating molecules can help solve current challenges in corneal regeneration.

  19. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  20. [Purulent corneal ulcers: etiology, pathogenesis, classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparova, Evg A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced purulent corneal ulcer, as well as abscess, is a serious vision-threatening condition notable for its fulminant course and possible loss of the eye due to endophthalmitis. Its leading causes, pathogenesis, and classifications are described and analyzed in this paper.

  1. Change in corneal curvature induced by surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rij (Gabriel)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe first section deals with the mechanisms by which sutures, incisions and intracorneal contact lenses produce a change in corneal curvature. To clarify the mechanisms by which incisions and sutures produce astigmatism, we made incisions and placed sutures in the corneoscleral limbus of

  2. Autophagy in granular corneal dystrophy type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Il; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process that is essential for cellular homeostasis and metabolic stress adaptation. Defective autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases including granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). GCD2 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by substitution of histidine for arginine at codon 124 (R124H) in the transforming growth factor β-induced gene (TGFBI) on chromosome 5q31. Transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) is degraded by autophagy, but mutant-TGFBIp accumulates in autophagosomes and/or lysosomes, despite significant activation of basal autophagy, in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy induces cell death of GCD2 corneal fibroblasts through active caspase-3. As there is currently no pharmacological treatment for GCD2, development of novel therapies is required. A potential strategy for preventing cytoplasmic accumulation of mutant-TGFBIp in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts is to enhance mutant-TGFBIp degradation. This could be achieved by activation of the autophagic pathway. Here, we will consider the role and the potential therapeutic benefits of autophagy in GCD2, with focus on TGFBIp degradation, in light of the recently established role of autophagy in protein degradation.

  3. Polysaccharide coating of human corneal endothelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroder, H D; Sperling, S

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed the presence of a 600-1500 A thick layer of polysaccharide on the surface of human corneal endothelial cells. The surface layer was visualized by combined fixation and staining in a mixture of ruthenium red and osmium tetroxide. The coating material was stable...

  4. Traumatic wound dehiscence after corneal keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frensel Tzelikis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To assess patient characteristics, risk factors, outcomes, and the treatment of wound dehiscence (WD in patients after corneal keratoplasty.Methods:Retrospective chart review of 11 eyes of 11 patients with corneal grafts who underwent repair of WD from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2012 at Hospital Oftalmologico de Brasilia.Results:Eight (72.7% patients were men and three were women. Six (54.5% patients had deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK and 5 had penetrating keratoplasty. The mean age at trauma was 31.1 years. The mean time from corneal keratoplasty to WD was 12.82 months (range, 3-33 months. The mean best-corrected visual acuity of patients before trauma was 20/60 (0.48 logMAR and after final treatment was 20/160 (0.90 logMAR (P=0.15. In one case, visual acuity decreased to no light perception because of retinal detachment and phthisis bulbi. Accidental blunt trauma and fall were the most common causes of WD.Conclusion:Patients who undergo corneal keratoplasty have a life-long risk of WD. The full-thickness rupture at the graft-host junction in our study suggests that the junction remains vulnerable, even following DALK, and can rupture with trauma. In our series, depending upon the severity of the trauma, postkeratoplastic WD can be associated with a good visual prognosis.

  5. Past and present of corneal refractive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anders Højslet

    Surgical correction of refractive errors is becoming increasingly popular. In the 1990s, the excimer laser revolutionized the field of corneal refractive surgery with PRK and LASIK, and lately refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) of intracorneal tissue, using only a femtosecond laser, has become...

  6. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of corneal dystrophies according to the IC3D classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelmann, Sebastian; Scholz, Paula; Sonnenschein, Simon; Bachmann, Björn; Matthaei, Mario; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2017-08-09

    Corneal dystrophies are categorized according to the International Committee for Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) classification, and their treatment depends on the affected structures and layer of the cornea. Therefore, estimating the depth and extent of the morphological changes due to the specific dystrophy is crucial when deciding between different treatment options. Besides superficial laser treatments and penetrating keratoplasty, minimal invasive lamellar keratoplasties such as Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, or Descemet stripping automated keratoplasty have become increasingly popular to exchange the specific opaque layers in dystrophic eyes. To determine the morphological changes of the cornea in the different dystrophies, in addition to slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherence tomography has become an important tool with nearly histological resolution. Nonetheless, only a few case series describe the characteristics of changes seen on anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Therefore, we summarize anterior segment optical coherence tomography signs and correlate with slit-lamp examination, as well as the histopathological findings, of corneal dystrophies according to the IC3D classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation for Gelatinous Drop-like Corneal Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Movahedan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the outcomes of allograft limbal stem cell transplantation for recurrent gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD. Methods: In this non-comparative interventional case series, 4 eyes of 3 consecutive patients with recurrent GDLD underwent allograft limbal stem cell transplantation. Two eyes underwent concomitant penetrating keratoplasty while the other two underwent simultaneous superficial keratectomy. Main outcome measures were best spectacle corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure and corneal clarity. Results: Patient age ranged from 28 to 63 years. Mean follow-up after surgery was 23±10 (median, 22; range, 12-36 months. Mean visual acuity improved from 2.70±0.61 logMAR preoperatively to 1.05±0.06 logMAR at final postoperative visit (P=0.066. Intraocular pressure was normal in all eyes at baseline and remained within normal limits at all postoperative visits. All corneas remained smooth and clear during the follow-up period with no episode of rejection or recurrence. All patients maintained ambulatory vision until final follow-up. Conclusion: The present study provides further evidence that limbal stem cell transplantation may be an effective therapeutic alternative in patients with GDLD.

  8. Pathogenesis of corneal lesions caused by Moraxella bovis in gnotobiotic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D G; Cheville, N F; Pugh, G W

    1987-07-01

    Moraxella bovis was instilled into the conjunctival sac of gnotobiotic calves and corneas were sampled serially after infection. Lesions developed in seven of eight infected calves, but were absent in a noninfected control calf. Histologically, M. bovis was first seen in foci of swollen epithelium and within basal epithelial cells adjacent to ulcers. Corneal ulcers were severe in later stages of infection; fibrin deposits, neutrophils, and bacteria were present in the stromas. Examination of early lesions by scanning electron microscopy showed M. bovis in pits on the surfaces of dark epithelial cells, enmeshed in degenerate epithelial cells and within erosions and an ulcer; in later samples, bacteria were rare. Ultrastructurally, M. bovis was seen in surface pits in superficial epithelial cell processes and within swollen epithelial cells. In stroma, M. bovis was frequently seen among collagen fibrils, within neutrophil phagosomes, and associated with cellular debris. This study demonstrates that a virulent strain of M. bovis can invade bovine corneal epithelial cells and can cause keratitis in the absence of injurious ultraviolet irradiation or other known predisposing environmental factors.

  9. Morfología y morfometría del endotelio corneal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guerra Almaguer

    Full Text Available El estudio de parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos del endotelio corneal en poblaciones de individuos sanos ha sido motivo de diversas investigaciones a nivel internacional en los últimos años. La microscopia especular permite una visión clara de las células endoteliales vivas sin alterar su función ni su morfología. A su vez, se puede realizar un recuento por área de superficie y determinar si existe una alteración en la forma o tamaño de las células endoteliales, parámetros a tener en cuenta para conocer la capacidad funcional del endotelio corneal. Se realizó una búsqueda actualizada de los últimos diez años de diversos artículos publicados, con el objetivo de conocer las características cuantitativas y cualitativas de las células endoteliales en las diferentes poblaciones estudiadas. Se utilizó la plataforma Infomed, específicamente la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud.

  10. Ocular irritation reversibility assessment for personal care products using a porcine corneal culture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Douglas A; Avalos, Javier; Kaufman, Lewis E; Simion, F Anthony; Cerven, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Personal care product manufacturers have used a broad spectrum of alternative ocular irritation assays during the past two decades because these tests do not require the use of live animals, they provide reliable predictive data, and they are relatively inexpensive to conduct. To complement these assays, the ex vivo Porcine Corneal Opacity Reversibility Assay (PorCORA) was recently developed using a corneal culture model to predict reversibility of ocular irritants. Three commercially available consumer products (a shampoo, a hair color glaze, and a hair colorant system containing 12% hydrogen peroxide) were each tested in two PorCORA study replicates in order to assess potential ocular damage reversibility for surfactant-, propylene carbonate-, and peroxide-based formulations, respectively. Under the exaggerated, in vitro study conditions, the surfactant-based shampoo may cause irreversible porcine corneal damage (histological changes in the epithelial squamous cell and/or basal cell layers), whereas the hair color glaze and 12% hydrogen peroxide product caused fully reversible ocular irritation (microscopic changes only in the superficial squamous cell layer). The hair color glaze and peroxide product results correlate with established in vivo data for similar compounds, but the shampoo results contradicted previous BCOP results (expected to be only a mild irritant). Therefore, although the PorCORA protocol shows promise in predicting the extent and reversibility of potential ocular damage caused by accidental consumer eye exposure to personal care products, the contradictory results for the surfactant-based shampoo indicate that more extensive validation testing of the PorCORA is necessary to definitively establish the protocol's reliability as a Draize test replacement.

  11. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  12. Condiciones de la superficie deslizamiento con falla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Sierra B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se modelan seis (6 taludes can diferentes ángulos de inclinación y peso unitario de 1.8 ton/m3, módulo de Young de 500 ton/m2 y relación de Poisson de 0.45. En cada uno de estos taludes se calculan los esfuerzos a través del talud y se determinan los puntos que están sometidos a mayores esfuerzos cortantes, correspondiendo estos a los estados de esfuerzos mas críticos, La ubicación de estos puntos es por donde comenzará y terminará la superficie de falla. Se obtiene un gráfico de diseño que permite obtener la pendiente máxima que debe tener un talud para que no se presente falla local en ningún punto.

  13. Oxygen-deficient metabolism and corneal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, B K; Bonanno, J A; Radke, C J

    2011-11-01

    Wear of low-oxygen-transmissible soft contact lenses swells the cornea significantly, even during open eye. Although oxygen-deficient corneal edema is well-documented, a self-consistent quantitative prediction based on the underlying metabolic reactions is not available. We present a biochemical description of the human cornea that quantifies hypoxic swelling through the coupled transport of water, salt, and respiratory metabolites. Aerobic and anaerobic consumption of glucose, as well as acidosis and pH buffering, are incorporated in a seven-layer corneal model (anterior chamber, endothelium, stroma, epithelium, postlens tear film, contact lens, and prelens tear film). Corneal swelling is predicted from coupled transport of water, dissolved salts, and especially metabolites, along with membrane-transport resistances at the endothelium and epithelium. At the endothelium, the Na+/K+ - ATPase electrogenic channel actively transports bicarbonate ion from the stroma into the anterior chamber. As captured by the Kedem-Katchalsky membrane-transport formalism, the active bicarbonate-ion flux provides the driving force for corneal fluid pump-out needed to match the leak-in tendency of the stroma. Increased lactate-ion production during hypoxia osmotically lowers the pump-out rate requiring the stroma to swell to higher water content. Concentration profiles are predicted for glucose, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydronium, lactate, bicarbonate, sodium, and chloride ions, along with electrostatic potential and pressure profiles. Although the active bicarbonate-ion pump at the endothelium drives bicarbonate into the aqueous humor, we find a net flux of bicarbonate ion into the cornea that safeguards against acidosis. For the first time, we predict corneal swelling upon soft-contact-lens wear from fundamental biophysico-chemical principles. We also successfully predict that hypertonic tear alleviates contact-lens-induced edema.

  14. Examination of the restoration of epithelial barrier function following superficial keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Audrey E K; Sippel, Kimberly C; Zieske, James D

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the rate of restoration of the corneal epithelial barrier following a superficial keratectomy using a functional assay of tight junction integrity. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and a 3-mm superficial keratectomy was performed. The eyes were allowed to heal from 4 h to 8 weeks and the rate of epithelial wound closure was determined. To examine the restoration of the barrier function, EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin (LC-Biotin) was applied to all eyes, experimental and control, for 15 min at the time of sacrifice. This compound does not penetrate through intact tight junctions. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed with anti-laminin, a marker of basement membrane; fluorescein-conjugated streptavidin to detect the biotinylated marker; and anti-occludin and anti-ZO-1, markers of tight junctions. Epithelial wound closure was observed at 36-42 h after wounding. LC-Biotin did not penetrate the intact epithelium. Upon wounding, LC-Biotin penetrated into the stroma subjacent and slightly peripheral to the wound area. This pattern was present from 4-48 h post-wounding. The area of LC-Biotin localization decreased with time and the functional barrier was restored by 72 h. Occludin and ZO-1 were present at all time points. The number of cell layers expressing these proteins appeared to increase at 48 and 72 h. Continuous laminin localization was not observed until at least 7 days after wounding. Barrier function is restored within 1-1.5 days after epithelial wound closure. The loss of barrier function does not extend beyond the edge of the original wound. The restoration of barrier function does not appear to correlate with reassembly of the basement membrane in this model.

  15. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...

  16. Partial-thickness corneal tissue restoration after a chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galan A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Galan, Anton Giulio Catania, Giuseppe Lo Giudice San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy Purpose: We describe a case of full-thickness corneal restoration after an acute corneal burn with an acid agent. Methods: A 32-year-old male reported painful discomfort, redness, photophobia, and a decrease in visual acuity in the left eye after a unilateral burn with an acid agent. Slit-lamp examination revealed massive corneal melting involving necrotic sequestrum of the entire corneal surface. Surgical approach was carried out in order to preserve residual ocular tissues. Results: Extensive corneal–conjunctival layer curettage of the necrotic tissue was performed showing perfectly clear undamaged deep lamellar corneal layers. The patient underwent multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation and total capsular–conjunctival flap in order to preserve ocular tissue from further melting or corneal perforation. A complete and spontaneous “restitutio ad integrum” of the corneal layers was shown during the follow-up. The cornea was perfectly clear with restored normal anatomical architecture. Conclusion: In this case, a spontaneous full-thickness corneal tissue restoration occurred after an acute chemical burn. Studies about the mechanisms whereby different cells interact and replicate within the stroma may unveil the biology behind corneal regeneration and transparency. Keywords: amniotic membrane, chemical burn, corneal healing

  17. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  18. Ocular histopathological changes after eyeball enucleation induced by corneal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ocular histopathological changes aftereyeball enucleation induced by corneal trauma.Methods: Light microscopic examination was done on 117 eyeball specimens enucleated after corneal trauma (18 with corneal fissure and 99 with corneal perforating trauma).Results: Acute, subacute or chronic inflammatory changes, and fibrous membrane formation were observed in well-closed corneal wounds, whereas inflammation, atrophy and scar were observed in the focal tissues. But at the late period, secondary glaucoma, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis and eyeball atrophy resulted in blindness. Corneal fistula was observed in those with inadequate cure of wounds caused by ingrowth of corneal epithelium, embedment of iris and vitreous body, and large area of centrally located tissue deficiency of the corneal. A high incidence of endophthalmitis was noted due to the presence of corneal fistula. Severe inflammation was observed in the anterior segmental tissues with fibrous infiltration in the anterior chamber, which might result in rapid destruction of the eyeballs.Conclusions: Ocular pathology varies with the difference of the position, form, size and closing conditions of the corneal laceration after trauma.

  19. A Case of Retained Graphite Anterior Chamber Foreign Body Masquerading as Stromal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Ryung; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a retained graphite anterior chamber foreign body that was masquerading as stromal keratitis. A 28-year-old male visited with complaints of visual disturbance and hyperemia in his right eye for four weeks. On initial examination, he presented with a stromal edema involving the inferior half of the cornea, epithelial microcysts, and moderate chamber inflammation. Suspecting herpetic stromal keratitis, he was treated with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents. One month after the initial visit, anterior chamber inflammation was improved and his visual acuity recovered to 20/20, but subtle corneal edema still remained. On tapering the medication, after three months, a foreign body was incidentally identified in the inferior chamber angle and was surgically removed resulting in complete resolution of corneal edema. The removed foreign body was a fragment of graphite and he subsequently disclosed a trauma with mechanical pencil 12 years earlier. This case showed that the presence of an anterior chamber foreign body should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic localized corneal edema. PMID:21461226

  20. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  1. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Saenz-Frances

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness (pupil center in relation to the corneal apex.METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex (AT, minimum corneal thickness (MT and corneal thickness at the pupil center (PT were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT (MD and PT (PD were calculated and their quadrant position (taking the corneal apex as the reference determined:point of minimum thickness (MC and point of central thickness (PC depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume (determined using the Pentacam and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex (79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant. PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume (B=-0.024; 95%CI:-0.043 to -0.004. No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logistic regressions for MC and PC.CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferior-temporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  2. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  3. Amniotic membrane immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) hybrid polymer as an artificial cornea scaffold that supports a stratified and differentiated corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Yuichi; Shimmura, Shigeto; Miyashita, Hideyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Shimazaki, Jun; Tanaka, Junzo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2007-04-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a biocompatible, transparent hydrogel with physical strength that makes it promising as a material for an artificial cornea. In our previous study, type I collagen was immobilized onto PVA (PVA-COL) as a possible artificial cornea scaffold that can sustain a functional corneal epithelium. The cellular adhesiveness of PVA in vitro was improved by collagen immobilization; however, stable epithelialization was not achieved in vivo. To improve epithelialization in vivo, we created an amniotic membrane (AM)-immobilized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-AM) for use as an artificial cornea material. AM was attached to PVA-COL using a tissue adhesive consisting of collagen and citric acid derivative (CAD) as a crosslinker. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were air-lift cultured with 3T3 feeder fibroblasts to form a stratified epithelial layer on PVA-AM. The rabbit corneal epithelial cells formed 3-5 layers of keratin-3-positive epithelium on PVA-AM. Occludin-positive cells were observed lining the superficial epithelium, the gap-junctional protein connexin43-positive cells was localized to the cell membrane of the basal epithelium, while both collagen IV were observed in the basement membrane. Epithelialization over implanted PVA-AM was complete within 2 weeks, with little inflammation or opacification of the hydrogel. Corneal epithelialization on PVA-AM in rabbit corneas improved over PVA-COL, suggesting the possibility of using PVA-AM as a biocompatible hybrid material for keratoprosthesis. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Corneal collagen cross-linking to stop corneal ectasia exacerbated by radial keratotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Baiocchi, Stefano; Denaro, Rosario; Tosi, Gian Marco; Caporossi, Tomaso

    2011-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of riboflavin ultraviolet A (UV-A) corneal collagen cross-linking in the management of keratoconic corneal ectasia exacerbated by radial keratotomy (RK). A patient with progressive corneal ectasia and hyperopic shift, occurring 10 years after RK performed in the left eye, was treated with riboflavin UV-A corneal collagen cross-linking according to the Siena protocol: Pilocarpin 0.1% drop (1 hour before), lidocaine 4% drops 15 minutes before, mechanical scraping of epithelium (9-mm-diameter area), preirradiation stromal soaking for 10 minutes in riboflavin 0.1%-dextrane 20% (Ricrolin; Sooft Italy) applied every 2 minutes, and 30 minutes of total exposure (6 steps of 5 minutes) to solid-state UV-A illuminator (Caporossi, Baiocchi, Mazzotta Vega X linker; CSO Opthalmics, Florence, Italy), energy delivered 3 mW/cm, and irradiated area 9 mm in diameter. After the operation, uncorrected visual acuity and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.2 to 0.6 and from 0.3 to 0.8 Snellen lines, respectively, in a 12-month follow-up. Improved topographical K readings and corneal symmetry index were also recorded starting from the first postoperative month and continuing thereafter. No adverse effects were recorded after treatment. Riboflavin UV-A-induced corneal cross-linking seems to be a promising surgical option in the management of unstable corneal ectasia exacerbated by RK, particularly in eyes with preexisting keratoconus. A large cohort and longer follow-up are needed to determine its long-term efficacy in this clinical setting.

  5. Manifestaciones corneales en las enfermedades sistémicas Corneal manifestations in systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zarranz-Ventura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas presentan manifestaciones corneales dentro de su espectro de enfermedad. El estudio detallado de todos los cuadros que asocian patología corneal resulta inabarcable, por ello se presentan las enfermedades más prevalentes o características. Este estudio contempla las enfermedades pulmonares y conectivopatías (colagenosis, enfermedades reumatológicas y enfermedades inflamatorias idiopáticas, las enfermedades dermatológicas, cardiovasculares, hematológicas y la patología digestiva y hepatopancreática. Se contemplan también, por ocasionar alteraciones corneales, las enfermedades endocrinas y metabólicas con algunas situaciones de malnutrición y estados carenciales, las infecciones sistémicas y las enfermedades renales. Otro área que produce afectación corneal es la patología otorrinolaringológica y las enfermedades genéticas. Se repasa brevemente la toxicidad y las alteraciones corneales provocadas por fármacos.Systemic diseases affecting the cornea have a wide range of manifestations. The detailed study of all pathologies that cause corneal alteration is unapproachable, so we have centered our interest in the most prevalent or characteristic of them. In this paper we have divided these pathologies in sections to facilitate their study. Pulmonar and conective tissue (like colagen, rheumatologic and idiopathic inflamatory diseases, dermatologic, cardiovascular, hematologic, digestive and hepatopancreatic diseases with corneal alteration are described. Endocrine and metabolic diseases, malnutrition and carential states are also studied, as well as some otorhinolaryngologic and genetic diseases that affect the cornea. Finally, a brief report of ocular toxicity induced by drugs is referred.

  6. Traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery. CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.; Tyagi, G.; Sahai, A.; Baijal, S.S. (G.B. Pant Hospital and M.A. Medical Coll., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Neurosurgery G.B. Pant Hospital and M.A. Medical Coll., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-12-01

    A case of traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery documented on Computed tomography (CT) and angiography is described in a 55-year-old female, who was treated by surgical excision. Computed tomographic appearance of this lesion is illustrated. This represents, to our knowledge, the first CT demonstration of traumatic aneurysm of superficial temporal artery within a large subgaleal haematoma. (orig.).

  7. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school children in South Western Nigeria: a comparative study. Olaide Oke Olutoyin1, Olaniyi ... Keywords: Risk factors, school children, skin, superficial fungal infections. ..... study with poor hygiene, malnutrition, overcrowding and poor general social ... cial determinants of health that influence the presence of superficial ...

  8. Interferometer for measuring dynamic corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Jason Daniel

    The cornea is the anterior most surface of the eye and plays a critical role in vision. A thin fluid layer, the tear film, coats the outer surface of the cornea and serves to protect, nourish, and lubricate the cornea. At the same time, the tear film is responsible for creating a smooth continuous surface where the majority of refraction takes place in the eye. A significant component of vision quality is determined by the shape of the cornea and stability of the tear film. It is desirable to possess an instrument that can measure the corneal shape and tear film surface with the same accuracy and resolution that is currently performed on common optical elements. A dual interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography is designed, built, and verified. The completed system is validated by testing on human subjects. The system consists of two co-aligned polarization splitting Twyman-Green interferometers designed to measure phase instantaneously. The primary interferometer measures the surface of the tear film while the secondary interferometer simultaneously tracks the absolute position of the cornea. Eye motion, ocular variation, and a dynamic tear film surface will result in a non-null configuration of the surface with respect to the interferometer system. A non-null test results in significant interferometer induced errors that add to the measured phase. New algorithms are developed to recover the absolute surface topography of the tear film and corneal surface from the simultaneous interferometer measurements. The results are high-resolution and high-accuracy surface topography measurements of the in vivo cornea that are captured at standard camera frame rates. This dissertation will cover the development and construction of an interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography of the human eye. The discussion starts with the completion of an interferometer for measuring the tear film. The tear film interferometer is part of an

  9. Induction of corneal collagen cross-linking in experimental corneal alkali burns in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Colombo-Barboza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of riboflavin-ultraviolet-A-induced cross-linking (CXL following corneal alkali burns in rabbits. Methods: The right corneas and limbi of ten rabbits were burned using a 1N solution of NaOH and the animals were then divided into two groups: a control group submitted to clinical treatment alone and an experimental group that was treated 1 h after injury with CXL, followed by the same clinical treatment as administered to the controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated post-injury at 1, 7, 15, and 30 days by two independent observers. Following this evaluation, the corneas were excised and examined histologically. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in clinical parameters, such as hyperemia, corneal edema, ciliary injection, limbal ischemia, secretion, corneal neovascularization, symblepharon, or blepharospasm, at any of the time-points evaluated. However, the size of the epithelial defect was significantly smaller in the CXL group (p<0.05 (day 15: p=0.008 and day 30: p=0.008 and the extent of the corneal injury (opacity lesion was also smaller (day 30: p=0.021. Histopathology showed the presence of collagen bridges linking the collagen fibers in only the CXL group. Conclusions: These results suggest that the use of CXL may improve the prognosis of acute corneal alkali burns.

  10. Spontaneous corneal melting in pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Sudesh K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of spontaneous corneal melting in pregnancy. We reviewed the literature on corneal melting and the effect of pregnancy on cornea and collagen containing tissues. Case presentation A 29-year-old woman who underwent radial keratotomy in both eyes followed by trabeculectomy in her left eye developed corneal melting in the same eye, in her seventh month of pregnancy. Despite screening, no infectious or immune mediated condition could be identified. She was managed conservatively with cyanoacrylate glue, bandage contact lens, lubricants and antibiotics. Conclusion It may not always be possible to find the underlying cause of corneal melting but the more common underlying causes should be ruled out by proper investigations. Pregnancy with its host of hormonal changes could potentially have some effect on corneal collagen leading to corneal melting in compromised corneas.

  11. Systemic Immunomodulatory Strategies in High-risk Corneal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abud, Tulio B.; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.

  12. Indocyanine green staining for the triple corneal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Segawa, Yoji; Nishimura, Akira; Shirao, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the triple corneal procedure, successful completion of capsulorhexis is of the utmost importance. Another use of indocyanine green dye for better visualization of the anterior lens capsule of mature cataract during the triple corneal procedure is described. Four consecutive patients (mean age, 69.5 years) with both mature cataracts and corneal opacity underwent the triple corneal procedure. After trephination of the recipient cornea, the anterior capsule of the lens was stained with indocyanine green. A continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) was performed, after which conventional triple corneal procedures were followed. In all four cases, this technique markedly improved visualization of the lens capsule and resulted in successful and easy manipulation of the CCC and subsequent removal of residual lens cortex. Staining of the anterior capsule of mature cataract in the triple corneal procedure clearly defines the border of the capsule, thus allowing easy and complete execution of CCC.

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the ... may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or CT scan to locate and remove the object. Tell your ...

  15. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  16. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is ... air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for identifying and removing foreign bodies from ...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM OF TRAUMATIC CATARACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    The cell morphology of corneal endothelium in 84 mice with experimental traumatic cataract was investigated with stained corneal buttons. In the experimental group, the boundaries between adjacent corneal endothelial cells were significantly distorted, some cell boundaries manifested degenerative changes that led to coalescence of the cells. The mean density and mean area of endothelial cells of the controls showed significant difference from those of the experimental group during the 12 weeks of observ...

  20. Corneal Ectasis among Wrestlers: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Zare Mehrjardi; Hadi Zare Mehrjardi; Abasali Gaeeni; Elham Ashrafi; Homa Naderifar

    2014-01-01

    Report keratoconus in two patients with a long history of wrestling without any risk factor for corneal ectasia and reviewing the possible pathogenesis. To confirm suspicion of keratoconus, corneal topography was performed using scanning slit topography system and Orbscan. In two wrestlers with the complaint of visual loss in their eyes and IOP raising, corneal topography was performed and development of keratoconus (KCN) was detected. Athletes involved in sports with high strenuous exercises...

  1. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra X Crawford; Patel, Dipika V.; Charles NJ McGhee

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by ...

  2. Retinal evaluation and treatment after refractive corneal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, C A; Kraushar, M F

    1985-08-01

    Refractive corneal surgery (a collective term used to describe a variety of surgical procedures that alter the refractive status of the eye through the surgical modification of corneal curvature) shows promise for use in situations where current methods of optical correction do not meet the patient's needs. This article reviews our experiences with the retinal evaluation of patients who have undergone corneal refractive surgery and offers recommendations for the treatment of retinal pathology after such surgery.

  3. Organism Isolation in Corneal Ulcer- Utility of Different Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    M Thapa; A.K. Sharma; D.N. Shah; S KC; Shrestha, S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Various techniques are available for isolation of microorganism in cases of microbial keratitis including conventional methods of scraping, re-scraping inoculation in different media and corneal biopsy. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted from February 2002 to July 2003. A total of 161 eyes of corneal ulcers were evaluated with scraping inoculation. Re-scraping and corneal biopsy were performed in those cases which did not grow any organism in t...

  4. New null screen design for corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-09-01

    In this work we report the design of a null screen for corneal topography. Here we assume that the corneal surface is an ellipsoid with a diameter of 12 mm and a curvature radius of 7.8 mm. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with spots (similar to ellipses) drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact radial array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, we performed a numerical simulation introducing Gaussian random errors in the coordinates of the centroids of the spots on the image plane, and in the coordinates of the sources (spots on the null-screen) in order to obtain the conical null-screen that reduces the error in the evaluation of the topography.

  5. Corneal Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Chaidaroon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report 2 unusual cases of fungal keratitis due to Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Methods: Two patients were diagnosed with Fonsecaea pedrosoi keratitis. Their files were reviewed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiological study, treatment, and outcome. Results: Two consecutive patients presented with brownish pigmented corneal ulcers in their eyes after sustaining eye trauma from vegetative matter. In both cases, corneal scrapings were collected for microscopic examination and culture. Dematiaceous hyphae were seen on the smears, and dark pigmented colonies grew on the culture media, identified as F. pedrosoi. Both patients were treated and cured with combined topical antifungal agents and oral itraconazole. The first patient required an amniotic membrane patch, while the second received an intracameral amphotericin B injection. Conclusions: Pigmented infiltrates can be an important diagnostic clue, but a microscopic evaluation and culture are required to obtain an accurate diagnosis of Fonsecaea keratitis. The prompt diagnosis and combined antifungal treatment can prevent morbidity associated with this fungal infection.

  6. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  7. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mehran; Naderan, Mohammad; Pahlevani, Rozhin; Jahanrad, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the prevalence and pattern of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates. In a prospective cross-sectional study, preoperative demographics, and keratometric and refractive values of cataract surgery candidates were collected from January 2013 to December 2014. Axial length (AL) and flat and steep keratometry measurements were optically measured by a partial coherence interferometry device (IOLMaster). This study consisted of 2156 eyes of 1317 patients with a mean age of 64.92 ± 11.48 (SD) (30-88 years). The mean of AL was 23.33 ± 1.37 mm, and the mean of corneal astigmatism was 1.12 ± 1.10 diopter (D) (range 0.0-7.00), in all patients. Furthermore, the mean of flat and steep keratometry were 43.70 ± 1.70 and 44.83 ± 1.79 D, respectively. Corneal astigmatism was 1.50 D or less in 1590 eyes (73.7 %), more than 1.50 D in 566 eyes (26.2 %), 3.00 D or more in 161 eyes (7.4 %), WTR in 796 eyes (36.9 %), ATR in 1010 eyes (46.8 %), and oblique in 350 eyes (16.2 %). ATR astigmatism axis significantly increased with the increase in age. Corneal astigmatism of most cataract surgery candidates fell between 0.50 and 1.50 D. The results of our study however is confined to our demographics might provide useful data for cataract patients, surgeons, and intraocular lens manufacturers for different purposes.

  8. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous

  9. RECURRENT CORNEAL EROSION SYNDROME (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Trufanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent corneal erosion (RCE syndrome is characterized by episodes of recurrent spontaneous epithelial defects. Main clinical symptoms (pain, redness, photophobia, lacrimation occurred at night. Corneal lesions revealed by slit lamp exam vary depending on the presence of corneal epithelium raise, epithelial microcysts or epithelial erosions, stromal infiltrates and opacities. Microtraumas, anterior corneal dystrophies, and herpesvirus give rise to RCE. Other causes or factors which increase the risk of RCE syndrome include meibomian gland dysfunction, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, diabetes, and post-LASIK conditions. Basal membrane abnormalities and instability of epithelial adhesion to stroma play a key role in RCE pathogenesis. Ultrastructural changes in RCE include abnormalities of basal epithelial cells and epithelial basal membrane, absence or deficiency of semi-desmosomes, loss of anchor fibrils. Increase in matrix metalloproteinases and collagenases which contribute to basal membrane destruction results in recurrent erosions and further development of abnormal basal membrane. The goals of RCE therapy are to reduce pain (in acute stage, to stimulate re-epithelization, and to restore «adhesion complex» of basal membrane. In most cases, RCE responds to simple conservative treatment that includes lubricants, healing agents, and eye patches. RCEs that are resistant to simple treatment, require complex approach. Non-invasive methods include long-term contact lens use, instillations of autologous serum (eye drops, injections of botulinum toxin (induces ptosis, antiviral agent use or oral intake of metalloproteinase inhibitors. Cell membrane stabilizers, i.e., antioxidants, should be included into treatment approaches as well. Antioxidant effect of Emoxipine promotes tissue reparation due to the prevention of cell membrane lipid peroxidation as well as due to its anti-hypoxic, angioprotective, and antiplatelet effects. If conservative therapy

  10. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  11. Analysis of correlation between corneal topographical data and visual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanqing; Yu, Lei; Ren, Qiushi

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To study correlation among corneal asphericity, higher-order aberrations and visual performance for eyes of virgin myopia and postoperative laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: There were 320 candidates 590 eyes for LASIK treatment included in this study. The mean preoperative spherical equivalence was -4.35+/-1.51D (-1.25 to -9.75), with astigmatism less than 2.5 D. Corneal topography maps and contrast sensitivity were measured and analyzed for every eye before and one year after LASIK for the analysis of corneal asphericity and wavefront aberrations. Results: Preoperatively, only 4th and 6th order aberration had significant correlation with corneal asphericity and apical radius of curvature (pcorneal asphericity (pcorneal aberrations had no significant correlation with visual acuity and area under the log contrast sensitivity (AULCSF) (P>0.05). Postoperatively, corneal aberrations still didn't have significant correlation with visual acuity (P>0.05), but had significantly negative correlation with AULCSF (PCorneal asphericity had no significant correlation with AULCSF before and after the treatment (P>0.05). Conclusions: Corneal aberrations had different correlation with corneal profile and visual performance for eyes of virgin myopia and postoperative LASIK, which may be due to changed corneal profile and limitation of metrics of corneal aberrations.

  12. Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases: a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nizar; Saleh; Abdelfattah; Mohamed; Amgad; Amira; A; Zayed; Hamdy; Salem; Ahmed; E; Elkhanany; Heba; Hussein; Nawal; Abd; El-Baky

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of corneal pathologies involves the formation of new vessels(neovascularization), leading to compromised visual acuity. This article aims to review the clinical causes and presentations of corneal neovascularization(CNV) by examining the mechanisms behind common CNV-related corneal pathologies, with a particular focus on herpes simplex stromal keratitis,contact lenses-induced keratitis and CNV secondary to keratoplasty. Moreover, we reviewed CNV in the context of different types of corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis, and summarized the most relevant treatment available so far.

  13. Decreased central corneal thickness in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortak, Huseyin; Inanır, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Uysal, Alper; Şahin, Şafak; Sağcan, Mustafa; Önder, Yalçın; Alim, Sait; Demir, Ayşe Kevser

    2014-04-01

    Central corneal thickness and dry eye tests were evaluated in a study population consisting of 68 ankylosing spondylitis patients diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria, and 61 age-matched controls without ankylosing spondylitis. A full ophthalmological evaluation was performed on each subject. All subjects were screened for age, gender, HLA-B27, tear break-up time test, Schirmer test, and duration of disease. Central corneal thickness was measured under topical anesthesia with an ultrasonic pachymeter. The mean central corneal thickness was 537.3 ± 30.6 μm, range 462-600 μm, in ankylosing spondylitis patients, whereas it was 551.7 ± 25.2 μm, range 510-620 μm, in controls (p = 0.005). The Schirmer test result was 7.3 ± 5.9 mm for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 11.7 ± 5.8 mm for the control group (p = 0.002). Tear break-up time was 7.3 ± 3.2 s for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 14.0 ± 4.5 s for the control group (p ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, attention must be given to lower dry eye tests in surgical interventions such as photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis in ankylosing spondylitis patients.

  14. Meretoja's Syndrome: Lattice Corneal Dystrophy, Gelsolin Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, C.; Neves, M.; Oliveira, L.; Beirão, M.

    2017-01-01

    Lattice corneal dystrophy gelsolin type was first described in 1969 by Jouko Meretoja, a Finnish ophthalmologist. It is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in gelsolin gene resulting in unstable protein fragments and amyloid deposition in various organs. The age of onset is usually after the third decade of life and typical diagnostic triad includes progressive bilateral facial paralysis, loose skin, and lattice corneal dystrophy. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient referred to our Department of Ophthalmology by severe dry eye and incomplete eyelid closure. She had severe bilateral facial paresis, significant orbicularis, and perioral sagging as well as hypoesthesia of extremities and was diagnosed with Meretoja's syndrome at the age of 50, confirmed by the presence of gelsolin mutation. At our observation she had bilateral diminished tear film break-up time and Schirmer test, diffuse keratitis, corneal opacification, and neovascularization in the left eye. She was treated with preservative-free lubricants and topical cyclosporine, associated with nocturnal complete occlusion of both eyes, and underwent placement of lacrimal punctal plugs. Ocular symptoms are the first to appear and our role as ophthalmologists is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of ocular alterations in these patients. PMID:28250773

  15. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  16. Putative epidermal stem cell convert into corneal epithelium-like cell under corneal tissue in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Nan; CUI GuangHui; WANG ZhiChong; HUANG Bing; GE Jian; LU Rong; ZHANG KeFei; FAN ZhiGang; LU Li; PENG Zhan

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative corneal epithelium-like cells, which may provide a practical source of autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of epidermal stem cells for trans-differentiation into corneal epithelium-like cells. Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells were isolated by type IV collagen attachment method. Flow cytometry analysis, immunohistology and RT-PCR were conducted to identify the expression of specific markers (β1, α6 integrin, K15, K1/K10, K3/K12 and CD71) on the isolated rapid attaching cells. The isolated cells were cocultured with human corneal limbal stroma and corneal epithelial cells. After coculture, the expression of the same specific markers was evaluated in order to identify expression difference caused by the coculture conditions. K3/K12 expression was analyzed in coculture cells on day 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Putative epidermal stem cells in conditioned culture media were used as control. Putative epidermal stem cells were predominant in rapid attaching cells by type IV collagen attachment isolation. Before being cocultured, the rhesus putative epidermal stem cells expressed K15, α6 and β1 integrin, but no CD71, K1/K10 and K3/K12. After coculture, these cells expressed K3/K12 (a marker of corneal epithelial cells), K15 and β 1 integrin, but no K1/K10. Cells being not coculture converted into terminally differentiated cells expressing K1/K10. These results indicate that rhesus putative epidermal stem cells can trans-differentiate into corneal epithelium-like cells and, therefore, may have potential therapeutic application as autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas.

  17. Putative epidermal stem cell convert into corneal epithelium-like cell under corneal tissue in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative corneal epithelium-like cells, which may provide a practical source of autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of epi-dermal stem cells for trans-differentiation into corneal epithelium-like cells. Rhesus putative epidermal stem cells were isolated by type IV collagen attachment method. Flow cytometry analysis, immuno-histology and RT-PCR were conducted to identify the expression of specific markers (β1, α6 integrin, K15, K1/K10, K3/K12 and CD71) on the isolated rapid attaching cells. The isolated cells were cocultured with human corneal limbal stroma and corneal epithelial cells. After coculture, the expression of the same specific markers was evaluated in order to identify expression difference caused by the coculture conditions. K3/K12 expression was analyzed in coculture cells on day 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Putative epi-dermal stem cells in conditioned culture media were used as control. Putative epidermal stem cells were predominant in rapid attaching cells by type IV collagen attachment isolation. Before being co-cultured, the rhesus putative epidermal stem cells expressed K15, α6 and β1 integrin, but no CD71, K1/K10 and K3/K12. After coculture, these cells expressed K3/K12 (a marker of corneal epithelial cells), K15 and β 1 integrin, but no K1/K10. Cells being not coculture converted into terminally differentiated cells expressing K1/K10. These results indicate that rhesus putative epidermal stem cells can trans-differentiate into corneal epithelium-like cells and, therefore, may have potential therapeutic application as autologous seed cells for the construction of bioengineered corneas.

  18. Development of new therapeutic modalities for corneal endothelial disease focused on the proliferation of corneal endothelial cells using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-02-01

    This review describes our recent attempts to develop new therapeutic modalities for corneal endothelial disease using animal models including non-human primate model in which the proliferative ability of corneal endothelial cells is severely limited, as is the case in humans. First, we describe our attempt to develop new surgical treatments using cultivated corneal endothelial cells for advanced corneal endothelial dysfunction. It includes two different approaches; a "corneal endothelial cell sheet transplantation" with cells grown on a type-I collagen carrier, and a "cell-injection therapy" combined with the application of Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Recently, it was reported that the selective ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, promotes cell adhesion and proliferation and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. When cultivated corneal endothelial cells were injected into the anterior chamber of animal eyes in the presence of ROCK inhibitor, endothelial cell adhesion was promoted and the cells achieved a high cell density and a morphology similar to corneal endothelial cells in vivo. We are also trying to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease by the use of ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey experiments using partial endothelial dysfunction models, corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated by the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, and resulted in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density. We are now trying to advance the clinical application of these new therapies for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Intraocular foreign body removal: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An intraocular foreign body may traumatize the eye mechanically, introduce infection or exert other toxic effects on the intraocular structures. Removal of a metallic intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB use an internal (vitrectomy followed by forceps or internal magnet use or external approach (large electromagnet. Outline of Cases. A 51-year-old man sustained injury of the left eye by a metal foreign body. On admission visual acuity was normal (VOS=1.0 and intraocular tension was within normal limits (TOS=10 mmHg. Nasal scleral entry wound was noticed. Ultrasound of the left eye was done, which confirmed existence of IOFB laying nasally, next to the ciliary body. Extraction of IOFB with a big electric magnet was done. Visual acuity on discharge was the same (VOS=1.0. Another man, aged 30 years, came to the clinic after injury of the left eye by a foreign body. On admission visual acuity was VOS=L+P+ (light and projection, TOS=44 mmHg (higher, traumatic cataract, scleral entry wound, corneal edema, existence of IOFB and initial endophtalmitis. Lensectomia and vitrectomia via pars plana with IOFB extraction were done. Visual acuity on discharge was VOS=5/60 with +6.50 Dsph = 0.3-0.4; TOS=17 mmHg. Conclusion. Magnet removal is indicated in patients when IOFB is laying free in the vitreous body or stopped near the entry wound during injury without other complications. Internal approach - pars plana vitrectomy with forceps removal is used when IOFB is stuck either on the peripheral or posterior part of the retina or if there are some of aforementioned complications.

  20. Prevalence of superficial siderosis following singular, acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, N.; Bochmann, K. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Bernau, C. [Leibniz-Rechenzentrum, Munich (Germany); Thon, N. [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Linn, J. [Technical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Superficial siderosis is presumably a consequence of recurrent bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of superficial siderosis after singular, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the long term. We retrospectively identified all patients who presented with a singular, acute, aneurysmal SAH at our institution between 2010 and 2013 and in whom a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2*-weighted imaging was available at least 4 months after the acute bleeding event. MRI scans were judged concerning the presence and distribution of superficial siderosis. Influence of clinical data, Fisher grade, localization, and cause of SAH as well as the impact of neurosurgical interventions on the occurrence of superficial siderosis was tested. Seventy-two patients with a total of 117 MRIs were included. Mean delay between SAH and the last available MRI was 47.4 months (range 4-129). SAH was Fisher grade 1 in 2 cases, 2 in 4 cases, 3 in 10 cases, and 4 in 56 cases. Superficial siderosis was detected in 39 patients (54.2 %). In all patients with more than one MRI scan, localization and distribution of superficial siderosis did not change over time. Older age (p = 0.02) and higher degree of SAH (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the development of superficial siderosis. Superficial siderosis develops in approximately half of patients after singular, aneurysmal SAH and might be more common in patients with an older age and a greater amount of blood. However, additional factors must play a role in whether a patient is prone to develop superficial siderosis or not. (orig.)

  1. Manifestaciones corneales en las enfermedades sistémicas Corneal manifestations in systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    J. Zarranz-Ventura; E. De Nova; Moreno-Montañés, J

    2008-01-01

    Un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas presentan manifestaciones corneales dentro de su espectro de enfermedad. El estudio detallado de todos los cuadros que asocian patología corneal resulta inabarcable, por ello se presentan las enfermedades más prevalentes o características. Este estudio contempla las enfermedades pulmonares y conectivopatías (colagenosis, enfermedades reumatológicas y enfermedades inflamatorias idiopáticas), las enfermedades dermatológicas, cardiovasculares, hematológi...

  2. Corneal tissue welding with infrared laser irradiation after clear corneal incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rfat; Ozeren, Mediha; Artunay, Ozgür; Bahçecioğlu, Halil; Seçkin, Ismail; Kalaycoğlu, Hamit; Kurt, Adnan; Sennaroğlu, Alphan; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of infrared lasers for corneal welding to seal corneal cuts done in an experimental animal model. Full-thickness corneal cuts on freshly enucleated bovine eyes were irradiated with infrared (809-nm diode, 980-nm diode, 1070-nm YLF, and 1980-nm Tm:YAP) lasers to get immediate laser welding. An 809-nm laser was used with the topical application of indocyanine green to enhance the photothermal interaction at the weld site. In total, 60 bovine eyes were used in this study; 40 eyes were used in the first part of the study for the determination of optimal welding parameters (15 eyes were excluded because of macroscopic carbonization, opacification, or corneal shrinkage; 2 eyes were used for control), and 20 eyes were used for further investigation of more promising lasers (YLF and Tm:YAP). Laser wavelength, irradiating power, exposure time, and spot size were the dose parameters, and optimal dose for immediate closure with minimal thermal damage was estimated through histological examination of welded samples. In the first part of the study, results showed that none of the applications was satisfactory. Full-thickness success rates were 28% (2 of 7) for 809-nm and for 980-nm diode lasers and 67% (2 of 3) for 1070-nm YLF and (4 of 6) for 1980-nm Tm:YAP lasers. In the second part of the study, YLF and Tm:YAP lasers were investigated with bigger sample size. Results were not conclusive but promising again. Five corneal incisions were full-thickness welded out of 10 corneas with 1070-nm laser, and 4 corneal incisions were partially welded out of 10 corneas with 1980-nm laser in the second part of the study. Results showed that noteworthy corneal welding could be obtained with 1070-nm YLF laser and 1980-nm Tm:YAP laser wavelengths. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies will shed light on the potential usage of corneal laser welding technique.

  3. Corneal layer plate removal with Fluconazole injected corneal stroma and autologous conjunctival transplantation for keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Dong Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical effect of corneal layer plate removal with Fluconazole injected corneal stroma and autologous conjunctival transplantation for keratomycosis.METHODS: There were 168 cases suffered keratomycosis that the focus located shallow of the cornea and was not obvious to drug, who registered in our hospital from March 2005 to June 2010. In surgery we removed plate layer to cormea clear, the region was greater than focus for 0.5mm,then we injected fluconazole which is 2g/L density in corneal stroma to make the edema area greater than Removal of area for 0.5mm. At last we took pedicle conjunctival flap to cover the plant bed by continuous suture. Postoperative day use drug to drop eye and to observe that whether recurrent of the keratomycosis and how was the edema degrade, the blood supply of conjunctival graft pieces, how about the stimulating signs of the surgery eye, the vision.RESULTS: The improvement rate was 96.2% after surgery for seven days and the cure rate was 95.5% after surgery for one months. We found in 157 eyes accepted trigeminy surgery there were 6 eyes recurrence and the recurrence rate was 3.8%. The mean time of corneal stromal edema faded away was 13.4 hours. After surgery for one month there were 39 eyes(24.8%whose vision removed than preoperative, there were 91 eyes(58.0%whose vision were same as preoperative and there were 27 eyes(17.2%whose vision lower than preoperative. In these operations the loss ratio of corneal endothelium was from 0%-8%, the mean was 2.9%. The irritative symptoms postoperative were mild for 87%, moderate for 10% and severe for 3%. By this surgery the mean length of stay was 7.3 days so the mean hospitalization expenses only were 2160 RMB. Three months after surgery, 4 cases were slight corneal ectasia.CONCLUSION: This operation combined corneal layer plate removal, Fluconazole injected corneal stroma and autologous conjunctival transplantation for keratomycosis which was in

  4. Comportamiento hidráulico de los sistemas de riego por goteo superficial y sub superficial

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Para su evaluación el sistema de riego fue montado con un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con cuatro tratamientos, uno con el sistema de riego por goteo superficial y tres con sistemas de riego por goteo sub superficiales con emisores soterrados a 15, 30 y 45 centímetros de profundidad. Se realizaron evaluaciones de laboratorio y de campo de los principales parámetros hidráulicos del sistema, al inicio de la primera campaña de riego y al final de la tercera, obteniéndose en el...

  5. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: report of four cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-feng; WU Yu-yu; WANG Jian

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2001, Laskin et al~1 firstly described a series of 14 seemly distinctive mesenchymal tumors that occurred exclusively in the superficial lamina propria of the vagina and cervix of middle to old-aged women. They proposed the term "superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma (SCVM)" to highlight the unique features of this tumor: the superficial subepithelial location and myofibroblastic differentiation of the tumor cells. SCVM appears less well recognized with only three additional reports have been documented in the English literatures.~(2-4) In this study, we described four new cases of SCVM to further characterize the clinical and pathological features of this rare entity.

  6. Superficial Fibromatosis Mimicking Glomus Tumor of the Second Toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyang Jeong; Chae, Soo Uk; Kim, Gang Deuk; Kim, Yeung Jin; Choi, Deok Hwa; Park, Jae In

    2015-09-01

    Various types of tumor can occur in the subungual space, including glomus tumors, subungual exostosis, hemangioma, epidermal cysts, and malignant tumors. While fibromatosis can occur at various sites throughout the body, it is very rarely seen in the toe. Here, we are the first to report a case of superficial fibromatosis mimicking a glomus tumor in the subungual space of the second toe. The presentation of this condition shows the possibility of encountering uncommon superficial fibromatosis in the distal phalanx of the toe, and suggests that superficial fibromatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a glomus tumor in the toe.

  7. Revisión sobre modelado de superficies complejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Osorio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de las técnicas más empleadas para la obtención de modelos computacionales de superficies complejas. Estas representaciones están siendo utilizadas en diversas áreas de la industria mediante procedimientos de ingeniería reversa. Las tres principales categorías son las superficies funcionales (implícitas, paramétricas y las superficies complejas simplicial (mallas triangulares. Se realiza un paralelo entre estos métodos y se exponen las ventajas y las desventajas de cada una de estas representaciones.

  8. Antibody conjugate radioimmunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Perkins

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The administration of antibody conjugates for cancer therapy is now proving to be of clinical value. We are currently undertaking a programme of clinical studies using the monoclonal antibody C595 (IgG3 which reacts with the MUC1 glycoprotein antigen that is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of bladder tumours. Radioimmunoconjugates of the C595 antibody have been produced with high radiolabelling efficiency and immunoreactivity using Tc-99m and In-111 for diagnostic imaging, and disease staging and the cytotoxic radionuclides Cu-67 and Re-188 for therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A Phase I/II therapeutic trail involving the intravesical administration of antibody directly into the bladder has now begun.A administração de anticorpos conjugados para o tratamento do câncer está agora provando ser de valor clínico. Nós estamos atualmente realizando um programa de estudos clínicos usando o anticorpo monoclonal C595 (IgG3 que reage com a glicoproteína MUC1 que está aberrantemente expressa numa alta proporção de tumores de bexiga. Tem sido produzidos radioimunoconjugados do anticorpo C595, com alta eficiência de radiomarcação e a imunoreatividade, usando-se o Tc-99m e In-111, para o diagnóstico por imagem e estagiamento de doenças. Tem sido produzidos, também, radionuclídeos citotóxicos (Cu-67 e Re-188 para o tratamento de cânceres superficiais de bexiga. A fase terapêutica I/II já se iniciou, envolvendo a administração intravesical do anticorpo diretamente na bexiga.

  9. Hemipelvic irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kazuya; Machida, Toyohei; Ooishi, Yukihiko; Ueda, Masataka; Kido, Akira; Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Yamashita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1985-02-01

    In 15 patients with superficial bladder cancer hemipelvic irradiation was performed for prevention of relapse of cancer and decrease in side effects with following results. All patients received TUR-Bt at our department during the six years period from 1978 to 1983. As to stages, one was classified as Ta, 11 as T 1 and 3 as T 2, and pathologic diagnosis was transitional epithelial carcinoma of grade 1 in 1 case, grade 2 in 8 cases and grade 3 in 6 cases. Irradiation was started from the 7 th to 14 th day after TUR-Bt. At first, hemipelvic anterior and posterior field including the field from the affected pelvis to 1 to 2 cm beyond the midline toward the contralateral side and from the aortic bifurcation to the prostatic urethra were irradiated at a dose of 45 Gy. Then, whole bladder field was given an additional rotation irradiation of 20 Gy. The mean observation period was 43 months (ranging from 12 to 79 months) and relapse of cancer was observed in 6 cases out of 15 cases (40%). The site of relapse was in the irradiated site in 2 cases, contralateral site in 3 cases and both side in 1 cases. However, in all of the relapsed cases no aggravation in differential degree or progression in stage was observed. As the side effects, radiation cystitis developed as a delayed damage in 1 case. Thus, although no efficacy for prevention of relapse which we had expected was not seen, this irradiation method effectively inhibited the progression of lesion and development of delayed damage. (author).

  10. Corneal donations in South Africa: A 15-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher

    2017-07-28

    Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.

  11. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  12. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  13. Comparison of corneal sensitivity, tear function and corneal staining following laser in situ keratomileusis with two femtosecond laser platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petznick A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Petznick,1 Annabel Chew,2 Reece C Hall,2 Cordelia ML Chan,2 Mohamad Rosman,1,2 Donald Tan,1–3 Louis Tong,1–4 Jodhbir S Mehta1–31Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, SingaporePurpose: To evaluate longitudinal changes in corneal sensitivity, tear function, and corneal staining in patients who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using two different femtosecond lasers.Methods: In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, contralateral eyes of 45 patients underwent flap creation by either VisuMax or IntraLase™ femtosecond laser. Corneal sensitivity, tear break up time (TBUT, Schirmer’s test, and corneal fluorescein staining were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively.Results: There were no statistical differences in any clinical outcome measure between the two femtosecond lasers (P > 0.05, although there was a trend towards slightly lower reductions for corneal sensitivity and TBUT in VisuMax-operated eyes. Overall, corneal sensitivity was significantly reduced at 1 week (P 0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that changes in corneal sensitivity, tear function, and corneal staining were statistically similar in LASIK using VisuMax and IntraLase femtosecond lasers for flap creation. However, the trend towards faster recovery of corneal sensitivity and TBUT observed in VisuMax-operated eyes may be attributable to improved technical specifications.Keywords: femtosecond laser, corneal sensitivity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer’s, corneal staining

  14. Superficial Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sean; Minni, John; Herold, David

    2015-12-01

    Superficial radiation therapy has become more widely available to dermatologists. With the advent of more portable machines, it has become more convenient for dermatology practices to employ in an office-based setting. The goal of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the role of superficial radiation therapy in dermatology practice and to review the current literature surrounding its use in the treatment of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas.

  15. Functional Compartmentalization of the Human Superficial Masseter Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Venegas, Rodrigo A.; Biotti Picand, Jorge L.; Francisco J Berral de la Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM) muscle's motor units using high-density surface e...

  16. Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Hrishikesh; Barik, Manas R; Reddy, Mamatha M; Mittal, Ruchi; Das, Sujata

    2017-01-01

    Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is a rare autosomal recessive form of corneal dystrophy characterised by subepithelial and stromal amyloid deposits. It is relatively common in Japan. It usually presents in the first two decades of life with subepithelial nodular lesions that later coalesce to form mulberry-like opacities. Although various surgical modalities have been attempted, recurrence remains a major challenge.

  17. Outcome of corneal transplantation: can a prioritisation system predict outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Patrick P R; Sibley, Lyn M; Richards, John S F; Simon P. Holland; Chow, Debbie L; Courtright, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Background: In 1995 a prioritisation system for patients waiting for corneal transplantation surgery was adopted in British Columbia. In 1997 a routine outcome assessment programme was adopted. The authors sought to determine the outcomes of corneal transplant surgery in the province of British Columbia and to evaluate if they were associated with waiting list prioritisation.

  18. Genomics of corneal wound healing: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Nick J R; Marshall, John

    2014-05-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process: its mechanisms and the underlying genetic control are not fully understood. It involves the integrated actions of multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases produced by epithelial cells, stromal keratocytes, inflammatory cells and lacrimal gland cells. Following an epithelial insult, multiple cytokines are released triggering a cascade of events that leads to repair the epithelial defect and remodelling of the stroma to minimize the loss of transparency and function. In this review, we examine the literature surrounding the genomics of corneal wound healing with respect to the following topics: epithelial and stromal wound healing (including inhibition); corneal neovascularisation; the role of corneal nerves in wound healing; the endothelium; the role of aquaporins and aptamers. We also examine the effect of ectasia on corneal wound healing with regard to keratoconus and following corneal surgery. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular changes that occur during repair of corneal wounds will provide the opportunity to design treatments that selectively modulate key phases of the healing process resulting in scars that more closely resemble normal corneal architecture.

  19. Applications and advantages of corneal crosslinking for treatment of keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, N.

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus is a corneal disorder in which the cornea becomes cone-shaped due to stromal thinning and corneal weakening. It mainly affects young individuals and although the prevalence is low (1:2000), the impact on quality of life is high. Despite much effort, still no cure has been found for

  20. Applications and advantages of corneal crosslinking for treatment of keratoconus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, N.

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus is a corneal disorder in which the cornea becomes cone-shaped due to stromal thinning and corneal weakening. It mainly affects young individuals and although the prevalence is low (1:2000), the impact on quality of life is high. Despite much effort, still no cure has been found for kerat

  1. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Less Invasive Corneal Transepithelial Electrical Resistance Measurement Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Masafumi; Mohamed, Yasser Helmy; Onizuka, Naoko; Ueki, Ryotaro; Inoue, Daisuke; Fujikawa, Azusa; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate acute corneal permeability changes after instillation of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) using a newly developed in vivo less invasive corneal transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) measurement method in animals and humans. We previously developed an in vivo method for measuring corneal TER using intraocular electrodes in animals. This method can be used to precisely measure the decline of the corneal barrier function after instillation of BAC. To lessen the invasiveness of that procedure, we further refined the method for measuring the corneal TER by developing electrodes that could be placed on the surface of the cornea and in the conjunctival sac instead of inserting them into the anterior chamber. Corneal TER changes before and after exposure to 0.02% BAC were determined in this study using the new device in both rabbits and humans. There was a significant decrease in the corneal TER after exposure of the cornea to 0.02% BAC solution in both rabbits and humans (Pmeasurement method enables us for the first time to measure TER of the human cornea, allowing safe and reliable investigation of the direct effect of different eye drop treatments on the corneal epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Corneal stem cells and tissue engineering: Current advancesand future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Major advances are currently being made in regenerativemedicine for cornea. Stem cell-based therapiesrepresent a novel strategy that may substituteconventional corneal transplantation, albeit there aremany challenges ahead given the singularities of eachcellular layer of the cornea. This review recapitulatesthe current data on corneal epithelial stem cells,corneal stromal stem cells and corneal endothelialcell progenitors. Corneal limbal autografts containingepithelial stem cells have been transplanted in humansfor more than 20 years with great successful rates,and researchers now focus on ex vivo cultures andother cell lineages to transplant to the ocular surface.A small population of cells in the corneal endotheliumwas recently reported to have self-renewal capacity,although they do not proliferate in vivo . Two mainobstacles have hindered endothelial cell transplantationto date culture protocols and cell delivery methods tothe posterior cornea in vivo . Human corneal stromalstem cells have been identified shortly after therecognition of precursors of endothelial cells. Stromalstem cells may have the potential to provide a directcell-based therapeutic approach when injected tocorneal scars. Furthermore, they exhibit the ability todeposit organized connective tissue in vitro and maybe useful in corneal stroma engineering in the future.Recent advances and future perspectives in the field arediscussed.

  4. In Vivo Corneal Biomechanical Properties with Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the repeatability of recalculated corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST parameters and to study the variation of biomechanical properties and their association with demographic and ocular characteristics. Methods. A total of 783 healthy subjects were included in this study. Comprehensive ophthalmological examinations were conducted. The repeatability of the recalculated biomechanical parameters with 90 subjects was assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to identify demographic and ocular factors. Results. The repeatability of the central corneal thickness (CCT, deformation amplitude (DA, and first/second applanation time (A1/A2-time exhibited excellent repeatability (CV% ≤ 3.312% and ICC ≥ 0.929 for all measurements. The velocity in/out (Vin/out, highest concavity- (HC- radius, peak distance (PD, and DA showed a normal distribution. Univariate linear regression showed a statistically significant correlation between Vin, Vout, DA, PD, and HC-radius and IOP, CCT, and corneal volume, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that IOP and CCT were negatively correlated with Vin, DA, and PD, while there was a positive correlation between Vout and HC-radius. Conclusion. The ICCs of the recalculated parameters, CCT, DA, A1-time, and A2-time, exhibited excellent repeatability. IOP, CCT, and corneal volume significantly influenced the biomechanical properties of the eye.

  5. Customized toric intraocular lens implantation for correction of extreme corneal astigmatism due to corneal scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bassily

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available R Bassily, J LuckOphthalmology Department, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UKAbstract: A 76-year-old woman presented with decreased visual function due to cataract formation. Twenty-five years prior she developed right sided corneal ulceration that left her with 10.8 diopters (D of irregular astigmatism at 71.8° (steep axis. Her uncorrected visual acuity was 6/24 and could only ever wear a balanced lens due to the high cylindrical error. Cataract surgery was planned with a custom designed toric intraocular lens (IOL with +16.0 D sphere inserted via a wound at the steep axis of corneal astigmatism. Postoperative refraction was -0.75/+1.50 × 177° with a visual acuity of 6/9 that has remained unchanged at six-week follow-up with no IOL rotation. This case demonstrates the value of high power toric IOLs for the correction of pathological corneal astigmatism.Keywords: intraocular lens, corneal ulceration, visual acuity, scarring

  6. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  7. Paracentral Corneal Dellen:A Rare Sign of Graves Ophthalmopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Zhongyao Wu

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report a rare sign, paracentral corneal dellen that developed in a middleaged female patient with Graves ophthalmopathy.Methods:A paracentral corneal dellen developed in the left eye in a 42-year-old woman who was diagnosed as Graves ophthalmopathy. The patient had remarkable upper eyelid retraction, upper eyelid lag and upward motility restriction. The Graves ophthalmopathy was classified as Grade V according to NOSPECS classification.Results:Local artificial tear film and 0.3% Tobramycin eye drops were administered to both eyes.Twenty-four hours later, the left corneal dellen disappeared.Conclusions:Graves ophthalmopathy can lead to paracentral corneal dellen because of severe upper eyelid retraction and upward motility restriction of the eye in spite of the lack of lagophthalmos. Artificial tear drop and antibiotic eye drop therapy helped even though the patient did not have corneal exposure.

  8. Mechanism of Corneal Endothelial Cells Lesion during Phacoemulsification and Aspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songtao Yuan; Lina Xie; Qinghuai Liu; Nanrong Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the proportions of corneal endothelial lesion caused by differentfactors during phacoemulsification and aspiration.Methods: Fourteen cats (twenty eight eyes) were divided into four groups. The processedfactors were ultrasonic power, lens extraction by phacoemulsification or not, and lensextraction using different levels of ultrasonic power. The density of central cornealendothelial cells was measured before and after operation.Results: There is no statistic difference between pre-operation density and post-operationdensity for releasing ultrasonic power only without lens extraction group. But for the lensextraction group, there is difference in density of central corneal endothelial cells andthe higher level of ultrasonic power, the more the central corneal endothelial cells densitydecreased through operation.Conclusion: The primary factor that causes corneal endothelial lesion duringphacoemulsification and aspiration procedure is debris of lens nucleus, and the otherfactors cause the lesion of corneal endothelium in normal operations just in very smalldegree.

  9. Biomechanical and morphological corneal response to placement of intrastromal corneal ring segments for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Caroline; Touboul, David; Roberts, Cynthia J; Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Kérautret, Julien; Fournier, Pierre; Malecaze, François; Colin, Joseph

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical and morphological changes in keratoconic corneas after Intacs intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation. Department of Ophthalmology, National Reference Center for Keratoconus, Bordeaux University, Bordeaux, France. Keratoconic eyes were retrospectively analyzed after ICRS implantation; preoperative and 6-month postoperative evaluation were done using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and the Orbscan II topographer. Biomechanical parameters included corneal hysteresis (CH), the corneal resistance factor (CRF), and other parameters extracted from the signal curves. Morphological parameters included simulated keratometry and the cone location magnitude index from the axial map (aCLMI) and tangential map (tCLMI). Parameters were extracted using software designed to read and process topographic maps. There were no significant differences between preoperatively and postoperatively in mean CH (7.7 mm Hg +/- 1.4 [SD] versus 7.4 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) or mean CRF (6.6 +/- 1.8 mm Hg versus 6.1 +/- 1.4 mm Hg). Only 2 ORA signal parameters were significantly different. Topographic parameters with significant decreases were minimum central keratometry (K) (mean change -5.8 +/- 2.9 diopters [D]) (P<.001), minimum central K (mean change -5.8 +/- 2.3 D) (P<.001), mean aCLMI (9.6 +/- 2.7 preoperatively versus 7.7 +/- 2.5 postoperatively) (P<.009), and mean tCLMI (18.9 +/- 2.8 versus 12.9 +/- 4.4) (P<.002). The only significant correlation between biomechanical and topographic parameters was postoperative ORA infrared signal peak 1 and postoperative aCLMI. Intrastromal corneal ring implantation significantly decreased corneal curvature, with preoperative values predicting magnitude of change. However, it did not alter the viscoelastic biomechanical parameters of CH and CRF.

  10. Corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid reproducible ophthalmic technique for quantifying corneal nerve abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalteniece, Alise; Ferdousi, Maryam; Adam, Safwaan; Schofield, Jonathan; Azmi, Shazli; Petropoulos, Ioannis; Soran, Handrean; Malik, Rayaz A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of applying a protocol for image selection and the number of images required for adequate quantification of corneal nerve pathology using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM). IVCCM was performed in 35 participants by a single examiner. For each participant, 4 observers used a standardized protocol to select 6 central corneal nerve images to assess the inter-observer variability. Furthermore, images were selected by a single observer on two occasions to assess intra-observer variability and the effect of sample size was assessed by comparing 6 with 12 images. Corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), branch density (CNBD) and length (CNFL) were quantified using fully automated software. The data were compared using the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman agreement plots for all experiments. The ICC values for CNFD, CNBD and CNFL were 0.93 (P<0.0001), 0.96 (P<0.0001) and 0.95 (P<0.0001) for inter-observer variability and 0.95 (P<0.0001), 0.97 (P<0.001) and 0.97 (P<0.0001) for intra-observer variability. For sample size variability, ICC values were 0.94 (P<0.0001), 0.95 (P<0.0001), and 0.96 (P<0.0001) for CNFD, CNBD and CNFL. Bland-Altman plots showed excellent agreement for all parameters. This study shows that implementing a standardized protocol to select IVCCM images results in high intra and inter-observer reproducibility for all corneal nerve parameters and 6 images are adequate for analysis. IVCCM could therefore be deployed in large multicenter clinical trials with confidence.

  11. Intrastromal corneal ring segments delay corneal grafting in patients with keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur F. Beniz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the impact of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS as a surgical alternative to corneal grafting in patients with keratoconus who were scheduled for a corneal transplant. Methods: This single-surgeon, single-center, retrospective, observational case series study included 19 eyes of 18 patients (mean age, 23.36 ± 6.22 years with a confirmed diagnosis of keratoconus. These patients were enrolled from the State of Goiás, Brazil corneal graft waiting list. Following extensive pre-operative testing, including the measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, applanation tonometry, biomicroscopy, funduscopy, pachymetry, and corneal topography, patients were implanted with Keraring® ICRS. Patients underwent clinical examination at postoperative days 1, 7, 30, 90, and 180 and were examined again 2 years following surgery. Results: At the 2-year cut-off following ICRS implantation (mean follow-up, 28.72 ± 4.71 months, there was a statistically significant improvement in BCVA (logMAR from 0.59 ± 0.35 preoperatively to 0.35 ± 0.45 postoperatively ( p <0.01. Three of 19 eyes (15.8% still required keratoplasty. In the remaining patients (84.2%, BCVA was managed with spectacles (52.6% or contact lenses (31.6%. One patient developed infectious keratitis, requiring removal of ICR at the first postoperative visit. Conclusion: ICRS implantation may be a surgical alternative to keratoplasty in patients with keratoconus. This procedure may delay or even eliminate the need for keratoplasty in such patients.

  12. [Corneal permeability of topically applied pirenzepine solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-di; Zhang, Jin-song; Yan, Pan-shi

    2006-06-01

    To study the corneal permeability of three different pirenzepine eye-drop solutions and provide reference for further clinical use. Sixty-three New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Each group of rabbits received 2% pirenzepine (pirenzepine group), 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% hyaluronic acid (hyaluronic acid group), or 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% azone (azone group). One drop eye-drops was applied to conjunctive sac every 5 min for six times. Aqueous samples were obtained from each group at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 24.0 h after the last drop, respectively. Concentration of pirenzepine in these samples was determined by the HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography). Stimulation symptom of rabbit eyes was also observed. The concentrations of pirenzepine in aqueous humor were (0.40 +/- 0.06) microg/ml at 0.5 h, (0.53 +/- 0.03) microg/ml at 1.0 h, (1.52 +/- 0.33) microg/ml at 2.0 h and (0.15 +/- 0.02) microg/ml at 4.0 h in pirenzepine group. Aqueous humor concentration of pirenzepine in both 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% azone and 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% hyaluronic acid were significantly higher than that of single pirenzepine application, and their bioavailability in the groups with combinations of pirenzepine with 0.1% azone or 0.1% hyaluronic acid were 23.0 times and 3.4 times higher than that of single pirenzepine usage. No obvious irritate symptom was found in rabbit of all three groups after eye-drop applying. The combination application of pirenzepine with azone or hyaluronic acid has higher corneal permeability compared with pirenzepine alone. This result indicates that azone and hyaluronic acid could be used in pirenzepine eye-drop solution to increase corneal permeability.

  13. Automated Decision Tree Classification of Corneal Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twa, Michael D.; Parthasarathy, Srinivasan; Roberts, Cynthia; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Raasch, Thomas W.; Bullimore, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The volume and complexity of data produced during videokeratography examinations present a challenge of interpretation. As a consequence, results are often analyzed qualitatively by subjective pattern recognition or reduced to comparisons of summary indices. We describe the application of decision tree induction, an automated machine learning classification method, to discriminate between normal and keratoconic corneal shapes in an objective and quantitative way. We then compared this method with other known classification methods. Methods The corneal surface was modeled with a seventh-order Zernike polynomial for 132 normal eyes of 92 subjects and 112 eyes of 71 subjects diagnosed with keratoconus. A decision tree classifier was induced using the C4.5 algorithm, and its classification performance was compared with the modified Rabinowitz–McDonnell index, Schwiegerling’s Z3 index (Z3), Keratoconus Prediction Index (KPI), KISA%, and Cone Location and Magnitude Index using recommended classification thresholds for each method. We also evaluated the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for each classification method. Results Our decision tree classifier performed equal to or better than the other classifiers tested: accuracy was 92% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.97. Our decision tree classifier reduced the information needed to distinguish between normal and keratoconus eyes using four of 36 Zernike polynomial coefficients. The four surface features selected as classification attributes by the decision tree method were inferior elevation, greater sagittal depth, oblique toricity, and trefoil. Conclusions Automated decision tree classification of corneal shape through Zernike polynomials is an accurate quantitative method of classification that is interpretable and can be generated from any instrument platform capable of raw elevation data output. This method of pattern classification is extendable to other classification

  14. Mycotic corneal ulcers in upper Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the association of various risk factors and epidemiological variables of mycotic keratitis treated at a tertiary referral hospital of upper Assam. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study a total of 310 consecutive corneal ulcer cases attending the ophthalmology outpatient department of Assam Medical College were enrolled between April 2007 and March 2009. After clinical and slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination in all suspected cases, smears and culture examination for fungus was done to establish the etiology. Demographic information and associated probable risk factors of individual cases were noted in a predesigned questionnaire. Results: In 188 (60.6% cases fungal etiology could be established. Out of them 67.6% were males. The most commonly affected age group was 41-50 years (25.5%. The maximum (23.4% cases were reported during the paddy harvesting season in Assam (January and February. Fungal element could be demonstrated in 65.2% cases in direct potassium hydroxide (KOH mount. The commonest predisposing factor was corneal injury (74.5%. While diabetes was a significant systemic predisposing factor in mixed bacterial and fungal infections in 11.1% cases, blocked naso-lacrimal duct was the local predisposing factor in 11.1% of cases. Fusarium solani (25% was the commonest isolate followed by Aspergillus species (19%, Curvularia species (18.5% and Penicillium species (15.2%. Yeasts were isolated in 2.7% (n=5 cases. Conclusions : Ocular trauma was the commonest cause of fungal corneal ulcer in Assam and Fusarium solani was the commonest species responsible for it. Most of the mycotic ulcer cases come from rural areas including the tea gardens.

  15. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  16. Production of Hypoxia-induced Corneal Edema in Aged Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan K. Cheung; Andrew W. Siu; Digby W. Cheung; Edwin C. Mo

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:Corneal thickness assessment is a common clinical procedure applied in corneal and contact lens care. This study aims to investigate the effect of age on hypoxiainduced corneal swelling.Methods:Eighteen male subjects were equally divided into the younger [(23.7±0.8) and older [(74.4±2.5) years old]groups.Each subject wore a thick soft contact lens (uniform thickness of 0.3 mm) on the left cornea. With the contact lens in place, the baseline central corneal thickness was measured using a specially designed photo-pachometer. The lens was then patched behind the closed eyelids, producing an extremely hypoxic stress to the cornea. The change in central corneal thickness was monitored every 20 minutes with momentary disruptions to the hypoxic stress over the next 2 hours. The increase in thickness was taken as an index of corneal edema. The rate of change in corneal thickness, as derived from a non-linear mathematical model, was compared between groups. Results:The corneal thickness of both age groups increased significantly with time (P<0.000 1 ). The mean corneal swelling constant for the older subjects was 16.5 × 10-3 (S.E.M. = 2.65 × 10-3) and the value for the younger subjects was 46.5 × 10-3 (S.E.M. = 3.25× 10-3). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.000 1 ).Conclusion:Aging cornea has a slower hypoxia-induced edema response compared with the younger group. Whether it is caused by a decreased corneal lactate production or an increased resistance to physical expansion deserves further investigation. Eye Science2004;20:1-5.

  17. Riboflavin concentration in corneal stroma after intracameral injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; Li; Xiu-Jun; Peng; Zheng-Jun; Fan; Xu; Pang; Yu; Xia; Teng-Fei; Wu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the enrichment of riboflavin in the corneal stroma after intracameral injection to research the barrier ability of the corneal endothelium to riboflavin in vivo.METHODS: The right eyes of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Different concentrations riboflavin-balanced salt solutions(BSS)were injected into the anterior chamber(10 with 0.5%, 10 with 1%, and 10 with 2%). Eight corneal buttons of 8.5mm in diameter from each group were dissected at 30 min after injection and the riboflavin concentrations in the corneal stroma were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) after removing the epithelium and endothelium. The other two rabbits in every group were observed for 24 h and sacrificed. As a comparison, the riboflavin concentrations from 16 corneal stromal samples were determined using HPLC after instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-BSS solution for30 min on the corneal surface(8 without epithelium and 8with intact epithelium).RESULTS: The mean riboflavin concentrations were11.19, 18.97, 25.08, 20.18, and 1.13 μg/g for 0.5%, 1%, 2%,de-epithelialzed samples, and the transepithelial groups,respectively. The color change of the corneal stroma and the HPLC results showed that enrichment with riboflavin similar to classical de-epithelialized corneal collagen crosslinking(CXL) could be achieved by intracameral 1%riboflavin-BSS solution after 30min; the effect appeared to be continuous for at least 30 min.CONCLUSION: Riboflavin can effectively penetrate the corneal stroma through the endothelium after an intracameral injection in vivo, so it could be an enhancing method that could improve the corneal riboflavin concentration in transepithelial CXL.

  18. Drenaje suplementario del sistema venoso superficial en colgajos pediculados Supplementary drainage of superficial venous system in pedicled flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos pediculados pueden sufrir edema y congestión debido a que su drenaje a trevés del sistema venoso superfical es imposible y el flujo hacia el sistema profundo a nivel del pedículo es precario. Esta situación suele evolucionar hacia la necrosis parcial o la pérdida total del colgajo en pocas horas. La apertura del sistema venoso superficial permite el drenaje adecuado de los tejidos transferidos y evita estas complicaciones. Este artículo analiza el papel de las anastomosis microquirúrgicas en el sistema venoso superficial de los colgajos pediculados. Esta técnica permite comunicar el sistema venoso superfical de los tejidos transferidos con el sistema venoso superficial del territorio que rodea al defecto. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica en colgajos de perforante en hélice, colgajos miocutáneos, colgajos neurocutáneos y colgajos fasciograsos volteados.The pedicled flaps can suffer edema and congestion due to the impossibility of drainage toward the superficial venous system and the precarious flow via the deep system at the level of the pedicle. The evolution of this situation is usually partial necrosis or total loss of the flap in a few hours. The opening of the venous superficial system achieves an appropriate drainage of the transfered tissues and avoids these complications. In this article we analyze the role of the microsurgical anastomosis at the level of the superficial venous system of pedicled flaps. This technique allows to communicate the superficial venous system of the transfered tissues with the superficial venous system of the territory around the defect. We report the results with this method in propeller perforator flaps, miocutaneous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps and adipofascial turn over flaps.

  19. Lack of Methylene Blue Staining in Superficial Epithelia as a Possible Marker for Superficial Lateral Spread of Bile Duct Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Maetani

    1996-01-01

    epithelia. The cancerous epithelia stained significantly less often than either the normal (p = 0.000005 or the metaplastic (p = 0.001 epithelia. Evaluation of methylene blue staining during PTCS revealed that this stain was absorbed by the cholangial epithelia, not superficially stuck to it. The difference in methylene blue staining properties between the cancerous and normal epithelia could be helpful to clarify the boundary of superficial lateral spread of bile duct cancer.

  20. Corneal surface reconstruction - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan H N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye and when damage due to burns or injury and several other diseases, stem cells residing in its rim called "limbus" are stimulated to multiply to support growth of new epithelial cells over its surface. If this ready source of stem cells is damaged or destroyed the natural repair is not possible and such a condition is known as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (CLSCD disease. Stem cell transplant helps such persons to regenerate the corneal surface. Human corneal limbal stem cell transplantation is at present an established procedure with reasonable good clinical outcome particularly when autologous limbal epithelial tissue from a fellow unaffected eye is used. 1, 2 A major concern related to the autograft is the possibility of CLSCD at the donor site, 3 techniques that allowed the expansion of a small limbal biopsy in the laboratory using cell cultures that could be then transplanted to the affected eye have been developed ,4, 5 Human amniotic membrane (HAM is used as a scaffold for both culturing the human limbal epithelial cells and for ocular surface reconstruction with the cultured limbal epithelial cells. 4-7 However, researchers have used alternative scaffolds like collagen 8, fibrin gel 9 and cross-linked gel of fibronectin and fibrin. 10 All these are biological materials and also need for animal 3T3 feeder layer for stem cell cultures. The properties of HAM are unique including antiadhesive effects, bacteriostatic effects, wound protection, pain reduction, and improvement of epithelialization and characteristically lacking imunogenicity. The use of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT to treat ocular surface abnormalities was first reported by Graziella Pellegrini, chief of stem cell laboratory at Giovanni Paolo Hospital in Venice, Italy, who was the first to demonstrate the limbal stem cell transplant in 1997. Amniotic membrane has been successfully used in

  1. Graft Biomechanics Following Three Corneal Transplantation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Sepehr; Montahai, Talieh; Moein, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare corneal biomechanical properties following three different transplantation techniques, including Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in comparison to normal eyes. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study included 118 eyes: 17 eyes of 17 patients received DSAEK, 23 eyes of 21 patients underwent DALK using Anwar's big bubble technique, and 45 eyes of 36 patients had PK; 33 right eyes of 33 normal subjects served as the control group. Using the ocular response analyzer (ORA, Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, New York, USA), corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured and compared among the study groups at least 3 months after all sutures were removed. Results: Mean patient age was 26.9 ± 5.0 years in the control group, 28.8 ± 4.2 in the PK group, 27.2 ± 6.5 in the DALK group, and 62.5 ± 16.8 in the DSAEK group (P < 0.001). Central corneal thickness (CCT) was 539.0 ± 24.8, 567.5 ± 38.8, 547.0 ± 42.6 and 631.1 ± 84.8 μm, respectively (P < 0.001). CH and CRF were significantly lower in the DSAEK group (7.79 ± 2.0 and 7.88 ± 1.74 mmHg, respectively) as compared to the PK (10.23 ± 2.07 and 10.13 ± 2.22 mmHg, respectively) and DALK (9.64 ± 2.07 and 9.36 ± 2.09 mmHg, respectively) groups. The two latter groups demonstrated biomechanical parameters comparable to normal subjects (9.84 ± 1.59 and 9.89 ± 1.73 mmHg, respectively). Conclusion: Graft biomechanical parameters after DSAEK are lower than those following PK and DALK. After PK and DALK in keratoconic eyes, these metrics are increased to normal values. These differences may have implications for interpreting intraocular pressure or planning graft refractive surgery after keratoplasty. PMID:26730307

  2. Possible association between corneal infections and contact lenses wearing to correct ametropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible association between corneal infections and contact lenses (CLs wearing of various design to correct ametropia in children was analyzed. Between 2011 and April 2014, 20 children (7 boys, 13 girls aged 9‑17 years which were diagnosed with traumatic keratitis were admitted to Morozov Children’s Hospital. All patients used CLs (rigid, n = 1; soft, n = 9; orthokeratology, n = 10 to correct ametropia for 6‑48 months. There are pretty strong evidences that CLs (including orthokeratology ones provide better quality of vision and life as compared with spectacles, reduce myopia progression, and promote better accommodation. However, in spite of these advantages, CLs have disadvantages as well. People who wear CLs may require frequent eye care specialist follow-up due to the higher risk of corneal disorders. Even nearly perfect CL represents a foreign body (especially for a children eye that may provoke numerous complications including severe ones. With accurate fitting, proper care, and careful monitoring of the cornea, CLs should be safe and effective.

  3. Possible association between corneal infections and contact lenses wearing to correct ametropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible association between corneal infections and contact lenses (CLs wearing of various design to correct ametropia in children was analyzed. Between 2011 and April 2014, 20 children (7 boys, 13 girls aged 9‑17 years which were diagnosed with traumatic keratitis were admitted to Morozov Children’s Hospital. All patients used CLs (rigid, n = 1; soft, n = 9; orthokeratology, n = 10 to correct ametropia for 6‑48 months. There are pretty strong evidences that CLs (including orthokeratology ones provide better quality of vision and life as compared with spectacles, reduce myopia progression, and promote better accommodation. However, in spite of these advantages, CLs have disadvantages as well. People who wear CLs may require frequent eye care specialist follow-up due to the higher risk of corneal disorders. Even nearly perfect CL represents a foreign body (especially for a children eye that may provoke numerous complications including severe ones. With accurate fitting, proper care, and careful monitoring of the cornea, CLs should be safe and effective.

  4. CHALLENGES FOR FOREIGN TEACHERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengJing

    2004-01-01

    The learner differences and contrasts between the two cultures involved are important aspects that influence foreign language teaching and learning. The foreign teacher as an outsider of the learner's native culture, inevitably faces quite a few challenges. With the focus on the self-esteem, character types, and motivation of the learner, the paper analyses how these factors influence the foreign teacher's teaching. Relevant solutions are also proposed.

  5. Factores pronósticos del astigmatismo corneal inducido en pacientes operados de catarata por la técnica tunelizada Prognostic factors of induced corneal astigmatism in patients operated on from cataract by the tunnel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Montejo Valdes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar factores anatómico corneales y del transoperatorio por la técnica tunelizada de catarata que den lugar al astigmatismo inducido. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo. El universo estuvo conformado por 120 ojos de pacientes provenientes de la consulta de Oftalmología del Hospital Clínicoquirúrgico "Hermanos Ameijeiras" de diciembre de 2005 a octubre de 2006, operados de catarata senil con lente intraocular de cámara posterior, el cual fue calculado por la fórmula SRK-T para la emetropía. Se les realizó un examen oftalmológico preoperatorio y a los dos meses del posoperatorio. Se hace referencia al astigmatismo inducido, su relación con los factores anatómicos corneales y los transoperatorios. La evaluación del astigmatismo inducido, el defecto esférico posoperatorio y el astigmatismo preoperatorio queratométrico se evaluaron mediante indicadores cualitativos y cuantitativos. RESULTADOS: El astigmatismo inducido a los dos meses fue de 1,42 dioptrías (D, el cual aumenta en la incisión anterior y no autosellable. Este tipo de astigmatismo es mayor que 2 dioptrías si la profundidad del túnel es superficial o profunda con una probabilidad significativa. La media del astigmatismo preoperatorio es mayor, según aumenta el valor de la esfera posoperatoria. CONCLUSIONES: La incisión esclerocorneal anterior, superficial y no autosellable producen astigmatismo inducido. Las complicaciones también lo favorecen. El defecto esférico posoperatorio estuvo presente en la mayoría de los pacientes y sus valores más altos se corresponden con el astigmatismo preoperatorio mayor.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the corneal anatomical factors and the transoperative factors by the tunnel technique of cataract surgery that gives rise to induced astigmatism. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal and descriptive research study. The universe of study was made up of 120 eyes from patients seen at the opthalmological service

  6. Acute corneal hydrops during pregnancy with spontaneous resolution after corneal cross-linking for keratoconus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ricardo Alexandre; Thumé, Thaís; Bonamigo, Elcio Luiz

    2017-02-25

    Keratoconus may progress to acute corneal hydrops even after cross-linking. In some cases, keratoconus progresses during pregnancy. In this report, we present a case of a patient with increased anterior stromal resistance after cross-linking that would favor nonprogression of keratoconus during pregnancy. We report that cross-linking is likely to have had a protective effect in a white pregnant patient with acute corneal hydrops who showed rapid improvement, as documented by corneal topography. Improvement occurred within 8 days, whereas up to 250 days are reported in the literature. No keratoconus progression occurred in the 20-month follow-up period. Cross-linking failed to prevent the occurrence of acute corneal hydrops after rupture of Descemet's membrane but most likely helped to accelerate the resolution of the condition. Corneal hardening resulting from cross-linking may have also contributed to stabilizing keratoconus during pregnancy.

  7. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  8. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  9. The heritability of glaucoma-related traits corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and choroidal blood flow pulsatility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Freeman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. METHODS: Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix. We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. RESULTS: No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239. Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078. Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. CONCLUSION: Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.

  10. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection.

  11. [New stimulants of corneal reparative regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, E A; Kalinin, N I; Kiiasov, A P

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of corneregel, a drug containing pantothenic acid, a component of coenzyme A, in healing of corneal wounds has been evaluated. The study was carried out on 19 rabbits (38 eyes) with standard corneal defect made with a 5-mm trephine for lamellar transplantation of the cornea, divided into 2 groups: 1) instillations of corneregel (10 eyes) and 0.25% levomycetin solution (10 eyes) and 2) 20% solcoseryl gel (9 eyes) and 0.25% levomycetin (9 eyes). Time course of changes were evaluated by biomicroscopy (fluorescent test), histologically (hematoxylin-eosin staining), and immunohistochemically after 1, 2, 4, 7, 30, and 90 days. Proliferative activity was studied by expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the migration capacity of cells by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. The terms of epithelialization were as follows: corneregel 10 +/- 7 h, 20% solcoseryl gel 108 +/- 10 h, levomycetin 124 +/- 6.93 h. Earlier epithelialization in the corneregel group was apparently due to increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and increase in the cell migration capacity. Hence, corneregel is recommended for practical use as a stimulant of reparative regeneration of the cornea.

  12. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Valldeperas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 µm in the right eye and of 710 µm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 µm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus.

  13. Femtosecond laser's application in the corneal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Liang Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development over the past two decades,femtosecond(10-15slasers(FShas become a new application in ophthalmic surgery. As laser power is defined as energy delivered per unit time, decreasing the pulse duration to femtosecond level(100fsnot only increases the power delivered but also decreases the fluence threshold for laser induced optical breakdown. In ablating tissue, FS has an edge over nanosecond lasers as there is minimal collateral damage from shock waves and heat conduction during surgical ablation. Thus, application of FS has been widely spread, from flap creation for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis(LASIKsurgery, cutting of donor and recipient corneas in keratoplasty, creation of pockets for intracorneal ring implantation. FS applied in keratoplasty is mainly used in making graft and recipient bed, and can exactly cut different tissue of keratopathy. FS can also cut partial tissue of cornea, even if it is under the moderate corneal macula and corneal edema condition.

  14. IOL Power Calculation after Corneal Refractive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena De Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the different formulas that try to overcome the problem of calculating the intraocular lens (IOL power in patients that underwent corneal refractive surgery (CRS. Methods. A Pubmed literature search review of all published articles, on keyword associated with IOL power calculation and corneal refractive surgery, as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles, was performed. Results. A total of 33 peer reviewed articles dealing with methods that try to overcome the problem of calculating the IOL power in patients that underwent CRS were found. According to the information needed to try to overcome this problem, the methods were divided in two main categories: 18 methods were based on the knowledge of the patient clinical history and 15 methods that do not require such knowledge. The first group was further divided into five subgroups based on the parameters needed to make such calculation. Conclusion. In the light of our findings, to avoid postoperative nasty surprises, we suggest using only those methods that have shown good results in a large number of patients, possibly by averaging the results obtained with these methods.

  15. Clinical utility of the KAMRA corneal inlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroo, Shehzad Anjam; Bilkhu, Paramdeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of presbyopia has been the focus of much scientific and clinical research over recent years, not least due to an increasingly aging population but also the desire for spectacle independence. Many lens and nonlens-based approaches have been investigated, and with advances in biomaterials and improved surgical methods, removable corneal inlays have been developed. One such development is the KAMRA™ inlay where a small entrance pupil is exploited to create a pinhole-type effect that increases the depth of focus and enables improvement in near visual acuity. Short- and long-term clinical studies have all reported significant improvement in near and intermediate vision compared to preoperative measures following monocular implantation (nondominant eye), with a large proportion of patients achieving Jaeger (J) 2 to J1 (~0.00 logMAR to ~0.10 logMAR) at the final follow-up. Although distance acuity is reduced slightly in the treated eye, binocular visual acuity and function remain very good (mean 0.10 logMAR or better). The safety of the inlay is well established and easily removable, and although some patients have developed corneal changes, these are clinically insignificant and the incidence appears to reduce markedly with advancements in KAMRA design, implantation technique, and femtosecond laser technology. This review aims to summarize the currently published peer-reviewed studies on the safety and efficacy of the KAMRA inlay and discusses the surgical and clinical outcomes with respect to the patient's visual function.

  16. Corneal power evaluation after myopic corneal refractive surgery using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert; Lanza, Michele; Irregolare, Carlo

    2016-11-15

    Efficacy and high availability of surgery techniques for refractive defect correction increase the number of patients who undergo to this type of surgery. Regardless of that, with increasing age, more and more patients must undergo cataract surgery. Accurate evaluation of corneal power is an extremely important element affecting the precision of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation and errors in this procedure could affect quality of life of patients and satisfaction with the service provided. The available device able to measure corneal power have been tested to be not reliable after myopic refractive surgery. Artificial neural networks with error backpropagation and one hidden layer were proposed for corneal power prediction. The article analysed the features acquired from the Pentacam HR tomograph, which was necessary to measure the corneal power. Additionally, several billion iterations of artificial neural networks were conducted for several hundred simulations of different network configurations and different features derived from the Pentacam HR. The analysis was performed on a PC with Intel(®) Xeon(®) X5680 3.33 GHz CPU in Matlab(®) Version 7.11.0.584 (R2010b) with Signal Processing Toolbox Version 7.1 (R2010b), Neural Network Toolbox 7.0 (R2010b) and Statistics Toolbox (R2010b). A total corneal power prediction error was obtained for 172 patients (113 patients forming the training set and 59 patients in the test set) with an average age of 32 ± 9.4 years, including 67% of men. The error was at an average level of 0.16 ± 0.14 diopters and its maximum value did not exceed 0.75 dioptres. The Pentacam parameters (measurement results) providing the above result are tangential anterial/posterior. The corneal net power and equivalent k-reading power. The analysis time for a single patient (a single eye) did not exceed 0.1 s, whereas the time of network training was about 3 s for 1000 iterations (the number of neurons in the hidden layer was 400).

  17. A histological study of rabbit corneas after transepithelial corneal crosslinking using partial epithelial photoablation or ethanol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cuneyt Ozmen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the histological changes after transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL using partial thickness excimer laser ablation or epithelial ethanol application in an experimental rabbit study.METHODS: Right eyes of twenty-four rabbits were studied. Four eyes received total epithelial debridement (group I. Four eyes received partial thickness epithelial ablation with excimer laser (group II. Twelve eyes were treated with different durations (30s and 60s and concentrations (18% to 48% of ethanol (group III. Riboflavin was applied for 30min intervals along with topical proparacaine drops with benzalkonium chloride, and 370 nm irradiation was performed for 30min, while riboflavin was instilled every 3min. Four eyes (group IV received 48% ethanol for 30s without riboflavin and irradiation. Eyes were collected after 24h and examined histologically.RESULTS: All eyes in group I showed keratocyte loss in the superficial 300 µ of corneal storma. In group II, 1-4 layers of epithelium were preserved and no keratocyte loss occurred. In group III, CXL after treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s revealed no keratocyte loss. CXL after treatment with 48% and higher ethanol concentrations yielded keratocyte loss in the superficial 200 µ to 300 µ of cornea.CONCLUSION: Incomplete excimer laser ablation of the epithelium or treatment with ethanol up to 24% concentration and up to 60s duration yielded no stromal keratocyte loss. To get the same histological appearance seen in epithelial debridement group, partial thickness excimer laser epithelial ablation or ethanol application is not adequate for transepithelial CXL.

  18. Hypercalcemia Leads to Delayed Corneal Wound Healing in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito; Ito, Yoshimasa; Funakami, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is often observed in postmenopausal women as well as in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism or malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated the relationship between calcium ion (Ca(2+)) levels in lacrimal fluid and the rate of corneal wound healing in hypercalcemia using ovariectomized (OVX) rat debrided corneal epithelium. We also determined the effects of Ca(2+) levels on cell adhesion, proliferation and viability in a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). The calcium content in bones of OVX rats decreased after ovariectomy. Moreover, the Ca(2+) content in the blood of OVX rats was increased 1 month after ovariectomy, and decreased. The Ca(2+) content in the lacrimal fluid of OVX rats was also increased after ovariectomy, and then decreased similarly as in blood. Corneal wound healing in OVX rats was delayed in comparison with Sham rats (control rats), and a close relationship was observed between the Ca(2+) levels in lacrimal fluid and the rate of corneal wound healing in Sham and OVX rats (y=-0.7863x+8.785, R=0.78, n=25). In addition, an enhancement in Ca(2+) levels caused a decrease in the viability in HCE-T cells. It is possible that enhanced Ca(2+) levels in lacrimal fluid may cause a decrease in the viability of corneal epithelial cells, resulting in a delay in corneal wound healing. These findings provide significant information that can be used to design further studies aimed at reducing corneal damage of patients with hypercalcemia.

  19. 2-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF CORNEAL COLLAGEN CROSSLINKING IN KERATOCONUS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Dement’ev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess reliability, efficacy, and stability of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL results for stage I‑II keratoconus.Patients and methods. 2‑year (2012-2014 results of CXL were analyzed. CXL was performed on 20 eyes of 15 patients (13 men and 2 women, mean age 31 years. Stage 1 keratoconus was diagnosed in 13 eyes, stage 2 keratoconus was diagnosed in 2 eyes. Primary stage 1‑2 keratoconus was diagnosed in 17 eyes, keratoconus after corneal refractive surgery (LASIK, radial keratotomy was diagnosed in 3 eyes. Preoperative and postoperative examination included uncorrected (UCVA and best-corrected (BCVA visual acuity measurement, pachymetry, corneal topography (total astigmatism measurement, and biomicroscopy. Follow-up period varied from 1 to 24 months.Results. All patients reported on vision improvement. Preoperatively, mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.4 and 0.64, respectively. Postoperatively, mean UCVA and BCVA were 0.49 and 0.66, respectively. Preoperatively and postoperatively, total astigmatism was 2.1 D and 2.0 D, respectively, while mean central corneal thickness was 454 μm and 447 μm, respectively.Conclusions. Corneal collagen crosslinking for stage 1‑2 keratoconus provides mild UCVA and BCVA improvement, decrease in total astigmatism and central corneal thickness. CXL provides stable results of treatment of primary stage 1‑2 keratoconus and keratoconus after corneal refractive surgery. 

  20. Characteristics of corneal lens chitin in dragonfly compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Sargin, Idris; Al-Jaf, Ivan; Erdogan, Sevil; Arslan, Gulsin

    2016-08-01

    Chitin in the compound eyes of arthropods serves as a part of the visual system. The quality of chitin in such highly specialised body parts deserves more detailed examination. Chitin in the corneal (ommatidial) lenses of dragonfly (Sympetrum fonscolombii) compound eyes was isolated by using the classical chemical method. The chitin content of the corneal lenses was determined to be quite high (20.3±0.85%). The FT-IR analysis showed that corneal lens chitin was in the α-form as found in all arthropod species where mechanical strength is required. The surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the outer part of corneal lenses consisted of long chitin fibrils with regular arrays of papillary structures while the smoother inner part had concentric lamellated chitin formation with shorter chitin nanofibrils. Chitinase enzymatic digestion studies, elemental analysis results and the degree of acetylation value showed the purity of chitin samples from corneal lens. The maximum degradation temperature value of the corneal lens chitin was observed at 369.2°C. X-ray analysis revealed that corneal lens chitin has high crystallinity index; 96.4%. Identification of chitin found in ommaditia of insect compound eyes can provide insights into insect vision and chitin-based optical material design studies.

  1. Cytocompatibility of Three Corneal Cell Types with Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJian-su; CHENRui; XUJin-tang; DINGYong; ZHAOSong-bin; LISui-lian

    2004-01-01

    Rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells, corneal endothelial cells and keratocytes were cultured on amniotic membrane. Phase contrast microscope examination was performed daily. Histological and scan electron microscopic examinations were carried out to observe the growth, arrangement and adhesion of cultivated cells. Results showed that three corneal cell types seeded on amniotic membrane grew well and had normal cell morphology. Cultured cells attached firmly on the surface of amniotic membrane. Corneal epithelial cells showed singular layer or stratification. Cell boundaries were formed and tightly opposed. Corneal endothelial cells showed cobblestone or polygonal morphologic characteristics that appeared uniform in size. The cellular arrangement was compact. Keratocytes elongated and showed triangle or dendritic morphology with many intercellular joints which could form networks. In conclusion, amniotic membrane has good scaffold property, diffusion effect and compatibility with corneal cells. The basement membrane side of amniotic membrane facilitated the growth of corneal epithelial cells and endothelial cells and cell junctions were tightly developed. The spongy layer of amniotic membrane facilitated the growth of keratocytes and intercellular joints were rich. Amniotic membrane is an ideal biomaterial for layering tissue engineered cornea.

  2. Superficial dose evaluation of four dose calculation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhiping; Lei, Mingjun; Liu, Gui; Zhang, Zijian; Hu, Yongmei

    2017-08-01

    Accurate superficial dose calculation is of major importance because of the skin toxicity in radiotherapy, especially within the initial 2 mm depth being considered more clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to evaluate superficial dose calculation accuracy of four commonly used algorithms in commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and film measurements. The superficial dose in a simple geometrical phantom with size of 30 cm×30 cm×30 cm was calculated by PBC (Pencil Beam Convolution), AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm), AXB (Acuros XB) in Eclipse system and CCC (Collapsed Cone Convolution) in Raystation system under the conditions of source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm and field size (FS) of 10×10 cm2. EGSnrc (BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc) program was performed to simulate the central axis dose distribution of Varian Trilogy accelerator, combined with measurements of superficial dose distribution by an extrapolation method of multilayer radiochromic films, to estimate the dose calculation accuracy of four algorithms in the superficial region which was recommended in detail by the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement) and the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). In superficial region, good agreement was achieved between MC simulation and film extrapolation method, with the mean differences less than 1%, 2% and 5% for 0°, 30° and 60°, respectively. The relative skin dose errors were 0.84%, 1.88% and 3.90%; the mean dose discrepancies (0°, 30° and 60°) between each of four algorithms and MC simulation were (2.41±1.55%, 3.11±2.40%, and 1.53±1.05%), (3.09±3.00%, 3.10±3.01%, and 3.77±3.59%), (3.16±1.50%, 8.70±2.84%, and 18.20±4.10%) and (14.45±4.66%, 10.74±4.54%, and 3.34±3.26%) for AXB, CCC, AAA and PBC respectively. Monte Carlo simulation verified the feasibility of the superficial dose measurements by multilayer Gafchromic films. And the rank

  3. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena M A Packer

    Full Text Available Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle, and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not, or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%, small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg, with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5 were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.

  4. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Hendricks, Anke; Burn, Charlotte C

    2015-01-01

    Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled) skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle), and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not), or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s) was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%), small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg), with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.

  5. Using corneal topography design personalized cataract surgery programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ou Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate how to design personalized cataract surgery programs to achieve surgical correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism with surgical astigmatism under the guidance of corneal topography, improve postoperative visual quality and reduce the cost of treatment. METHODS: Totally 202 cases(226 eyescataract patients were divided into randomized treatment group and individualized treatment group. According to the method and location of the incision, randomized treatment group were divided into 8 groups. Surgical astigmatism after different incision were calculated with the use of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism through vector analysis method. Individualized treatment groups were designed personably for surgical method with reference of every surgically induced astigmatism, the surgical method chooses the type of surgical incision based on close link between preoperative corneal astigmatism and surgically induced astigmatism, and the incision was located in the steep meridian. The postoperative corneal astigmatism of individualized treatment group was observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corneal astigmatism of individualized treatment group were lower than that of 3.0mm clear corneal tunnel incision in the randomized treatment group, there were statistically significance difference, while with 3.0mm sclera tunnel incision group there were no statistically significance difference. After 55.8% of patients with the use of individualized surgical plan could undergo the operation of extracapsular cataract extraction with relatively low cost and rigid intraocular lens implantation, the per capita cost of treatment could be reduced. CONCLUSION: Personalized cataract surgery programs are designed to achieve surgical correction of preoperative corneal astigmatism under the use of corneal topography, improve postoperative visual quality and reduce the cost of treatment.

  6. WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARTNER, JUDITH; AND OTHERS

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS STRESSED IN A BRIEF BROCHURE DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS OF ALL LEVELS, PARENTS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON WHEN TO BEGIN A LANGUAGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, USES FOR A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT HOME, LANGUAGE JOB OPPORTUNITIES, AND LANGUAGE…

  7. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council,or China’s cabinet,said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms’ attempts to buy,or merge with,domestic companies.The committee, led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of

  8. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council, or China's cabinet, said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms' attempts to buy, or merge with, domestic companies.

  9. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    BusinessWeek recently published an article reporting that China is becoming hostile to foreign capital and that China's policy on foreign investment will change to reflect that attitude. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, explains China's position in an article posted on People's Daily Online.

  10. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  11. Dependence of Regulatory Volume Decrease on Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) Expression in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zan; Yang, Hua; Mergler, Stefan; Liu, Hongshan; Tachado, Souvenir D.; Zhang, Fan; Kao, Winston W. Y.; Koziel, Henry; Pleyer, Uwe; Reinach, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    TRPV4 is a non-selective cation channel with moderate calcium permeability, which is activated by exposure to hypotonicity. Such a stress induces regulatory volume decrease (RVD) behavior in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). We hypothesize that TRPV4 channel mediates RVD in HCEC. Immunohistochemistry revealed centrally and superficially concentrated TRPV4 localization in the corneal tissue. Immunocytochemical and Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analyses identified TRPV4 membrane surface and cytosolic expression. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses identified TRPV4 gene and protein expression in HCEC, respectively. In addition, 4α-PDD or a 50% hypotonic medium induced up to three-fold transient intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increases. Following TRPV4 siRNA HCEC transfection, its protein expression level declined by 64%, which abrogated these [Ca2+]i transients. Similarly, exposure to either ruthenium red or Ca2+-free Ringer's solution also eliminated this response. In these transfected cells, RVD declined by 51% whereas in the non-transfected counterpart, ruthenium red and Ca2+-free solution inhibited RVD by 54% and 64%, respectively. In contrast, capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, failed to suppress [Ca2+]i transients and RVD. TRPV4 activation contributes to RVD since declines in TRPV4 expression and activity are associated with suppression of this response. In conclusion, there is TRPV4 functional expression in HCEC. PMID:18355916

  12. Queratitis lamelar difusa después de un corte incompleto Diffuse lamellar keratitis after incomplete corneal flap cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanaisa Riverón Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La queratitis lamelar difusa es una inflamación estéril de la interfase lamelar que suele presentarse 24 horas después de la realización de la queratomileusis in situ asistida con láser y potencialmente puede comprometer la agudeza visual final. Se presenta un paciente de 25 años de edad con antecedentes de cirugía refractiva corneal mediante queratomileusis in situ con láser en el ojo derecho, que tuvo como complicación durante el acto quirúrgico un corte incompleto. En el posoperatorio inmediato se le diagnosticó una queratitis lamelar difusa. Se aplicó tratamiento local y se obtuvo la recuperación visual total del paciente con estabilidad del defecto refractivo. Esto permite posteriormente realizarle la corrección mediante cirugía refractiva de superficie.The diffuse lamellar keratitis is a sterile swelling of the lamellar interface which arises generally 24 hours after laser in situ keratomileusis and might affect the final visual acuity. A 25 years- old patient with history of corneal refractive surgery by laser in situ keratomileusis on his right eye was reported. He suffered from an incomplete corneal flap cut as complication during the surgical procedure, and a diffuse lamellar keratitis was detected at the immediate postsurgical visit. Total visual recovery and the refractive defect stability were attained through local treatment. This allows further correcting the defect by means of a surface refractive surgery in the future.

  13. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  14. Repositioning of pedicle conjunctival flap performed for refractory corneal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male was referred with a previous history of conjunctival flap (CF for a nonhealing fungal corneal ulcer with extreme corneal thinning in the right eye. The peritomy for the CF extended from 6:30 to 9:30 clock h on the cornea. The CF was disengaged, peritomy area deepithelialized, and CF was repositioned. He later underwent penetrating keratoplasty and achieved 20/40 best corrected visual acuity. The authors present a new concept for surgically repositioning CF s to the original site immediately after healing of the corneal ulcer.

  15. Repositioning of pedicle conjunctival flap performed for refractory corneal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok; Mohan, Kanwar; Sharma, Rajan; Nirankari, Verinder S

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old male was referred with a previous history of conjunctival flap (CF) for a nonhealing fungal corneal ulcer with extreme corneal thinning in the right eye. The peritomy for the CF extended from 6:30 to 9:30 clock h on the cornea. The CF was disengaged, peritomy area deepithelialized, and CF was repositioned. He later underwent penetrating keratoplasty and achieved 20/40 best corrected visual acuity. The authors present a new concept for surgically repositioning CF s to the original site immediately after healing of the corneal ulcer.

  16. Septo-optic dysplasia with bilateral congenital corneal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clement C; Kapur, Rashmi; Wood, Michael G; Setabutr, Pete; Tu, Elmer Y

    2009-10-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia, or de Morsier syndrome, is characterized by optic nerve hypoplasia with an absent septum pellucidum and/or pituitary abnormalities. Congenital corneal anesthesia is a rare disorder that has been associated with many neurological disorders. Here we present a patient with both conditions who was successfully treated with permanent lateral tarsorrhaphy and aggressive lubrication. To our knowledge, congenital corneal anesthesia has not been reported in association with septo-optic dysplasia. The purpose of this report is to make pediatric ophthalmologists aware of a potential association since the diagnosis of congenital corneal anesthesia is often difficult and delayed.

  17. Corneal modeling using conic section fits of PAR corneal topography system measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Stanley; Manns, Fabrice; Fernandez, Viviana; Sandadi, Samith; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the average shape and variability of human corneas and to develop a tool for analyzing, height, curvature, and aberrations based on a conic section model. Fresh Eye Bank Eyes were placed in Dextran until the corneal thickness reached a physiological value. The eyes were placed in a custom made holder and measured using an intraoperative PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) mounted on an operation microscope. Topography was measured before and after removal of the epithelium. A series of MATLAB functions were written to analyze the raw-z (height) data in polar coordinates. The functions fit conic sections to the PAR CTS data along hemi-meridians at 5 degree(s) intervals. The conic shape factor and apical radius were used to calculate and display the curvature. The dependence of these parameters with meridional position was examined.

  18. Corneal epithelial toxicity of antiglaucoma formulations: in vitro study of repeated applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meloni M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Marisa Meloni,1 Giampiero Cattaneo,2 Barbara De Servi11VitroScreen In Vitro Research Laboratories, 2Thea Farma, Milan, ItalyBackground: By using a biologically relevant and sensitive three-dimensional model of human corneal epithelium and multiple endpoint analysis, assessment of the potential for eye irritation and long-term compatibility of four registered ophthalmological preparations, ie, Timolabak®, Timoptol®, Nyogel®, and Timogel®, was performed. This approach enables classification of the potential for irritation, discriminating between mildly irritant and non-irritant ocular substances.Methods: The exposure protocol included two time periods, ie, 24 hours (acute application and 72 hours (repeated applications twice daily. This approach allows assessment of not only the acute reaction but also possible recovery, as well as mimicking the potential cumulative effects associated with long-term application. Using benzalkonium chloride (BAK 0.01% as a positive control, the following parameters were quantified: cellular viability by MTT test, histological analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining, passive release of interleukin-1a by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and OCLN gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Cell viability was reduced to under the 50% cutoff value after acute exposure (24 hours to BAK 0.01%, and after repeated application (72 hours of Timoptol and Nyogel. Histological analysis after acute exposure showed signs of superficial damage with all formulations, and severe changes after repeated applications of Timoptol, BAK 0.01%, and Nyogel. Timolabak and Timogel did not significantly alter the morphology of the human corneal epithelial cells after the different exposure times. Interleukin-1α release was greater than that for the negative control (>20 pg/mL and the positive control (BAK 0.01%, Nyogel, and Timoptol treatments and not different after treatment with Timolabak and

  19. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  20. Corneal melanosis successfully treated using topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy: a 3-year follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Mehmet; Yağcı, Ramazan; Güler, Emre; Haltaş, Hacer; Duman, Rahmi; Hepşen, İbrahim F

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of primary acquired corneal melanosis without atypia associated with corneal haze in a patient with a history of limbal malignant melanoma and the effect of mitomycin-C. A 75-year-old woman with a history of limbal malignant melanoma presented with loss of vision in right eye. Corneal examination showed a patchy melanotic pigmentation with a central haze. Topical mitomycin-C improved visual acuity and corneal haze. However, the pigmented lesions persisted, and they were removed with alcohol corneal epitheliectomy. Histopathological examination demonstrated primary acquired melanosis without atypia. The lesions were successfully removed, and there were no recurrences during the follow-up period of 36 months. The association of conjunctival and corneal melanosis without atypia is a rare condition. In addition, co-existence of central corneal haze and melanosis may decrease visual acuity. Topical mitomycin-C and alcohol corneal epitheliectomy can be useful treatments in this condition.

  1. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations: oxygen dependent ex vivo expansion and transcriptional profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Chris

    2013-06-01

    differentiation pathway in human corneal epithelium according to an optimized protocol for maintenance of expression profiles. Isolated total RNA from basal limbal crypts (BLCs), superficial limbal crypts (SLCs), paracentral/central cornea and limbal stroma was amplified and converted to fragmented cDNA libraries for use in deep paired-end next-generation sequencing. Global transcriptional profiling was carried out using bioinformatics. The location of primitive cells in BLCs, migratory and activated cells in SLCs and differentiated cells in paracentral/central cornea was evident from mapping of significantly upregulated genes in each compartment to the gene ontology (GO). Interestingly, many GO terms in BLCs were also involved in neurogenic processes, whereas many GO terms in SLCs were related to vasculature. Mapping upregulated genes in BLCs to pathway annotations in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes described many active pathways as signalling and cancer-associated pathways. We supply extensive information on possible novel biomarkers, reveal insight into both active pathways and novel regulators of LESCs such as Lrig1 and SOX9 and provide an immense amount of data for future exploration (Bath et al. 2013b). Selective ex vivo expansion of LESCs in hypoxia and the comprehensive molecular characterization of corneal epithelial subpopulations in situ are expected to be beneficial for the future treatment of LSCD by cultured limbal epithelial transplantation. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  2. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  3. Intraoperative Corneal Thickness Changes during Pulsed Accelerated Corneal Cross-Linking Using Isotonic Riboflavin with HPMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate corneal thickness changes during pulsed accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL for keratoconus using a new isotonic riboflavin formula. Methods. In this prospective, interventional, clinical study patients with grades 1-2 keratoconus (Amsler-Krumeich classification underwent pulsed accelerated (30 mW/cm2 CXL after application of an isotonic riboflavin solution (0.1% with HPMC for 10 minutes. Central corneal thickness (CCT measurements were taken using ultrasound pachymetry before and after epithelial removal, after riboflavin soaking, and immediately after completion of UVA treatment. Results. Twenty eyes of 11 patients (4 males, 7 females were enrolled. Mean patient age was 26±3 (range from 18 to 30 years. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed in any of the patients. Mean CCT was 507±35 μm (range: 559–459 μm before and 475±40 μm (range: 535–420 μm after epithelial removal (P<0.001. After 10 minutes of riboflavin instillation, there was a statistically significant decrease of CCT by 6.2% from 475±40 μm (range: 535–420 μm to 446±31 μm (range: 508–400 (P<0.005. There was no other statistically significant change of CCT during UVA irradiation. Conclusions. A significant decrease of corneal thickness was demonstrated during the isotonic riboflavin with HPMC application while there was no significant change during the pulsed accelerated UVA irradiation.

  4. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  5. Long-term evolution of superficial optic disc drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hamann, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    with hereditary ODD were included. RESULTS: Mean age at initial and follow-up examination was, respectively, 16.8 and 73.3 years. The median follow-up time was 56 years. A minimal or non-existing change in superficial ODD anatomy (size and number) was seen in 10 of 12 eyes. There was a tendency towards more......PURPOSE: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow......-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. METHODS: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients. Eight patients...

  6. Física de superficies: métodos experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hace unos 30 años se empezó con el estudio de superficies sólidas y hoy son muchos los investigadores que en el mundo entero se dedican al estudio de las propiedades físicas y químicas de superficies e interfaces.La motivación radica en que en las interacciones entre los diversos sistemas que componen nuestro universo se hallan involucradas sus superficies, razón suficiente para captar la importancia de su estudio para la vida humana y su repercusión tecnológica y económica. A ella habría que...

  7. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuhei Hayashi

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF-derived iPS cells (253G1 and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC-derived iPS cells (L1B41. We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA differentiation method, as Pax6(+/K12(+ corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells.

  8. Case report: cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle; Piplica, Doris; Zhang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    This is a retrospective case review study. Current understanding of cochlear implantation in patients with superficial siderosis is limited, with roughly 15 reported cases worldwide. The purpose of this study is to report an additional case of cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis and to contribute to the current literature available on outcomes of implantation in these individuals. One cochlear implant user with superficial siderosis in a tertiary referral center. Therapeutic and rehabilitative. Open set speech perception word scores increased from 0% preimplantation with bilateral hearing aids to 8% postimplantation in the bimodal condition (cochlear implant in the left ear and hearing aid in the right ear). Phoneme scores increased from 16% preimplantation to 36% postimplantation. The patient also demonstrated improvement from 38% preimplantation to 83% postimplantation on a closed set word test. Performance on open set recorded sentences did not improve; however, open set sentences administered live voice revealed an increase in performance from 4% preimplantation to 25% postimplantation in the auditory only condition and from 59% to 86% in the auditory-visual condition. For this patient with superficial siderosis, only marginal improvements in test scores at 11 months postimplantation were seen. Minimally, the use of a cochlear implant did prevent further deterioration of auditory performance. Therefore, patients with superficial siderosis who choose to proceed with cochlear implantation may still report perceived benefit from the maintenance of speech perception abilities even in the presence of minimal improvement. Rapid deterioration in hearing thresholds and speech discrimination before implantation may be an indicator of an actively progressing case of superficial siderosis, which may suggest possible limited benefit from cochlear implantation.

  9. UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogan, Valerian; Vieru, Tatiana; Kosyak, V.; Damaskin, I.; Chirita, F.

    1998-07-01

    UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier, made on the basis of GaP - SnO2 and GaAs - AlGaAs - SnO2 heterostructures, are presented in the paper. Technological and constructive factors, which permit to realize a high conversion efficiency and to exclude the influence of visible spectrum upon the photoanswer, are analyzed. It was established that the presence of an isotypical superficial potential barrier permits to suppress the photoanswer component formed by absorption of visible and infrared radiation in semiconductor structure bulk.

  10. PHOTODYNAMIC DIAGNOSIS AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY IN SUPERFICIAL BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Rusakov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive fluorescence technique has been developed to study the urinary bladder mucosa in patients with superficial bladder cancer (BC, by using alasense, white light cystoscopy, fluorescence cytoscopy, and local fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo. Quantification of urothelium fluorescence in the red emission foci of 5-ALA-induced protophorphyrin, with the local autofluorescence intensity being borne in mind, has been shown to increase the specificity of photodynamic diagnosis of superficial BC from 70 to 85% (p ≤ 0.05 and the total accuracy of the technique from 80 to 86%.  

  11. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  12. Automatic system for corneal ulcer diagnostic: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    1998-06-01

    Corneal Ulcer is a deepithelization of the cornea and it is a very common disease in agricultural countries. The clinician most used parameter in order to identify a favorable ulcer evolution is the regress of the affected area. However, this kind of evaluation is subjective, once just the horizontal and vertical axes are measured based on a graduated scale and the affected area is estimated. Also, the registration of the disease is made by photographs. In order to overcome the subjectiveness and to register the images in a more accessible way (hard disks, floppy disks, etc.), we have developed an automatic system in order to evaluate the affected area (the ulcer). An optical system is implemented in a Slit Lamp (SL) and connected to a CCD detector. The image is displayed in PC monitor by a commercial frame grabber and a dedicated software for determining the area of the ulcer (precision of 20 mm) has been developed.

  13. [Corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, V V; Pashtaev, N P; Pozdeeva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) has become a conventional treatment method for progressive keratoconus. Laboratory studies have shown that CXL increases the diameter of collagen fibers and also the number of intra- and interfibrillar cross-links, thus, increasing biomechanical strength of the irradiated cornea. As confirmed by a series of clinical and randomized controlled trials, CXL is able to slow down and, perhaps, to stop the progression of keratoconus. In most post-CXL patients visual acuity improves, while keratometric readings, spherical equivalent, and higher order aberrations reduce. Although published results prove CXL effective in the treatment of progressive keratoconus, its late consequences are yet unknown. This article reviews the stages of CXL development and results of published experimental and clinical studies. Prospects for CXL modifications that do not require epithelial debridement are discussed.

  14. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  15. Design and validation of a corneal bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Elissa K; Pai, Vincent H; Amberg, Philip; Gardner, Jens; Orwin, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical strain is an important signal that influences the behavior and properties of cells in a wide variety of tissues. Physiologically similar mechanical strain can revert cultured cells to a more normal phenotype. Here, we have demonstrated that 3% equibiaxial (EB) and uniaxial strains confer favorable protein expression in cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RCFs), with approximately 35% and 65% reduction in expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), respectively. We have designed a novel bioreactor that is capable of imparting up to 7% EB strain and up to 6% EB strain using a cornea-shaped post. Additional features of the bioreactor include the application of shear stress to cells in culture and the ability to image cells using optical coherence microscopy (OCM) without being removed from the system. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Putative Corneal Neuralgia Responding to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Singman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient with putative corneal neuralgia was incidentally discovered to have hypovitaminosis D. Supplementation of vitamin D appears to have led to a resolution of the patient's pain, whereas other efforts to treat the patient were unsuccessful.

  17. Review of photokeratitis: Corneal response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A. Moore

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of photokeratitis in response to natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is prevalent in individuals participating in outdoor recreational activities in environments with high reflective surfaces, such as beach activities, water sports and snow skiing. Eye care practitioners (ECPs are frequently encouraged by manufacturers and researchers to recommend UVR-blocking eyewear in the form of sunglasses and contact lenses. However, little is known about the precise nature of the corneal tissue response in the development of photokeratitis. This paper reviews the mechanisms responsible for the development of photokeratitis. Clinical signs and symptoms of photokeratitis, UVR corneal threshold and action spectra, corneal cellular changes and ocular protection from corneal UVR exposure are discussed. The content of this article will be useful to ECPs in making appropriate recommendations when prescribing UVR-protec-tive eyewear. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(3 123-131

  18. Treatment of Corneal Lesions in Individuals with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Kumagai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, a severe form of allergic conjunctival disease, is characterized by the development of various types of corneal lesions in conjunction with proliferative changes in the conjunctiva. Expression of bioactive substances, such as chemokines and adhesion molecules, by corneal fibroblasts likely contribute to the formation of corneal lesions by promoting local infiltration, activation, and survival of immune cells. Proliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix by conjunctival fibroblasts also may provide conditions which support the activation and survival of immune cells. Topical administration of corticosteroids is the principal mode of treatment for conjunctival inflammation in individuals with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. In some individuals, however, the surgical removal of conjunctival giant papillae or of corneal plaques is indicated.

  19. Substratum topography modulates corneal fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrna, Kathern E; Mendonsa, Rima; Russell, Paul; Pot, Simon A; Liliensiek, Sara J; Jester, James V; Nealey, Paul F; Brown, Donald; Murphy, Christopher J

    2012-02-01

    The transition of corneal fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype is known to be important in wound healing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of topographic cues on TGFβ-induced myofibroblast transformation of corneal cells. Rabbit corneal fibroblasts were cultured on nanopatterned surfaces having topographic features of varying sizes. Cells were cultured in media containing TGFβ at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 ng/mL. RNA and protein were collected from cells cultured on topographically patterned and planar substrates and analyzed for the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and Smad7 expression by quantitative real time PCR. Western blot and immunocytochemistry analysis for αSMA were also performed. Cells grown on patterned surfaces demonstrated significantly reduced levels of αSMA (P fibroblast phenotype while pathologic microenvironmental alterations may be permissive for increased myofibroblast differentiation and the development of fibrosis and corneal haze.

  20. Crystalline Subtype of Pre-Descemetic Corneal Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Dolz-Marco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report corneal findings in a familial case of the crystalline subtype of pre- Descemetic corneal dystrophy. Case Report: A 19-year-old girl and her 44-year-old mother were found to have asymptomatic, bilateral, punctiform and multi-colored crystalline opacities across the whole posterior layer of the corneas. Endothelial specular microscopy revealed the presence of white round flecks located at different levels anterior to the endothelium. No systemic abnormalities or medications could be related to account for these findings. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the third familial report of this rare corneal disorder. Differential diagnosis may include Schnyder corneal dystrophy, cystinosis, Bietti΄s dystrophy and monoclonal gammopathy.

  1. Shadow photogrammetric apparatus for the quantitative evaluation of corneal buttons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, D; Mandelbaum, S; Parel, J M; Holland, S; Pflugfelder, S; Parel, J M

    1989-11-01

    We have developed a technique for the accurate, quantitative, geometric evaluation of trephined and punched corneal buttons. A magnified shadow of the frontal and edge views of a corneal button mounted on the rotary stage of a modified optical comparator is projected onto the screen of the comparator and photographed. This process takes approximately three minutes. The diameters and edge profile at any meridian photographed can subsequently be analyzed from the film. The precision in measuring the diameters of well cut corneal buttons is +/- 23 microns, and in measuring the angle of the edge profile is +/- 1 degree. Statistical analysis of inter observer variability indicated excellent reproducibility of measurements. Shadow photogrammetry offers a standardized, accurate, and reproducible method for analysis of corneal trephination.

  2. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  3. Clinical utility of the KAMRA corneal inlay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naroo SA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shehzad Anjam Naroo, Paramdeep Singh Bilkhu Ophthalmic Research Group, School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK Abstract: The treatment of presbyopia has been the focus of much scientific and clinical research over recent years, not least due to an increasingly aging population but also the desire for spectacle independence. Many lens and nonlens-based approaches have been investigated, and with advances in biomaterials and improved surgical methods, removable corneal inlays have been developed. One such development is the KAMRA™ inlay where a small entrance pupil is exploited to create a pinhole-type effect that increases the depth of focus and enables improvement in near visual acuity. Short- and long-term clinical studies have all reported significant improvement in near and intermediate vision compared to preoperative measures following monocular implantation (nondominant eye, with a large proportion of patients achieving Jaeger (J 2 to J1 (~0.00 logMAR to ~0.10 logMAR at the final follow-up. Although distance acuity is reduced slightly in the treated eye, binocular visual acuity and function remain very good (mean 0.10 logMAR or better. The safety of the inlay is well established and easily removable, and although some patients have developed corneal changes, these are clinically insignificant and the incidence appears to reduce markedly with advancements in KAMRA design, implantation technique, and femtosecond laser technology. This review aims to summarize the currently published peer-reviewed studies on the safety and efficacy of the KAMRA inlay and discusses the surgical and clinical outcomes with respect to the patient’s visual function. Keywords: presbyopia, refractive surgery, implants, cornea

  4. The Active Metabolite of Leflunomide A771726 Inhibits Corneal Neovascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingchang ZHANG; Nian HAO; Fang BIAN

    2008-01-01

    The effects of A771726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, on experimental rat corneal neovascularization (NV) in vivo and on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro were studied. The corneal NV was induced by alkali burn in 40 SD rats. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. Group A was treated with 0.9% sodium chloride (control group), and group B, group C and group D were given different concentrations of A771726 eye drops (0.5%,l.0%,2.0% respectively) 4 times daily during days 0-28. The occurrence and development of corneal NV were observed at 4,7,14,21 and 28 day after alkali burn by a slit lamp microscope. The cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304) were incubated with A771726 solution at different concentrations (20,40,80,160,320μmol/L) for 36h. The proliferation of cells was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in cells was detected by using immunofluorescence under the laser confocal microscope. The rat model showed that the onset of corneal NV was delayed and progression of corneal NV was inhibited in the groups C and D. The corneal NV areas in groups C and D were significantly smaller than in groups A and B (P0.05). A771726 solution (≥40μmol/L) could inhibit proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and decrease the expression of PCNA in cells significantly. A771726, as the active metabolite of leflunomide, strongly prevented corneal NV induced by alkali burn in the in vivo model, and inhibited proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the in vitro model. Therefore, A771726 may serve as an angiogenic inhibitor in the treatment of corneal NV.

  5. Pilot Study of Corneal Sensitivity and Its Association in Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandathara, Preeji S; Stapleton, Fiona J; Kokkinakis, Jim; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity and its association with other clinical parameters in keratoconus. Twenty-four subjects with keratoconus aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Ocular symptoms, corneal topography, tear variables such as tear osmolarity, volume and lower tear meniscus height, ocular surface staining, central sensitivity threshold (CST), and corneal subepithelial nerve mapping were obtained. Association between central CST and other clinical variables was examined using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Partial correlation was performed to control for effects of confounding factors. Data from the most severe eye of each subject were included in analyses. Based on the maximum simulated keratometry (Kmax) reading, subjects were graded as having mild (N = 11; K max ≤ 52 D) or severe (N = 13; K max > 52 D) keratoconus. Central corneal sensitivity was lower (ie, increased CST) in the severe keratoconus group compared with that in the mild keratoconus group (median, interquartile range: 1.09; 0.60-19.66 vs. 0.51; 0.39-1.51 g/mm, P = 0.035). In bivariate correlations, reduced corneal sensitivity in keratoconus was associated with age (ρ = 0.42, P = 0.040), disease duration (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.015) and severity (ρ = 0.44; P = 0.032), lower central nerve fiber density (ρ = -0.68, P = 0.014), contact lens wear (ρ = 0.44; P = 0.025), and contact lens tolerance (ρ = 0.46; P = 0.033). After adjusting for contact lens wear, reduced corneal sensitivity was negatively associated with ocular symptoms (ρ = -0.426, P = 0.048) and pain sensitivity (ρ = -0.423, P = 0.045) and positively associated with corneal staining (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.011). Altered corneal sensitivity in keratoconus affected ocular symptoms and ocular surface health, which may have significant impact on the success of management options for keratoconus.

  6. [The use of iontophoresis in corneal crosslinking technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Horia T; Tabacaru, Bogdana

    2013-01-01

    Iontophoresis is a method of facilitating the penetration of a drug through an intact tissue in the presence of an low intensity electrical current. In corneal crosslinking technique, iontophoresis is used for transepitelial impregnation of cornea with riboflavin. Compared to passive technique of corneal impregnation, iontophoresis shortens the time needed for impregnation, the time of exposure to UVA radiation and does not require de-epithelialisation.

  7. On fractional Bessel equation and the description of corneal topography

    CERN Document Server

    Okrasiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    In this note we apply a modified fractional Bessel differential equation to the problem of describing corneal topography. We find the solution in terms of the power series. This solution has an interesting behavior at infinity which is a generalization of the classical results for modified Bessel function of order 0. Our model fits the real corneal geometry data with an error of order of a few per cent.

  8. ROLE OF CORNEAL COLLAGEN CROSS LINKING IN KERATOCONUS

    OpenAIRE

    Atul; Superna; Bhimasankar; Vijayleela

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of collagen cross linkage using riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet A radiation of a wavelength 370nm . PURPOSE : To determine the effect of collagen cross linking for keratoconus on pachymetry , corneal topography, uncorrected visual acuity, specular count, IOP at 1, 3, 6 months . METHODS : The current study was designed as a prospective interventional trial of corneal collagen cross - linking in subjects w...

  9. Hypertonic saline in the treatment of corneal jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Yao, Hsin; Cho, Ta Hsiung; Lu, Ching Hsiang; Lin, Feng Chi; Horng, Chi Ting

    2016-02-01

    A 20-year-old male soldier was hit by the jellyfish. The ophthalmic examination revealed that epithelial keratitis and corneal oedema in the right eye. We prescribed 3% NaCl eyedrops and 0.3% Norfloxacin eyedrops in the treatment of the corneal jellyfish stings. Two weeks later, the cornea in the right eye healed. In this case report, 3% NaCl eyedrops was effective in the treatment of acute phase of jellyfish stings of the cornea.

  10. Morphometrics of corneal growth in chicks raised in constant light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Christina; Li, Tong; Choden, Tsering; Howland, Howard

    2009-03-01

    In this study we wish to augment our understanding of the effect of environment on corneal growth and morphology. To understand how corneal development of chicks raised in constant light differs from that of 'normal' eyes exposed to cyclic periods of light and dark, white Leghorn chicks were raised under either constant light (approximately 700 lux at cage top) or in 12 h light/12 h dark conditions for up to 12 weeks after hatching. To determine whether corneal expansion is uniform, some birds from each group received corneal tattoos for periodic photographic assessment. By 16 days of age, constant light corneas weighed less than light/dark regimen corneas [7.39 +/- 0.35 mg (SE) vs. 8.47 mg +/- 0.26 mg SE wet weight, P < or = 0.05], and corresponding differences were seen in corneal dry weights. Spatial expansion of the corneal surface was uniform in both groups, but the rate of expansion was slower in constant light chicks [0.0327 +/- 0.009 (SE) vs. 0.144 +/- 0.018 (SE) mm(2) day(-1) for normal chicks, P < or = 0.001]. At 1 day of age, there were 422 +/- 12.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2) in the central cornea and 393 +/- 21.5 (SE) stromal cells 0.01 mm(-2 )peripherally. Although this difference is not statistically significant, the cell densities in the central cornea were always larger than those of the peripheral cornea in all eight measurements over a 10.5-week period, and this difference is significant (P < or = 0.008, binomial test). Light/dark regimen birds show no such consistent difference in cell densities between central and peripheral corneas. Thus, the density distribution of corneal stromal cells of chicks grown in constant light differs from that of normal chicks. Taken together, all these observations suggest that diurnal cycles of light and darkness are necessary for normal corneal growth.

  11. Electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules into the corneal epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    HAO, JINSONG; Li, S. Kevin; Liu, Chia-Yang; Kao, Winston W. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Electrically assisted delivery is noninvasive and has been investigated in a number of ocular drug delivery studies. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of electrically assisted delivery of macromolecules such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the corneal epithelium, to optimize the iontophoresis and electroporation methods, and to study the mechanisms of corneal iontophoresis for macromolecules. Anodal and cathodal iontophoresis, electroporation and their combina...

  12. Tromboflebite superficial: epidemiologia, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento Superficial thrombophlebitis: epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Lima Sobreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A tromboflebite superficial de membros inferiores é doença de ocorrência comum, estando associada a diversas condições clínicas e cirúrgicas. Historicamente considerada doença benigna, devido à sua localização superficial e ao fácil diagnóstico, o tratamento foi conservador durante muito tempo, na maioria dos casos. Entretanto, relatos recentes de freqüências altas de complicações tromboembólicas associadas - 22 a 37% para trombose venosa profunda e até 33% para embolia pulmonar - alertaram para a necessidade de abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas mais amplas, visando diagnosticar e tratar essas possíveis complicações. A possibilidade da coexistência dessas e de outras desordens sistêmicas (colagenoses, neoplasias, trombofilias interfere na avaliação e influencia a conduta terapêutica, que pode ser clínica, cirúrgica ou combinada. No entanto, devido à falta de ensaios clínicos controlados e às incertezas quanto a sua história natural, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da tromboflebite superficial continuam indefinidos. Neste trabalho, foi feita uma revisão da literatura analisando-se a epidemiologia, fisiopatologia e estado atual do diagnóstico e tratamento da tromboflebite superficial.Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is a commonly occurring disease, and it is associated with various clinical and surgical conditions. Historically considered to be a benign disease due to its superficial location and easy diagnosis, its treatment was, for a long time, conservative in most cases. Nevertheless, recent reports of high frequency and associated thromboembolic complications, which vary from 22 to 37% for deep venous thrombosis and up to 33% for pulmonary embolism, have indicated the need for broader diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in order to diagnose and treat such possible complications. The possibility of coexistence of these and other systemic disorders (collagenosis, neoplasia, thrombophilia

  13. Interpolación y ajuste de superficies en componentes mecánicos digitalizados empleando superficies B-Spline

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Este documento de tesis tiene el propósito de describir una metodología para obtener nubes de puntos que representen a superficies (o parches de geometría compleja) de piezas mecánicas que pueden ser replicadas en la industria. Estos puntos se obtuvieron utilizando el método de interpolación superficial B-Spline que deben cumplir un margen de error conocido y controlado de acuerdo a las tolerancias de fabricación utilizados en estos procesos de fabricación. En primer lugar e...

  14. A case of a retained intralenticular foreign body for two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Guler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mete Güler1, Turgut Yilmaz2, Mehmet Yigit2, Gülsen Ülkü2, Sermal Arslan21Department of Ophthalmology, Elazig Harput State Hospital, Turkey; 2Departmant of Ophthalmology, Elazig Education and Research HospitalAbstract: We report a case of a missed metallic intraocular foreign body retained in the lens over a two-year period without causing inflammatory reaction, which presented with cataract later. A 24-year-old man presented with a progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for two years. He had had a history of metal-on-metal activity two years before. He had pain for one day in left eye and it was healed by the following day. Biomicroscopic examination revealed cataract, an intralenticular foreign body, and a corneal scar at seven o’clock meridian of the cornea in the left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the left eye. Intralenticular foreign body removal, phacoemulsification, and an intraocular lens implantation was performed under local anesthesia. The intralenticular foreign body was metallic and its size was about 2 × 2 mm. Two weeks after the operation best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in left eye. A retained foreign body should be considered in each patient with a history of penetrating ocular trauma and all efforts must be made to exclude presumptive diagnosis of intraocular foreign body.Keywords: cataract, intralenticular foreign body, penetrating intraocular injury

  15. Corneal Cell Morphology in Keratoconus: A Confocal Microscopic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghoshal, Rituparna; Retnasabapathy, Shamala

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate corneal cell morphology in patients with keratoconus using an in vivo slit scanning confocal microscope. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the corneal cell morphology of 47 keratoconus patients and 32 healthy eyes without any ocular disease. New keratoconus patients with different disease severities and without any other ocular co-morbidity were recruited from the ophthalmology department of a public hospital in Malaysia from June 2013 to May 2014. Corneal cell morphology was evaluated using an in vivo slit-scanning confocal microscope. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using a grading scale and the Nidek Advanced Visual Information System software, respectively. Results The corneal cell morphology of patients with keratoconus was significantly different from that of healthy eyes except in endothelial cell density (P = 0.072). In the keratoconus group, increased level of stromal haze, alterations such as the elongation of keratocyte nuclei and clustering of cells at the anterior stroma, and dark bands in the posterior stroma were observed with increased severity of the disease. The mean anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte densities and cell areas among the different stages of keratoconus were significantly different (P 0.05) among the three stages of keratoconus. Conclusion Confocal microscopy observation showed significant changes in corneal cell morphology in keratoconic cornea from normal healthy cornea. Analysis also showed significant changes in different severities of keratoconus. Understanding the corneal cell morphology changes in keratoconus may help in the long-term monitoring and management of keratoconus. PMID:28894403

  16. Corneal pain activates a trigemino-parabrachial pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, Sue A; Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M

    2014-03-06

    Corneal pain is mediated by primary afferent fibers projecting to the dorsal horn of the medulla, specifically the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. In contrast to reflex responses, the conscious perception of pain requires transmission of neural activity to higher brain centers. Ascending pain transmission is mediated primarily by pathways to either the thalamus or parabrachial nuclei. We previously showed that some corneal afferent fibers preferentially contact parabrachial-projecting neurons in the rostral pole of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, but the role of these projection neurons in transmitting noxious information from the cornea has not been established. In the present study, we show that noxious stimulation of the corneal surface activates neurons in the rostral pole of the nucleus caudalis, including parabrachially projecting neurons that receive direct input from corneal afferent fibers. We used immunocytochemical detection of c-Fos protein as an index of neuronal activation after noxious ocular stimulation. Animals had previously received injections of a retrograde tracer into either thalamic or parabrachial nuclei to identify projection neurons in the trigeminal dorsal horn. Noxious stimulation of the cornea induced c-Fos in neurons sending projections to parabrachial nuclei, but not thalamic nuclei. We also confirmed that corneal afferent fibers identified with cholera toxin B preferentially target trigeminal dorsal horn neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus. The parabrachial region sends ascending projections to brain regions involved in emotional and homeostatic responses. Activation of the ascending parabrachial system may explain the extraordinary salience of stimulation of corneal nociceptors.

  17. Analysis of corneal esthesia in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Torres Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To quantitatively analyze corneal esthesia in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK surgery. Methods: Forty-five patients selected for PRK in one eye underwent corneal esthesia using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer preoperatively and 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Patients with a refractive diopter error of 4 or greater received intraoperative 0.02% mitomycin C for 20 s. Results: Twenty-four (53.3% of the 45 eyes received intraoperative 0.02% mitomycin. Decreased sensitivity was observed on postoperative day 30. By postoperative day 90, corneal esthesia had normalized but remained 14.9% lower than preoperative levels. In the mitomycin group, no recovery of corneal esthesia to normal sensitivity levels was observed. The mean esthesiometer level was 39.2 mm on postoperative day 90 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate recovery of corneal esthesia to normal levels at 90 days postoperatively in patients who did not receive mitomycin C. In patients administered mitomycin C, a 23.59% reduction in the corneal touch threshold was observed compared with preoperative levels indicating a failure of recovery to normal levels.

  18. Congenital Corneal Anesthesia and Neurotrophic Keratitis: Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Mantelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic keratitis (NK is a rare degenerative disease of the cornea caused by an impairment of corneal sensory innervation, characterized by decreased or absent corneal sensitivity resulting in epithelial keratopathy, ulceration, and perforation. The aetiopathogenesis of corneal sensory innervation impairment in children recognizes the same range of causes as adults, although they are much less frequent in the pediatric population. Some extremely rare congenital diseases could be considered in the aetiopathogenesis of NK in children. Congenital corneal anesthesia is an extremely rare condition that carries considerable diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Typically the onset is up to 3 years of age and the cornea may be affected in isolation or the sensory deficit may exist as a component of a congenital syndrome, or it may be associated with systemic somatic anomalies. Accurate diagnosis and recognition of risk factors is important for lessening long-term sequelae of this condition. Treatment should include frequent topical lubrication and bandage corneal or scleral contact lenses. Surgery may be needed in refractory cases. The purpose of this review is to summarize and update data available on congenital causes and treatment of corneal hypo/anesthesia and, in turn, on congenital NK.

  19. Corneal organ cultures in tyrosinemia release chemotactic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, K M; Hyndiuk, R A; Hatchell, D L; Kurth, C E

    1985-05-01

    Corneal inflammation with subsequent scarring and blindness occurs in the inherited human metabolic disease tyrosinemia type II, yet putative inflammatory mediators in this disorder and in the avascular cornea in general are poorly defined. In a Tyr-fed rat model of tyrosinemia type II, intracellular crystals, presumably Tyr, are hypothesized to be responsible for the increased lysosomal activity observed in corneal epithelial lesions. Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are seen only at the site of these lesions, we used this model to study humoral mediators released from Tyr-fed rat corneal organ cultures. Only Tyr-fed rats developed stromal edema and linear granular opacities in gray edematous corneal epithelium, compatible with a noninfectious keratitis. Electron micrographs confirmed epithelial edema and showed focal epithelial necrosis with PMN invasion of the stroma. Only Tyr-fed rat corneal culture supernatants contained chemotactic activity that was heat labile and moderately trypsin sensitive. Four peaks with varying amounts of chemotactic activity were found on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. Although the identity of these peaks of activity has not yet been established, we suggest that they may be responsible for the PMN infiltration observed in this model of corneal inflammation.

  20. Azithromycin (AZM) treatment increases survival of high risk corneal allotransplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos A.; Rowe, Alexander M.; Yun, Hongmin; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Hendricks, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To test the therapeutic efficacy of AZM, a macrolide antibiotic for prolonging murine “high risk” corneal allograft survival. Methods Fully MHC mismatched corneas were transplanted from C57BL/6 donors to BALB/c recipients with suture-induced vascularized “high risk” corneal beds. Recipient mice were either not treated or treated with topical AZM, oral AZM, or both. Evaluation of graft vascularization and clarity was performed in masked fashion. Lymph nodes were excised and analyzed for CD4, FoxP3, and CD44 by flow cytometry; and for T cell priming by proliferation and cytokine production in mixed lymphocyte cultures. Corneal whole mounts were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Results The incidence of graft rejection in the control group (81.8%) was significantly reduced by AZM treatment (18.2% topical, 21.7% oral, 33.3% topical + oral), although corneal vascularization was not affected by treatment. The frequency of corneas that retained complete clarity following transplantation was higher in the AZM treated groups. Reduced graft rejection in the AZM treated groups was not associated with a reduced allospecific T cell response or increased frequency of T regulatory cells. Conclusions AZM is effective in prolonging survival of “high risk” corneal allografts by an as yet undefined mechanism that does not appear to involve modulation of corneal neovascularization or allo-specific T cell priming. PMID:23407315

  1. Corneal Complications And Visual Impairment In Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Abdus Salam; Aaqil, Bushra; Siddiqui, Afsheen; Nazneen, Zainab; Farooq, Umer

    2017-01-01

    Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis (VKC) is an infrequent but serious form of allergic conjunctivitis common in warm and humid areas where air is rich in allergens. It affects both eyes asymmetrically. Although VKC is a self-limiting disease but visions affecting corneal complications influence the quality of life in school children. The aim of this study was to list the corneal complications due to this condition and to find out the extent of visual impairment among VKC patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Hospital on 290 eyes of diagnosed cases of VKC. The diagnosis of VKC was made on the basis of history and examination. Visual acuity was recorded using Snellen's notation and visual impairment was classified according to World Health Organization classification for visual disabilities. The mean age of presentation was 10.83±6.13 years. There were 207 (71.4%) males and 83 (28.6%) females. Corneal scarring was observed in 59 (20.3%) eyes. Keratoconus was found to be in 17 (5.9%) eyes. Shield ulcer was detected in 09 (3.1%) eyes while 07 (2.4%) eyes had corneal neovascularization. Majority of the patients with visual loss had corneal scarring and the complication that led to severe visual loss in most of the eyes was Keratoconus. Vernal kerato-conjunctivitis in the presence of corneal complications is a sight threatening disease and can lead to severe visual impairment.

  2. Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Topical and Subconjunctival Tigecycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertan Goktas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of topical and subconjunctival tigecycline on the prevention of corneal neovascularization. Materials and Methods. Following chemical burn, thirty-two rats were treated daily with topical instillation of 1 mg/mL tigecycline (group 1 or subconjunctival instillation of 1 mg/mL tigecycline (group 3 for 7 days. Control rats received topical (group 2 or subconjunctival (group 4 0.9% saline. Digital photographs of the cornea were taken on the eighth day after treatment and analyzed to determine the percentage area of the cornea covered by neovascularization. Corneal sections were analyzed histopathologically. Results. The median percentages of corneal neovascularization in groups 1 and 3 were 48% (95% confidence interval (CI, 44.2–55.8% and 33.5% (95% CI, 26.6–39.2%, respectively. The median percentages of corneal neovascularization of groups 1 and 3 were significantly lower than that of the control group (P=0.03 and P<0.001, resp.. Histologic examination of samples from groups 1 and 3 showed lower vascularity than that of control groups. Conclusion. Topical and subconjunctival administration of tigecycline seems to be showing promising therapeutic effects on the prevention of corneal neovascularization. Furthermore, subconjunctival administration of tigecycline is more potent than topical administration in the inhibition of corneal neovascularization.

  3. The Study of Corneal Topography in Myopic and Hyperopic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gao; Xuying Zhuo; Lusheng Ma; Ning Yu; Zhonghao Wang; Pengfei Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the differences of corneal topographies in myopic and hyperopic children and study the effect of Atropin on their changes.Methods: The refractive components of 136 eyes with different refractive conditions were measured with A-Scan and their corneal topographies with and without cycloplegia were obtained respectively.Results: The mean corneal power of zones 3mm (MD3, P=0.031 ) and minor keratometer K2 (P=0.003) of myopia are greater than those of hyperopia without cycloplegia. MD3 (P=0.009) and Keratometer K1 (P = 0.025) increased in hyperopic eyes, while MD3(P=0.033), K1 (P = 0.035) and K2 (P = 0.002) decreased in myopic eyes significantly after cycloplegia. Similarly, the mean corneal power of zones 5mm (MD5) and 7mm (MD7) in myopic eyes decreased dramatically (P ≤ 0.001 ).Conclusions: The corneal power was found to be greater in myopia than that in hyperopia. The effect of Atropin on corneal shape of myopia and hyperopia was in the opposite direction.

  4. Corneal confocal sub-basal nerve plexus evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, Joanna; Wylęgała, Adam; Wowra, Bogumił; Wójcik, Łukasz; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Wylęgała, Edward

    2017-07-25

    The aim of this study was to review the most recent data about corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) evaluated with the use of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). For this purpose, an electronic search was conducted based on PubMed and Google Scholar and Web of Science databases from 2008 up to the end of 2016. Ninety-eight articles in English were cited, as well as abstracts in other languages, concerning the morphology and function of corneal SNP in various diseases. Changes in corneal SNP as a result of local treatment were also introduced. Figures with scans from confocal microscopy from our Department were included. The main conclusion of this review was that both corneal SNP diminishment and high tortuosity as well as low sensitivity are in principle related to the presence or level of pathology. In addition, increased nerve tortuosity may represent a morphological determinant of nerve regeneration. However, the presented literature shows that SNP changes are not characteristic for one unified corneal pathology; rather, they reflect the non-specific pathological process present in many diseases. Future studies should use automatized biometric software and also examine the effects of new treatments on SNP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of substrate composition and alignment on corneal cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Donna; Wray, Lindsay S; Warren, Robert V; Haskell, Richard C; Orwin, Elizabeth J

    2011-03-01

    Corneal blindness is a significant problem treated primarily by corneal transplants. Donor tissue supply is low, creating a growing need for an alternative. A tissue-engineered cornea made from patient-derived cells and biopolymer scaffold materials would be widely accessible to all patients and would alleviate the need for donor sources. Previous work in this lab led to a method for electrospinning type I collagen scaffolds for culturing corneal fibroblasts ex vivo that mimics the microenvironment in the native cornea. This electrospun scaffold is composed of small-diameter, aligned collagen fibers. In this study, we investigate the effect of scaffold nanostructure and composition on the phenotype of corneal stromal cells. Rabbit-derived corneal fibroblasts were cultured on aligned and unaligned collagen type I fibers ranging from 50 to 300 nm in diameter and assessed for expression of α-smooth muscle actin, a protein marker upregulated in hazy corneas. In addition, the optical properties of the cell-matrix constructs were assessed using optical coherence microscopy. Cells grown on collagen scaffolds had reduced myofibroblast phenotype expression compared to cells grown on tissue culture plates. Cells grown on aligned collagen type I fibers downregulated α-smooth muscle actin protein expression significantly more than unaligned collagen scaffolds, and also exhibited reduced overall light scattering by the tissue construct. These results suggest that aligned collagen type I fibrous scaffolds are viable platforms for engineering corneal replacement tissue.

  6. Acacia honey accelerates in vitro corneal ulcer wound healing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Ker-Woon, Choy; Hui, Chua Kien; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2016-07-29

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on the migration, differentiation and healing properties of the cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts. Stromal derived corneal fibroblasts from New Zealand White rabbit (n = 6) were isolated and cultured until passage 1. In vitro corneal ulcer was created using a 4 mm corneal trephine onto confluent cultures and treated with basal medium (FD), medium containing serum (FDS), with and without 0.025 % AH. Wound areas were recorded at day 0, 3 and 6 post wound creation. Genes and proteins associated with wound healing and differentiation such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I, lumican and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) were evaluated using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. Cells cultured with AH-enriched FDS media achieved complete wound closure at day 6 post wound creation. The cells cultured in AH-enriched FDS media increased the expression of vimentin, collagen type I and lumican genes and decreased the ALDH, α-SMA and MMP12 gene expressions. Protein expression of ALDH, vimentin and α-SMA were in accordance with the gene expression analyses. These results demonstrated AH accelerate corneal fibroblasts migration and differentiation of the in vitro corneal ulcer model while increasing the genes and proteins associated with stromal wound healing.

  7. Cooperative learning in Confucian heritage cultures is a superficial success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The use of cooperative learning in Asia does not take the sociocultural aspects into consideration. Researchers say that there is a need for healthy scepticism when importing any foreign educational reforms.......The use of cooperative learning in Asia does not take the sociocultural aspects into consideration. Researchers say that there is a need for healthy scepticism when importing any foreign educational reforms....

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in superficial CNS siderosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Lindelof, M.; Haziri, Donika

    2015-01-01

    that neurodegeneration due to haemosiderin-associated iron toxicity becomes irreversible with time. CONCLUSION: Surgical therapy in superficial CNS siderosis is rarely achieved. We suggest that prospective, large-scale multicentre studies are needed to search for non-surgical therapies that reverse (or prevent) ongoing...... neurotoxicity due to accumulating iron toxicity. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  9. Anterior urethral recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saika T

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical features of anterior urethral recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer, and to determine the appropriate treatment. Three hundred and three patients with superficial bladder cancer, who were newly diagnosed and initially treated conservatively in our hospital between 1965 and 1990, were followed for at least 5 years and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. Clinical factors, including anterior urethral recurrence, were evaluated statistically regarding tumor progression. Eight patients (2.6% had anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer. Twenty-four patients (7.9% had tumor progression and 149 (49.2% had tumor recurrence. In a multivariate analysis using a logistic model, anterior urethral recurrence was the most important factor, followed by histological grade. Four of 5 patients who were treated for anterior urethral recurrent tumors by transurethral resection showed progression and died of the cancer within one year. Two of the remaining three patients who underwent radical cysto-urethrectomy at the time of anterior urethral recurrence survived. Anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer is a predictor for rapid subsequent malignant progression. Once there is anterior urethral recurrence, radical intensive therapy, including radical cysto-urethrectomy, should be carried out immediately.

  10. Superficies bioactivas en implantología: una nueva perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cutando

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, tras años de investigación en implantología, en los cuales se han realizado muchos trabajos, en donde se han estudiado diferentes tipos de superficies de implantes, lisas y rugosas, en un intento de mejorar, tanto en el tiempo como en la calidad , la osteointegración, se ha concluido que los implantes de superficie rugosa con un intervalo de rugosidad entre 1,0-2,0 nm, son los que parecen dar una mejor respuesta ósea y mejores resultados clínicos, pero desde un punto de vista exclusivamente mecánico. Hoy en día las investigaciones se centran en el desarrollo de superficies denominadas bioactivas, las cuales son capaces de interaccionar con el hueso que rodea al implante, como ocurre cuando el implante es revestido con carbonato cálcico o bien con flúor. Pero sabemos que dentro del metabolismo óseo, juegan importantes papeles, moléculas, como son la melatonina y la hormona del crecimiento entre otras, las cuales deben de ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de hablar de osteointegración. Se realiza una breve descripción de la fisiología de ambas moléculas y se valora su aplicación al concepto de superficie bioactiva en implantología.

  11. Superficial Needling Therapy for Tennis Elbow in 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Heng-bi; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Superficial needling therapy was employed to treat 40 cases of tennis elbow. For the cases of qi and blood stagnation, cupping therapy was added. Thirty-eight cases were cured after one treatment and 2 cases were cured after two treatments.

  12. Frey′s Syndrome as a Sequela of Superficial Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2006-01-01

    The disorder is characterized by unilateral sweating and flushing of facial skin in the area of parotid gland occurring during meals. We present a case of a patient who developed symptoms of Frey Syndrome 4 months after undergoing superficial parotidectomy on left side.

  13. Atypical Presentation of Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma of Superficial Peroneal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinsa, Baljinder Singh; Lidder, Surjit; Abbasian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare presentation in the foot. An accurate diagnosis is key, with magnetic resonance imaging findings considered definitive. The management is dependent on the symptoms. We present an atypical presentation of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the superficial peroneal nerve and discuss the current published data.

  14. Superficial dermatomycoses: a prospective clinico-mycological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatomycoses are more prevalent in India due to favourable climatic conditions, poverty, poor hygiene and overcrowding. Sparse published data are available regarding superficial dermatomycoses from India. Methods: In this prospective study, demographic characteristics, clinical spectrum and risk factors for the development were studied in 198 patients with superficial dermatomycoses. Results: Their mean age was 34.1 ± 15.3 years; there were 108 (54.5% males. Majority of the patients (50.5% belonged to upper-lower socio-economic status (Class IV as per modified Kuppuswamy’s classification. Most of the patients (69.7% had presented with dermatophytoses. Among superficial dermatomy-coses, tinea corporis was the most common (29.3% clinical type. Potassium hydroxide mount was positive in 77.7% and culture was positive in 30.8%. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species isolated (64%. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression revealed older age (> 50 years to be an independent predictor for the development of tinea corporis (p<0.001. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that superficial dermatomycoses are an important cause of morbidity and should be carefully searched for especially in the elderly so that effective curative treatment can be instituted.

  15. Tattoo removal by superficial dermabrasion. Five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, W A

    1975-04-01

    A 5-year clinical experience using superficial dermabrasion to remove tattoos is presented. This procedure can be done quickly in the office with low patient risk. Good pigment removal is obtained with little or no scar formation. Cases are presented which are typical of the 250 tattoos removed in the last 5 years.

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  17. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to numb your throat. This eliminates the gag reflex and enables the physician to perform the examination ... chances of suffering an infection or an allergic reaction. Prompt removal of the foreign body will ensure ...

  19. Multiple foreign body granulomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelkar V

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple foreign body granulomas occurring after mine-blast injury in a soldier is reported. Systemic steroids with antibiotics given essentially for eczematoid dermatitis produced good clinical improvement with marked resolution of granulomas.

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  1. FOREIGN BANKS WELCOMED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but the foreign body remains trapped in the lung. This typically occurs in children and requires removal ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common equipment for ...

  3. The Foreign Student Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical introduction and 313-item annotated bibliography address foreign student infrastructure, highlighting academic experiences and performance; adaptation problems; policies (institutional, industrialized nations, Third World nations); educational studies (attitudinal, behavioral, disciplinary, historical, statistical); issues (non-return,…

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complication, and endoscopic ... be dislodged rather than removed so that they pass safely through the digestive system. top of page ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page What are ... will reduce chances of an infection that could damage tissue, nerves and blood vessels, block blood flow ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor ... to orient foreign bodies with the use of two snares. The catheter is guided into place just ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Using an ultrasound transducer to visualize the location of the object, the physician may make an ... the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You also may need a tetanus shot to prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. ... the foreign body. You will remain in the recovery room until you are completely awake and ready ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including ... Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x-rays will not pass ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is located near vital structures like nerves and blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it ... other areas of the body, or enter your blood vessels. Removal of larger foreign bodies will ensure that ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  2. Unusual orbital foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys ... of foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries ...

  4. Foreign Firms Partner Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ There is an important strategic adjustment occurring on the part of foreign dairy companies seeking to capitalize on the China market. Rather than going it alone,with local partnerships little more than an entry mechanism,global giants such as Danone,Arla, and Fonterra are taking advantage of the country's more relaxed foreign investment rules by upping their stakes in established local firms and expanding the role they play in business and industrial operations.

  5. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Tiryaki Demir; Mahmut Odabaşı; Mehmet Ersin Oba; Ayşe Burcu Dirim; Efe Can; Orhan Kara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb) ...

  6. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Tiryaki Demir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT, and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry (Nidek Ultrasonic Pachymetry UP-1000 were used for measurement of CCT. ANOVA (Turkey test was used for variable distribution, paired sample t-test was used for repeated measurements, and the analyses were done by SPSS 20.0. Results: Mean CCT was 558.9±37.2 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry and 553.4±37 µm by corneal topography. There was a significant difference between the two measurements (p0.05. CCT was 555±39.2 µm, 564.3±28.4 µm, and 559.7±41.5 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively; CCT was 550.3±38.3 µm, 558.5±28 µm, and 553.2±42.5 µm by Orbscan II corneal topography in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively. There was a significant linear correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements (r=0.975, p<0.0001. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer was (ICC value 0.990. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements. These two methods of measurements should not be substituted for each other, since ultrasonic pachymetry measures CCT greater than Orbscan II corneal topography. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer is very high. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 263-7

  7. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  8. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  9. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Robert Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington’s disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington’s disease processes. MethodsStructural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington’s disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject’s Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. ResultsThere was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001 in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington’s disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001. Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number and disease burden (p < 0.001.ConclusionsThis study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington’s disease. Since the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease.

  10. Precision and agreement of corneal power measurements obtained using a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    Full Text Available To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of anterior corneal power measurements obtained with a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP (Hummel AG, Germany and agreement with measurements by a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus, Germany and an automated keratometer (IOLMaster, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany.The right eyes of 79 healthy subjects were prospectively measured three times with all three devices. Another examiner performed three additional scans with the OphthaTOP in the same session. Within one week, the first examiner repeated the measurements using the OphthaTOP. The flat simulated keratometry (Kf, steep K (Ks, mean K (Km, J0, and J45 were noted. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by within-subject standard deviation (Sw, repeatability (2.77 Sw, coefficient of variation (CoV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Agreement between devices was assessed using 95% limits of agreement (LoA.Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of all measured parameters showed a 2.77 Sw of 0.29 diopter or less, a CoV of less than 0.24%, and an ICC of more than 0.906. Statistically significant differences (P<0.001 were found between the parameters analyzed by the three devices, except J0 and J45. The mean differences between OphthaTOP and the other two devices were small, and the 95% LoA was narrow for all results.The OphthaTOP showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of corneal power measurements. Good agreements with the other two devices in these parameters were found in healthy eyes.

  11. Corneal Epithelial Remodeling and Its Effect on Corneal Asphericity after Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy for Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the changes in epithelial thickness profile following transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK for myopia and to investigate the effect of epithelial remodeling on corneal asphericity. Methods. Forty-four patients (44 right eyes who underwent T-PRK were retrospectively evaluated. Epithelial thickness was measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at different corneal zones (central, 2 mm; paracentral, 2–5 mm; and mid-peripheral, 5-6 mm preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The correlation between the changes in corneal epithelial thickness (ΔCET and postoperative Q-value changes (ΔQ was analyzed 6 months postoperatively. Results. Epithelial thickness at 6 months showed a negative meniscus-like lenticular pattern with less central thickening, which increased progressively toward the mid-periphery (3.69±4.2, 5.19±3.8, and 6.23±3.9 μm at the center, paracenter, and mid-periphery, resp., P<0.01. A significant positive relationship was observed between epithelial thickening and ΔQ 6 months postoperatively (r=0.438, 0.580, and 0.504, resp., P<0.01. Conclusions. Significant epithelial thickening was observed after T-PRK and showed a lenticular change with more thickening mid-peripherally, resulting in increased oblateness postoperatively. Epithelial remodeling may modify the epithelial thickness profile after surface ablation refractive surgery for myopia.

  12. Structural, Morphological, and Functional Correlates of Corneal Endothelial Toxicity Following Corneal Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...of the corneal endothe- lium during the acute SM injury and in resolved versus MGK corneas at 8 weeks. METHODS Ethics Statement and Disclaimers The...Endothelial Permeability Rabbits were euthanized 24 hours after exposure. Five minutes after euthanasia , 20 lL of a 0.1 mg/mL solution of AlexaFluor 488

  13. Resolution of persistent corneal erosion after administration of topical rebamipide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoyuki; Akiyama, Hideo; Miura, Fumihide; Kishi, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    Rebamipide is an antiulcer agent used to treat gastric ulcer and gastritis. Biological effects of rebamipide include cytoprotection, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties that are known to be universal for a variety of tissues in addition to gastrointestinal mucosa. The therapeutic effects of rebamipide eye drops are due to its ability to increase corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances and improve corneal and conjunctival injury in vivo. In this paper, we report a case of Sjögren's syndrome with complete disappearance of corneal erosion after administration of rebamipide eye drops. This was observed even though corneal erosion had not improved for 6 months after punctal occlusion surgery. The patient was a 33-year-old female, diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome by a salivary gland biopsy. The corneal and conjunctival surfaces were filled with dense erosions, which did not improve with topical drugs. Punctal plugs were applied several times; however, the plugs were repeatedly shed. All four puncta of both eyelids were surgically occluded, and both corneal and conjunctival erosion was clearly improved. However, the erosion in the inferior cornea of both eyes had not improved for 6 months after surgery. We used the newly approved topical rebamipide for treatment of this patient. The corneal erosion gradually improved and completely disappeared 4 weeks after administration of the drug. Dry eye sensation disappeared at the same time. Both membrane-associated mucin and secreted mucin in the ocular surface are thought to be essential for maintenance of the tear film. Induction of mucin from ocular surface epithelium could be an effective treatment in cases of dry eye caused by mucin deficiency. Through its various mechanisms, rebamipide improves ocular surface conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report using rebamipide ophthalmic solution. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat drying diseases of the eye.

  14. Benzalkonium chloride suppresses rabbit corneal endothelium intercellular gap junction communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhao Zhang

    Full Text Available Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC plays a critical role in the maintenance of corneal endothelium homeostasis. We determined if benzalkonium chloride (BAK alters GJIC activity in the rabbit corneal endothelium since it is commonly used as a drug preservative in ocular eyedrop preparations even though it can have cytotoxic effects.Thirty-six adult New Zealand albino rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. BAK at 0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.1% was applied twice daily to one eye of each of the rabbits in one of the three groups for seven days. The contralateral untreated eyes were used as controls. Corneal endothelial morphological features were observed by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM. Immunofluorescent staining resolved changes in gap junction integrity and localization. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR evaluated changes in levels of connexin43 (Cx43 and tight junction zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 gene and protein expression, respectively. Cx43 and ZO-1 physical interaction was detected by immunoprecipitation (IP. Primary rabbit corneal endothelial cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM containing BAK for 24 hours. The scrape-loading dye transfer technique (SLDT was used to assess GJIC activity.Topical administration of BAK (0.05%, 0.1% dose dependently disrupted corneal endothelial cell morphology, altered Cx43 and ZO-1 distribution and reduced Cx43 expression. BAK also markedly induced increases in Cx43 phosphorylation status concomitant with decreases in the Cx43-ZO-1 protein-protein interaction. These changes were associated with marked declines in GJIC activity.The dose dependent declines in rabbit corneal endothelial GJIC activity induced by BAK are associated with less Cx43-ZO-1 interaction possibly arising from increases in Cx43 phosphorylation and declines in its protein expression. These novel changes provide additional evidence that BAK containing eyedrop preparations should be used with caution to

  15. Localization of ZO-1 in the nucleolus of corneal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benezra, Miriam; Greenberg, Roseanne S; Masur, Sandra K

    2007-05-01

    Within the multidomain structure of ZO-1 are motifs responsible for ZO-1's localization to intercellular junctions and its newly demonstrated localization to the leading edge of lamellipodia in corneal fibroblasts. Since ZO-1 also has two nuclear localization signals, this study was undertaken to determine whether stimuli associated with wounding would induce nuclear translocation of ZO-1 Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used to localize endogenous and exogenous ZO-1 in nuclear and cytoplasmic sites in corneal fibroblasts and 293T fibroblasts, with and without myc-ZO-1 transfection. Cells were serum starved by growth for 48 hours in DMEM/F12 with 0.2% FBS and subsequently were either scrape wounded or treated with 10% FBS, PDGF, or FGF-2 for 6 hours. For immunoblot analysis, after lysis, the nuclear and cytosolic fractions were separated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Cells on companion coverslips were fixed with 3% p-formaldehyde and permeabilized with 1% Triton before immunocytochemical detection of ZO-1 and nuclear proteins. ZO-1 was rarely detected in the nucleus of serum-starved corneal fibroblasts. In contrast, it colocalized with nucleolin in the nucleoli of corneal fibroblasts after serum-starved cells were treated with 10% FBS, PDGF, or FGF-2. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the immunocytochemical results: Little ZO-1 was detected in the nuclear fraction of lysates of serum-starved cells, but ZO-1 was found in the nuclear fractions of rabbit corneal and 293T fibroblasts treated with 10% FBS, PDGF, or FGF-2. Furthermore in scrape-wounded corneal fibroblasts, ZO-1 was localized to nucleoli of both serum-starved and serum-treated cells. Localization of ZO-1 to nucleoli of corneal and 293T fibroblasts under proliferative and promigratory conditions suggests a physiologically significant interaction of ZO-1 with proteins in nucleoli during the healing process.

  16. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  17. Corneal collagen cross-linking and liposomal amphotericin B combination therapy for fungal keratitis in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhao-Qin; Song, Jin-Xin; Pan, Shi-Yin; Zhang, Lin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Xian-Ning; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Xiang-Hua; Gao, Wei; Zhu, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To observe the therapeutic effect of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in combination with liposomal amphotericin B in fungal corneal ulcers. METHODS New Zealand rabbits were induced fungal corneal ulcers by scratching and randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e. control, treated with CXL, and combined therapy of CXL with 0.25% liposomal amphotericin B (n=5 each). The corneal lesions were documented with slit-lamp and confocal microscopy on 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28d after treatment. The corneas were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at 4wk. RESULTS A rabbit corneal ulcer model of Fusarium was successfully established. The corneal epithelium defect areas in the two treatment groups were smaller than that in the control group on 3, 7, 14 and 21d (Pulcers. The combined therapy could alleviate corneal inflammattions, accelerate corneal repair, and shorten the course of disease. PMID:27990355

  18. Tectonic deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in impending corneal perforation using cryopreserved cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Hye; Chang, Sung Dong

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of tectonic corneal transplantation for impending corneal perforation to preserve anatomic integrity using cryopreserved donor tissue. An 82-year-old woman exhibiting impending corneal perforation suffered from moderate ocular pain in the left eye for one week. After abnormal tissues around the impending perforation area were carefully peeled away using a Crescent blade and Vannas scissors, the patient received tectonic deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using a cryopreserved cornea stored in Optisol GS® solution at -70℃ for four weeks. At six months after surgery, the cornea remained transparent and restored the normal corneal thickness. There were no complications such as corneal haze or scars, graft rejection, recurrent corneal ulcer, and postoperative rise of intraocular pressure. Cryopreserved donor lamellar tissue is an effective substitute in emergency tectonic lamellar keratoplasty, such as impending corneal perforation and severe necrotic corneal keratitis.

  19. Physical Aspects of Photodynamic Corneal Collagen Crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Julia

    2012-02-01

    Healthy vision depends on the stability of the shape of the cornea, which provides most of the lens power of the optical system of the eye. Diseases in which the cornea progressively undergoes irregular deformation over time (e.g., keratoconus) can be treated clinically by inducing additional protein-protein crosslinks using a photosensitizing drug and a tailored dose of light. Unfortunately, the treatment moving through clinical trials is toxic to cells in and on the cornea. A path to a safer treatment is offered by the nanostructure of the corneal stroma---reminiscent of a HEX phase in block copolymers with 30nm diameter collagen cylinders spaced 60nm center-to-center in a hydrogel matrix of proteoglycans and water. We show that using a photosensitizing drug that sequesters itself in the collagen fibrils can minimize the toxicity of therapeutic protein-protein cross-linking. Photorheology and transport measurements are used to quantify the parameters of a simple physical model that is useful for optimizing clinical protocols.

  20. A combined chemo-mechanical approach for aesthetic management of superficial enamel defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Benbachir, N.; Stavridakis, M.; Dietschi, D.L.; Krejci, I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing small superficial defects in light to medium fluorosis. Method and materials The proposed technique is based on a selective abrasion of the superficial enamel and a recreation of the superficial macro and micro morpholog