Nonmagnetic impurities in magnetic superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mineev, V.P.
1989-01-01
The magnetization and magnetic field arising around the nonmagnetic impurity in magnetic superconductor with triplet pairing are found. The relationship of these results with the data of recent (gm)sR experiments in heavy fermionic superconductor U 1 - x Th x Be 13 is presented
Anisotropy effects in superconductors with magnetic impurities. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entel, P.
1976-01-01
The influence of Fermi surface anisotropy on the specific heat jumps, ΔC, at the phase transition for superconductors containing magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities is discussed. In the framework of a simple two-band or two-zone model we find for small interband electron-phonon coupling constants characteristic maxima in the ΔC(Tsub(c))-curve. These departures from the corresponding ΔC-curve of a single-band isotropic superconductor are mostly pronounced for weak and strong interband Coulomb scattering of conduction electrons on nonmagnetic ions. There is only a small range of intermediate scattering rates for which the maxima are smeared out. (orig.) [de
Patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Xianjun; Gong Changde; Zhou Yuan
2010-01-01
We investigate the modulated patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping based on the t-t ' -U-V model. Modulated checkerboard patterns with periodicity of eight or four lattice constants (8a or 4a) in the spin-, charge- and DSC orders are observed. Moreover, the checkerboard modulation in the spin order appear to be robust against parameter changes, which is consistent with neutron-scattering experiments. For the two-impurity case, a modulated stripe-like spin order with periodicity 8a is induced, which coexists with the DSC order. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
Zuo, Xian-Jun; Gong, Chang-De; Zhou, Yuan
2010-07-01
We investigate the modulated patterns induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping based on the t-t-U-V model. Modulated checkerboard patterns with periodicity of eight or four lattice constants (8 a or 4 a) in the spin-, charge- and DSC orders are observed. Moreover, the checkerboard modulation in the spin order appear to be robust against parameter changes, which is consistent with neutron-scattering experiments. For the two-impurity case, a modulated stripe-like spin order with periodicity 8 a is induced, which coexists with the DSC order. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okabe, Y.; Nagi, A.D.S.
1983-01-01
The Shiba-Rusinov theory of magnetic impurities in a superconductor is investigated, with special attention paid to the role of the potential scattering term in the electron-impurity interaction. The meaning of Anderson's theorem in the Shiba-Rusinov theory is discussed
Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Xianjun
2011-01-01
Research Highlights: → We investigate striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs). → For the single-impurity and two-impurity cases, modulated checkerboard pattern and stripe-like structures are induced. → When more magnetic impurities are inserted, more complex modulated structures could be induced, including rectilinear and right-angled stripes and quantum-corral-like structures. → Impurities could induce complex striped morphologies in DSCs. - Abstract: We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t' - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors
Zuo, Xian-Jun
2011-05-01
We study striped morphologies induced by magnetic impurities in d-wave superconductors (DSCs) near optimal doping by self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations based on the t - t‧ - U - V model. For the single-impurity case, it is found that the stable ground state is a modulated checkerboard pattern. For the two-impurity case, the stripe-like structures in order parameters are induced due to the impurity-pinning effect. The modulations of DSC and charge orders share the same period of four lattice constants (4 a), which is half the period of modulations in the coexisting spin order. Interestingly, when three or more impurities are inserted, the impurities could induce more complex striped morphologies due to quantum interference. Further experiments of magnetic impurity substitution in DSCs are expected to check these results.
Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Inoue, J.; Asano, Y.
2005-01-01
Charge transport in the diffusive normal metal (DN)/insulator/s- and d-wave superconductor junctions is studied in the presence of magnetic impurities in DN in the framework of the quasiclassical Usadel equations with the generalized boundary conditions. The cases of s- and d-wave superconducting
Li, Jun; Ji, Min; Schwarz, Tobias; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Yuan, Jie; Pereira, Paulo J; Huang, Ya; Zhang, Gufei; Feng, Hai-Luke; Yuan, Ya-Hua; Hatano, Takeshi; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Yamaura, Kazunari; Wang, Hua-Bing; Wu, Pei-Heng; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Vanacken, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V
2015-07-03
The determination of the pairing symmetry is one of the most crucial issues for the iron-based superconductors, for which various scenarios are discussed controversially. Non-magnetic impurity substitution is one of the most promising approaches to address the issue, because the pair-breaking mechanism from the non-magnetic impurities should be different for various models. Previous substitution experiments demonstrated that the non-magnetic zinc can suppress the superconductivity of various iron-based superconductors. Here we demonstrate the local destruction of superconductivity by non-magnetic zinc impurities in Ba0.5K0.5Fe2As2 by exploring phase-slip phenomena in a mesoscopic structure with 119 × 102 nm(2) cross-section. The impurities suppress superconductivity in a three-dimensional 'Swiss cheese'-like pattern with in-plane and out-of-plane characteristic lengths slightly below ∼1.34 nm. This causes the superconducting order parameter to vary along abundant narrow channels with effective cross-section of a few square nanometres. The local destruction of superconductivity can be related to Cooper pair breaking by non-magnetic impurities.
Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Inoue, J.; Asano, Y.
2006-01-01
Charge transport in the diffusive normal metal/insulator/s-wave superconductor junctions is studied in the presence of the magnetic impurity for various situations, where we have used the Usadel equation with Nazarov's generalized boundary condition. It is revealed that the magnetic impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yavary, H.
2006-01-01
The magnetic penetration depth of a quasi-two dimensional d-wave superconductor in the presence of nonlineary, nonlocality, and impurity effects is investigated by using Green's function method. It is shown that a d-wave superconductor would inevitably avoid the violation of the Nernst theorem by creating a T 2 term in its penetration depth through a competition of nonlinear, nonlocal, and impurity effects and this system may be stable at low temperatures. I also show that in the impure sample at low temperatures, T < T * ∝ γ the impurity effect determines the temperature dependence of the penetration depth, i.e., nonlocal and nonlinear effects are completely masked by impurities
Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.; Tamaddonpour, M.
2013-10-01
The combined effect of nonmagnetic and magnetic impurities on the spin susceptibility of a noncentrosymmetrical superconductor by considering a Cooper pairing model with a two-component order parameter composed of spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing components is investigated. For clean superconductor CePt3Si, the low-temperature dependence (T →0) of spin susceptibility is linear which suggests that the gap function has line nodes, consistent with our gap model. We will show that in the presence of magnetic impurities the susceptibility does not vanish even in the absence of spin orbit coupling and in the region where the energy gap still is finite, and in the low concentration of magnetic impurities the spin susceptibility at zero temperature is proportional to impurity concentration.
Zeroth order phase transition in a holographic superconductor with single impurity
Zeng, Hua Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing
We investigate the single normal impurity effect in a superconductor by the holographic method. When the size of impurity is much smaller than the host superconductor, we can reproduce the Anderson theorem, which states that a conventional s-wave superconductor is robust to a normal (non-magnetic)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Y.; Hidaka, H.; Tamegai, T.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Non-magnetic impurities suppress T c and the amplitude of gaps in Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 . ► Critical scattering rate is higher than that expected in s ± -pairing scenario. ► The evolution of two distinct gaps dose not show merging the amplitude of gaps. -- Abstract: We report the suppression of T c and the evolution of amplitudes of the two gaps with the introduction of non-magnetic impurities in a two-gap superconductor Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 . While T c rapidly decreases by a small amount of substitution of Sc for Lu, the suppression of T c is more than ten times slower than that expected from the Abrikosov–Gor’kov equation describing the reduction of T c in a superconductor with sign reversal in the gap function. The evolution of two distinct gaps by the introduction of non-magnetic impurities does not show merging the amplitude of two gaps, which is strikingly different from the typical two-gap superconductor MgB 2
Impurities and conductivity in a D-wave superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balatsky, A.V.
1994-01-01
Impurity scattering in the unitary limit produces low energy quasiparticles with anisotropic spectrum in a two-dimensional d-wave superconductor. The authors describe a new quasi-one-dimensional limit of the quasiparticle scattering, which might occur in a superconductor with short coherence length and with finite impurity potential range. The dc conductivity in a d-wave superconductor is predicted to be proportional to the normal state scattering rate and is impurity-dependent. They show that quasi-one-dimensional regime might occur in high-T c superconductors with Zn impurities at low temperatures T approx-lt 10 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, J.B.; Smith, H.; Ono, Y.A.; Pethick, C.J.
1980-01-01
The charge imbalance generated in a current-carrying clean superconductor by a temperature gradient is calculated, assuming that non-magnetic or magnetic impurities are the only source of scattering. The charge imbalance is obtained from exact solutions of the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation, valid at any temperature and superfluid velocity. (author)
Theoretical study of impurity effects in iron-based superconductors
Navarro Gastiasoro, Maria; Hirschfeld, Peter; Andersen, Brian
2013-03-01
Several open questions remain unanswered for the iron-based superconductors (FeSC), including the importance of electronic correlations and the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Motivated by recent STM experiments which show a fascinating variety of resonant defect states in FeSC, we adopt a realistic five-band model including electronic Coulomb correlations to study local effects of disorder in the FeSC. In order to minimize the number of free parameters, we use the pairing interactions obtained from spin-fluctuation exchange to determine the homogeneous superconducting state. The ability of local impurity potentials to induce resonant states depends on their scattering strength Vimp; in addition, for appropriate Vimp, such states are associated with local orbital- and magnetic order. We investigate the density of states near such impurities and show how tunneling experiments may be used to probe local induced order. In the SDW phase, we show how C2 symmetry-breaking dimers are naturally formed around impurities which also form cigar-like (pi,pi) structures embedded in the (pi,0) magnetic bulk phase. Such electronic dimers have been shown to be candidates for explaining the so-called nematogens observed previously by QPI in Co-doped CaFe2As2.
High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets
van Nugteren, J.
2016-01-01
For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Xiang-Long, E-mail: xlyu@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Da-Yong; Quan, Ya-Min; Zheng, Xiao-Jun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, Liang-Jian, E-mail: zou@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • Effects of single interstitial impurity are studied in iron-based superconductors. • Bound states within the superconducting gap can be induced. • The interstitial impurity can induce a π phase shift of pairing order parameter. • For strong magnetic scattering the bound-state peak can appear at the Fermi level. - Abstract: We employ the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) formulation to investigate the effect of single interstitial nonmagnetic/magnetic impurity in iron-based superconductors with s ± -wave pairing symmetry. We find that both the nonmagnetic and magnetic impurities can induce bound states within the superconducting (SC) gap and a π phase shift of SC order parameter at the impurity site. However, different from the interstitial-nonmagnetic-impurity case characterized by two symmetric peaks with respect to zero energy, the interstitial magnetic one only induces single bound-state peak. In the strong scattering regime this peak can appear at the Fermi level, which has been observed in the recent scanning tunneling microscope (STM) experiment of Fe(Te,Se) superconductor with interstitial Fe impurities (Yin et al. 2015 [44]). This novel single in-gap peak feature also distinguishes the interstitial case from the substitutional one with two peaks. These results provide important information for comparing the different impurity effects in the iron-based superconductors.
Magnetic Scaling in Superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrie, I.D.
1997-01-01
The Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson superconductor in a magnetic field B is considered in the approximation that magnetic-field fluctuations are neglected. A formulation of perturbation theory is presented in which multiloop calculations fully retaining all Landau levels are tractable. A 2-loop calculation shows that, near the zero-field critical point, the singular part of the free energy scales as F sing ∼ |t| 2-α F(B|t| -2ν ), where ν is the coherence-length exponent emdash a result which has hitherto been assumed on purely dimensional grounds. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ainslie, M D; Fujishiro, H
2015-01-01
This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB 2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet–superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed. (topical review)
Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasnoperov E.P.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.
Phase transition in one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity
Zhi, Li-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Cui; Yi, Guang-Yu; Gong, Wei-Jiang
2018-04-01
This work focuses on one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity. And then, the Josephson phase transition is theoretically investigated, with the help of the exact diagonalization approach. It is found that even in the absence of intradot Coulomb interaction, the magnetic impurity can efficiently induce the phenomenon of Josephson phase transition, which is tightly related to the spin correlation manners (i.e., ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) between the impurity and the junction. Moreover, the impurity plays different roles when it couples to the dot and superconductor, respectively. This work can be helpful in describing the influence of one magnetic impurity on the supercurrent through the Josephson junction.
Photographing magnetic fields in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, R.B.; Wright, L.S.
Magneto-optic techniques coupled with high-speed photography are being used to study the destruction of superconductivity by a magnetic field. The phenomenon of superconductivity will be introduced with emphasis placed on the properties of type I and type II superconductors in a magnetic field. The Faraday effect and its application to the study of the penetration of magnetic fields into these superconductors will be described; the relative effectiveness of some types of paramagnetic glass will be demonstrated. A number of cinefilms will be shown to illustrate the versatility of the magneto-optic method for observing flux motion and patterns. The analysis of data obtained from a high speed film (10,200 fps) of a flux jump in Nb-Zr will be presented and discussed
High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets
AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc
2016-11-10
For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...
Neutron-scattering studies of magnetic superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, S.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Mook, H.A.; Pringle, O.A.
1982-01-01
Results obtained in the last few years obtained by neutron diffraction on the nature of the magnetic ordering in magnetic superconductors are reviewed. Emphasis is given to studies of the complex intermediate phase in ferromagnetic superconductors where both superconductivity and ferromagnetism appear to coexist
Recent status of superconductors for accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, A.F.
1992-01-01
A survey is given of superconductor wire and cable which has been or will be used for construction of dipole magnets for all of the large European and US superconducting accelerator rings. Included is a simplified view of the construction methods and operating requirements of an accelerator dipole magnet, with emphasis on required superconductor performance. The methods of fabricating Nb-Ti superconductors are described, including the critical parameters and materials requirements. The superconductor performance requirements are summarized in an effort to relate why these are important to accelerator designers. Some of the recently observed time dependent effects are covered briefly
Theory of s-wave superconductor containing impurities with retarded interaction with quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
K V Grigorishin
2014-01-01
We propose a perturbation theory and diagram technique for a disordered metal when scattering of quasiparticles by nonmagnetic impurities is caused with a retarded interaction. The perturbation theory generalizes a case of elastic scattering in a disordered metal. Eliashberg equations for s-wave superconductivity are generalized for such a disordered superconductor. Anderson's theorem is found to be violated in the sense that embedding of the impurities into an s-wave superconductor increases its critical temperature. We show that the amplification of superconducting properties is a result of nonelastic effects in a scattering by the impurities. (paper)
Magnetic properties of layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansky, P.A.
1993-01-01
The organic superconductors (BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(SNC) 2 and (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 , with T c = 10K and 1.2K, have layered and highly anisotropic crystal structures. This thesis describes AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on these materials which illustrate the consequences of the discrete layered structure for the magnetic properties of the superconducting state. A DC magnetic field applied parallel to the layers of either material causes the rapid suppression of the AC screening response, and this indicates that the pinning restoring force for vortex motion parallel to the layers is anomalously weak in this orientation. This is believed to be due to the small size of the interlayer coherence length relative to the layer spacing. A simple estimate based on the energy and length scales relevant to Josephson coupled layers gives the correct order of magnitude for the pinning force. Pinning for vortices oriented perpendicular to the layers is larger by a factor of 500 for BEDT and 25 for TMTSF. When the DC field is applied at an angle to the layers, the initial suppression of the susceptibility is identical to that for a field parallel to the layers; when the field component normal to the layers exceeds a threshold, a sharp recovery of screening occurs. These observations indicate that the field initially enters the sample only in the direction parallel to the layers. The recovery of screening signals field penetration in the perpendicular direction at higher field strength, and is due to the onset of pinning by in-plane vortex cores. This magnetic open-quotes lock-inclose quotes effect is a qualitatively new behavior and is a direct consequence of weak interlayer coupling. The London penetration depth associated with interlayer currents is found to be on the order of hundreds of microns, comparable to that of a Josephson junction, and two to three orders of magnitude larger than for conventional superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posske, Thore Hagen
2016-01-01
Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Posske, Thore Hagen
2016-02-26
Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.
Behaviour of magnetic superconductors in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzdin, A.I.
1984-01-01
The behaviour of magnetic superconductors with close ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures in a magnetic field is considered. It is shown that on lowering of the temperature the superconducting transition changes from a second to first order transition. The respective critical fields and dependence of the magnetization on the magnetic field and temperature are found. The magnetization discontinuity in the vortex core in magnetic superconductors is noted. Due to this property and the relatively large scattering cross section, magnetic superconductors are convenient for studying the superconducting vortex lattice by neutron diffraction techniques
Workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2004-01-01
The workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors has gathered 102 registered participants from research laboratories, universities and industry. 8 European companies, active in superconducting materials and cables were present. This workshop has been organized to deal with the status of the world research and development on superconducting materials and cables for high field magnets (B > 10 T). The workshop has also reviewed the status of high temperature superconductors and transmission line cables for potential use in low field superconducting magnets for injectors and beam transfer lines, as well as cables for pulsed magnets that might be used in future hadron colliders or injectors
Workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors. Proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2004-07-01
The workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors has gathered 102 registered participants from research laboratories, universities and industry. 8 European companies, active in superconducting materials and cables were present. This workshop has been organized to deal with the status of the world research and development on superconducting materials and cables for high field magnets (B > 10 T). The workshop has also reviewed the status of high temperature superconductors and transmission line cables for potential use in low field superconducting magnets for injectors and beam transfer lines, as well as cables for pulsed magnets that might be used in future hadron colliders or injectors.
Stability of magnets levitated above superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, L.C.; Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.
1988-01-01
The stability of a permanent magnet levitated above a slab of hard superconductor is considered. The force on a dipole magnet over a perfectly diamagnetic disk is calculated. It is found that the radial component of the force is directed outward and is 10%--20% of the image (vertical) force near the edge. Estimates of the magnetic friction force due to flux motion in a hard superconductor are made using Bean's model. The magnitude of the magnetic friction is large enough to stabilize the magnet over most of the disk for typical values of the critical current in ceramic superconductors (∼10 3 A/cm 2 ), but too small for the highest values reported (>10 6 A/cm 2 ). It is conjectured that flux trapping due to inhomogeneities gives rise to transient restoring forces
Variational method for magnetic impurities in metals: impurity pairs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oles, A M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.); Chao, K A [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Measurement Technology
1980-01-01
Applying a variational method to the generalized Wolff model, we have investigated the effect of impurity-impurity interaction on the formation of local moments in the ground state. The direct coupling between the impurities is found to be more important than the interaction between the impurities and the host conduction electrons, as far as the formation of local moments is concerned. Under certain conditions we also observe different valences on different impurities.
Magnetic moment formation due to arsenic vacancies in LaFeAsO-derived superconductors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kikoin, K.; Drechsler, S.L.; Koepernik, K.; Málek, Jiří; van den Brink, J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 5, Jul (2015), s. 11280 ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-temperature superconductivity, transition metal impurities * iron-based superconductors * pnictides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015
Magnetic impurity coupled to interacting conduction electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schork, T.
1996-01-01
We consider a magnetic impurity which interacts by hybridization with a system of weakly correlated electrons and determine the energy of the ground state by means of a 1/N f expansion. The correlations among the conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard Hamiltonian and are treated to the lowest order in the interaction strength. We find that their effect on the Kondo temperature, T K , in the Kondo limit is twofold: first, the position of the impurity level is shifted due to the reduction of charge fluctuations, which reduces T K . Secondly, the bare Kondo exchange coupling is enhanced as spin fluctuations are enlarged. In total, T K increases. Both corrections require intermediate states beyond the standard Varma-Yafet ansatz. This shows that the Hubbard interaction does not just provide quasiparticles, which hybridize with the impurity, but also renormalizes the Kondo coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Iron chalcogenide superconductors at high magnetic fields
Lei, Hechang; Wang, Kefeng; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Bozin, Emil S; Petrovic, Cedomir
2012-01-01
Iron chalcogenide superconductors have become one of the most investigated superconducting materials in recent years due to high upper critical fields, competing interactions and complex electronic and magnetic phase diagrams. The structural complexity, defects and atomic site occupancies significantly affect the normal and superconducting states in these compounds. In this work we review the vortex behavior, critical current density and high magnetic field pair-breaking mechanism in iron chalcogenide superconductors. We also point to relevant structural features and normal-state properties. PMID:27877518
Impurities in the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe13 (invited)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Willis, J.O.; Batlogg, B.; Ott, H.R.
1984-01-01
Small amounts of Sc, Lu, Gd, Np, Ce, Th, La, and Ba have been substituted for uranium in UBe 13 to observe their effects on the superconducting and normal state properties. The thorium, which was the most complete study, resulted in an extremely unusual nonmonotonic depression of the transition temperature for a nonmagnetic impurity. This comes from an interplay that exists between the lowest temperature resistivity peak and the transition temperature, as the peak is depressed. These results suggest that heavy Fermion superconductivity is only one of the possible ground states for heavy mass electron systems. All of the impurities tested resulted in a transition temperature depression
Numerical analysis of thermally actuated magnets for magnetization of superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Quan; Yan Yu; Rawlings, Colin; Coombs, Tim, E-mail: ql229@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street. Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2010-06-01
Superconductors, such as YBCO bulks, have extremely high potential magnetic flux densities, comparing to rare earth magnets. Therefore, the magnetization of superconductors has attracted broad attention and contribution from both academic research and industry. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to magnetize superconductors. Unusually, instead of using high magnetic fields and pulses, repeatedly magnetic waves with strength of as low as rare earth magnets are applied. These magnetic waves, generated by thermally controlling a Gadolinium (Gd) bulk with a rare earth magnet underneath, travel over the flat surface of a YBCO bulk and get trapped little by little. Thus, a very small magnetic field can be used to build up a very large magnetic field. In this paper, the modelling results of thermally actuated magnetic waves are presented showing how to transfer sequentially applied thermal pulses into magnetic waves. The experiment results of the magnetization of YBCO bulk are also presented to demonstrate how superconductors are progressively magnetized by small magnetic field
Numerical analysis of thermally actuated magnets for magnetization of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Quan; Yan Yu; Rawlings, Colin; Coombs, Tim
2010-01-01
Superconductors, such as YBCO bulks, have extremely high potential magnetic flux densities, comparing to rare earth magnets. Therefore, the magnetization of superconductors has attracted broad attention and contribution from both academic research and industry. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to magnetize superconductors. Unusually, instead of using high magnetic fields and pulses, repeatedly magnetic waves with strength of as low as rare earth magnets are applied. These magnetic waves, generated by thermally controlling a Gadolinium (Gd) bulk with a rare earth magnet underneath, travel over the flat surface of a YBCO bulk and get trapped little by little. Thus, a very small magnetic field can be used to build up a very large magnetic field. In this paper, the modelling results of thermally actuated magnetic waves are presented showing how to transfer sequentially applied thermal pulses into magnetic waves. The experiment results of the magnetization of YBCO bulk are also presented to demonstrate how superconductors are progressively magnetized by small magnetic field
Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.
2000-01-01
We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10 6 -10 7 A/cm 2 at high temperatures (but not very close to T c ) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulaevskii, L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CUNY Lehman College 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chudnovsky, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, CUNY Lehman College, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Maley, M. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2000-05-01
We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals
Hirsch, J. E.; Fye, R. M.
1986-01-01
The paper discusses a Monte Carlo algorithm to study properties of dilute magnetic alloys; the method can treat a small number of magnetic impurities interacting wiith the conduction electrons in a metal. Results for the susceptibility of a single Anderson impurity in the symmetric case show the expected universal behavior at low temperatures. Some results for two Anderson impurities are also discussed.
Magnetic properties of heavy-fermion superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauchschwalbe, U.
1986-01-01
In the present thesis the magnetic properties of heavy-fermion superconductors are investigated. The magnetoresistance and the critical magnetic fields show a variety of anomalous phenomena. The Kondo lattices CeCu 2 Si and CeAl 3 are analysed by magnetoresistance and the field dependence of the resistivitis of UBe 13 , UPt 3 , URu 2 Si 2 and CeRu 3 Si are measured for temperatures < or approx. 1 K. (BHO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsang, J.K.
1980-01-01
Tunneling measurements of quench-condensed In-Mn and Pb-Mn alloy films were made. The results were compared with Shiba's theory of superconductors containing magnetic impurities. The localized excited impurity states predicted by Shiba's theory were observed in both alloys. In addition to s-wave scattering, it was necessary to include p- and d-wave scattering of the conduction electrons in the theory in order to explain the experimental data. Partial agreement between the theory and the experimental data was obtained using phase shifts from band calculations by A.B. Kunz. The results on In-Mn also agree with thermal conductivity data
Resonant States in High-Temperature Superconductors with Impurities
Kovacevic, Z L; Hayn, R
2002-01-01
A microscopic theory of resonant states for the Zn-doped CuO_2 plane in superconducting phase is formulated within the effective t-J model. In the model derived from the original p-d model Zn impurities are considered as vacancies for the d states on Cu sites. In the superconducting phase in addition to the local static perturbation induced by the vacancy a dynamical perturbation appears which results in frequency-dependent perturbation matrix. By employing the T-matrix formalism for the Green functions in terms of the Hubbard operators the local density of electronic states with d-, p- and s-symmetry is calculated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
The chapter 6.3 p. 143 to 153 of this book deals with superconductors 19 items are briefly presented with address of manufacturer or laboratory to contact, mainly in the USA or Japan. In particular magnets, films, high temperature superconductors and various applications are presented [fr
Upper critical magnetic field of superconducting films with magnetic impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemberger, T.R.
1978-01-01
The upper critical magnetic field, H/sub c2/(T), of In-Mn and Pb-Mn alloy films was measured. H/sub c2/ was determined from the resistance of the films. The results were compared with the theory of Fulde and Maki. This theory assumes that the electron-phonon coupling is weak, and that the interaction between the impurity spins and the conduction electron spins is weak. The theory predicts that the pair-breaking effect of the magnetic impurities is temperature-independent, and that the pair-breaking effects of the magnetic impurities and the applied magnetic field are additive. Furthermore, it predicts explicitly the temperature dependence of H/sub c2/. The temperature dependence of H/sub c2/ for the In-Mn alloy films is well described by the Fulde-Maki theory, despite the moderately strong electron-phonon coupling and the strong interaction between the impurity spins and the conduction electron spins. The temperature dependence of H/sub c2/ for the Pb-Mn alloy films is not well described by the Fulde-Maki theory, probably due to the strong electron-phonon coupling in Pb. However, even without a quantitatively correct theory, one can conclude from the Pb-Mn data that the pair-breaking effect of the magnetic impurities is temperature independent, and that the pair-breaking effects of the magnetic impurities and the applied magnetic field are additive. For some of the Pb-Mn alloy films, there was a region of positive curvature in H/sub c2/(T) near the zero-field transition temperature. This positive curvature is not understood
High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets
AUTHOR|(CDS)2078397
2013-01-01
Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.
Effects of magnetic atoms on the properties of ternary superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunlap, B.D.; Shenoy, G.K.
1980-01-01
Until recently it has been commonly accepted that small impurities of magnetic atoms were severely detrimental to superconductivity, and that superconductivity and long-range magnetic ordering could not occur in the same materials. In known binary and pseudo-binary compounds, this is still the case. However, many recent experiments on ternary superconductors have shown that the effects of magnetism are considerably more complex. In some cases, the addition of magnetic atoms has been found to enhance superconducting properties by increasing the superconducting critical field, without significantly lowering the transition temperature. In many cases, compounds will show both superconducting and long range magnetic ordering transitions. The destruction of superconductivity by ferromagnetic ordering and the coexistence of superconductivity with antiferromagnetic ordering is now well established. Hyperfine interaction measurements have played a significant role in the investigations of these materials, including measurement of the magnitude of the exchange interaction between rare-earth spin and conduction electron spin, elucidation of the mechanism for critical field enhancement, specification of crystalline field ground states, and studies of the nature of magnetic ordering
Magnetic excitations in iron chalcogenide superconductors.
Kotegawa, Hisashi; Fujita, Masaki
2012-10-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron scattering experiments in iron chalcogenide superconductors are reviewed to make a survey of the magnetic excitations in FeSe, FeSe 1- x Te x and alkali-metal-doped A x Fe 2- y Se 2 ( A = K, Rb, Cs, etc). In FeSe, the intimate relationship between the spin fluctuations and superconductivity can be seen universally for the variations in the off-stoichiometry, the Co-substitution and applied pressure. The isovalent compound FeTe has a magnetic ordering with different wave vector from that of other Fe-based magnetic materials. The transition temperature T c of FeSe increases with Te substitution in FeSe 1- x Te x with small x , and decreases in the vicinity of the end member FeTe. The spin fluctuations are drastically modified by the Te substitution. In the vicinity of the end member FeTe, the low-energy part of the spin fluctuation is dominated by the wave vector of the ordered phase of FeTe; however, the reduction of T c shows that it does not support superconductivity. The presence of same wave vector as that of other Fe-based superconductors in FeSe 1- x Te x and the observation of the resonance mode demonstrate that FeSe 1- x Te x belongs to the same group as most of other Fe-based superconductors in the entire range of x , where superconductivity is mediated by the spin fluctuations whose wave vector is the same as the nesting vector between the hole pockets and the electron pockets. On the other hand, the spin fluctuations differ for alkali-metal-doped A x Fe 2- y Se 2 and FeSe or other Fe-based superconductors in their wave vector and strength in the low-energy part, most likely because of the different Fermi surfaces. The resonance mode with different wave vector suggests that A x Fe 2- y Se 2 has an exceptional superconducting symmetry among Fe-based superconductors.
A novel heat engine for magnetizing superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coombs, T A; Hong, Z; Zhu, X [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Krabbes, G [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)
2008-03-01
The potential of bulk melt-processed YBCO single domains to trap significant magnetic fields (Tomita and Murakami 2003 Nature 421 517-20; Fuchs et al 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2107-9) at cryogenic temperatures makes them particularly attractive for a variety of engineering applications including superconducting magnets, magnetic bearings and motors (Coombs et al 1999 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 968-71; Coombs et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 2312-5). It has already been shown that large fields can be obtained in single domain samples at 77 K. A range of possible applications exist in the design of high power density electric motors (Jiang et al 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 1164-8). Before such devices can be created a major problem needs to be overcome. Even though all of these devices use a superconductor in the role of a permanent magnet and even though the superconductor can trap potentially huge magnetic fields (greater than 10 T) the problem is how to induce the magnetic fields. There are four possible known methods: (1) cooling in field; (2) zero field cooling, followed by slowly applied field; (3) pulse magnetization; (4) flux pumping. Any of these methods could be used to magnetize the superconductor and this may be done either in situ or ex situ. Ideally the superconductors are magnetized in situ. There are several reasons for this: first, if the superconductors should become demagnetized through (i) flux creep, (ii) repeatedly applied perpendicular fields (Vanderbemden et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 (17)) or (iii) by loss of cooling then they may be re-magnetized without the need to disassemble the machine; secondly, there are difficulties with handling very strongly magnetized material at cryogenic temperatures when assembling the machine; thirdly, ex situ methods would require the machine to be assembled both cold and pre-magnetized and would offer significant design difficulties. Until room temperature superconductors can be prepared, the
A novel heat engine for magnetizing superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coombs, T A; Hong, Z; Zhu, X; Krabbes, G
2008-01-01
The potential of bulk melt-processed YBCO single domains to trap significant magnetic fields (Tomita and Murakami 2003 Nature 421 517-20; Fuchs et al 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2107-9) at cryogenic temperatures makes them particularly attractive for a variety of engineering applications including superconducting magnets, magnetic bearings and motors (Coombs et al 1999 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 968-71; Coombs et al 2005 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15 2312-5). It has already been shown that large fields can be obtained in single domain samples at 77 K. A range of possible applications exist in the design of high power density electric motors (Jiang et al 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 1164-8). Before such devices can be created a major problem needs to be overcome. Even though all of these devices use a superconductor in the role of a permanent magnet and even though the superconductor can trap potentially huge magnetic fields (greater than 10 T) the problem is how to induce the magnetic fields. There are four possible known methods: (1) cooling in field; (2) zero field cooling, followed by slowly applied field; (3) pulse magnetization; (4) flux pumping. Any of these methods could be used to magnetize the superconductor and this may be done either in situ or ex situ. Ideally the superconductors are magnetized in situ. There are several reasons for this: first, if the superconductors should become demagnetized through (i) flux creep, (ii) repeatedly applied perpendicular fields (Vanderbemden et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 (17)) or (iii) by loss of cooling then they may be re-magnetized without the need to disassemble the machine; secondly, there are difficulties with handling very strongly magnetized material at cryogenic temperatures when assembling the machine; thirdly, ex situ methods would require the machine to be assembled both cold and pre-magnetized and would offer significant design difficulties. Until room temperature superconductors can be prepared, the
Magnetization effects from the g-2 inflector magnet superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.; Meng, W.
1994-01-01
The g-2 muon storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory will have a 1.7 meter long superconducting inflector magnet for injection of the muon beam into the storage ring. The field within the inflector is designed to be nearly zero. The inflector bucks out the main dipole field, but generates little or no stray field of its own. A portion of the field that remains is the field that is generated by circulating currents in the inflector magnet superconductor. Because the magnetization field has a different structure from field generated by the transport current, the magnetization field can adversely affect the field quality within the muon storage ring good field region. Correction of the effects of inflector superconductor magnetization and its effect on the good field region in the storage ring is discussed
Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states
Whitmore, M. D.; Carbotte, J. P.
1982-06-01
We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron-electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(ɛ), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T c by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(ɛ) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak.
Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitmore, M.D.; Carbotte, J.P.
1982-01-01
We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron--electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(epsilon-c), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T/sub c/ by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(epsilon-c) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak
Superconductor technology for fusion magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dustmann, C.H.; Juengst, K.P.; Komarek, P.; Krafft, G.; Krauth, H.; Maier, P.; Ries, G.; Schauer, W.; Schmidt, C.; Seibt, E.; Turowski, P.
1976-11-01
The development of advanced suoerconductors for magnets in fusion experiments is an essential problem. In this report the parameters of a big Tokamak magnet system are presented and the resulting constraints for the conductor are given. Comparing this constraints with the state of the art of the magnet and conductor technology, the goals of the needed conductor development are defined. Existing conductor concepts are described. Based on considerations on the main problems (cooling concepts, mechanical stress analysis, stabilization, ac-losses) a concept of an economically feasable and cryogenically stabilized flat cable conductor is developed. Typical parameters of a 10 kA conductor with NbTi at 8 T are given. The experimental investigations needed for the conductor development are discussed. Existing devices for measurements of Isub(c), ac-losses and the behaviour of the conductor under mechanical stress are described and typical experimental results are presented. The need of the completion of the measuring devices and programmes is stressed. The construction of a versatile conductor test facility is proposed. (orig.) [de
Yoshida, N; Itoh, H; Tanaka, Y; Inoue, J I; Kashiwaya, S
2003-01-01
Effects of impurity-scattering on a zero-bias conductance peak in ferromagnet/insulator/d-wave superconductor junctions are theoretically studied. The impurities are introduced through the random potential in ferromagnets near the junction interface. As in the case of normal-metal/insulator/d-wave superconductor junctions, the magnitude of zero-bias conductance peak decreases with increasing the degree of disorder. However, when the magnitude of the exchange potential in ferromagnet is sufficiently large, the random potential can enhance the zero-bias conductance peak in ferromagnetic junctions. (author)
In-gap bound states induced by interstitial Fe impurities in iron-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Degang, E-mail: degangzhang@yahoo.com
2015-12-15
Highlights: • We provide an explanation for the interesting STM observation of the robust zero energy bound state on the interstitial Fe impurities in iron-based superconductors. - Abstract: Based on a two-orbit four-band tight binding model, we investigate the low-lying electronic states around the interstitial excess Fe ions in the iron-based superconductors by using T-matrix approach. It is shown that the local density of states at the interstitial Fe impurity (IFI) possesses a strong resonance inside the gap, which seems to be insensitive to the doping and the pairing symmetry in the Fe–Fe plane, while a single or two resonances appear at the nearest neighboring (NN) Fe sites. The location and height of the resonance peaks only depend on the hopping t and the pairing parameter Δ{sub I} between the IFI and the NN Fe sites. These in-gap resonances are originated in the Andreev’s bound states due to the quasiparticle tunneling through the IFI, leading to the change of the magnitude of the superconducting order parameter. When both t and Δ{sub I} are small, this robust zero-energy bound state near the IFI is consistent with recent scanning tunneling microscopy observations.
Axial force in a superconductor magnet journal bearing
Postrekhin, E.; Chong, Wang; Ki Bui, Ma; Chen, Quark; Chu, Wei-Kan
Using superconductors and magnets, a journal bearing could be made from a permanent magnet cylinder in a superconductor ring. We have assembled a prototype superconductor magnet journal bearing of this configuration, and investigated the behavior of the axial force that it can provide. We have put together a numerical model of the interaction between the permanent magnet and the superconductor that is capable of describing these experimental results semi-quantitatively. Combining direct experimental measurements and using the numerical models proposed, we have achieved a qualitative understanding of the behavior of the axial force and its relationship of to the dimensions of the magnet and material quality such as the homogeneity of the superconductor that constitute the bearing.
Static Magnetic Cloak without a Superconductor
Jiang, Wei; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing
2018-05-01
Similar to its electromagnetic counterpart, magnetic cloaking also has very important technological applications. However, the traditional method to build a static magnetic cloak requires the use of superconducting materials as the diamagnetic component, which seriously limits the practical potential because of the cryogenic condition. We show that a diamagnetic active current boundary combined with a high-permeability magnetic inner shell (MIS) can be designed to solve this problem, rendering an ideal magnetic cloaking effect at zero frequency. We first theoretically prove that a current boundary could magnetically behave as a superconductor to external observers. Based on this phenomena, we introduce a high-permeability MIS made of magnetically ultrasoft metallic sheets (permeability μ >103 ) and experimentally prove that the bilayer combination can exactly balance out the disturbance to the external probing field and, meanwhile, have a large invisible inner space. We also show that the active boundary currents can be accordingly configured to overcome the permeability and frequency band limits, leading to a robust cloak over the entire quasistatic frequency region. Our work creates an efficient way to circumvent the traditional limits of metamaterials to build magnetic cloaks for ultralow frequencies. The active-passive hybrid approach could be generally extended to yield other artificial magnetic devices or systems as well.
Classical impurity ion confinement in a toroidal magnetized fusion plasma.
Kumar, S T A; Den Hartog, D J; Caspary, K J; Magee, R M; Mirnov, V V; Chapman, B E; Craig, D; Fiksel, G; Sarff, J S
2012-03-23
High-resolution measurements of impurity ion dynamics provide first-time evidence of classical ion confinement in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma. The density profile evolution of fully stripped carbon is measured in MST reversed-field pinch plasmas with reduced magnetic turbulence to assess Coulomb-collisional transport without the neoclassical enhancement from particle drift effects. The impurity density profile evolves to a hollow shape, consistent with the temperature screening mechanism of classical transport. Corroborating methane pellet injection experiments expose the sensitivity of the impurity particle confinement time to the residual magnetic fluctuation amplitude.
Dzhumanov, S.; Karimboev, E. X.
2014-07-01
In this paper, we show that the pseudogap in the excitation spectra of high-Tc cuprates together with the impurity phase and charge inhomogeneity plays key roles in determining the essential features of their anomalous specific heat properties observed above Tc. We consider the doped cuprate superconductor as a multi-carrier model system (which consists of intrinsic and extrinsic polarons and pre-formed bosonic Cooper pairs) and study the competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state electronic specific heat of high-Tc cuprates taking into account charge inhomogeneities. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the precursor Cooper pairing in the polaronic band below a mean-field temperature T∗ and the existence of a pseudogap above Tc in the cuprates. The electronic specific heat Ce(T) of doped cuprates below T∗ is calculated taking into account three contributions coming from the excited components of Cooper pairs, the ideal Bose-gas of incoherent Cooper pairs and the unpaired carriers in the impurity band. Above T∗, two contributions to Ce(T) coming from the unpaired intrinsic and extrinsic polarons are calculated within the two-component degenerate Fermi-gas model. By comparing our results with the experimental Ce(T) data obtained for La- and Y-based cuprates, we find that the observed behaviors of Ce(T) (below and above T∗) are similar to the calculated results for Ce(T) and the BCS-type jumps of Ce(T) at T∗ may be depressed by the impurity effects and may become more or less pronounced BCS-type anomalies in Ce(T) .
Magnetic states of single impurity in disordered environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.W. Ponedilok
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The charged and magnetic states of isolated impurities dissolved in amorphous metallic alloy are investigated. The Hamiltonian of the system under study is the generalization of Anderson impurity model. Namely, the processes of elastic and non-elastic scattering of conductive electrons on the ions of a metal and on a charged impurity are included. The configuration averaged one-particle Green's functions are obtained within Hartree-Fock approximation. A system of self-consistent equations is given for calculation of an electronic spectrum, the charged and the spin-polarized impurity states. Qualitative analysis of the effect of the metallic host structural disorder on the observed values is performed. Additional shift and broadening of virtual impurity level is caused by a structural disorder of impurity environment.
Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson, D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.
1988-01-01
Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c/ 1 is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model
Method of plasma impurity control without magnetic divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schivell, J.F.
1977-06-01
A method is proposed for controlling impurity generation in a tokomak by skimming and pumping the scrape-off. This method avoids many of the complications of a magnetic divertor, such as specially configured magnetic fields, toroidal symmetry, and inefficient use of toroidal field volume. Estimates are given for operating parameters. Impurity reductions of as much as a factor of 10 should be achievable. The necessary high-capacity pump would employ either titanium gettering or cryocondensation
Stability of magnetic tip/superconductor levitation systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alqadi, M. K.
2015-01-01
The vertical stability of a magnetic tip over a superconducting material is investigated by using the critical state and the frozen image models. The analytical expressions of the stiffness and the vibration frequency about the equilibrium position are derived in term of the geometrical parameters of the magnet/superconductor system. It is found that the stability of the system depends on the shape of the superconductor as well as its thickness. (paper)
Magnetic irreversibility in granular superconductors: ac susceptibility study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, F.; Obradors, X.; Fontcuberta, J.; Vallet, M.; Gonzalez-Calbet, J.
1991-01-01
Ac susceptibility measurements of a ceramic weak-coupled superconductor in very low ac fields (2mG, 111Hz) are reported. We present evidence for the observation of the magnetic irreversibility following a ZFC-FC thermal cycling by means of ac susceptibilty measurements. It is shown that this technique also reflect local magnetic field effects in granular superconductors, as previously suggested in microwave surface resistance and I-V characteristics. (orig.)
Exotic magnetic states in Pauli-limited superconductors.
Kenzelmann, M
2017-03-01
Magnetism and superconductivity compete or interact in complex and intricate ways. Here we review the special case where novel magnetic phenomena appear due to superconductivity, but do not exist without it. Such states have recently been identified in unconventional superconductors. They are different from the mere coexistence of magnetic order and superconductivity in conventional superconductors, or from competing magnetic and superconducting phases in many materials. We describe the recent progress in the study of such exotic magnetic phases, and articulate the many open questions in this field.
Proposal of Magnetic Circuit using Magnetic Shielding with Bulk-Type High Tc Superconductors
Fukuoka, Katsuhiro; Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Tomita, Masaru; Murakami, Masato
Recently, bulk-type high Tc superconductors having a characteristic of critical current density over 104 A/cm2 in liquid nitrogen temperature (77K) on 1T, can be produced. They are promising for many practical applications such as a magnetic bearing, a magnetic levitation, a flywheel, a magnetic shielding and others. In this research, we propose a magnetic circuit that is able to use for the magnetic shield of plural superconductors as an application of bulk-type high Tc superconductors. It is a closed magnetic circuit by means of a toroidal core. Characteristics of the magnetic circuit surrounded with superconductors are evaluated and the possibility is examined. As the magnetic circuit of the ferrite core is surrounded with superconductors, the magnetic flux is shielded even if it leaked from the ferrite core.
Probing High Temperature Superconductors with Magnetometry in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Lu [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2017-07-26
The objective of this research is to investigate the high-field magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors, materials that conduct electricity without loss. A technique known as high-resolution torque magnetometry that was developed to directly measure the magnetization of high temperature superconductors. This technique was implemented using the 65 Tesla pulsed magnetic field facility that is part of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research addressed unanswered questions about the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, determine the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors, and shed light on the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity and on potential applications of these materials in areas such as energy generation and power transmission. Further applications of the technology resolve the novel physical phenomena such as correlated topological insulators, and spin liquid state in quantum magnets.
Supercold technique duplicates magnetic field in second superconductor
Hildebrandt, A. F.
1964-01-01
A superconductor cylinder, charged with a high magnetic field, can be used to create a similar field in a larger cylinder. The uncharged cylinder is precooled, lowered into a helium dewar system, and fitted around the cylinder with the magnetic field. Magnetic flux lines pass through the two cylinders.
Nuclear relaxation in semiconductors doped with magnetic impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mel'nichuk, S.V.; Tovstyuk, N.K.
1984-01-01
The temperature and concentration dependences are investigated of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time with account of spin diffusion for degenerated and non-degenerated semicon- ductors doped with magnetic impurities. In case of the non-degenerated semiconductor the time is shown to grow with temperature, while in case of degenerated semiconductor it is practically independent of temperature. The impurity concentration growth results in decreasing the spin-lattice relaxation time
Temperature measurement of RE123 bulk superconductors on magnetizing process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoyama, K.; Kaneyama, M.; Oka, T.; Fujishiro, H.; Noto, K.
2004-01-01
We study on the magnetization behavior of to magnetize RE123 bulk superconductors to apply it as strong magnets. Through magnetizing process, the temperature of bulk superconductors is raised by pinning loss caused by the magnetic fluxes motion (e.g. flux jump of flux flow), and the trapped field is decreased. This paper presents the measurement of temperature changes of Sm123 bulk superconductors during the exciting process by iteratively magnetizing pulsed-field operation with reducing amplitudes (IMRA) method. Five thermocouples are put on the surface of Sm123 bulk superconductor of 46 mm in diameter. The temperatures at the center, on the growth sector boundary (GSB) line and in the sector region surrounded by GSB's line (inter-GSB region) are monitored. The temperature at a cold stage is also measured. A Hall sensor is attached near the center thermocouple to measure the trapped field. After a bulk superconductor is cooled by the GM type refrigerator until 40 K, iterative pulsed-fields of 2.32-5.42 T are applied by a magnetizing coil. When high magnetic field of 5.42 T is applied, a temperature of bulk superconductor reaches to 72.4 K and the magnetic field distribution has C form with which a part of circle is dented, and then, a trapped field is 2.28 T. When a lower magnetic field of 4.64 T is applied, a maximum temperature is 68.3 K and a trapped field is raised to 2.70 T, and moreover, the distribution becomes round shape like field-cooling method (FC). We showed clearly that heat generation by pinning loss was related to the mechanism of magnetic field capture
Workshop on Accelerator Magnet Superconductors, Design and Optimization
WAMSDO Workshop
2009-01-01
This report contains the proceedings of the CARE-HHH-AMT Workshop on Accelerator Magnet Superconductors, Design and Optimization (WAMSDO) held at CERN from 19 to 23 May 2008. The needs in terms of superconducting magnets for the accelerator projects were discussed, mainly for the LHC interaction regions and injector upgrades, and for the GSI FAIR complex. The first part of the workshop focused on the development of superconductor and cables, i.e., low-loss Nb-Ti cables, Nb$_{3}$Sn and high-temperature superconductors. An industry session summarized the actual plans and status of the activities in the main European industries. Then, a worldwide status of the high field magnets programme was presented. A special session was devoted to fast cycled magnets, including FAIR facilities and LHC injector upgrades. A final session focused on the optimization methods and numerical tools for magnet design.
Lateral restoring force on a magnet levitated above a superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, L.C.
1990-01-01
The lateral restoring force on a magnet levitated above a superconductor is calculated as a function of displacement from its original position at rest using Bean's critical-state model to describe flux pinning. The force is linear for small displacements and saturates at large displacements. In the absence of edge effects the force always attracts the magnet to its original position. Thus it is a restoring force that contributes to the stability of the levitated magnet. In the case of a thick superconductor slab, the origin of the force is a magnetic dipole layer consisting of positive and negative supercurrents induced on the trailing side of the magnet. The qualitative behavior is consistent with experiments reported to date. Effects due to the finite thickness of the superconductor slab and the granular nature of high-T c materials are also considered
Magnetization studies in high temperature and conventional superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grover, A.K.; Chaddah, P.
1991-01-01
In this paper, the authors state the contemporary view of the physical basis of a celebrated phenomenological model for hard superconductors. The authors highlight the qualitative and general predictions of this model relevant to various magnetic measurements. The authors give prescriptions to correlate data of different experiments with the predictions of the model with the intention of extracting information on material parameters, like J c (H), pinning potential, etc. These prescriptions will be illustrated with the data on both conventional and HTSC superconductors. The correlation of these data with the predictions of the model underscores the similarity in behaviour between the two classes of hard superconductors
Magnetic memory effects in high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rockenbauer, A.
1989-01-01
Microwave absorption of high temperature oxide superconductors MBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (M = Y, Er, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tm, Gd) at 77 K have been studied by ESR. In granular samples diamagnetic zero-field resonance and strong ESR baseline hysteresis have been observed: for increasing field sweep - a high, for decreasing one - a low, while in constant field the baseline approaches the middle position with kinetics typical of spin-glasses. The hysteresis amplitude, i.e. the deviation of high and low baselines, possesses maximum at zero field if the sample is cooled down in zero field. In case of field cooling both the diamagnetic resonance and hysteresis maximum are shifted as a function of relative direction of the fields where the samples are cooled and measured, respectively. The shift is caused by the remanent diamagnetism of trapped fluxons. The hysteresis critically depends on the modulation amplitude of magnetic field, and no hysteresis can be observed if the microwave absorption is detected without field modulation. By applying saw-tooth sweep the spin-glass can be driven between two extreme hysteresis states, and the ESR response is rectangular for large saw-tooth amplitude and linear - for small one, while for intermediate amplitudes the recording shows characteristic memory effects. The hysteresis memory is explained in terms of loop distribution of fluxons. In the single crystal the fluxon absorptions are also detected and the separation of fluxon lines can be related to the hysteresis in granular samples. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1991-05-01
Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs
Correction of magnetization sextupole in one-meter long dipole magnets using passing superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Gilbert, W.S.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.
1990-03-01
The generation of higher multipoles due to the magnetization of the superconductor in the dipoles of the SSC is a problem during injection of the beam into the machine. The use of passive superconductor was proposed some years ago to correct the magnetization sextupole in the dipole magnet. This paper presents the LBL test results in which the magnetization sextupole was greatly reduced in two one-meter long dipole magnets by the use of passive superconductor mounted on the magnet bore tube. The magnetization sextupole was reduced a factor of five on one magnet and a factor of eight on the other magnet using this technique. Magnetization decapole was also reduced by the passive superconductor. The passive superconductor method of correction also reduced the temperature dependence of the magnetization multipoles. In addition, the drift in the magnetization sextupole due to flux creep was also reduced. Passive superconductor correction appears to be a promising method of correcting out the effects of superconductor magnetization in SSC dipoles and quadrupoles. 10 refs., 6 figs
High critical magnetic field superconductor La3S4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerholt, K.; Bach, H.; Wendemuth, R.; Methfessel, S.
1979-01-01
A report is presented on electrical conductivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements on La 3 S 4 single crystals. The results show that La 3 S 4 is a strong coupling superconductor with a BCS coherence length of 132 A. This extremely low value makes La 3 S 4 an intrinsic high critical magnetic field superconductor with a Landau-Ginsburg parameter of 20. For the temperature gradient of the upper critical magnetic field at the transition temperature values are found up to 35 kG/K. (author)
Magnetic field penetration into superconductors with sharp edges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhilichev, Yuriy N.
2003-01-01
The magnetic field and surface currents induced within a superconductor are calculated assuming the field penetrates in it near sharp corners. Rounding the corners is used to keep the field less than a critical value. Analytical formulas for a corner radius are given for a wire of the rectangular cross-section and a cylinder in the external magnetic field. A boundary integral method is used to calculate the boundary of the Meissner domain when the external field penetrates deep into the superconductor. The effect of degree of penetration on the magnetic moment of superconducting cylinders and wires is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekin, J.W.
1983-01-01
This chapter attempts to provide an introductory guide to interpreting handbook data on practical, high-current, superconducting materials, principally for magnet applications. An overview is given of the properties and operational limits of superconductive materials, as well as techniques used to fabricate practical superconducting wires. Topics considered include critical temperature, critical magnetic field, Type I and Type II superconductors, upper critical field values for practical materials, the temperature dependence of critical field and upper critical field, critical current, critical current density values for practical materials, the measurement of critical current, composite fabrication, stability, ac losses, eddy current loss, hysteretic loss, mechanical properties, critical current degradation, and superconducting materals selection and composite design
Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemann, R. C.
1998-01-01
The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping
Controlling the flux dynamics in superconductors by nanostructured magnetic arrays
Kapra, Andrey
In this thesis we investigate theoretically how the critical current jc of nano-engineered mesoscopic superconducting film can be improved and how one can control the dynamics of the magnetic flux, e.g., the transition from flux-pinned to flux-flow regime, using arrays of magnetic nanostructures. In particularly we investigate: (1) Vortex transport phenomena in superconductors with deposited ferromagnetic structures on top, and the influence of the sample geometry on the critical parameters and on the vortex configurations. Changing geometry of the magnetic bars and magnetization of the bars will affect the critical current jc of the superconducting film. Such nanostructured ferromagnets strongly alter the vortex structure in its neighborhood. The influence of geometry, position and magnetization of the ferromagnet (single bar or regular lattice of the bars) on the critical parameters of the superconductor is investigated. (2) Effect of flux confinement in narrow superconducting channels with zigzag-shaped banks: the flux motion is confined in the transverse (perpendicular) direction of a diamond-cell-shape channel. The matching effect for the magnetic flux is found in the system relevantless of boundary condition. We discuss the dynamics of vortices in the samples and vortex pattern formation in the channel. We show how the inclusion of higher-Tc superconductor into the sample can lead to enhanced properties of the system. By adding an external driving force, we study the vortex dynamics. The different dynamic regimes are discussed. They allowed an effective control of magnetic flux in superconductors.
Magnetic relaxation, flux pinning and critical currents in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtenberger, K.S.
1991-01-01
A systematic study of the magnetic flux pinning properties in superconductors has been undertaken in an attempt to understand the differences between the flux creep behavior of classical superconductors and high-temperature superconductors (HTSC's). In HTSC's, the ratio of the effective flux pinning energy to the thermal energy, U 0 /kT, is much smaller than that of conventional superconductors, often approaching unity. This results in much larger creep rates in HTSC's than in conventional superconductors. It is necessary to find suitable models that describe flux creep in both classical superconductors and HTSC's. Results show that while these two classes of materials are quantitatively very different, a single pinning barrier mode adequately describes both, within the proper region of the H-T plane. The model is applied to a variety of superconductors and the results are contrasted. Although the H-T plane appears to be very different HTSC's than for conventional superconductors, qualitatively the same physics describes both. In HTSC's, near the upper critical field there exists a relatively wide region of superconducting fluctuations, followed successively by regions of thermodynamic reversibility, thermally assisted flux, flux creep, and finally rigid flux lattice where little, if any, motion of the flux lattice occurs. All of these regions are also present in conventional superconductors, but often much more difficult, especially the irreversibility transition and the fluctuation region. The central finding of the flux creep analysis is that the region of flux creep is defined as a band in the H-T plane in which 2 ≤ U 0 /kT ≤ 100, and that the flux creep model applies best within this band
Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in a light emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different ...
Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and ...
Tuning emergent magnetism in a Hund's impurity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Khajetoorians, A.A.; Valentyuk, M.; Steinbrecher, M.; Schlenk, T.; Shick, Alexander; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Lichtenstein, A.I.; Wehling, T.O.; Wiesendanger, R.; Wiebe, J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 11 (2015), s. 958-U195 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-05872J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * Kondo effect * strong electron correlations * scanning tunnelling microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 35.267, year: 2015
Antimagnets: controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Prat-Camps, Jordi; Chen Duxing
2011-01-01
Magnetism is very important in various areas of science and technology, ranging from magnetic recording through energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism-to create and manipulate magnetic fields-almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property that has been elusive until now: how to 'switch off' the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design that conceals the magnetic response of a given volume from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields, in some respects analogous to recent theoretical proposals for cloaking electromagnetic waves with metamaterials. However, unlike these devices, which require extreme material properties, our device is feasible and needs only two kinds of available materials: superconductors and isotropic magnetic materials. Antimagnets may have applications in magnetic-based medical techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or in reducing the magnetic signature of vessels or planes.
Impurity effects on the magnetic ordering in chromium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishman, R.S.
1992-05-01
It is well-known that impurities profoundly alter the magnetic properties of chromium. While vanadium impurities suppress the Neel temperature T N , manganese impurities enhanced T N substantially. As evidenced by neutron scattering experiments, doping with as little as 0.2% vanadium changes the transition from weakly first order to second order. Young and Sokoloff explained that the first-order transition in pure chromium is caused by a charge-density wave which is the second harmonic of the spin-density wave. By examining the subtle balance between the spin-density and charge- density wave terms in the mean-field free energy, we find that the first-order transition is destroyed when the vanadium concentration exceeds about 0.15%, in agreement with experiments
High-T/sub c/ superconductor and its use in superconducting magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1988-02-01
Many of the proposed uses for the high-T/sub c/ superconductor involve the creation of a magnetic field using superconducting coils. This report will assess what is known about the high-T/sub c/ superconductors and take a realistic look at their potential use in various kinds of superconducting magnets. Based on what is known about the high-T/sub c/ superconductors, one can make a ''wish list'' of things that will make such materials useful for magnets. Then, the following question is asked. If one had a high-T/sub c/ superconductor with the same properties as modern niobium-titanium superconductor, how would the superconductor work in a magnet environment? Finally, this report will show the potential impact of the ideal high-T/sub c/ superconductor on: 1) accelerator dipole and quadrupole magnets, 2) superconducting magnets for use in space, and 3) superconducting solenoids for magnetic resonance imaging. 78 refs., 11 tabs
Comparative study of magnetization in conventional and high Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkissian, B.V.B.; Grover, A.K.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paulose, P.L.; Vijayaraghavan, R.
1989-01-01
Results of a comparative study of thermomagnetic history effects and anomalous variations in isothermal magnetization hysteresis curves in a High T compound (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ) with two specimens of Nb are presented. They show that the former behaves like any hard type c II superconductor
Device for investigation of magnetic flux jumps in ribbon superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, A.V.; Bashkirov, Yu.A.; Kremlev, M.G.
1986-01-01
A device for simulation of magnetic flux jumps in superconductors of conducting magnet sandwich-type windings super-applyed of a ribbon conductor is described. A superconducting magnet with a measuring cassetter are the main elements of the device. An external magnetic field is generated by a two-sectional superconducting magnet permitting to simulate the shape of the magnetic field characteristic for sandwich-type windings. Maximum radial component of the magnetic field is 2 T. Jumps of the magnetic flux are recorded by induction transducers and the magnetic field-by Hall trasducer. The effect of coating of standard metal on magnetic flux jumps in Nb 3 Sn base superconducting ribbon is considered
Superconductor Requirements and Characterization for High Field Accelerator Magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barzi, E.; Zlobin, A. V.
2015-05-01
The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics (HEP) endorses a continued world leadership role in superconducting magnet technology for future Energy Frontier Programs. This includes 10 to 15 T Nb_{3}Sn accelerator magnets for LHC upgrades and a future 100 TeV scale pp collider, and as ultimate goal that of developing magnet technologies above 20 T based on both High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) for accelerator magnets. To achieve these objectives, a sound conductor development and characterization program is needed and is herein described. This program is intended to be conducted in close collaboration with U.S. and International labs, Universities and Industry.
High temperature superconductors for fusion magnets -influence of neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudy, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.
2010-01-01
In this work authors present the results of study of influence of neutron irradiation of high temperature superconductors for fusion magnets. High temperature superconductors (type of YBCO (Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxygen)) are strong candidates to be applied in the next step of fusion devices. Defects induced by fast neutrons are effective pinning centres, which can significantly improve critical current densities and reduce J c anisotropy. Due to induced lattice disorder, T c is reduced. Requirements for ITER (DEMO) are partially achieved at 64 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite, R.V.; Oliveira Filho, L.O. de; Milton Pereira, J.; Cottam, M.G.; Costa Filho, R.N.
2009-01-01
A Green's function method is used to obtain the spectrum of spin excitations associated with a linear array of magnetic impurities implanted in a ferromagnetic thin film. The equations of motion for the Green's functions of the anisotropic film are written in the framework of the Ising model in a transverse field. The frequencies of localized modes are calculated as a function of the interaction parameters for the exchange coupling between impurity-spin pairs, host-spin pairs, and impurity-host neighbors, as well as the effective field parameter at the impurity sites.
Magnetic properties of metallic impurities with strongly correlated electrons
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janiš, Václav; Ringel, Matouš
2009-01-01
Roč. 115, č. 1 (2009), s. 30-35 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : And erson impurity * strong electron correlations * spin-polarized solution * three-channel parquet equations * magnetic field Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.433, year: 2009 http://przyrbwn.icm.edu.pl/APP/ABSTR/115/a115-1-5.html
Magnetic flux distributions in chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Masaru, E-mail: kato@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Fukui, Saoto [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Osaka Prefecture University College of Technology, 26-12, Saiwaicho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8572 (Japan); Togawa, Yoshihiko [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Vortex states in a chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayer are investigated. • Vortex and anti-vortex appears depending on strength of helimagnet. • Vortex is elongated under a gradient field. • Vortices form a undulated triangular lattice. - Abstarct: Vortex states in a chiral helimagnet/superconductor bilayer are investigated numerically, using the Ginzburg–Landau equations with the finite element method. In this bilayer, effect of the chiral helimagnet on the superconductor is taken as an external field. Magnetic field distribution can be controlled by an applied field to the bilayer. It is shown that a single vortex in a gradient field is elongated along the field gradient. In zero applied field, there are up- and down vortices which are parallel or antiparallel to the z-axis, respectively. But increasing the applied field, down-vortices disappear and up-vortices form undulated triangular lattices.
Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2014-07-21
Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.
Instability in the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Isaías G. de
2015-01-01
Under the view of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory we have investigated the penetration of the magnetic field in the type II superconductors. We show that the single vortices, situated along the borderline, between the normal region channel and the superconducting region, can escape to regions still empty of vortices. We show that the origin of this process is the repulsive nature of vortex–vortex interaction, in addition to the non-homogeneous distribution of the vortices along the normal region channel. Using London theory we explain the extra gain of kinetic energy by the vortices situated along this borderline. - Highlights: • TDGL is used to study the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors. • Instability process is found during the magnetic field penetration. • Vortices along the front of the normal region escape to superconducting region. • We explain the extra-gain of kinetic energy by vortices along the borderline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremova, S.A.; Tsarevskij, S.L.
1997-01-01
Magnetic field distribution in a unit cell of the Abrikosov vortex lattice near the surface of monoaxial anisotropic type-ii superconductors in inclined external magnetic field has been found in the framework of London model for the cases when the symmetry axis is perpendicular and parallel to the superconductor surface interface. Distribution of local magnetic field as a function of the distance from the superconductor interface surface and external field inclination angle has been obtained. Using high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O by way of examples, it has been shown that the study of local magnetic field distribution function, depending on external magnetic field inclination angle towards the superconductor symmetry axis and towards the superconductor surface, can provide important data on anisotropic properties of the superconductor [ru
Magnetic field induced incommensurate resonance in cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jingge; Cheng Li; Guo Huaiming; Feng Shiping
2009-01-01
The influence of a uniform external magnetic field on the dynamical spin response of cuprate superconductors in the superconducting state is studied based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the magnetic scattering around low and intermediate energies is dramatically changed with a modest external magnetic field. With increasing the external magnetic field, although the incommensurate magnetic scattering from both low and high energies is rather robust, the commensurate magnetic resonance scattering peak is broadened. The part of the spin excitation dispersion seems to be an hourglass-like dispersion, which breaks down at the heavily low energy regime. The theory also predicts that the commensurate resonance scattering at zero external magnetic field is induced into the incommensurate resonance scattering by applying an external magnetic field large enough
Role of Sn impurity on electronic topological transitions in 122 Fe-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Haranath, E-mail: hng@rrcat.gov.in [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Sen, Smritijit [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)
2016-08-25
We show that only a few percentage of Sn doping at the Ba site on BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, can cause electronic topological transition, namely, the Lifshitz transition. A hole like d{sub xy} band of Fe undergoes electron like transition due to 4% Sn doping. Lifshitz transition is found in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} system around all the high symmetry points. Our detailed first principles simulation predicts absence of any Lifshitz transition in other 122 family compounds like SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} in agreement with experimental observations. This work bears practical significance due to the facts that a few percentage of Sn impurity is in-built in tin-flux grown single crystals method of synthesizing 122 materials and inter-relationship among the Lifshitz transition, magnetism and superconductivity. - Highlights: • Electronic topological transition due to Sn contamination in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. • Hole like Fe-d{sub xy} band converts into electron like in 3% Sn contaminated BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. • Electron like Fe-d{sub xz}, d{sub yz} bands moves above Fermi Level at X,Y points. • No Lifshitz transition found in Sn-contaminated Sr-122, Ca-122 systems.
Shaped superconductor cylinder retains intense magnetic field
Hildebrandt, A. F.; Wahlquist, H.
1964-01-01
The curve of the inner walls of a superconducting cylinder is plotted from the flux lines of the magnetic field to be contained. This shaping reduces maximum flux densities and permits a stronger and more uniform magnetic field.
Time dependence of magnetization of high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larkin, A.I.; Geshkenbein, V.B.
1988-10-01
Magnetization of high T c superconductors logarithmically decreases with time. There is a maximum in the temperature dependence of the coefficient at this logarithm. If one assumes that there do exist two kinds of pinning centers, then this dependence can be described in the Anderson theory of thermal creeps of Abrikosov's vortices. The temperature dependence of the critical current is also discussed. (author). 23 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1990-04-01
Correction elements in colliding beam accelerators such as the SSC can be the source of undesirable higher magnetic field multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor within the corrector. Quadrupole and sextupole correctors located within the main dipole will produce sextupole and decapole due to magnetization of the superconductor within the correction coils. Lumped nested correction coils can produce a large number of skew and normal magnetization multipoles which may have an adverse effect on a stored beam at injection into a high energy colliding beam machine such as the SSC. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging
Kirtley, J. R.
2010-12-01
In this review I discuss the application of scanning magnetic imaging to fundamental studies of superconductors, concentrating on three scanning magnetic microscopies—scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM), scanning Hall bar microscopy (SHM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). I briefly discuss the history, sensitivity, spatial resolution, invasiveness and potential future developments of each technique. I then discuss a selection of applications of these microscopies. I start with static imaging of magnetic flux: an SSM study provides deeper understanding of vortex trapping in narrow strips, which are used to reduce noise in superconducting circuitry. Studies of vortex trapping in wire lattices, clusters and arrays of rings and nanoholes show fascinating ordering effects. The cuprate high-Tc superconductors are shown to have predominantly d-wave pairing symmetry by magnetic imaging of the half-integer flux quantum effect. Arrays of superconducting rings act as a physical analog for the Ising spin model, with the half-integer flux quantum effect helping to eliminate one source of disorder in antiferromagnetic arrangements of the ring moments. Tests of the interlayer tunneling model show that the condensation energy available from this mechanism cannot account for the high critical temperatures observed in the cuprates. The strong divergence in the magnetic fields of Pearl vortices allows them to be imaged using SSM, even for penetration depths of a millimeter. Unusual vortex arrangements occur in samples comparable in size to the coherence length. Spontaneous magnetization is not observed in Sr2RuO4, which is believed to have px ± ipy pairing symmetry, although effects hundreds of times bigger than the sensitivity limits had been predicted. However, unusual flux trapping is observed in this superconductor. Finally, unusual flux arrangements are also observed in magnetic superconductors. I then turn to vortex dynamics: imaging of vortices in rings of highly underdoped
Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirtley, J R [Center for Probing the Nanoscale, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
2010-12-01
In this review I discuss the application of scanning magnetic imaging to fundamental studies of superconductors, concentrating on three scanning magnetic microscopies-scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM), scanning Hall bar microscopy (SHM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). I briefly discuss the history, sensitivity, spatial resolution, invasiveness and potential future developments of each technique. I then discuss a selection of applications of these microscopies. I start with static imaging of magnetic flux: an SSM study provides deeper understanding of vortex trapping in narrow strips, which are used to reduce noise in superconducting circuitry. Studies of vortex trapping in wire lattices, clusters and arrays of rings and nanoholes show fascinating ordering effects. The cuprate high-T{sub c} superconductors are shown to have predominantly d-wave pairing symmetry by magnetic imaging of the half-integer flux quantum effect. Arrays of superconducting rings act as a physical analog for the Ising spin model, with the half-integer flux quantum effect helping to eliminate one source of disorder in antiferromagnetic arrangements of the ring moments. Tests of the interlayer tunneling model show that the condensation energy available from this mechanism cannot account for the high critical temperatures observed in the cuprates. The strong divergence in the magnetic fields of Pearl vortices allows them to be imaged using SSM, even for penetration depths of a millimeter. Unusual vortex arrangements occur in samples comparable in size to the coherence length. Spontaneous magnetization is not observed in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, which is believed to have p{sub x} {+-} ip{sub y} pairing symmetry, although effects hundreds of times bigger than the sensitivity limits had been predicted. However, unusual flux trapping is observed in this superconductor. Finally, unusual flux arrangements are also observed in magnetic superconductors. I then turn to vortex dynamics: imaging of vortices
Magnetized pair Bose gas: relativistic superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.; Kowalenko, V.
1993-01-01
The magnetized Bose gas at temperatures above pair threshold is investigated. New magnetization laws are obtained for a wide range of field strengths, and the gas is shown to exhibit the Meissner effect. Some related results for the Fermi gas, a relativistic paramagnet, are also discussed. It is concluded that the pair gases, through the interplay between pair creation, temperature, field strength, statistics and/in the case of fermions/spin, have remarkable magnetic properties. 14 refs
Properties of the superconductor in accelerator dipole magnets
Teravest, Derk
Several aspects of the application of superconductors to high field dipole magnets for particle accelerators are discussed. The attention is focused on the 10 tesla (1 m model) magnet that is envisaged for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The basic motivation behind the study is the intention of employing superconductors to their utmost performance. An overview of practical supercomputers, their applications and their impact on high field dipole magnets used for particle accelerators, is presented. The LHC reference design for the dipole magnets is outlined. Several models were used to study the influence of a number of factors in the shape and in particular, the deviation from the shape that is due to the flux flow state. For the investigated extrinsic and intrinsic factors, a classification can be made with respect to the effect on the shape of the characteristic of a multifilamentary wire. The optimization of the coil structure for high field dipole magnets, with respect to the field quality is described. An analytical model for solid and hollow filaments, to calculate the effect of filament magnetization in the quality of the dipole field, is presented.
Magnetic stripes in the UCoGe superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mora, Pablo de la [Departemento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-542, 04510 Mexico DF, Mexico and Institute de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia (Mexico); Navarro, O, E-mail: delamora@unam.m [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2009-05-01
The magnetic superconductor UCoGe is analyzed with an electronic structure package, spin-orbit coupling and intra-atomic repulsion (via Hubbard U{sub H}) were included. The possibility of an antiferromagnetic configuration is studied, but it is found to be unstable, also the non-collinear magnetization seems to be ruled out. The magnetization is given mainly by the Co-atoms with M = 0.6 mu{sub B}/f.u. The U-atoms have two magnetic moments; M = 0.07 and 0.32 mu{sub B}/f.u. arranged in an alternated planes along the b-direction forming magnetic stripes.
Magnetic flux periodicities and finite momentum pairing in unconventional superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loder, Florian
2009-12-22
This work contains a thorough study of the magnetic flux periodicity of loops of conventional and unconventional, especially d-wave, superconductors. Although already in 1961, several independent works showed that the flux period of a conventional superconducting loop is the superconducting flux quantum hc/2e, this question has never been investigated deeply for unconventional superconductors. And indeed, we show here that d-wave superconducting loops show a basic flux period of the normal flux quantum hc/e, a property originating from the nodal quasi-particle states. This doubling of the flux periodicity is best visible in the persistent current circulating in the loop, and it affects other properties of the superconductor such as the periodicity of d-wave Josephson junctions. In the second part of this work, the theory of electron pairing with finite center-of-mass momentum, necessary for the description of superconducting loops, is extended to systems in zero magnetic field. We show that even in the field free case, an unconventional pairing symmetry can lead to a superconducting ground state with finite-momentum electron pairs. Such a state has an inhomogeneous charge density and therefore is a basis for the description of coexistence of superconductivity and stripe order. (orig.)
Spatial Distortion of Vibration Modes via Magnetic Correlation of Impurities
Krasniqi, F. S.; Zhong, Y.; Epp, S. W.; Foucar, L.; Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Reis, D. A.; Wang, H. L.; Zhao, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Fritz, D. M.; Hartmann, R.; Englert, L.; Strüder, L.; Schlichting, I.; Ullrich, J.
2018-03-01
Long wavelength vibrational modes in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga0.91 Mn0.09 As are investigated using time resolved x-ray diffraction. At room temperature, we measure oscillations in the x-ray diffraction intensity corresponding to coherent vibrational modes with well-defined wavelengths. When the correlation of magnetic impurities sets in, we observe the transition of the lattice into a disordered state that does not support coherent modes at large wavelengths. Our measurements point toward a magnetically induced broadening of long wavelength vibrational modes in momentum space and their quasilocalization in the real space. More specifically, long wavelength vibrational modes cannot be assigned to a single wavelength but rather should be represented as a superposition of plane waves with different wavelengths. Our findings have strong implications for the phonon-related processes, especially carrier-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering, which govern the electrical conductivity and thermal management of semiconductor-based devices.
Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1989-02-01
At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Passive superconductor a viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1989-01-01
At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Magnetic-flux dynamics of high-Tc superconductors in weak magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Il’ichev, E. V.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde
1994-01-01
Aspects of magnetic-flux dynamics in different types of samples of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox have been investigated in magnetic fields below 1 Oe and at 77 K. The experiments were carried out in an arrangement including a field coil, a flat sample perpendicular to the field...
Permanent magnets composed of high temperature superconductors
Weinstein, Roy; Chen, In-Gann; Liu, Jay; Lau, Kwong
1991-01-01
A study of persistent, trapped magnetic field has been pursued with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The main effort is to study the feasibility of utilization of HTS to fabricate magnets for various devices. The trapped field, when not in saturation, is proportional to the applied field. Thus, it should be possible to replicate complicated field configurations with melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7 (MT-Y123) material, bypassing the need for HTS wires. Presently, materials have been developed from which magnets of 1.5 T, at 77 K, can be fabricated. Much higher field is available at lower operating temperature. Stability of a few percent per year is readily attainable. Results of studies on prototype motors and minimagnets are reported.
Evaluation of magnetic loss in a YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x superconductor
Konishi, H; Futamura, M
2003-01-01
We measured the magnetic force between a YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x (YBCO) superconductor and a Nd-Fe-B magnet while reciprocating the superconductor under the magnet. The magnetic force showed a hysteretic characteristic against the displacement of the superconductor. Magnetic loss calculated from the hysteresis curve decreased as the drive frequency increased. A mechanical model was used to analyze the characteristics of the magnetic loss. By adding the contribution of viscous force and repined flux lines to the mechanical model, we obtained good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. (author)
Optical magnetic flux generation in superconductor
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Ultrafast phenomena; femtosecond laser; optical magnetic flux generation. PACS Nos 85.25.Oj; 74.25.-q; 42.65.Re. 1. Introduction. Excitation and observation of ultrafast phenomena in solid states are of essential interest in the field of condensed matter physics. Recent femtosecond (fs) laser technology is now.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minkin, A.V.; Tsarevskij, S.L.
2006-01-01
For high-temperature superconductors the shape of a NMR spectrum line is built regarding for variation of inhomogeneity of irregular vortex lattice magnetic field near superconductor surface. It is shown that the shape of a NMR line is not simply widened but noticeably varies depending on the degree of irregularity of a superconductor vortex lattice. This variation is associated with a local symmetry decrease in an irregular vortex lattice of the superconductor. Taking into account these circumstances may considerably change conclusions about the type of a vortex lattice and superconductor parameters which are commonly gained from NMR line shape analysis [ru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Etzkorn, Markus; Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Topp, Andreas; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-07-01
The interaction of a local magnetic impurity with a superconductor causes the formation of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR)states in the vicinity of the impurity. These have recently received increasing attention in the context of Majorana Fermions and other exotic states that might be created from the mutual interplay. YSR states have been extensively studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and so far have been discussed mainly in the limit of point scattering impurities. Here we present our investigations of the local properties of single magnetic Copper-Phthalocynane molecules on the (5x1) reconstructed, superconducting V(100) surface measured at 15 mK temperature. We find very intense YSR states with energies that depend on the precise absorbtion geometry of the molecule. At the same time we find no indication of a local suppression of the superconducting gap around the impurity. We follow the state evolution in real space for about 3 nm corresponding to about three orders of magnitude in spectral intensity. The spectra display rich structure with local variations in the electron-hole asymmetries. The observed intensity changes in the spectra can not be described on the basis of a single point like scattering potential.
Narlikar, A V
2014-01-01
Superconductors is neither about basic aspects of superconductivity nor about its applications, but its mainstay is superconducting materials. Unusual and unconventional features of a large variety of novel superconductors are presented and their technological potential as practical superconductors assessed. The book begins with an introduction to basic aspects of superconductivity. The presentation is readily accessible to readers from a diverse range of scientific and technical disciplines, such as metallurgy, materials science, materials engineering, electronic and device engineering, and chemistry. The derivation of mathematical formulas and equations has been kept to a minimum and, wherever necessary, short appendices with essential mathematics have been added at the end of the text. The book is not meant to serve as an encyclopaedia, describing each and every superconductor that exists, but focuses on important milestones in their exciting development.
Exponential critical-state model for magnetization of hard superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, D.; Sanchez, A.; Munoz, J.S.
1990-01-01
We have calculated the initial magnetization curves and hysteresis loops for hard type-II superconductors based on the exponential-law model, J c (H i ) =k exp(-|H i |/H 0 ), where k and H 0 are constants. After discussing the general behavior of penetrated supercurrents in an infinitely long column specimen, we define a general cross-sectional shape based on two equal circles of radius a, which can be rendered into a circle, a rectangle, or many other shapes. With increasing parameter p (=ka/H 0 ), the computed M-H curves show obvious differences with those computed from Kim's model and approach the results of a simple infinitely narrow square pulse J c (H i ). For high-T c superconductors, our results can be applied to the study of the magnetic properties and the critical-current density of single crystals, as well as to the determination of the intergranular critical-current density from magnetic measurements
Superconductors with low critical temperature for electro-magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devred, A.
2002-07-01
Among the superconductors with low critical temperature that are used to build magnets, NbTi has reached a development state that allows a massive production for big equipment of physics and an industrial production in the domain of medicine imaging. The material that might challenge the supremacy of NbTi is Nb 3 Sn but some technical difficulties have yet to be overcome. This report begins with a review of the different industrial processes used to produce superconducting wires based on the NbTi and Nb 3 Sn materials. The transition from the superconducting state to the resistive normal state is described for both materials, the magnetizing of multi-wire superconducting cables is also presented. The author details the different patterns of wires in cables and proposes a formulary that allows the determination, in some simple cases,of energy losses that are generated in a superconducting cable by a variable magnetic field. (A.C.)
Properties of magnetic impurities embedded into an anisotropic Heisenberg chain with spin gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlottmann, P.
2000-01-01
We consider a U(1)-invariant model consisting of the integrable anisotropic easy-axis Heisenberg chain of arbitrary spin S embedding an impurity of spin S'. The host chain has a spin gap for all values of S. The ground state properties and the elementary excitations of the host are studied as a function of the anisotropy and the magnetic field. The impurity is located on a link of the chain and interacts only with both neighboring sites. The coupling of the impurity to the lattice can be tuned by the impurity rapidity p 0 (usually playing the role of the Kondo coupling). The impurity model is then integrable as a function of two continuous parameters (the anisotropy and the impurity rapidity) and two discrete variables (the spins S and S'). The Bethe ansatz equations are derived and used to obtain the magnetization of the impurity. The impurity magnetization is non-universal as a function of p 0 . For small fields the impurity magnetization is determined by the spin gap and the van Hove singularity of the rapidity band. For an overcompensated impurity (S'< S) at intermediate fields there is a crossover to non-Fermi-liquid behavior remnant from the suppressed quantum critical point
Unconventional superconductivity in heavy fermionic and high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volovik, G.E.
1989-01-01
Splitting of the superconducting transition and glass spectrum in heavy fermion companies and oxide superconductors are discussed. The multicomponent order parameter leads to splitting of transition due to magnetic field, impurities, orthorhombic distortion, etc... Linear specific heat in oxide superconductors may be explained in terms of the Fermi-surface arising in superconducting state if interband is pairing strong enough
Brillouin-Wigner theory of mixed-valence impurities in BCS superconductor: Tc/TcO and ΔC/ΔCO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jun; Gong Changde.
1986-08-01
The (lowest order) Brillouin-Wigner perturbational expansion theory is adopted to describe the mixed-valence impurities in the BCS superconductor. Two substantial quantities characterizing the superconducting state, i.e. the reduced transition temperature T c /T cO and the reduced specific heat jump ΔC/ΔC O are calculated numerically as a function of the impurity concentration x and the energy level difference E f between two 4f configurations. A comparison with the experimental data of the Th 1-x Ce x and Th 1-x U x alloy is also included with a more reasonable fitting than Kaiser's theory. (author)
Magnetism without magnetic impurities in ZrO.sub.2./sub. oxide
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bouzerar, G.
2008-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 21 (2008), 212503/1-212503/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0456; GA AV ČR IAA100100616; GA MŠk OC 150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetism * impurity * oxides * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.726, year: 2008
The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Zhiwen, E-mail: gaozhw@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • We studied firstly magnetostriction in HTS under non-uniform magnetic field. • The superconductors may be homogeneous and nonhomogeneous. • The magnetostrictions response of the HTS is sensitive to the critical current density and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. • The magnetostriction of nonhomogeneous HTS is larger than that of homogeneous HTS. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.
Distribution of magnetic field in type II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, J.L. de.
1986-09-01
The magnetie field penetration profile, in type II superconductor, has studied in specially designed cylindrical samples. The samples consist of alternated thick layers ( > 30 μm ) of niobium and copper deposited, by electron-beam evaporation or electro-chemical deposition, on cylindric core of either niobium or copper. The magnetization curves, the magnetic susceptibility and the differential susceptibility for small hysteresis loop ( H c1 c2 ) were measured for all the samples between 4. 2 and 9.5 K. These measurements, done with flux pinned and without, show some peculiar descontinuities and inflections which seems to resemble the samples shape. A simple phenonenological extension of Bean's critical state model was applied to these results, giving a resonable qualitative agreement. Also, a more elaborated theoretical model was improve which could give more quantitative fitting. (author) [pt
Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors
Christensen, Morten H.; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A.; Andersen, Brian M.
2016-04-01
Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d -wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La1.905 Ba0.095 CuO4 [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)].
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L; Weyssow, B
2011-01-01
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-08-15
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Isliker, H.; Vogiannou, A.; Vlahos, L.; Weyssow, B.
2011-08-01
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Study on impurity screening in stochastic magnetic boundary of the Large Helical Device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Feng, Y.
2008-10-01
The impurity transport characteristics in the scrape-off layer associated with a stochastic magnetic boundary of LHD are analyzed. The remnant islands with very small internal field line pitch in the stochastic region play a key role in reducing the impurity influx. The thermal force driven impurity influx is significantly suppressed when the perpendicular energy flux exceeds the parallel one inside the islands due to the small pitch. Application of the 3D edge transport code, EMC3-EIRENE, confirmed the impurity retention (screening) effect in the edge region. It is also found that the edge surface layers are the most effective region to retain (screen) impurities because of the flow acceleration and plasma cooling via short flux tubes. The carbon emission obtained in experiments is in good agreement with the modelling results, showing the impurity retention (screening) potential of the stochastic magnetic boundary. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwala, A.K.
1990-01-01
Magnetic properties of sintered samples of YBCO ceramic superconductors at various temperatures were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Also, measurements of forces experienced by a well characterized rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) permanent magnet (PM) interacting with the superconducting YBCO sample cooled in liquid nitrogen, were performed. Based upon the observed hysteretic magnetization properties of these high temperature superconductors (HTS), the HTS-PM interaction force at liquid nitrogen temperature was calculated from first principle, and finally correlated to the force measurement results. With this analysis, magnetic forces between the same HTS and PM system including the levitation as well as suspension effects at liquid-helium temperature are predicted
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeedeh Ghafourian
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT extensively are attractive from both theoretical and experimental point of view, due to its technological applications such as nano electronics devises. SWCNT are created by rolling a graphen sheet into a cyclindrical form. We have investigated the possibility of making a ferromagnetic semiconductor zigzag SWCNT by doping magnetic impurities. We found by increasing magnetic impurities doping on a zigzag SWCNT, average magnetization is increased and one can make a ferromagnetic semiconductor
Development of high temperature superconductors for magnetic field applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larbalestier, D.C.
1991-01-01
The key requirement for magnetic field applications of high temperature superconductor (HTS) materials is to have conductors with high transport critical current density available for magnet builders. After 3 or 4 years of being without any such object, conductor makers have had recent success in producing simple conductor prototypes. These have permitted the construction of simple HTS magnets having self fields exceeding 1 tesla at 4K. Thus the scientific feasibility of making powerful HTS magnets has been demonstrated. Attention to the technological aspects of making HTS conductors for magnets with strong flux pinning and reduced superconducting granularity is now sensible and attractive. However, extrinsic defects such as filament sausaging, cracking, misaligned grains and other perturbations to long range current flow must be controlled at a low level if the benefit of intrinsic improvements to the critical current density is to be maintained in the conductor form. Due to the great complexity of HTS materials, there is sometimes confusion as to whether a given sample has an intrinsically or extrinsically limited critical current density. Systematic microstructure variation experiments and resistive transition analysis are shown to be particularly helpful in this phase of conductor development
Macroscopic quantum coherence in a magnetic nanoparticle above the surface of a superconductor
Chudnovsky; Friedman
2000-12-11
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in a Magnetic Nanoparticle Above the Surface of a Superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.
2000-12-11
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in a Magnetic Nanoparticle Above the Surface of a Superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Friedman, Jonathan R.
2000-01-01
We study macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment in a single-domain particle placed above the surface of a superconductor. Such a setup allows one to manipulate the height of the energy barrier, preserving the degeneracy of the ground state. The tunneling amplitude and the effect of the dissipation in the superconductor are computed
Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Zheng, Botian; Jin, Liwei; Deng, Zigang
2017-05-01
In order to study the commonly neglected magnetic field information in the course of levitation force measurement process in a superconducting maglev system, a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform was employed to acquire magnetic signals of a bulk high-Tc superconductor on both the top and the bottom surface. Working conditions including field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling were investigated for these vertical down and up motions above a permanent magnet guideway performed on a HTS maglev measurement system. We have discussed the magnetic flux variation process based on the Bean model. A magnetic hysteresis effect similar to the levitation force hysteresis loop of the bulk superconductor was displayed and analyzed in this paper. What is more valuable, there exists some available magnetic flux on the top surface of the bulk superconductor, and the proportion is as high as 62.42% in the FC condition, which provides an experimental hint to design the superconductor bulk and the applied field for practical use in a more efficient way. In particular, this work reveals real-time magnetic flux variation of the bulk superconductor in the levitation application, which is the other important information in contrast to the macroscopic levitation and guidance force investigations in previous studies, and it enriches the existing research methods. The results are significant for understanding the magnetic characteristic of superconductors, and they can contribute to optimize the present HTS maglev system design.
Predictions for impurity-induced Tc suppression in the high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radtke, R.J.; Levin, K.; Schuettler, H.; Norman, M.R.
1993-01-01
We address the question of whether anisotropic superconductivity is compatible with the evidently weak sensitivity of the critical temperature T c to sample quality in the high-T c copper oxides. We examine this issue quantitatively by solving the strong-coupling Eliashberg equations numerically as well as analytically for s-wave impurity scattering within the second Born approximation. For pairing interactions with a characteristically low energy scale, we find an approximately universal dependence of the d-wave superconducting transition temperature on the planar residual resistivity which is independent of the details of the microscopic pairing. These results, in conjunction with future systematic experiments, should help elucidate the symmetry of the order parameter in the cuprates
Small magnetic energy storage systems using high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, B.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on magnetic energy storage for power systems that has been considered for commercial utility power, air and ground mobile power sources, and spacecraft applications. Even at the current technology limits of energy storage (100 KJ/Kg*), superconducting magnetic energy storage inductors do not offer a strong advantage over state-of-the-art batteries. The commercial utility application does not have a weight and volume limitation, and is under intense study in several countries for diurnal cycle energy storage and high power delivery. The advent of high temperature superconductors has reduced one of the penalties of superconducting magnetic energy storage in that refrigeration and cryocontainers become greatly simplified. Still, structural and current density issues that limit the energy density and size of superconducting inductors do not change. Cold weather starting of aircraft engines is an application where these limitations are not as significant, and where current systems lack performance. The very cold environments make it difficult to achieve high power densities in state-of-the-art batteries and hydraulically activated starters. The same cold environments make it possible to cool superconducting systems for weeks using a single charge of liquid nitrogen. At the same, the ground carts can handle the size and weight of superconducting magnetic storage (SMES) devices
Use of high temperature superconductors for future fusion magnet systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fietz, W H [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Celentano, G; Della Corte, A [Superconductivity Division, ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Frascati (Italy); Goldacker, W; Heller, R; Komarek, P; Kotzyba, G; Nast, R; Obst, B; Schlachter, S I; Schmidt, C; Zahn, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pasztor, G; Wesche, R [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Villingen (Switzerland); Salpietro, E; Vostner, A [European Fusion Development Agreement, Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany)
2005-01-01
With the construction of ITER the feasibility of a fusion machine will be demonstrated. To commercialize fusion it is essential to keep losses as small as possible in future fusion power plants. One major component where losses can be strongly reduced is the cooling system. For example in ITER where efficiency is not a major goal, a cooling power of 64 kW at 4.4 K is foreseen taking more than 20 MW electric power. Considering the size of future commercial fusion machines this consumption of electric power for cooling will even be higher. With a magnet system working at 20 K a fusion machine would work more efficient by a factor of 5-10 with respect to electric power consumption for cryogenics. Even better than that, would be a machine with a magnet system operating at 65 K to 77 K. In this case liquid nitrogen could be used as coolant saving money for investment and operation costs. Such an increase in the operating temperature of the magnet system can be achieved by the use of High- Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition the use of HTS would allow much smaller efforts for thermal shielding and alternative thermal insulation concepts may be possible, e.g. for an HTS bus bar system. This contribution will give an overview about status, promises and challenges of HTS conductors on the way to an HTS fusion magnet system beyond ITER. (author)
Oscillations of quantum transport through double-AB rings with magnetic impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yingfang; Liang, J-Q
2006-01-01
We have studied the effect of impurity scattering on the quantum transport through double AB rings in the presence of spin-flipper in the middle lead in terms of one-dimensional quantum waveguide theory. The electron interacts with the impurity through the exchange interaction leading to spin-flip scattering. Transmissions in the spin-flipped and non-spin-flipped channels are calculated explicitly. It is found that the overall transmission and the conductance are distorted due to the impurity scattering. The extent of distortion not only depends on the strength of the impurity potential but also on the impurity position. Moreover, the transmission probability and the conductance are modulated by the magnetic flux, the size of the ring and the impurity potential strength as well
A model of magnetic impurities within the Josephson junction of a phase qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erickson, R P; Pappas, D P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)
2010-02-15
We consider a superconducting phase qubit consisting of a monocrystalline sapphire Josephson junction with its symmetry axis perpendicular to the junction interfaces. Via the London gauge, we present a theoretical model of Fe{sup 3+} magnetic impurities within the junction that describes the effect of a low concentration of such impurities on the operation of the qubit. Specifically, we derive an interaction Hamiltonian expressed in terms of angular momentum states of magnetic impurities and low-lying oscillator states of a current-biased phase qubit. We discuss the coupling between the qubit and impurities within the model near resonance. When the junction is biased at an optimal point for acting as a phase qubit, with a phase difference of {pi}/2 and impurity concentration no greater than 0.05%, we find only a slight decrease in the Q factor of less than 0.01%.
Magnetic Fields above the Surface of aSuperconductor with Internal Magnetism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluhm, Hendrik; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRl
2007-06-26
The author presents a method for calculating the magnetic fields near a planar surface of a superconductor with a given intrinsic magnetization in the London limit. He computes solutions for various magnetic domain boundary configurations and derives relations between the spectral densities of the magnetization and the resulting field in the vacuum half space, which are useful if the magnetization can be considered as a statistical quantity and its features are too small to be resolved individually. The results are useful for analyzing and designing magnetic scanning experiments. Application to existing data from such experiments on Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} show that a domain wall would have been detectable, but the magnetic field of randomly oriented small domains and small defects may have been smaller than the experimental noise level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, H.; Kurabayashi, H.; Suzuki, A.; Ikeda, M.; Akiyama, S.; Murakami, M.
2009-01-01
Magnetic torque can be transferred without contact through the coupling of permanent magnets (PM) and bulk superconductors (BSC). For this purpose, permanent magnets should have multiple pole configuration like NSNS. The magnitude of the transferable torque depends on the field strength and the gap between PM and BSC. It was found that the torque decays quickly with the gap. In order to enhance the strength of transferable magnetic torque, we prepared bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors for which Fe bars are embedded. Holes about 1 mm in diameter were mechanically drilled into bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O, and Fe bars about 0.9 mm in diameter were inserted followed by impregnation of Bi-Pb-Sn alloys with low melting points. The composite of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Fe bars attract magnetic fields generated from permanent magnet before cooling, and thereby magnetic coupling will be improved. We have found that the magnetic torque force can be greatly enhanced through iron embedding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1990-01-01
Correction elements in colliding beam accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) can be the source of undesirable higher magnetic field multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor within the corrector. Quadrupole and sextupole correctors located within the main dipole will produce sextupole and decapole due to magnetization of the superconductor within the correction coils. Lumped nested correction coils can produce a large number of skew and normal magnetization multipoles which may have an adverse effect on a stored beam at injection into a high energy colliding beam machine such as the SSC. Multipole magnetization field components have been measured within the HERA storage ring dipole magnets. Calculations of these components using the SCMAG04 code, which agree substantially with the measured multipoles, are presented in the report. As a result, in the proposed continuous correction winding for the SSC, dipoles have been replaced with lumped correction elements every six dipole magnets (about 120 meters apart). Nested lumped correction elements will also produce undesirable higher magnetization multipoles. This report shows a method by which the higher multipole generated by nested correction elements can be identified. (author)
The magnetic flux dynamics in the critical state of one-dimensional discrete superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginzburg, S.L.; Nakin, A.V.; Savitskaya, N.E.
2006-01-01
We give a theoretical description of avalanche-like dynamics of magnetic flux in the critical state of discrete superconductors using a one-dimensional model of a multijunction SQUID. We show that the system under consideration demonstrates the self-organized criticality. The avalanches of vortices manifest themselves as jumps of the total magnetic flux in the sample. The sizes of these jumps have a power-law distribution. We argue that similarities in the behavior of discrete and usual type-II superconductors allows to extend our results for description of avalanche-like dynamics in type-II superconductors with strong pinning
Costs of magnets for large fusion power reactors: Phase I, cost of superconductors for dc magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Powell, J.R.
1972-01-01
Projections are made for dc magnet conductor costs for large fusion power reactors. A mature fusion economy is assumed sometime after 2000 A. D. in which approximately 90,000 MW(e) of fusion reactors are constructed/year. State of the art critical current vs. field characteristics for superconductors are used in these projections. Present processing techniques are used as a basis for the design of large plants sized to produce approximately one-half of the conductor needed for the fusion magnets. Multifilamentary Nb-Ti, Pb-Bi in glass fiber, GE Nb 3 Sn tape, Linde plasma sprayed Nb 3 Sn tape, and V 3 Ga tape superconductors are investigated, together with high purity aluminum cryoconductor. Conductor costs include processing costs [capital (equipment plus buildings), labor, and operating] and materials costs. Conductor costs are compared for two sets of material costs: current (1971 A. D.) costs, and projected (after 2000 A. D.) costs. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satter, M.A.
1990-08-01
In this paper, a formalism for studying the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in a dilute noble metal- transition metal magnetic alloy has been developed from relativistic scattering theory. The theoretical development and the computational techniques of this formalism are based on relativistic spin-polarized scattering theory and relativistic band structure frameworks. For studying the magnetic anisotropic effect a convenient ''working'' frame of reference with its axes oriented along the fcc crystal axes is set up. This formalism is applied to study the situation for two Fe impurities in paramagnetic Au hosts. For AuFe dilute alloy, the two impurity site interaction as a function of separation is not oscillatory and the anisotropic effect is found to be less than the two site interaction itself only by an order of magnitude. Apart from the anisotropic coupling of the two impurity spins to the separation vector, for the first time, another weak anisotropic coupling to the crystal axes is also contained in the two site interaction. These anisotropic effects are the results of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction which are incorporated into the formalism. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs
Effect of magnetic islands on the impurity transport in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, N.V.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Chudnovskij, A.N.
1986-01-01
Effect of magnetic islands m=2, created in plasma with the help of special quadrupole winding, on the behaviour of impurity in the T-7 tokamak is studied. The use of quadrupole winding permitted to exlude the magnetic island nonstationarity typical to spontaneous development of the Tiaring instability. The results obtained confirm the point of view that splitting of rational magnetic surface results in the change of impurity ion density gradient in its vicinity. This change occurs under the action of ambipolar electric field, that is excited due to the increase of radial electron transport in magnetic islands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavia Santos, S.; Garcia-Tabares, L.
1998-05-01
A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)
From single magnetic adatoms on superconductors to coupled spin chains
Franke, Katharina J.
Magnetic adsorbates on conventional s-wave superconductors lead to exchange interactions that induce Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states inside the superconducting energy gap. Here, we employ tunneling spectroscopy at 1.1 K to investigate magnetic atoms and chains on superconducting Pb surfaces. We show that individual Manganese (Mn) atoms give rise to a distinct number of YSR-states. The single-atom junctions are stable over several orders of magnitude in conductance. We identify single-electron tunneling as well as Andreev processes. When the atoms are brought into sufficiently close distance, the Shiba states hybridize, thus giving rise to states with bonding and anti-bonding character. It has been shown that the Pb(110) surface supports the self-assembly of Fe chains, which exhibit fingerprints of Majorana bound states. Using superconducting tips, we resolve a rich subgap structure including peaks at zero energy and low-energy resonances, which overlap with the putative Majorana states. We gratefully acknowledge funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through collaborative research Grant Sfb 658, and through Grant FR2726/4, as well by the European Research Council through Consolidator Grant NanoSpin.
Magnetically-related properties of bismuth containing high Tc superconductors
Vezzoli, Gary C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Safari, A.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Burke, Terence; Shoga, M.
1990-08-01
The effect of magnetic fields to 15 T on electrical resistance has been measured for the BiSrCaCuO superconductor at precise temperatures during the transition to the superconducting state from pre-onset conditions to essentially zero resistance conditions. The results show that the temperature at which the magnetic field causes a divergence in the resistance versus 1000/ T curve is approximately the same temperature as the value at which, during cooling, the positive Hall coefficient begins its abrupt descent to zero. This temperature gives the best measure of Tc. It is also shown that small oscillations of low frequency start near onset conditions, the amplitude of which at a given temperature is B-field dependent. Additionally, Hall effect studies as a function of temperature at 4 T in three separate experiments (including high Tc BiSrCaCu PbO of > 90% theoretical density) show that sharp delta-function-like peaks in + RH are observed near Tc and are superimposed on a broader maximum. The Hall data are explicable in terms of exciton formation and ionization. The bound holes associated with these excitons are believed to be the mediators producing Cooper-pairing, and scale very well with Tc for all the known high Tc oxides.
pi-phase magnetism in ferromagnetic-superconductor superlattices
Khusainov, M G; Proshin, Y N
2001-01-01
The Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fylde-Ferrel new 0 pi- and pi pi-states are forecasted for the ferromagnetic metal/superconductor superlattices with antiferromagnetic magnetization orientation in the neighbouring layers. The above-mentioned states are characterized under certain conditions by higher critical temperature T sub c as compared to the earlier known LOFF 00- and pi 0-states with the FM-layers ferromagnetic ordering. It is shown that the nonmonotonous behavior of the T sub c of the FM/S superlattices by the thickness of the S-layers lower than the d sub s suppi value is connected with the cascades of the 0 pi-pi pi-0 pi phase transitions. The character of the T sub c oscillations by the d sub s > d sub s suppi is related to the 00-pi 0-00 transitions. The logical elements of the new type, combining the advantages of the superconducting and magnetic information recording in one sample are proposed on the basis of the FM/S superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortenzi, Luciano
2013-10-17
In this thesis I study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in itinerant magnets and superconductors. I do this by applying a semiphenomenological method to four representative compounds. In particular I use the discrepancies (whenever present) between density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the experiments in order to construct phenomenological models which explain the magnetic, superconducting and optical properties of four representative systems. I focus my attention on the superconducting and normal state properties of the recently discovered APt3P superconductors, on superconducting hole-doped CuBiSO, on the optical properties of LaFePO and finally on the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition of Ni3Al under pressure. At the end I present a new method which aims to describe the effect of spin fluctuations in itinerant magnets and superconductors that can be used to monitor the evolution of the electronic structure from non magnetic to magnetic in systems close to a quantum critical point.
Magnetic torque transferring study for bulk High-Tc superconductors and permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wongsatanawarid, A; Suzuki, A; Seki, H; Murakami, M
2009-01-01
The torque transferring mechanism taking place in a superconducting mixer design has been studied. Several coupling magnetic arrangements were investigated for more details in the engineering design. A bulk superconductor sample was used to study the torque forces for various cooling gaps, and the twist angle dependence was also monitored for the rotational stiffness in stability. The experimental data with four permanent magnet configurations have been studied in the present work. The maximum torque forces are summarized for usage of engineering design with various gaps. The torque/gap characteristics for four configurations were also measured for the optimisation of the torque at a designed operating gap.
Role of impurities in magnetically confined high temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnett, C.F.
1976-01-01
A summary is given of the atomic physics concerned with plasma cooling by impurities and the limiting effect that impurities may have on heating of plasmas by neutral injection. A general description is given of the tokamak concept and the present and next generation experiments are described. The time and spatial behavior of O and Mo multicharged ions in present hydrogen plasmas is presented. This is followed by a discussion of the power loss from a plasma containing one percent Fe. Finally, the limitation of plasma heating by energetic H or D injection is summarized
Stress analysis in high-temperature superconductors under pulsed field magnetization
Wu, Haowei; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe
2018-04-01
Bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) have a high critical current density and can trap a large magnetic field. When bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique, they are also subjected to a large electromagnetic stress, and the resulting thermal stress may cause cracking of the superconductor due to the brittle nature of the sample. In this paper, based on the H-formulation and the law of heat transfer, we can obtain the distributions of electromagnetic field and temperature, which are in qualitative agreement with experiment. After that, based on the dynamic equilibrium equations, the mechanical response of the bulk superconductor is determined. During the PFM process, the change in temperature has a dramatic effect on the radial and hoop stresses, and the maximum radial and hoop stress are 24.2 {{MPa}} and 22.6 {{MPa}}, respectively. The mechanical responses of a superconductor for different cases are also studied, such as the peak value of the applied field and the size of bulk superconductors. Finally, the stresses are also presented for different magnetization methods.
Non-Fermi-liquid behavior: Exact results for ensembles of magnetic impurities
Zvyagin, A A
2002-01-01
In this work we consider several exactly solvable models of magnetic impurities in critical quantum antiferromagnetic spin chains and multichannel Kondo impurities. Their ground state properties are studied and the finite set of nonlinear integral equations, which exactly describe the thermodynamics of the models, is constructed. We obtain several analytic low-energy expressions for the temperature, magnetic field, and frequency dependences of important characteristics of exactly solvable disordered quantum spin models and disordered multichannel Kondo impurities with essential many-body interactions. We show that the only low-energy parameter that gets renormalized is the velocity of the low-lying excitations (or the effective crossover scale connected with each impurity); the others appear to be universal. In our study several kinds of strong disorder important for experiments were used. Some of them produce low divergences in certain characteristics of our strongly disordered critical systems (compared wit...
Thermal conductivity of a quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chain with magnetic impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zviagin, A.A.
2008-01-01
We present an exact theory that describes how magnetic impurities change the behavior of the thermal conductivity for the integrable Heisenberg antiferromagnetic quantum spin-1/2 chain. Single magnetic impurities and a large concentration of impurities with similar values of the couplings to the host chain (a weak disorder) do not change the linear-in-temperature low-T behavior of the thermal conductivity: Only the slope of that behavior becomes smaller, compared to the homogeneous case. The strong disorder in the distribution of the impurity-host couplings produces more rapid temperature growth of the thermal conductivity, compared to the linear-in-T dependence of the homogeneous chain and the chain with weak disorder. Recent experiments on the thermal conductivity in inhomogeneous quasi-one-dimensional quantum spin systems manifest qualitative agreement with our results
Binding energy of impurity states in an inverse parabolic quantum well under magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Soekmen, I.
2007-01-01
We have investigated the effects of the magnetic field which is directed perpendicular to the well on the binding energy of the hydrogenic impurities in an inverse parabolic quantum well (IPQW) with different widths as well as different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation, using a variational method. We observe that IPQW structure turns into parabolic quantum well with the inversion effect of the magnetic field and donor impurity binding energy in IPQW strongly depends on the magnetic field, Al concentration at the well center and well dimensions
Open questions in the magnetic behaviour of high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, L.F.; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft
1997-01-01
A principally experimental review of vortex behaviour in high-temperature superconductors is presented. The reader is first introduced to the basic concepts needed to understand the magnetic properties of type II superconductors. The concepts of vortex melting, the vortex glass, vortex creep, etc are also discussed briefly. The bulk part of the review relates the theoretical predictions proposed for the vortex system in high temperature superconductors to experimental findings. The review ends with an attempt to direct the reader to those areas which still require further clarification. (author)
Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field
Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi
2016-01-01
High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their ma...
The interaction between the permanent magnet and ceramic superconductor with organic filler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woźny, L; Kisiel, A; Garbera, A
2016-01-01
The aim of the study was to examine the phenomenon of magnetic levitation for YBaCuO superconducting samples in pure form and with epoxy resin content of 40%. Samples of superconductors were prepared by the standard reaction in the solid state. The forces of interaction between the superconductor and neodymium permanent magnet were measured. Samples with epoxy resin fillers had significantly smaller levitation force than the sample of the sintered superconductors. This is due to a much lower content of pure superconducting material in the sample volume (about 60% of the YBaCuO). However, the obvious advantage of such samples is the possibility of preparation superconductors with complicated shapes, eg. for use in a superconducting bearings or other devices. (paper)
Sebastian Hantscher; Ruixin Zhou; Albert Seidl; Johann Hinken; Christian Ziep
2015-01-01
In this paper, ferromagnetic impurities in paramagnetic aeroengine turbine disks are investigated. Because such inclusions represent a significant threat in aviation, a detailed analysis is required for impured turbine disks. For this purpose, sensitive fluxgate magnetometers are used. After a premagnetisation, this sensor is able to detect small ferromagnetic particles by recording the variation of the magnetic flux density while the disk rotates below the sensor head. This trajectory create...
Interplay between superconductivity and magnetism in iron-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chubukov, Andrey V [University of Wisconsin
2015-06-10
This proposal is for theoretical work on strongly correlated electron systems, which are at the center of experimental and theoretical activities in condensed-matter physics. The interest to this field is driven fascinating variety of observed effects, universality of underlying theoretical ideas, and practical applications. I propose to do research on Iron-based superconductors (FeSCs), which currently attract high attention in the physics community. My goal is to understand superconductivity and magnetism in these materials at various dopings, the interplay between the two, and the physics in the phase in which magnetism and superconductivity co-exist. A related goal is to understand the origin of the observed pseudogap-like behavior in the normal state. My research explores the idea that superconductivity is of electronic origin and is caused by the exchange of spin-fluctuations, enhanced due to close proximity to antiferromagnetism. The multi-orbital/multi-band nature of FeSCs opens routes for qualitatively new superconducting states, particularly the ones which break time-reversal symmetry. By all accounts, the coupling in pnictdes is below the threshold for Mott physics and I intend to analyze these systems within the itinerant approach. My plan is to do research in two stages. I first plan to address several problems within weak-coupling approach. Among them: (i) what sets stripe magnetic order at small doping, (ii) is there a preemptive instability into a spin-nematic state, and how stripe order affects fermions; (iii) is there a co-existence between magnetism and superconductivity and what are the system properties in the co-existence state; (iv) how superconductivity emerges despite strong Coulomb repulsion and can the gap be s-wave but with nodes along electron FSs, (v) are there complex superconducting states, like s+id, which break time reversal symmetry. My second goal is to go beyond weak coupling and derive spin-mediated, dynamic interaction between
Effect of magnetic field on the impurity binding energy of the excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The effect of external magnetic field on the excited state energies in a spherical quantum dot was studied. The impurity energy and binding energy were calculated using the variational method within the effective mass approximation and finite barrier potential. The results showed that by increasing the magnetic field, the ...
Magnetic impurities in single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene: a review
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vejpravová, Jana; Pacáková, Barbara; Kalbáč, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 141, č. 9 (2016), s. 2639-2656 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * carbon nanotube * magnetic impurities Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 3.885, year: 2016
Effect of magnetic field on the impurity binding energy of the excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The effect of external magnetic field on the excited state energies in a spher- ical quantum dot was studied. The impurity energy and binding energy were calculated using the variational method within the effective mass approximation and finite barrier potential. The results showed that by increasing the magnetic ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanovskii, V.R.
2003-01-01
The physical peculiarities of the flux-creep dynamics of low- and high-temperature superconductors placed in external varying magnetic field are studied. The flux-creep problem was studied for the partial penetration state. The proposed analysis was based on the macroscopic description of the flux creep by power and exponential equations of current-voltage characteristics of superconductors. It is shown that during flux creep the screening current penetrates into the superconductor at a finite velocity. Therefore, inside the superconductor a moving boundary of a magnetization region appears like in the critical state model. The time-dependent equations of screening current front have been written. However, unlike the critical state model nontrivial conditions are fulfilled at the moving boundary. They describe the smooth transition of the electromagnetic field induced by external perturbation to the undisturbed ones. A flux-creep distribution of the differential resistivity of the superconductor has been discussed. The performed analysis reveals that it monotonically decreases toward the moving boundary and depends on the magnetic ramp rate. In accordance with these flux-creep conditions the energy dissipation in the superconductors and their magnetic moment depend on the propagation law of the screening current moving boundary. The applicability of the Bean model for describing the flux-creep states is investigated
Vortex and characteristics of prestrained type-II deformable superconductors under magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Zeling; Wang, Xingzhe; Zhou, Youhe
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A numerical investigation of magnetic vortex dynamics of a deformable superconductor with prestrains is presented. • The prestrain has a remarkable influence on the magnetic vortex distribution and dynamics. • The different prestrains, i.e., pre-given compression and tension strains, result in dissimilar characteristics. • The energy density and spectrum in the deformable superconductor are demonstrated. - Abstract: Based on the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory and the linear deformation theory, we present a numerical investigation of magnetic vortex characteristics of a type-II deformable superconductor with prestrain. The effect of prestrain on the wave function, vortex dynamics and energy density of a superconducting film is analyzed by solving the nonlinear TDGL equations in the presence of magnetic field. The results show that the prestrain has a remarkable influence on the magnetic vortex distribution and the vortex dynamics, as well as value of wave function of the superconductor. The different prestrains, i.e., pre-given compression and tension strains, result in dissimilar characteristics on a half-plane of deformable superconductor in an applied magnetic field, and the vortex distribution and entrance in a two dimensional superconducting film. The studies demonstrated that the compression prestrain may speed up the vortexes entering into the region of the superconducting film and increases the vortex number in comparison with those of free-prestrain case, while the tension prestrain shows the reversal features. The energy density and spectrum in the superconductor are further demonstrated numerically and discussed. The present investigation is an attempt to give insight into the superconductivity and electromagnetic characteristics taking into account the elastic deformation in superconductors.
Acoustic emission in a superconductor (Nb-Ti) during magnetic field and current sweep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Harehiko
1980-01-01
Though superconducting magnets are indispensable in the fields of nuclear fusion, MHD power generation, high energy technology, and the trains using magnetic levitation, the safety of the magnets used for those fields is required to be fully investigated because their accumulating energy reaches up to several GJ. For this purpose, the improvement of monitoring techniques is extremely important to grasp exactly the magnetization of such large energy magnets. Although the detection of the terminal voltage of the magnets has been mainly used so far, the purpose has not yet been fulfilled because various phenomena appear in the form of noises in the terminal voltage. The authors have found the monitoring method using acoustic emission in a system completely independent from voltage observation. From this viewpoint, the experiments have been performed aiming at the generation of acoustic emission in conjunction with magnetization out of the fine structure of super-conductors, taking notice of the emitted sound frequency ranging over several hundred kHz. The results and investigation revealed that the superconductor itself emitted ultrasonic sound. It was found that the observation of this acoustic power intensity was able to monitor not only the magnetization of superconductors but also its current sweep. Since the motion of the magnetic flux is converted into the signal of acoustic field, this measuring method is less affected by noise disturbance from electromagnetic systems, and is expected to be useful for the researches on analyzing superconductor characteristics. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Inter plane coupling and magnetic properties in a high Tc superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malacarne, L.C.; Mendes, R.S.; Veroneze, P.R.
1997-01-01
We investigate if besides an increasing in T c , an interaction favoring pair tunneling reproduces some characteristic properties of the superconductors, in the presence of a magnetic field. With this objective, we use a sufficiently simple Hamiltonian which maintains the main qualitative aspects of the inter plane interaction through pairs. We also apply an functional integration method for obtaining the Landau-Ginzburg (L G) equations in presence of magnetic field. From these equations, we verify that the applied model presents the properties expected for a superconductor, e.g. magnetic flux quantization, Meissner effect and possible existence of vortex and vortex lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchevsky, M; Higgins, M J; Bhattacharya, S; Fratello, V J
2011-01-01
In a superconducting film deposited on ferromagnetic substrate with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, vortex matter is confined by the magnetic potential landscape. Using scanning Hall microscopy we visualize flux accumulation and removal in a superconductor-ferrimagnet (S/F) bilayer prepared by rf sputtering of thin niobium film on bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet. Penetration of the perpendicular magnetic field in the S/F bilayer follows magnetic domain boundaries and is laterally guided by the garnet magnetization component along the field direction. Upon field removal, localization of the remnant flux at the disclination points of the labyrinthine domain pattern is observed. Our experiments show evidence for strong vortex pinning due the special topology of the domain pattern. Ac magnetic imaging of the transport current distribution in the bilayer reveals complex flow paths commensurate with the magnetic domain boundaries. Topological magnetic pinning can be a useful tool for enhancement and control of critical current in thin film superconductors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marchevsky, M [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 12344 (United States); Higgins, M J [Princeton High School, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bhattacharya, S [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Fratello, V J, E-mail: mmartchevskii@lbl.gov [Integrated Photonics, Inc., Hillsborough, NJ 08844 (United States)
2011-02-15
In a superconducting film deposited on ferromagnetic substrate with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, vortex matter is confined by the magnetic potential landscape. Using scanning Hall microscopy we visualize flux accumulation and removal in a superconductor-ferrimagnet (S/F) bilayer prepared by rf sputtering of thin niobium film on bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet. Penetration of the perpendicular magnetic field in the S/F bilayer follows magnetic domain boundaries and is laterally guided by the garnet magnetization component along the field direction. Upon field removal, localization of the remnant flux at the disclination points of the labyrinthine domain pattern is observed. Our experiments show evidence for strong vortex pinning due the special topology of the domain pattern. Ac magnetic imaging of the transport current distribution in the bilayer reveals complex flow paths commensurate with the magnetic domain boundaries. Topological magnetic pinning can be a useful tool for enhancement and control of critical current in thin film superconductors.
Impurity coupled to an artificial magnetic field in a Fermi gas in a ring trap
Ünal, F. Nur; Hetényi, B.; Oktel, M. Ã.-.
2015-05-01
The dynamics of a single impurity interacting with a many-particle background is one of the central problems of condensed-matter physics. Recent progress in ultracold-atom experiments makes it possible to control this dynamics by coupling an artificial gauge field specifically to the impurity. In this paper, we consider a narrow toroidal trap in which a Fermi gas is interacting with a single atom. We show that an external magnetic field coupled to the impurity is a versatile tool to probe the impurity dynamics. Using a Bethe ansatz, we calculate the eigenstates and corresponding energies exactly as a function of the flux through the trap. Adiabatic change of flux connects the ground state to excited states due to flux quantization. For repulsive interactions, the impurity disturbs the Fermi sea by dragging the fermions whose momentum matches the flux. This drag transfers momentum from the impurity to the background and increases the effective mass. The effective mass saturates to the total mass of the system for infinitely repulsive interactions. For attractive interactions, the drag again increases the effective mass which quickly saturates to twice the mass of a single particle as a dimer of the impurity and one fermion is formed. For excited states with momentum comparable to number of particles, effective mass shows a resonant behavior. We argue that standard tools in cold-atom experiments can be used to test these predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Hao, E-mail: menghao1982@shu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xiuqiang [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ren, Yajie [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)
2015-01-14
We study the supercurrent in clean superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure containing a noncollinear magnetic domain in the ferromagnetic region. It is demonstrated that the magnetic domain can lead to a spin-flip scattering process, which reverses the spin orientations of the singlet Cooper pair and simultaneously changes the sign of the corresponding electronic momentum. If the ferromagnetic layers on both sides of magnetic domain have the same features, the long-range proximity effect will take place. That is because the singlet Cooper pair will create an exact phase-cancellation effect and gets an additional π phase shift as it passes through the entire ferromagnetic region. Then, the equal spin triplet pair only exists in the magnetic domain region and can not diffuse into the other two ferromagnetic layers. So, the supercurrent mostly arises from the singlet Cooper pairs, and the equal spin triplet pairs are not involved. This result can provide a approach for generating the long-range supercurrent.
Magnetic-field dependence of impurity-induced muon depolarization in noble metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schillaci, M.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Cooke, D.W.; Dodds, S.A.; Richards, P.M.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Boekema, C.
1983-01-01
We have measured the magnetic-field dependence of the muon depolarization rate up to 5 kOe in AuGd (350 ppM), AgGd (340 ppM) and AgEr (300 ppM). A simple model which includes both dipolar and nearest-neighbor contact interactions between the muon and the magnetic impurity does not fit the data. An axial crystal-field interaction, arising from the electric-field gradient induced by the muon at the site of the impurity, is found to dominate the Hamiltonian, and may have a large effect on the field dependence
Magnetic field dependence of impurity-induced muon depolarization in noble metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schillaci, M.E.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Cooke, D.W.; Yaouanc, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Dodds, S.A. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Physics); Richards, P.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); MacLaughlin, D.E. (California Univ., Riverside (USA)); Boekema, C. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))
1984-01-01
The authors have measured the magnetic field dependence of the muon depolarization rate up to 5 kOe in AuGd (350 ppm), AgGd (340 ppm) and AgEr (300 ppm). A simple model which includes both dipolar and nearest-neighbor contact interactions between the muon and the magnetic impurity does not fit the data. An axial crystal-field interaction, arising from the electric field gradient induced by the muon at the site of the impurity, is found to dominate the Hamiltonian, and may have a large effect on the field dependence.
Effects of magnetic field on the cuprate high-Tc superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lake, B.; Aeppli, G.; Christensen, N.B.
2004-01-01
This article discusses neutron scattering measurements on the cuprate, high transition temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) in an applied magnetic field. LSCO is a type-II superconductor and magnetic flux can penetrate the material via the formation of vorticies. Phase coherent...
Kinoshita, T.; Koshizuka, N.; Nagashima, K.; Murakami, M.
Developments of non-contact superconducting devices like superconducting magnetic levitation transfer and superconducting flywheel energy storage system have been performed based on the interactions between bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors and permanent magnets, in that the superconductors can stably be levitated without any active control. The performances of noncontact superconducting devices are dependent on the interaction forces like attractive forces and stiffness. In the present study, we constructed a non-contact conveyer for which the guide rails were prepared by attaching many Fe-Nd-B magnets onto an iron base plate. Along the translational direction, all the magnets were arranged as to face the same pole, and furthermore their inter-distance was made as small as possible. The guide rail has three magnet rows, for which the magnets were glued on the iron plate such that adjacent magnet rows have opposite poles like NSN. At the center row, the magnetic field at zero gap reached 0.61T, while the field strengths of two rows on the side edges were only 0.48T due to magnetic interactions among permanent magnets. We then prepared a cryogenic box made with FRP that can store several bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors 25 mm in diameter cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that the levitation forces and stiffness increased with increasing the number of bulk superconductors installed in the box, although the levitation force per unit bulk were almost the same. We also confirmed that these forces are dependent on the configuration of bulk superconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maniv, T; Zhuravlev, V; Wosnitza, J; Hagel, J
2004-01-01
The remarkable phenomenon of weak magnetization hysteresis loops, observed recently deep in the vortex-liquid state of a nearly two-dimensional (2D) superconductor at low temperatures and high magnetic fields, is shown to reflect the existence of an unusual vortex-liquid state, consisting of collectively pinned crystallites of easily sliding vortex chains. (letter to the editor)
Properties of a magnetic superconductor with weak magnetization-application to ErNi2B2C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, T.K.; Leung, W.T.
2001-01-01
Using a Ginsburg-Landau free-energy functional, we study the H-T phase diagram of a weak magnetic superconductor, where the magnetization from the magnetic component is marginal in supporting a spontaneous vortex phase. In particular, the competition between the spiral state and spontaneous vortex phase is analysed. Our theory is applied to understand the magnetic properties of ErNi 2 B 2 C. (orig.)
Magnetization hysteresis and history effects in conventional and high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaddah, P.
1990-01-01
The magnetization in hard superconductors is irreversible and history-dependent, and cannot be a priori compared with the equilibrium magnetization. These features have gained prominence in the high T c superconductors (HTSC) where the short coherence length presumably leads to intrinsic pinning. Various experimental features, first noticed in the HTSC, are explained by an extension of Bean's macroscopic model to include temperature variations and the field dependence of J c . This paper discusses recent measurements of history effects in niobium and show their similarities with other published data on HTSC. The authors also present our calculations of magnetization behaviour in hard superconductors of sample-shapes having a non-zero demagnetization factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.
2004-01-01
Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents
Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.
2004-10-01
Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.
Magnetic impurity in a system of interacting electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huynh Thanh Duc; Nguyen Toan Thang
1999-04-01
The Kondo effect of the Anderson impurity in a correlated conduction electron system is studied within the slave boson mean-field theory. The interacting conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard model with an interaction of strength U. It is shown that the Kondo temperature T K decreases with an increase of U. In the intermediate regime at half-filling the exponential scale of the Kondo temperature T K is lost already at the saddle-point level of slave boson formulation. (author)
Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students
Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.
2012-01-01
We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 liter liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provide...
Procedures for measuring the electrical properties of superconductors for accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sampson, W.B.
1986-01-01
There are three important electrical properties associated with the superconductor used to fabricate accelerator magnets. The most important is the critical current since this determines the performance potential of the magnet. The normal state resistivity and the volume magnetization are the other principal electrical parameters. In this report methods for measuring these parameters are presented and procedures for including self field effect and magnetoresistance are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lad, J.K.
1979-01-01
Techniques for fabrication of a few important superconductors like Nb, Ti and Nb 3 Sn are described. Copper or bronze or both can be used as a matrix in the superconductor. Current densities obtained for different ratios of copper to superconductor are studied. The specifications of multi-filament Nb 3 Sn superconductors are given. The relative merits of the two superconductors are discussed. The temperature range obtained is approximately 3 0 K and a magnetic field of 9T(tesla) can be achieved. (A.K.)
Magnetic hyperfine field at a Cd impurity diluted in RCo{sub 2} at finite temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, A.L. de, E-mail: alexandre.oliveira@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Nilópolis – RJ (Brazil); Chaves, C.M., E-mail: cmch@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física Armando Dias Tavares, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Troper, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2015-06-15
The local magnetic moments and the magnetic hyperfine fields at an s–p Cd impurity diluted in inter-metallic Laves phase compounds RCo{sub 2} (R=Gd, Tb) at finite temperatures are calculated. For other rare earth elements (light or heavy) the pure compounds display a magnetic first order transition and are not describable by our formalism. The host has two coupled lattices (R and Co) both having itinerant d electrons but only the rare earth lattice has localized f electrons. They all contribute to the magnetization of the host and also to the local moment and to the magnetic hyperfine field at the impurity. The investigation of magnetic hyperfine field in these materials then provides valuable information on the d-itinerant electrons and also on the localized (4f) magnetic moments. For the d–d electronic interaction we use the Hubbard–Stratonovich identity thus allowing the employment of functional integral in the static saddle point approximation. Our model reproduces quite well the experimental data. - Highlights: • A functional integral method in the static limit, producing site disorder, is used. • The site disorder is treated with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) • A Friedel sum rule gives a self-consistency condition for the impurity energy. • The experimental curve of hyperfine fields×temperature is very well reproduced.
Maximum repulsed magnetization of a bulk superconductor with low pulsed field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchimoto, M.; Kamijo, H.; Fujimoto, H.
2005-01-01
Pulsed field magnetization of a bulk high-T c superconductor (HTS) is important technique especially for practical applications of a bulk superconducting magnet. Full magnetization is not obtained for low pulsed field and trapped field is decreased by reversed current in the HTS. The trapped field distribution by repulsed magnetization was previously reported in experiments with temperature control. In this study, repulsed magnetization technique with the low pulsed field is numerically analyzed under assumption of variable shielding current by the temperature control. The shielding current densities are discussed to obtain maximum trapped field by two times of low pulsed field magnetizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishikawa, H.; Torii, S.; Yuasa, K.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the measured results of the two-dimensional flux density distribution of a YBCO bulk under applied AC magnetic fields with various frequency. Melt-processed oxide superconductors have been developed in order to obtain strong pinning forces. Various electric mechanical systems or magnetic levitation systems use those superconductors. The major problem is that cracks occur because the bulk superconductors are brittle. The bulk may break in magnetizing process after cracks make superconducting state instable. The trapped flux density and the permanent current characteristics of bulk superconductors have been analyzed, so as to examine the magnetizing processes or superconducting states of the bulk. In those studies, the two-dimensional surface flux density distributions of the bulk in static fields are discussed. On the other hand, the distributions in dynamic fields are little discussed. We attempted to examine the states of the bulk in the dynamic fields, and made a unique experimental device which has movable sensors synchronized with AC applied fields. As a result, the two-dimensional distributions in the dynamic fields are acquired by recombining the one-dimensional distributions. The dynamic states of the flux of the bulk and the influences of directions of cracks are observed from the distributions. In addition, a new method for measuring two-dimensional flux density distribution under dynamic magnetic fields is suggested
Low temperature X-ray imaging of magnetic flux patterns in high temperature superconductors
Stahl, Claudia; Ruoß, Stephen; Weigand, Markus; Bechtel, Michael; Schütz, Gisela; Albrecht, Joachim
2015-05-01
We present X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) microscopy results obtained at liquid nitrogen temperatures on the high-Tc superconductor YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-δ). The magnetic flux distribution arising from electric currents in the superconductor is detected and visualized using soft-magnetic Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) as sensor layer and XMCD as contrast mechanism. It has been shown that the XMCD contrast in the sensor layer directly corresponds to magnetic flux distribution of the superconductor and hence can be used to image magnetic structures in superconductors [Stahl et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 104515 (2014)]. The existing scanning UHV X-ray microscopy setup MAXYMUS at the synchrotron BESSY II in Berlin has been upgraded for that purpose: we use a nitrogen based MMR Micro Miniature Joule-Thompson Cryostat with temperature range from 75 K to 580 K. The capability of the method is demonstrated on two different superconducting samples, an optimally doped thin film and a melt-textured block.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Kenta; Narama, Tatsuya; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Takeuchi, Naoki
2015-01-01
Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic is an energy-efficient superconductor logic with zero static power and very small dynamic power due to adiabatic switching operations. In order to build large-scale digital circuits, we built AQFP logic cells using superconductor magnetic shields, which are necessary in order to avoid unwanted magnetic couplings between the cells and excitation currents. In preliminary experimental tests, we confirmed that the unwanted coupling became negligibly small thanks to the superconductor shields. As a demonstration, we designed a four-to-one multiplexor and a 16-junction full adder using the shielded logic cells. In both circuits, we confirmed correct logic operations with wide operation margins of excitation currents. These results indicate that large-scale AQFP digital circuits can be realized using the shielded logic cells. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Leonel, S.A., E-mail: sidiney@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Coura, P.Z., E-mail: pablo@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Sato, F., E-mail: sjfsato@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Costa, B.V., E-mail: bvc@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30123–970 (Brazil); Vázquez, M., E-mail: mvazquez@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC. 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2016-12-01
Numerical simulations have been used to investigate the polarity reversal of the transverse domain wall in rectangular magnetic nanowires and the stabilization of the domain wall position after occurring the polarity reversal. In order to control the wall position we have considered two clusters of magnetic impurities, identical and equidistant from the nanowire width axis. Traps of pinning and blocking for the transverse domain wall can be originated from magnetic impurities, consisting of a local variation of the exchange constant. Under suitable excitation amplitudes it is possible to switch the polarity of the transverse domain wall by applying a nanosecond axial magnetic field pulse in a fast and controllable way. - Highlights: • Traps for pinning and blocking transverse domain walls are proposed. • The traps consisting of localized modifications of the magnetic properties. • The wall polarity can be reversed in a fast and controllable way.
Magnetically dead layers at sp-impurity-decorated grain boundaries and surfaces in nickel
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Všianská, Monika; Šob, Mojmír
2011-01-01
Roč. 84, č. 1 (2011), Art.n. 014418 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : magnetically dead layers * sp-impurity-decorated grain boundaries and surfaces * nickel Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011
Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osorio, M R; Lahera, D E; Suderow, H
2012-01-01
We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics. (paper)
Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students
Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.
2012-09-01
We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics.
Flux Trapping Properties of Bulk HIGH-TC Superconductors in Static Field-Cooling Magnetization
Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.
2013-06-01
The trapping process and saturation effect of trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductors by static field-cooling magnetization (FCM) are reported in the paper. With a cryogenic Bell Hall sensor attached on the center of the bulk surface, the synchronous magnetic signals were recorded during the whole magnetization process. It enables us to know the flux trapping behavior since the removal of the excitation field, as well as the subsequent flux relaxation phenomenon and the flux dissipation in the quench process of the bulk sample. With the help of flux mapping techniques, the relationship between the trapped flux and the applied field was further investigated; the saturation effect of trapped flux was discussed by comparing the peak trapped field and total magnetic flux of the bulk sample. These studies are useful to understand the basic flux trapping properties of bulk superconductors.
Albert, Jaroslav; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.
2008-01-01
Mechanical stress causes motion of defects in solids. We show that in a type-II superconductor a moving dislocation generates a pattern of current that exerts the depinning force on the surrounding vortex lattice. Concentration of dislocations and the mechanical stress needed to produce critical depinning currents are shown to be within practical range. When external magnetic field and transport current are present this effect generates voltage across the superconductor. Thus a superconductor...
Magnetic manipulation of topological states in p-wave superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mercaldo, Maria Teresa; Cuoco, Mario; Kotetes, Panagiotis
2018-01-01
Substantial experimental investigation has provided evidence for spin-triplet pairing in diverse classes of materials and in a variety of artificial heterostructures. One of the fundamental challenges in this framework is how to manipulate the topological behavior of p-wave superconductors (PSC...
Stability analysis of magnetic flux in thin-film superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, Dmitry
2007-01-01
This work presents theoretical results in the physics of superconductivity. The first part of the work is dedicated to the problem of thermomagnetic instabilities and flux avalanches in thin film superconductors. The second part describes the problem of flux trapped in the hole of the superconducting ring (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koval'chuk, D.G.; Chornomorets', M.P.
2010-01-01
The applicability of relations obtained by Clem and Sanchez for the ac magnetic susceptibility of type-II superconductor thin films to the case where an additional constant magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the film has been analyzed in the framework of the critical state model. The issues concerning the sample 'memory' and the influence of the magnetic field change prehistory on the current sample state have been discussed. It has been shown that the ac component of the magnetic moment and, hence, the amplitudes of ac magnetic susceptibility harmonics are established within one period of the ac magnetic field irrespective of the field prehistory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabral, Leonardo Ribeiro Eulalio; Aguiar, Jose Albino Oliveira de
2002-01-01
Full text: The study of the electromagnetic response of high-T c superconductors is essential for future technological applications. Such materials are hard type II superconductors, where the mixed state (a state characterized by quantized normal flux tubes - also called vortices - immersed in a superconductor phase) occupies most of the phase diagram. Therefore, the electromagnetic properties are dictated by the vortex dynamics in these materials. One has also to consider the presence of structural defects and thermal effects, which turn the vortex dynamics very complex. These difficulties may be overcome throughout a macroscopic description, also known as continuum approximation, of the electromagnetic fields in superconductors, obtained from critical state models and constitutive relations E = E(j) and H = H(B) (where E is the electric field generated by moving vortices, j the current density, B the induction - related to the local density of vortices - and H the reversible magnetic field that is in equilibrium with B). In superconductors with negligible demagnetization factors, such as long cylinders and bars with applied magnetic fields and/or currents along their longer dimensions, the Meissner state and the flux penetration is quite well understood. However, the actual specimen shape plays an important role on the electromagnetic behavior of superconductors. Numerical methods are often employed, since such cases are hard to treat analytically. In this work we studied the electromagnetic response of superconductors with various shapes. The Meissner state is obtained for thin curved strips and long cylinders with arbitrary cross-section, in perpendicular field and with applied currents. The flux penetration is numerically calculated for thin curved strips for the Bean (j c =const.) and the Kim (j c (B) = j c0 /(1 + βB)) models. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Xiaobin; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xiaobin, E-mail: yangxb@lzu.edu.cn; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo
2017-04-15
Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.
Coulomb Impurity Problem of Graphene in Strong Coupling Regime in Magnetic Fields.
Kim, S C; Yang, S-R Eric
2015-10-01
We investigate the Coulomb impurity problem of graphene in strong coupling limit in the presence of magnetic fields. When the strength of the Coulomb potential is sufficiently strong the electron of the lowest energy boundstate of the n = 0 Landau level may fall to the center of the potential. To prevent this spurious effect the Coulomb potential must be regularized. The scaling function for the inverse probability density of this state at the center of the impurity potential is computed in the strong coupling regime. The dependence of the computed scaling function on the regularization parameter changes significantly as the strong coupling regime is approached.
Incommensurate magnetic modulations in the magnetic superconductor HoNi2B2C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, M.; Zaharko, O.; Keller, L.; Allenspach, P.; Kreyssig, A.; Canfield, P.C.
2006-01-01
Full text: The borocarbide HoNi 2 B 2 C is an unconventional superconductor of particular interest, since long-range magnetism coexists and competes with superconductivity on a common energy range [1]. Our study is based on high quality single crystals of 11 B-substituted HoNi 2 B 2 C. The neutron diffraction investigations are devoted to two issues of specific relevance to HoNi 2 B 2 C. Firstly, the near re-entrant phase between 5K 2 B 2 C is more complicated than proposed so fare [2]. Furthermore we performed a spherical neutron polarimetry experiment to determine the two ICM magnetic structures of HoNi 2 B 2 C and neutron spectroscopy investigations to obtain the microscopic magnetic coupling parameters. All these studies resulted in quite a consistent and complete picture of magnetism in HoNi 2 B 2 C, however, we could not find clear evidence for a strong interaction between superconductivity and magnetism. (author)
Magnetic excitations in the heavy-Fermion superconductor URu2Si2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broholm, C.; Lin, H.; Matthews, P.T.
1991-01-01
Antiferromagnetic order and fluctuations in the heavy-fermion superconductor URu2Si2 have been studied by magnetic neutron scattering. Below T(N) = 17.5 K, URu2Si2 is a type-I antiferromagnet with an anomalously small ordered moment of (0.04 +/- 0.01)mu-B polarized along the tetragonal c axis...
Three-dimensionality of field-induced magnetism in a high-temperature superconductor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lake, B.; Lefmann, K.; Christensen, N.B.
2005-01-01
Many physical properties of high-temperature superconductors are two-dimensional phenomena derived from their square-planar CuO(2) building blocks. This is especially true of the magnetism from the copper ions. As mobile charge carriers enter the CuO(2) layers, the antiferromagnetism of the parent...
Proposed Spontaneous Generation of Magnetic Fields by Curved Layers of a Chiral Superconductor
Kvorning, T.; Hansson, T. H.; Quelle, A.; Smith, C. Morais
2018-05-01
We demonstrate that two-dimensional chiral superconductors on curved surfaces spontaneously develop magnetic flux. This geometric Meissner effect provides an unequivocal signature of chiral superconductivity, which could be observed in layered materials under stress. We also employ the effect to explain some puzzling questions related to the location of zero-energy Majorana modes.
Magnetic behavior of light rare earth ions in (Nd,Eu,Gd)-123 superconductors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jirsa, Miloš; Rameš, Michal; Marcenat, C.; Wolf, T.
2013-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 901-905 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high- T c superconductors * cuprates * thermodynamic properties * LRE-123 * paramagnetic ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruoss, Stephen; Stahl, Claudia; Weigand, Markus; Schuetz, Gisela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Research Institute for Innovative Surfaces, FINO, Aalen University (Germany)
2015-07-01
The penetration of magnetic flux into the high-temperature superconductor YBCO has been observed using a new high-resolution technique based on X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). Superconductors coated with thin soft magnetic layers of CoFeB are observed in a scanning x-ray microscope providing cooling of the sample down to 83 K under the influence of external magnetic fields. Resulting electrical currents create an inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution above the superconductor which leads to a local reorientation of the ferromagnetic layer. X-ray absorption measurements with circular polarized radiation allows the analysis of the magnetic flux distribution in the superconductor via the ferromagnetic layer. In this work we present first images taken at 83K with high spatial resolution in the nanoscale.
Conductance of graphene based normal-superconductor junction with double magnetic barriers
Abdollahipour, B.; Mohebalipour, A.; Maleki, M. A.
2018-05-01
We study conductance of a graphene based normal metal-superconductor junction with two magnetic barriers. The magnetic barriers are induced via two applied magnetic fields with the same magnitudes and opposite directions accompanied by an applied electrostatic potential. We solve Dirac-Bogoliubov-De-Gennes (DBdG) equation to calculate conductance of the junction. We find that applying the magnetic field leads to suppression of the Andreev reflection and conductance for all energies. On the other hand, we observe a crossover from oscillatory to tunneling behavior of the conductance as a function of the applied potential by increasing the magnetic field.
A neutron depolarization study of magnetic inhomogeneities in weak-link superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuchenko, N.K.; Yagud, R.Z.
1993-01-01
Neutron depolarization measurements in the mixed state of both high-T c and low-T c weak-link superconductors have been carried out. Samples of YBCO, BSCCO, SnMo 6 S 8 and 0.5 Nb-0.5 Ti of different magnetic prehistory were analyzed at temperatures T 4.2 K under applied magnetic fields II <= 16.5 kOe. We ascribe the appearance of magnetic inhomogeneities and their hysteresis behaviour to the interaction between dipole magnetic fields (diamagnetic and paramagnetic ones) and applied magnetic fields
Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor.
Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan
2017-12-01
We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr_{2}VO_{3}FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C_{4} (2×2) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C_{4} (2×2) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C_{4} state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.
Magnetism without magnetic impurities in oxides ZrO.sub.2./sub. and TiO.sub.2./sub..
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bouzerar, G.
2008-01-01
Roč. 88, 18-20 (2008), s. 2755-2764 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0456; GA MŠk OC 150; GA AV ČR IAA100100616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetism * impurity * oxides * density functional calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.384, year: 2008
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Johansen, T. H.; Shantsev, D. V.; Koblischka, M. R.; Galperin, Y. M.; Nálevka, Petr; Jirsa, Miloš
341-348, - (2000), s. 1443-1444 ISSN 0921-4534. [International Conference on Materials and Mechanism of Superconductivity High Temperature Superconductors /4./. Houston , 20.02.2000-25.02.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2000
Effect of twinning plane on superconductor magnetic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzdin, A.I.; Kuptsov, D.A.
1989-01-01
Effect of twinning planes on pinning of the Abrikosov vortices in superconductors of the second order with the Ginsburg-Landau parameter, κ >> 1, is considered. The modified Ginsburg-Landau functional, where the effect of superconducting properties improvement near the twinning plane is taken into account by adding the additional δ-function component, is used to descibe superconductivity of twinning plane. Force of interaction of a vortex filament and the twinning plane is calculated. It is shown that in case of the twinning plane opaque to electrons, additional attractive force, being analogous to that occurring in the problem on the surface Been-Livingston barrier, affects the vortex filament. The results can explain anisotropy of vortex pinning observed in the periodic twinning structure in high-temperature superconductors
Magnetic field and force analysis of high Tc superconductor with flux flow and creep
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Miya, Kenzo
1994-01-01
This paper describes a new method for the magnetic force analysis of high T c superconductor based on the flux flow and creep model. The introduction of the artificial conductivity, which is used in the conventional method, is not needed. The CPU time requirement of the calculations is considerably lower than that in the case of the conventional method. Thereby the vibration of a levitated permanent magnet was numerically analyzed by taking into account the flux flow and creep
Kemmler, M.; Weides, M.; Goldobin, E.; Weiler, M.; Opel, M.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.; Vasenko, A.S.; Golubov, A.A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.
2010-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the dependence of the critical current I-c on an in-plane magnetic field B of 0, pi, and 0-pi superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions. I-c(B) of the 0 and the pi junction closely follows a Fraunhofer pattern, indicating a homogeneous critical current density j(c)(x). The maximum of I-c(B) is slightly shifted along the field axis, pointing to a small remanent in-plane magnetization of the F-layer along the field axis. I-c(B) of ...
Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type – II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanovskii, V.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Electrodynamics and thermal diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature. • There exist nontrivial relations between stability conditions, allowable losses and stable superconductor’s overheating. • The magnetic stability conditions are direct consequence of the states when the heat releases exceeds the critical energy. • The critical energy of magnetic instability depends on the nature of an external disturbance. • The non-isothermal magnetic instability conditions of the critical state are formulated. - Abstract: The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must
Influence of an ergodic magnetic limiter on the impurity content in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engelhardt, W.; Feneberg, W.
1978-01-01
This work deals with the properties of an ergodic magnetic limiter and presents calculations concerning the reduction of the impurity rate in a tokamak by a boundary sheath with decreased confinement time. The layer is produced by resonant helical windings superposed on an equilibrium magnetic field with closed magnetic surfaces. The transport coefficients in the boundary layer, which yield the temperature and density distribution, are obtained from the movement of particles along a stochastic magnetic field. The resulting line density can be made a factor of ten higher than is expected for a poloidal divertor experiment. From this it is concluded that all impurities coming from the wall will be ionized in the boundary layer. The concentration of the impurities in the plasma center is calculated according to a model which uses an anomalous diffusion coefficient being consistent with the ergodization in the boundary layer. The resulting concentration can be reduced proportional to the factor (nsub(e)Dsub(e)) -1 where nsub(e) and Dsub(e) are electron density and diffusion coefficient in the boundary layer. (Auth.)
Anomalous magnetic torque in the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe13
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmiedeshoff, G.M.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.
1994-01-01
Measurements of the magnetic torque acting upon a single crystal of the heavy-fermion superconductor UBe 13 have been made at temperatures from 0.5 K to 30.0 K and in magnetic fields to 23 T using a capacitive magnetometer. We find that a large, anomalous contribution to the magnetic torque appears in at low temperatures and in high fields. The anomalous torque coexists with the superconducting state at low temperature. We propose that the anomalous torque reflects the existence of a field-induced magnetic phase transition. (orig.)
Response of hard superconductors to crossed magnetic fields: elliptic critical-state model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero-Salazar, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, F
2004-05-01
The behavior of hard superconductors subjected to crossed magnetic fields is theoretically investigated by employing an elliptic critical-state model. Here the anisotropy is induced by flux-line cutting. The model reproduces successfully the collapse of the magnetic moment under the action of a sweeping magnetic field, applied perpendicularly to a dc field, for diamagnetic and paramagnetic initial states. Besides, it explains the transition from the diamagnetic state to the paramagnetic one when the magnitudes of the crossed magnetic fields are of the same order.
Theoretical Study of Radiation from a Broad Range of Impurity Ions for Magnetic Fusion Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safronova, Alla [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
2014-03-14
Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities plays an important role in the study of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The measurements of these impurities are crucial for the control of the general machine conditions, for the monitoring of the impurity levels, and for the detection of various possible fault conditions. Low-Z impurities, typically present in concentrations of 1%, are lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, and oxygen. Some of the common medium-Z impurities are metals such as iron, nickel, and copper, and high-Z impurities, such as tungsten, are present in smaller concentrations of 0.1% or less. Despite the relatively small concentration numbers, the aforementioned impurities might make a substantial contribution to radiated power, and also influence both plasma conditions and instruments. A detailed theoretical study of line radiation from impurities that covers a very broad spectral range from less than 1 Å to more than 1000 Å has been accomplished and the results were applied to the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) and to the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton. Though low- and medium-Z impurities were also studied, the main emphasis was made on the comprehensive theoretical study of radiation from tungsten using different state-of-the-art atomic structure codes such as Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory (RMBPT). The important component of this research was a comparison of the results from the RMBPT code with other codes such as the Multiconfigurational Hartree–Fock developed by Cowan (COWAN code) and the Multiconfiguration Relativistic Hebrew University Lawrence Atomic Code (HULLAC code), and estimation of accuracy of calculations. We also have studied dielectronic recombination, an important recombination process for fusion plasma, for variety of highly and low charged tungsten ions using COWAN and HULLAC codes. Accurate DR rate coefficients are needed for
The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on the impurity transport in TEXTOR-DED plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiche, Albert Josef
2009-01-01
Thermonuclear fusion provides a new mechanism for the generation of electrical power which has the perspective to serve humanity for several millions of years. One possibility to implement fusion on earth is to magnetically confine hot deuterium tritium plasmas in so called tokamaks. The fusion reactions take place in the hot plasma core. Each of the fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium yields 17.6 MeV which can be used in the process of generating electrical power. Impurities contaminate the plasma which then is cooled down and diluted. This leads to a reduction of the fusion reactions and in consequence the energy yield. The transport behaviour of the impurities in the plasma is not fully understood up to now. Nevertheless, experiments have shown that the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) can control the impurity content in the plasma. The dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) on the tokamak Textor is able to induce static and dynamic RMPs. During the application of RMPs transient impurity transport experiments with argon have been performed and the time evolution of the impurity concentrations have been monitored. The line emission intensity of the impurities in the plasma is measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and in the soft X-ray (SXR) with the absolutely calibrated VUV spectrometer Hexos and SXR PIN diodes, respectively. The analysis of the transient impurity transport experiments is performed with the help of the transport code Strahl. The impurity flows in Strahl are described by a combination of a diffusive and a convective flow. In the computing process the code solves the coupled set of continuity equations of each of the ionization stages of an impurity. With this method the time evolution of the impurity ion densities and the line emission intensities of the ionization stages can be computed. The adaption to the experimental measurements is performed with the help of the diffusion coefficient and the drift velocity which
Superconductor shields test chamber from ambient magnetic fields
Hildebrandt, A. F.
1965-01-01
Shielding a test chamber for magnetic components enables it to maintain a constant, low magnetic field. The chamber is shielded from ambient magnetic fields by a lead foil cylinder maintained in a superconducting state by liquid helium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Zixu; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang
2014-01-01
We employ the matching method to analytically investigate the holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in an external magnetic field. We discuss systematically the restricted conditions for the matching method and find that this analytic method is not always powerful to explore the effect of external magnetic field on the holographic superconductors unless the matching point is chosen in an appropriate range and the dynamical exponent z satisfies the relation z=d−1 or z=d−2. From the analytic treatment, we observe that Lifshitz scaling can hinder the condensation to be formed, which can be used to back up the numerical results. Moreover, we study the effect of Lifshitz scaling on the upper critical magnetic field and reproduce the well-known relation obtained from Ginzburg–Landau theory
Effects of magnetic impurity scattering on superfluid 3He in aerogel
Aoyama, Kazushi; Ikeda, Ryusuke
2009-02-01
We investigate impurity effects on superfluid 3He in aerogel whose surface is not coated with 4He, different from most experimental situations. In systems with no 4He coating, spins of solid 3He absorbed on the aerogel surface are active and interact with spins of quasiparticles relevant to superfluidity and, for this reason, such an aerogel is treated as magnetic scatterers. It is found that, in the ABM pairing state affected by magnetic scatterings, not only the l-vector but also the d-vector has no long-ranged orientational order, and that the strong-coupling correction due to impurity scatterings is less suppressed than that in the nonmagnetic case, implying an expansion of the A-like phase region.
Topological phases in superconductor-noncollinear magnet interfaces with strong spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menke, H.; Schnyder, A.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Toews, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2016-07-01
Majorana fermions are predicted to emerge at interfaces between conventional s-wave superconductors and non-collinear magnets. In these heterostructures, the spin moments of the non-collinear magnet induce a low-energy band of Shiba bound states in the superconductor. Depending on the type of order of the magnet, the band structure of these bound states can be topologically nontrivial. Thus far, research has focused on systems where the influence of spin-orbit coupling can be neglected. Here, we explore the interplay between non-collinear (or non-coplanar) spin textures and Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. This situation is realized, for example, in heterostructures between helical magnets and heavy elemental superconductors, such as Pb. Using a unitary transformation in spin space, we show that the effects of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling are equivalent to the effects of the non-collinear spin texture of the helical magnet. We explore the topological phase diagram as a function of spin-orbit coupling, spin texture, and chemical potential, and find many interesting topological phases, such as p{sub x}-, (p{sub x} + p{sub y})-, and (p{sub x} + i p{sub y})-wave states. Conditions for the formation and the nature of Majorana edge channels are examined. Furthermore, we study the topological edge currents of these phases.
Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization
Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.
2011-11-01
Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.
Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Z., E-mail: zigang@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)
2011-11-15
A series of initial trapped fields after ZFC or FC magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. It is possible and easy to recover the lost trapped field and regain the best trapped field performance as before. In the re-magnetization process, the initial magnetic flux inside the bulk magnets will help to recover the trapped field. The optimum recovery field is recommended to be 2.5 times the saturation field of the bulk at LN2 temperature. Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.
Park, J H; Min, B I; Cho, H S
2000-01-01
Employing the self-consistent local approach, the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin orbital recursion method, we have investigated the electronic structures and the magnetic properties of 3d and 4d transition-metal (TM) impurities in ferromagnetic bcc Fe. In both 3d and 4d TM impurities, virtual bound states appear and are characterized by a high density of states in the energy spectrum. The characters of the states are studied by calculating the bond order between interaction orbitals. For early TM impurities, the states at the impurity sites have more antibonding characters, while the states at neighboring Fe sites have more bonding characters. For late TM impurities, the situation is reversed. late TM impurities of both the 3d and the 4d TM series have the same magnetic ordering as the host Fe atoms whereas early TM impurities have magnetic moments antiparallel to that of the host. As for the Mn impurity, an inward relaxation of neighboring Fe atoms stabilizes the antiferromagnetic ordering with respect to t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Ying; Medwal, Rohit; Sehdev, Neeru; Yadian, Boluo; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Talebitaher, A.; Ilyas, Usman; Ramanujan, R.V.; Huang, Yizhong; Rawat, R.S.
2014-01-01
The formation of impurity phases in FePt thin films severely degrades its magnetic properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of FePt thin films, synthesized using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), showed peaks corresponding to impurity phases, resulting in softer magnetic properties. A systematic investigation was carried to determine the factors that might have led to impurity phase formation. The factors include (i) PLD target composition, (ii) substrate material, (iii) annealing parameters such as temperature, duration and ambience and (iv) PLD deposition parameters such as chamber ambience, laser energy fluence and target–substrate distance. Depositions on the different substrates revealed impurity phase formation only on Si substrates. It was found that the target composition, PLD chamber ambience, and annealing ambience were not the factors that caused the impurity phase formation. The annealing temperature and duration influenced the impurity phases, but are not the cause of their formation. A decrease in the laser energy fluence and increase of the target–substrate distance resulted in elimination of the impurity phases and enhancement in the magnetic and structural properties of FePt thin films. The energy of the ablated plasma species, controlled by the laser energy fluence and the target–substrate distance, is found to be the main factor responsible for the formation of the impurity phases.
Nuclear magnetic resonance in low-symmetry superconductors
Cavanagh, D. C.; Powell, B. J.
2018-01-01
We consider the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 in superconductors with accidental nodes, i.e., zeros of the order parameter that are not enforced by its symmetries. Such nodes in the superconducting gap are not constrained by symmetry to a particular position on the Fermi surface. We show, analytically and numerically, that a Hebel-Slichter-like peak occurs even in the absence of an isotropic component of the superconducting gap. For a gap with symmetry-required nodes the Fermi velocity at the node must point along the node. For accidental nodes this is not, in general, the case. This leads to additional terms in spectral function and hence the density of states. These terms lead to a logarithmic divergence in 1 /T1T at T →Tc- in models neglecting disorder and interactions [except for those leading to superconductivity; here T is temperature, Tc-=limδ→0(Tc-δ ) , and Tc is the critical temperature]. This contrasts with the usual Hebel-Slichter peak which arises from the coherence factors due to the isotropic component of the gap and leads to a divergence in 1 /T1T somewhat below Tc. The divergence in superconductors with accidental nodes is controlled by either disorder or additional electron-electron interactions. However, for reasonable parameters, neither of these effects removes the peak altogether. This provides a simple experimental method to distinguish between symmetry-required and accidental nodes.
Electronic structure and magnetic properties of dilute U impurities in metals
Mohanta, S. K.; Cottenier, S.; Mishra, S. N.
2016-05-01
The electronic structure and magnetic moment of dilute U impurity in metallic hosts have been calculated from first principles. The calculations have been performed within local density approximation of the density functional theory using Augmented plane wave+local orbital (APW+lo) technique, taking account of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb correlation through LDA+U approach. We present here our results for the local density of states, magnetic moment and hyperfine field calculated for an isolated U impurity embedded in hosts with sp-, d- and f-type conduction electrons. The results of our systematic study provide a comprehensive insight on the pressure dependence of 5f local magnetism in metallic systems. The unpolarized local density of states (LDOS), analyzed within the frame work of Stoner model suggest the occurrence of local moment for U in sp-elements, noble metals and f-block hosts like La, Ce, Lu and Th. In contrast, U is predicted to be nonmagnetic in most transition metal hosts except in Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, and Hf consistent with the results obtained from spin polarized calculation. The spin and orbital magnetic moments of U computed within the frame of LDA+U formalism show a scaling behavior with lattice compression. We have also computed the spin and orbital hyperfine fields and a detail analysis has been carried out. The host dependent trends for the magnetic moment, hyperfine field and 5f occupation reflect pressure induced change of electronic structure with U valency changing from 3+ to 4+ under lattice compression. In addition, we have made a detailed analysis of the impurity induced host spin polarization suggesting qualitatively different roles of f-band electrons on moment stability. The results presented in this work would be helpful towards understanding magnetism and spin fluctuation in U based alloys.
Development of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors for Magnetic Bearings
Selvamanickam, V.; Pfaffenbach, K.; Sokolowski, R. S.; Zhang, Y.; Salama, K.
1996-01-01
The material requirements, material manufacturing and magnetic properties that are relevant to fabrication of High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings have been discussed. It is found that the seeded-melt-texturing method can be used to fabricate the single domain material that is required to achieve the best magnetic properties. Trapped-field mapping has been used as a non-destructive tool to determine the single-domain nature of the HTS material and quantity of the HTS disks. Both the trapped field and the levitation force of the Y-Ba-Cu-O disks are found to be strongly sensitive to the oxygen content.
Flux pinning and critical current in layered type-II superconductors in parallel magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.
1995-01-01
We have shown, within the Ginzburg-Landau theory, that the interaction between vortices and normal-metal layers in high-T c superconductor--normal-metal superlattices can cause high critical-current densities j c . The interaction is primarily magnetic, except at very low temperatures T, where the core interaction is dominant. For a lattice of vortices commensurate with an array of normal-metal layers in a parallel magnetic field H, strong magnetic pinning is obtained, with a nonmonotonic critical-current dependence on H, and with j c of the order of 10 7 --10 8 A/cm 2
Spinning rate decay of levitated high-Tc superconductors in rotational magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terentiev, A.N.; Kutukova, E.O.; Kuznetsov, A.A. (Inst. of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)); Mozhaev, A.P. (Moscow State Univ., Dept. of Chemistry (Russia))
1992-04-01
The rotation damping of a levitated superconductor was examined in the static field of a ring-shaped magnet and in the rotating field of coils. It was demonstrated that the pinning force mainly contributed to magnetic friction while the influence of a viscous component was negligible. The rotating magnetic field created a torque, reducing the angular deceleration under relaxation. Dependence of the rotational field-induced torque on the field-intensity was step-like. A relationship between the step-like behavior of rotational field-induced torque and pinning center distribution is discussed. The origins of friction torque and rotational field-produced torque are discussed. (orig.).
Magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higgins, M.J.; Goshorn, D.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Johnston, D.C.
1989-01-01
The magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in the superconductor La 1.8 Sr 0.2 CuO 4-y is studied. The sound velocity anomaly near T c is shown to be unambiguously related to superconductivity. Below T c , the sound velocity is found to be sensitive to the dynamics of a pinned flux lattice. A combination of sound velocity and magnetization measurements suggests three regimes of pinning behavior. A generic pinning ''phase diagram'' is obtained in the superconducting state. An anomalous peak effect in the magnetization is also observed at intermediate field strengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramírez, Juan Gabriel; Basaran, Ali C; De la Venta, J; Pereiro, Juan; Schuller, Ivan K
2014-01-01
This article introduces magnetic field modulated microwave spectroscopy (MFMMS) as a unique and high-sensitivity technique for use in the search for new superconductors. MFMMS measures reflected microwave power as a function of temperature. The modulation induced by the external ac magnetic field enables the use of phase locked detection with the consequent sensitivity enhancement. The MFMMS signal across several prototypical structural, magnetic, and electronic transitions is investigated. A literature review on microwave absorption across superconducting transitions is included. We show that MFMMS can be used to detect superconducting transitions selectively with very high sensitivity. (report on progress)
On the force relaxation in the magnetic levitation system with a high-Tc superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyak, B M; Zakharov, M S
2014-01-01
The effect of magnetic flux creep on the lift force in a magnet/superconductor system was studied. It was shown experimentally that in the case of real levitation (when a levitating object bears only on a magnetic field) the suspension height and consequently the lift force did not change over a long period of time. When the levitating object is fixed for some time (i.e. a rigid constraint is imposed on it), the levitation height decreases after removal of the external constraint. It is assumed that free oscillations of the levitating object slow down the flux creep process, which is activated when these oscillations are suppressed. (paper)
Measurement of the magnetic field inside the holes of a drilled bulk high-Tc superconductor
Lousberg, Gregory P.; Fagnard, Jean-François; Noudem, Jacques G.; Ausloos, Marcel; Vanderheyden, Benoit; Vanderbemden, Philippe
2009-04-01
We use macroscopic holes drilled in a bulk YBCO superconductor to probe its magnetic properties in the volume of the sample. The sample is subjected to an AC magnetic flux with a density ranging from 30 to 130 mT and the flux in the superconductor is probed by miniature coils inserted in the holes. In a given hole, three different penetration regimes can be observed: (i) the shielded regime, where no magnetic flux threads the hole; (ii) the gradual penetration regime, where the waveform of the magnetic field has a clipped sine shape whose fundamental component scales with the applied field; and (iii) the flux concentration regime, where the waveform of the magnetic field is nearly a sine wave, with an amplitude exceeding that of the applied field by up to a factor of two. The distribution of the penetration regimes in the holes is compared with that of the magnetic flux density at the top and bottom surfaces of the sample, and is interpreted with the help of optical polarized light micrographs of these surfaces. We show that the measurement of the magnetic field inside the holes can be used as a local characterization of the bulk magnetic properties of the sample.
Holovatsky, V. A.; Voitsekhivska, O. M.; Yakhnevych, M. Ya
2018-04-01
The effect of homogeneous magnetic field and location of donor impurity on the electron energy spectrum and distribution of its probability density in spherical core-shell quantum dot is investigated. In the framework of the effective mass approximation and rectangular infinitely deep potential well, the solutions of the Schrodinger equation are found using the matrix method. The wave functions are expanded over the complete set of exact functions obtained without the magnetic field and impurity. It is shown that when the induction of magnetic field increases, the ground state of electron in the nanostructure without impurity or on-center impurity is successively formed by the states with m = 0, -1, -2, … (Aharonov-Bohm effect). When donor impurity is located in the shell of the nanostructure the Aharonov-Bohm effect vanishes. The dependences of electron energy spectrum and its wave functions on the location of impurity, placed along the direction of magnetic field or perpendicularly to it, are studied. It is shown, that in the first case, the quantum states are characterized by the certain value of magnetic quantum number m and the expansion contains the wave functions of the states with it only. In the second case, the cylindrical symmetry of the problem is broken and the new quantum states are formed from the states with different values of all three quantum numbers n, l, m and electron energy spectrum weakly depends on the magnetic field induction.
The effect of ac magnetic fields on the lifting power of levitating superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyak, B M; Ermakov, G V; Chubraeva, L I
2007-01-01
This study deals with the decrease in the levitation force under the action of an ac field up to the frequency at which oscillations of the superconducting suspension are limited by inertia. The lifting force was measured as a function of the ac field amplitude and the exposure time. It was shown that the force quickly decreased at the moment the ac field was applied and then continued diminishing, but at a lower rate. A qualitative model was proposed, taking into account two effects of the ac field on the magnetization of the levitating superconductor: a complete destruction of the critical state in some section of the superconductor (to a depth λ ac ) and the initiation of a faster magnetic relaxation in the region where the induction gradient is preserved
Studies of the interaction between a magnet and a High Tc Superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Z.
1991-01-01
This dissertation consists of two parts. The last part is eight research papers which involve topics related to High T c superconductor (HTSC) studies. The main topic describes the interaction between a permanent magnet and a HTSC studied by a mechanical pendulum. The first part of the dissertation has two purposes. One is to give a brief introduction and background to the research papers, and the other is to outline the scientific findings from the HTSC studies. 94 refs., 2 figs
Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, W.M.; Chao, X.X.; Guo, F.X.; Li, J.W.; Chen, S.L.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • A small superconducting maglev propeller system has been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • Several small maglev vehicle models have been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications. -- Abstract: A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN 2 temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications
Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, W.M., E-mail: yangwm@snnu.edu.cn; Chao, X.X.; Guo, F.X.; Li, J.W.; Chen, S.L.
2013-10-15
Highlights: • A small superconducting maglev propeller system has been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • Several small maglev vehicle models have been designed and constructed based on YBCO bulk superconductors. • The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications. -- Abstract: A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN{sub 2} temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications.
Regis, Federico
2009-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a two-ring, superconducting synchrotron accelerator and collider installed in a 27 km long tunnel aiming at the discovery of the Higgs particle and the study of rare events with center mass collision energies of up to 14 TeV. The number of collisions per unit of area and time in a collider are evaluated trough the Luminosity function. Inside the LHC, superconducting magnets aligned with a precision of a few tenths of millimeters are used to bend and focus the particle trajectories. The LHC can be considered as the state of the art for superconducting magnets using the Nb-Ti superconductor technology. Therefore, a higher luminosity and beam energy can be achieved in the LHC only by using a more performing superconductor, such as the Nb$_{3}$Sn. This is considered as the most suitable superconductor to be used in high field magnets, allowing peak field of the order of 15 T. Nevertheless, the critical current jc variations in a Nb$_{3}$Sn has been found as strongly dependent on...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonier, J E
2007-01-01
The focus of this paper is on recent progress in muon spin rotation (μSR) studies of the vortex cores in type-II superconductors. By comparison of μSR measurements of the vortex core size in a variety of materials with results from techniques that directly probe electronic states, the effect of delocalized quasiparticles on the spatial variation of field in a lattice of interacting vortices has been determined for both single-band and multi-band superconductors. These studies demonstrate the remarkable accuracy of what some still consider an exotic technique. In recent years μSR has also been used to search for magnetism in and around the vortex cores of high-temperature superconductors. As a local probe μSR is specially suited for detecting static or quasistatic magnetism having short-range or random spatial correlations. As discussed in this review, μSR experiments support a generic phase diagram of competing superconducting and magnetic order parameters, characterized by a quantum phase transition to a state where the competing order is spatially nonuniform
Magnetic tunable confinement of the superconducting condensate in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aladyshkin, A.Yu.; Gillijns, W.; Silhanek, A.V.; Moshchalkov, V.V.
2008-01-01
The effect of a nonuniform magnetic field induced by a ferromagnet on the magnetoresistance of thin-film superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures was investigated experimentally. Two different magnetic textures with out-of-plane magnetization were considered: a plain ferromagnetic film with bubble domains and a regular array of ferromagnetic dots. The stray fields of the structures are able to affect the spatial profile of the superconducting condensate, leading to a modification of the dependence of the critical temperature T c on an external magnetic field H. We showed how the standard linear T c (H) dependence with a single maximum at H=0 can be continuously transformed into so-called reentrant phase boundary with two T c peaks. We demonstrated that both domain-wall superconductivity and field-induced superconductivity are different manifestations of the magnetic confinement effect in various magnetic patterns
Levitation performance of high-T{sub c} superconductor in sinusoidal guideway magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Wang, J.S.; Jing, H.; Jiang, M.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)
2008-12-01
The vertical component of the Halbach array's magnetic field exhibits a sinusoid distribution because of the closed magnetic flux area between two neighbouring poles, so this field can be regarded as the sinusoidal magnetic field. This article mainly discusses the influence of the closed flux region on the levitation performance of the bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Moreover, the levitation performance is compared between the closed and diverging region of magnetic flux. The experimental results can be analyzed by the magnetic circuit theory and the frozen-image model. The analysis indicates that the closed region of magnetic flux can influence the levitation performance of bulk HTS obviously and provide an extra useful guidance force. These conclusions are helpful to optimize the HTS Maglev system.
Sheykhi, A.; Abdollahzadeh, Z.
2018-03-01
We investigate the effects of an external magnetic field as well as exponential nonlinear electrodynamics on the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors. Our strategy for this study is the matching method, which is based on the match of the solutions near the horizon and on the boundary at some intermediate point. When the magnetic field is turned off, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator and show that the critical exponent is still 1/2, which is the universal value in the mean field theory. Then, we turn on the magnetic field and obtain the critical magnetic field, B c , in order to study its behavior in terms of the temperature. Interestingly enough, we find that in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics, the critical temperature decreases, while the critical magnetic field increases compared to the Maxwell case. We also observe that the critical magnetic field increases with increasing the nonlinear parameter b.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubuit, N
2006-10-15
This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)
Nematicity and Magnetism in FeSe and Other Families of Fe-Based Superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youichi Yamakawa
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Nematicity and magnetism are two key features in Fe-based superconductors, and their interplay is one of the most important unsolved problems. In FeSe, the magnetic order is absent below the structural transition temperature T_{str}=90 K, in stark contrast to the fact that the magnetism emerges slightly below T_{str} in other families. To understand such amazing material dependence, we investigate the spin-fluctuation-mediated orbital order (n_{xz}≠n_{yz} by focusing on the orbital-spin interplay driven by the strong-coupling effect, called the vertex correction. This orbital-spin interplay is very strong in FeSe because of the small ratio between the Hund’s and Coulomb interactions (J[over ¯]/U[over ¯] and large d_{xz}, d_{yz}-orbital weight at the Fermi level. For this reason, in the FeSe model, the orbital order is established irrespective of the fact that the spin fluctuations are very weak, so the magnetism is absent below T_{str}. In contrast, in the LaFeAsO model, the magnetic order appears just below T_{str} both experimentally and theoretically. Thus, the orbital-spin interplay due to the vertex correction is the key ingredient in understanding the rich phase diagram with nematicity and magnetism in Fe-based superconductors in a unified way.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Mihir
1996-01-01
After a long extensive research work neutron photon therapy for treatment of acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was developed. High temperature superconductor magnet was developed and fitted in magnetic resonance imaging system to guide the patient. By this neutron-photon therapy AIDS effected cells are identified prominently. Patient is then injected with light sensitive drug molecules, which only AIDS cell retain. Light from photon (laser) then energizes the drug, which passes that energy to oxygen, which then leads a biochemical attack on the AIDS cells. If all goes well, the AIDS affected cells die. 10 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derakhshan, V; Ketabi, S A; Moghaddam, A G
2016-01-01
We employed the formalism of bond currents, expressed in terms of non-equilibrium Green’s function to obtain the local currents and transport features of zigzag silicene ribbon in the presence of magnetic impurity. When only intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions are present, silicene behaves as a two-dimensional topological insulator with gapless edge states. But in the presence of finite intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the edge states start to penetrate into the bulk of the sample by increasing Rashba interaction strength. The exchange interaction induced by local impurities breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the gapless edge states and influences the topological properties strongly. Subsequently, the singularity of partial Berry curvature disappears and the silicene nanoribbon becomes a trivial insulator. On the other hand, when the concentration of the magnetic impurities is low, the edge currents are not affected significantly. In this case, when the exchange field lies in the x – y plane, the spin mixing around magnetic impurity is more profound rather than the case in which the exchange field is directed along the z -axis. Nevertheless, when the exchange field of magnetic impurities is placed in the x – y plane, a spin-polarized conductance is observed. The resulting conductance polarization can be tuned by the concentration of the impurities and even completely polarized spin transport is achievable. (paper)
Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druge, J; Jean, C; Laurent, O; Méasson, M-A; Favero, I
2014-01-01
We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics. (paper)
Shirai, Yasuyuki; Hikawa, Kyosuke; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Hata, Koichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi
2013-01-01
Liquid hydrogen (LH2) has excellent properties as a coolant, such as large latent heat, low viscosity coefficient, etc. Not only MgB2 but also other high-Tc superconductors are expected to have excellent properties when cooled by LH2. It is necessary for a stability design of a high-Tc superconductor cooled by LH2 to make an electro-magnetic characteristic clear. However, due to the handling difficulties of LH2, there are only few papers on the properties of LH2-cooled superconductors, especi...
Magnetic impurity effect on charge and magnetic order in doped La1.5Ca0.5CoO4
Horigane, K.; Hiraka, H.; Tomiyasu, K.; Ohoyama, K.; Louca, D.; Yamada, K.
2012-02-01
Neutron scattering experiments were performed on single crystals of magnetic impurity doped cobalt oxides La1.5Ca0.5CoO4 to characterize the charge and spin orders. We newly found contrasting impurity effects. Two types of magnetic peaks are observed at q = (0.5,0,L) with L = half-integer and integer in La1.5Ca0.5CoO4, while magnetic peak at L = half-integer (integer) was only observed in Mn (Fe)-substituted sample. Although Mn and Fe impurities degrade charge and magnetic order, Cr impurity stabilizes the ordering at x = 0.5. Based on the crystal structural analysis of Cr doped sample, we found that the excess oxygen and change of octahedron around Co3+ were realized in Cr doped sample.
Theoretical approach to direct resonant inelastic X-ray scattering on magnets and superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marra, Pasquale
2015-10-26
The capability to probe the dispersion of elementary spin, charge, orbital, and lattice excitations has positioned resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the forefront of photon science. In this work, we will investigate how RIXS can contribute to a deeper understanding of the orbital properties and of the pairing mechanism in unconventional high-temperature superconductors. In particular, we show how direct RIXS spectra of magnetic excitations can reveal long-range orbital correlations in transition metal compounds, by discriminating different kind of orbital order in magnetic and antiferromagnetic systems. Moreover, we show how RIXS spectra of quasiparticle excitations in superconductors can measure the superconducting gap magnitude, and reveal the presence of nodal points and phase differences of the superconducting order parameter on the Fermi surface. This can reveal the properties of the underlying pairing mechanism in unconventional superconductors, in particular cuprates and iron pnictides, discriminating between different superconducting order parameter symmetries, such as s,d (singlet pairing) and p wave (triplet pairing).
The fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle in type-II superconductor under magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tinh, Bui Duc, E-mail: tinhbd@hnue.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoc, Nguyen Quang; Thu, Le Minh [Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)
2016-02-15
Highlights: • The time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau was used to calculate fluctuation Hall conductivity and Hall angle in type-II superconductor in 2D and 3D. • We obtain analytical expressions for the fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle summing all Landau levels without need to cutoff higher Landau levels to treat arbitrary magnetic field. • The results were compared to the experimental data on YBCO. - Abstract: The fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle, describing the Hall effect, are calculated for arbitrary value of the imaginary part of the relaxation time in the frame of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory in type II-superconductor with thermal noise describing strong thermal fluctuations. The self-consistent Gaussian approximation is used to treat the nonlinear interaction term in dynamics. We obtain analytical expressions for the fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle summing all Landau levels without need to cutoff higher Landau levels to treat arbitrary magnetic field. The results are compared with experimental data on high-T{sub c} superconductor.
Magnetic sheath effect on the gross and net erosion rates due to impurities
Mellet, N.; Pégourié, B.; Martin, C.; Gunn, J. P.; Bufferand, H.; Roubin, P.
2016-02-01
Simulations of impurity trajectories in deuterium plasmas in the vicinity of the surface are performed by taking into account the magnetic sheath in conditions relevant for ITER and WEST. We show that the magnetic sheath has a strong effect on the average impact angle of impurities in divertor conditions and that it can lead to an increase of ≈ 60% at the gross erosion maximum for neon (Ne+4) compared to the case when only the cyclotron motion is considered. The evaluation of the net erosion has been undertaken by retaining local redeposition of tungsten (W). We investigate how it is affected by the sheath magnetic potential profile. The largest effect is however observed when an energy distribution is considered. In this case the number of particles that manage to exit the sheath is larger as it is dominated by the more energetic particles. The comparison with other work is also discussed. The application to a scenario of the WEST project is finally performed, which exhibits a moderate, however non negligible, erosion of the plasma facing components.
Magnetic properties of TMCuC : Mn, a quantum chain with classical impurities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupas, C.; Renard, J.P.; Seiden, J.; Cheikh-Rouhou, A.
1981-01-01
The magnetic susceptibility of the mixed quasi one-dimensional system (CH 3 ) 4 NMnsub(x)Cusub(1-x) has been measured down to 0.32 K for x ranging between 0 an 1. At 4.2 K, the susceptibility starts to increase with x up to x = 0.1 and then decreases rapidly. The Neel temperature decreases from 1.24 K for x = 0 to 0.35 K for x = 0.22. The experimental data at small values of x are well explained by a theoretical model of S = 1/2 quantum chain with classical impurities. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Askerov, B. M.; Figarova, R.; Guseynov, G.I.
2012-01-01
Full Text : The transverse magnetoresistance in superlattices with the cosine dispersion law of conduction electrons in a case, when a weak magnetic field in plane of layer at scattering of the charge carriers of impurity ions has been studied. It has been shown that in a quasi-two-dimensional case the magnetoresistance was positive, while in a quasi-three-dimensional case can become negative depending of a degree of mini-band filling. Such behavior of magnetoresistance, apparently, has been related to presence in a mini-band of region with the negative effective mass
Magnetic oscillations and quasiparticle band structure in the mixed state of type-II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, M.R.; MacDonald, A.H.; Akera, H.
1995-01-01
We consider magnetic oscillations due to Landau quantization in the mixed state of type-II superconductors. Our work is based on a previously developed formalism which allows the mean-field gap equations of the Abrikosov state to be conveniently solved in a Landau-level representation. We find that the quasiparticle band structure changes qualitatively when the pairing self-energy becomes comparable to the Landau-level separation. For small pairing self-energies, Landau-level mixing due to the superconducting order is weak and magnetic oscillations survive in the superconducting state although they are damped. We find that the width of the quasiparticle Landau levels in this regime varies approximately as Δ 0 n μ -1/4 where Δ 0 is proportional to the magnitude of the order parameter and n μ is the Landau-level index at the Fermi energy. For larger pairing self-energies, the lowest energy quasiparticle bands occur in pairs which are nearly equally spaced from each other and evolve with weakening magnetic field toward the bound states of an isolated vortex core. These bands have a weak magnetic field dependence and magnetic oscillations vanish rapidly in this regime. We discuss recent observations of the de Haas--van Alphen effect in the mixed state of several type-II superconductors in light of our results
Disorder and non-linear magnetic response of high Tc superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burin, J.P. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Fouad, Y. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Raboutou, A. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Peyral, P. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Lebeau, C. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Rosenblatt, J. (Lab. de Physique des Solides, INSA, 35 - Rennes (France)); Mokhtari, M. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France)); Pena, O. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France)); Perrin, C. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. Rennes 1, 35 (France))
1993-05-10
We measure the low frequency magnetic response of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6.7]F[sub x] (0 [<=] x < 0.2) ceramics in a wide range of a.c. fields (10[sup -7] T [<=] [mu][sub 0]H[sub 0] [<=] 10[sup -4]). When changing the amount of disorder (varying x) on the microscopic level we find the same non linear response with field amplitude H[sub 0] as in granular conventional superconductors. The real part of the susceptibility appears as a universal function of H[sub 1](T)/H[sub 0] where H[sub 1](T) is the field of first flux penetration. The power law dependence found for H[sub 1](T) can be understood in the framework of the coherence transition of granular superconductors with random couplings. (orig.)
Magnetism and superconductivity in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CePt3Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, T; Hashimoto, S; Yasuda, T; Shishido, H; Ueda, T; Yamada, M; Obiraki, Y; Shiimoto, M; Kohara, H; Yamamoto, T; Sugiyama, K; Kindo, K; Matsuda, T D; Haga, Y; Aoki, Y; Sato, H; Settai, R; Onuki, Y
2004-01-01
We have studied the magnetic and thermal properties of a single crystal of CePt 3 Si, which is a recently reported heavy-fermion superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature T c = 0.75 K and a Neel temperature T N = 2.2 K. The overall experimental data are principally explained on the basis of the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Even in the antiferromagnetic state, the CEF model applies well to the characteristic features in the magnetization curve. These results indicate the existence of a localized magnetic moment at the Ce site, with a considerably reduced ordered moment of 0.16 μ B /Ce, and the strongly correlated conduction electrons are condensed into the superconducting state. We have also constructed the magnetic phase diagram including the superconducting phase for H parallel [110] and [001]. (letter to the editor)
Magnetic relaxation induced by transverse flux shaking in MgB{sub 2} superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luzuriaga, J; Nieva, G; Serquis, A; Serrano, G [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Instituto Balseiro, UNC (Argentina); BadIa-Majos, A [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC (Spain); Giordano, J L [Departamento de Ciencias de la IngenierIa, Universidad de Talca (Chile); Lopez, C [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Alcala de Henares (Spain)], E-mail: luzuriag@cab.cnea.gov.ar
2009-01-15
We report on measurements and numerical simulations of the behavior of MgB{sub 2} superconductors when magnetic field components are applied along mutually perpendicular directions. By closely matching the geometry in simulations and measurements, full quantitative agreement is found. The critical state theory and a single phenomenological law, i.e. the field dependence of the critical current density J{sub c}(B), are sufficient for a full quantitative description of the measurements. These were performed in thick strips of carbon nanotube doped MgB{sub 2} samples. Magnetization was measured in two orthogonal directions using a SQUID magnetometer. Magnetic relaxation effects induced by the application of an oscillatory perpendicular field were observed and simulated numerically. The measurements confirm the numerical predictions, that two relaxation regimes appear, depending on the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. The overall agreement constitutes a convincing validation of the critical state model and the numerical procedures used.
Pulsed-Field Magnetization Properties of Bulk Superconductors by Employment of Vortex-Type Coils
Deng, Z.; Shinohara, N.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Watasaki, M.; Kawabe, S.; Taguchi, R.; Izumi, M.
Vortex-type magnetizing coils are gaining more and more attention to activate bulk superconductors in pulsed-field magnetization (PFM) studies, compared with solenoid-type ones. Following existing reports, we present experimental results of the different penetration patterns of magnetic flux between the two kinds of coils. It was found that the magnetic flux will primarily penetrate inside the bulk from the upper and lower surfaces by using vortex coils, rather than from the periphery in the case of solenoid coils. Moreover, the bulk submitted to a small pulsed-field excitation exhibits a similar field profile as the excitation field (convex or concave shape); a phenomenon named field memory effect. The use of vortex- or solenoid-type coils in PFM will pose an influence on the initial flux penetration patterns during the flux trapping processes, but both coils can finally excite the best conical trapped field shape of the bulk.
Levitation force and magnetization in bulk and thin film high Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riise, A.B
1998-04-01
The authors present high-resolution measurements of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness between a Nd-B-Fe magnet and a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor in cylindrical geometry. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations are based on a model in which the superconductor is assumed to be either a sintered granular material or consisting of grains embedded in a nonactive matrix so that only intragranular currents are important. The critical state model is applied to each grain individually and closed form expressions for both vertical force F z and stiffness are obtained in a configuration with cylindrical symmetry. The model explains all features of the experimental results in a consistent way. A good quantitative agreement has been obtained using only three adjustable parameters. Several central aspects of the phenomenon of magnetic levitation with high-T c superconductors are presented. High-resolution measurements are made of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness as well as the horizontal stabilizing force and the stiffness governing lateral vibrations. The results obtained at 77 K using a granular YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ sample and Nd-Fe-B magnet in a rectangular levitation configuration are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations, which are based on the critical state model with the assumption that it applies to the grins individually, give closed-form expressions for all the measured quantities. It is concluded that the present model explains all features of the observations in a consistent way. Using only three adjustable parameters a good agreement exists also at a quantitative level. Experimental studies and theoretical modelling of the levitation force on a permanent magnet placed above a superconducting thin film are offered. It is shown that measurements of the levitation force is a simple and precise method to determine the critical current density in thin films
Levitation force and magnetization in bulk and thin film high T{sub c} superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riise, A.B
1998-04-01
The authors present high-resolution measurements of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness between a Nd-B-Fe magnet and a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconductor in cylindrical geometry. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations are based on a model in which the superconductor is assumed to be either a sintered granular material or consisting of grains embedded in a nonactive matrix so that only intragranular currents are important. The critical state model is applied to each grain individually and closed form expressions for both vertical force F{sub z} and stiffness are obtained in a configuration with cylindrical symmetry. The model explains all features of the experimental results in a consistent way. A good quantitative agreement has been obtained using only three adjustable parameters. Several central aspects of the phenomenon of magnetic levitation with high-T{sub c} superconductors are presented. High-resolution measurements are made of the repulsive vertical force and its associated stiffness as well as the horizontal stabilizing force and the stiffness governing lateral vibrations. The results obtained at 77 K using a granular YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} sample and Nd-Fe-B magnet in a rectangular levitation configuration are compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations, which are based on the critical state model with the assumption that it applies to the grins individually, give closed-form expressions for all the measured quantities. It is concluded that the present model explains all features of the observations in a consistent way. Using only three adjustable parameters a good agreement exists also at a quantitative level. Experimental studies and theoretical modelling of the levitation force on a permanent magnet placed above a superconducting thin film are offered. It is shown that measurements of the levitation force is a simple and precise method to determine the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manh-Huong Phan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A new type of rotary coolers based on the temperature change (ΔTrot of an anisotropic superconductor when rotated in a constant magnetic field is proposed. We show that at low temperature the Sommerfeld coefficient γ(B,Θ of a single crystalline superconductor, such as MgB2 and NbS2, sensitively depends on the applied magnetic field (B and the orientation of the crystal axis (Θ, which is related to the electronic entropy (SE and temperature (T via the expression: SE=γT. A simple rotation of the crystal from one axis to one another in a constant magnetic field results in a change in γ and hence SE: ΔSE=ΔγT. A temperature change −ΔTrot ∼ 0.94 K from a bath temperature of 2.5 K is achieved by simply rotating the single crystal MgB2 by 90° with respect to the c-axis direction in a fixed field of 2 T. ΔTrot can be tuned by adjusting the strength of B within a wide magnetic field range. Our study paves the way for development of new materials and cryogenic refrigerators that are potentially more energy-efficient, simplified, and compact.
Prospects of High Temperature Superconductors for fusion magnets and power applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fietz, Walter H.; Barth, Christian; Drotziger, Sandra; Goldacker, Wilfried; Heller, Reinhard; Schlachter, Sonja I.; Weiss, Klaus-Peter
2013-01-01
Highlights: • An overview of HTS application in fusion is given. • BSCCO application for current leads is discussed. • Several approaches to come to a high current HTS cable are shown. • Open issues and benefits of REBCO high current HTS cables are discussed. -- Abstract: During the last few years, progress in the field of second-generation High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) was breathtaking. Industry has taken up production of long length coated REBCO conductors with reduced angular dependency on external magnetic field and excellent critical current density jc. Consequently these REBCO tapes are used more and more in power application. For fusion magnets, high current conductors in the kA range are needed to limit the voltage during fast discharge. Several designs for high current cables using High Temperature Superconductors have been proposed. With the REBCO tape performance at hand, the prospects of fusion magnets based on such high current cables are promising. An operation at 4.5 K offers a comfortable temperature margin, more mechanical stability and the possibility to reach even higher fields compared to existing solutions with Nb 3 Sn which could be interesting with respect to DEMO. After a brief overview of HTS use in power application the paper will give an overview of possible use of HTS material for fusion application. Present high current HTS cable designs are reviewed and the potential using such concepts for future fusion magnets is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanta, S.K.; Mishra, S.N.; Srivastava, S.K.
2014-01-01
We present first principles calculations of electronic structure and magnetic properties of dilute transition metal (3d, 4d and 5d) impurities in a Gd host. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave technique and the GGA+U method. The spin and orbital contributions to the magnetic moment and the hyperfine fields have been computed. We find large magnetic moments for 3d (Ti–Co), 4d (Nb–Ru) and 5d (Ta–Os) impurities with magnitudes significantly different from the values estimated from earlier mean field calculation [J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320 (2008) e446–e449]. The exchange interaction between the impurity and host Gd moments is found to be positive for early 3d elements (Sc–V) while in all other cases an anti-ferromagnetic coupling is observed. The trends for the magnetic moment and hyperfine field of d-impurities in Gd show qualitative difference with respect to their behavior in Fe, Co and Ni. The calculated total hyperfine field, in most cases, shows excellent agreement with the experimental results. A detailed analysis of the Fermi contact hyperfine field has been made, revealing striking differences for impurities having less or more than half filled d-shell. The impurity induced perturbations in host moments and the change in the global magnetization of the unit cell have also been computed. The variation within each of the d-series is found to correlate with the d–d hybridization strength between the impurity and host atoms. - Highlights: • Detailed study of transition metal impurities in ferromagnetic Gd has been carried out. • The trends in impurity magnetic moment are qualitatively different from Fe, Co and Ni. • The variation within each of the d-series is found to correlate with the d–d hybridization strength between the impurity and host atoms. • Experimental trend in a hyperfine field has been reproduced successfully
Strongly disordered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muttalib, K.A.
1982-01-01
We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects
Magnetic imaging of unconventional superconductors by scanning SQUID microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hykel, D.
2011-01-01
We present the development of a scanning SQUID/AFM microscope and measurements performed on different samples. The microscope can take topographic and magnetic images simultaneously. The magnetic resolution is of the order of 10 -4 Φ 0 √Hz and the spatial resolution of the SQUIDs used in this thesis goes up to 600 nm. The scanning range is 70 μm * 85 μm. The temperature range accessible is between 200 mK and 10 K at the time of writing. Measurements on a thin rhenium film (80 nm) give an estimate of the minimal pinning force of a vortex of about 3.9 * 10 -16 N. Furthermore, the penetration depth λ on this sample was determined as a function of temperature. For T → 0, λ →79 nm. We have for the first time shown local measurements of the domain structure of the superconducting ferromagnet UCoGe and determined the average domain size in the virgin state (10 μm). By magnetic imaging we were capable of determining the magnetic field difference above opposite domains along the c-axis to be 45 G and 16 G along the b-axis. Due to these magnetic field measurements we were able to give an upper limit for the domain wall width (∼ 1μm) and domain reconstruction depth (100 nm). This is supported by simple calculations leading to a domain wall width of several angstroms. Thus UCoGe can be considered an ideal Ising ferromagnet. Different possible domain structures for an Ising ferromagnet have been discussed. The complicated domain structure found in the zero field cooled virgin state corresponds to up domains embedded in larger down domains and vice versa. We have shown evidence for coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. The weak Meissner effect can be explained by a spontaneous vortex state, put forward by other groups. Numerical simulations suggest that the strong magnetic background signal and the limited spatial and magnetic resolution of the used SQUID made it difficult to resolve the expected spontaneous vortex state. The relaxation of the
Gupta, Ramesh; Scanlan, Ronald; Ghosh, Arup K.; Weggel, Robert J.; Palmer, Robert; Anerella, Michael D.; Schmalzle, Jesse
2017-10-17
A dipole-magnet system and method for producing high-magnetic-fields, including an open-region located in a radially-central-region to allow particle-beam transport and other uses, low-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of low-temperature-superconducting-wire located in radially-outward-regions to generate high magnetic-fields, high-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of high-temperature-superconducting-tape located in radially-inward-regions to generate even higher magnetic-fields and to reduce erroneous fields, support-structures to support the coils against large Lorentz-forces, a liquid-helium-system to cool the coils, and electrical-contacts to allow electric-current into and out of the coils. The high-temperature-superconducting-tape may be comprised of bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxide or rare-earth-metal, barium-copper-oxide (ReBCO) where the rare-earth-metal may be yttrium, samarium, neodymium, or gadolinium. Advantageously, alignment of the large-dimension of the rectangular-cross-section or curved-cross-section of the high-temperature-superconducting-tape with the high-magnetic-field minimizes unwanted erroneous magnetic fields. Alignment may be accomplished by proper positioning, tilting the high-temperature-superconducting-coils, forming the high-temperature-superconducting-coils into a curved-cross-section, placing nonconducting wedge-shaped-material between windings, placing nonconducting curved-and-wedge-shaped-material between windings, or by a combination of these techniques.
Electrical manipulation of dynamic magnetic impurity and spin texture of helical Dirac fermions
Wang, Rui-Qiang; Zhong, Min; Zheng, Shi-Han; Yang, Mou; Wang, Guang-Hui
2016-05-01
We have theoretically investigated the spin inelastic scattering of helical electrons off a high-spin nanomagnet absorbed on a topological surface. The nanomagnet is treated as a dynamic quantum spin and driven by the spin transfer torque effect. We proposed a mechanism to electrically manipulate the spin texture of helical Dirac fermions rather than by an external magnetic field. By tuning the bias voltage and the direction of impurity magnetization, we present rich patterns of spin texture, from which important fingerprints exclusively associated with the spin helical feature are obtained. Furthermore, it is found that the nonmagnetic potential can create the resonance state in the spin density with different physics as the previously reported resonance of charge density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J. H.; Park, I. S.; Ahmad, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y. C.; Ko, R. K.; Jeong, D. Y.
2012-01-01
The macroscopic magnetic behaviors of a type-II superconductor, such as the field- or the temperature-dependent magnetization, have been described by using critical state models. However, because the models are time-independent, the magnetic relaxation in a type-II superconductor cannot be described by them, and the time dependence of the magnetization can affect the field or the temperature-dependent magnetization curve described by the models. In order to avoid the time independence of critical state models, we try the numerical calculation used by Qin et al., who mainly calculated the temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility χ(T). Their calculation showed that the frequency-dependent χ(T) could be obtained by using the flux-creep equation. We calculated the field-dependent magnetization and magnetic relaxation by using a numerical method. The calculated field-dependent magnetization M(H) curves shows the shapes of a typical type-II superconductor. The calculated magnetic relaxation do not show a logarithmic decay of the magnetization, but the addition of a surface barrier to the relaxation calculation caused a clear logarithmic decay of the magnetization, producing a crossover at a mid-time. This means that the logarithmic magnetic relaxation is caused by not only flux creep but also a combination of flux creep and a surface barrier.
Classical spins in superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K
1968-08-01
It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.
Studying the kinetics of magnetization in high Tc superconductors
Turchinskaya, Marina
1993-01-01
The first microscopic maps of magnetic induction in YBa2Cu3O(7-x) crystals which directly show the dependence of flux flow on twin density and polytwin block and twin boundary orientation are reported. These maps were obtained by means of a recently-improved magneto-optical imaging technique. Pinning was lowest in untwinned regions and increased with increasing twin density. An isotropy in twin boundary pinning, defined as the ratio of the magnetic induction gradient across twin boundaries to that along twin boundaries, was 10 at 17 K; this ratio increased with increasing temperature. In polycrystals, twin boundaries also had a strongly anisotropic effect on flux flow into a grain from a grain boundary.
Magnet coils made from high-temperature superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkins, R.G.; Yang, M.; Grovenor, C.R.M.; Goringe, M.J.
1996-01-01
We review the progress we have made in constructing HTS coils and report our latest results. Also we describe the cryogen-free operation of one of our HTS coils cooled to 55 K using a Stirling cycle cryocooler. Lastly, we describe how 4 Oxford coils are being used in a project to investigate the controllability of HTS magnets in applications such as ''maglev'' suspension systems. We briefly report the initial findings of this work and describe developments in progress. (orig.)
Progress in application of high temperature superconductor in tokamak magnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gryaznevich, M.; Svoboda, V.; Stöckel, Jan; Sykes, A.; Sykes, N.; Kingham, D.; Hammond, G.; Apte, P.; Todd, T.N.; Ball, S.; Chappell, S.; Melhem, D.; Ďuran, Ivan; Kovařík, Karel; Grover, O.; Markovič, T.; Odstrčil, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Šindlery, A.; Vondrášek, G.; Kocman, J.; Lilley, M.K.; de Grouchy, P.; Kim, H.-T.
2013-01-01
Roč. 88, 9-10 (2013), s. 1593-1596 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT-27)/27./. Liège, 24.09.2012-28.09.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamaks * HTS * magnet s Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.149, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613001117#
The critical magnetic fields of heavy fermions superconductors ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It can easily be seen that sharp change of HC2 between the two solutions exists in all orders of perturbation because there is no finite matrix element between the two states (ƞ, ƞ3) = (|0>, 0) and (ƞ, ƞ3) = (0, |0>) in any higher order of perturbation in the coupling term. This is different if the Magnetic field is pointing along ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peruzzi, A.; Gottardi, E.; Peroni, I.; Ponti, G.; Ventura, G
1999-08-01
The influence of impurity concentration c and applied magnetic field H on the superconducting transition of high-purity commercial titanium samples was investigated. The superconductive transition temperature T{sub C} was found to be very sensitive to the impurity concentration (dT{sub C}/dc {approx} -0.6 mK/w.ppm) and to the applied magnetic field (dT{sub C}/dH {approx} -1.1 mK/G). A linear dependence of T{sub C} decrease on impurity concentration, as theoretically predicted by various authors, was observed. In the purest sample, a linear decrease of T{sub C} on the applied magnetic field was found. The run-to-run and sample-to-sample reproducibility of the transition of the same sample was evaluated, and its suitability as a thermometric reference point below 1 K was discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araki, S., E-mail: satoshi@sum.sd.keio.ac.j [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nagashima, K.; Seino, H. [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Murakami, T.; Sawa, K. [Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)
2009-10-15
High temperature bulk superconductors have significant potential for various engineering applications such as a flywheel energy storage system. This system is expected to decrease the energy loss by using bulk superconductors for the bearing. Recently, the authors have developed a new superconducting magnet to realize large levitation force. In this system, the axial component of magnetic field is canceled each other but the radial component of magnetic field expects to be enhanced. Thus, it was expected that the large levitation force can be realized and its time relaxation will be decreased. And in the previous paper, the levitation force and its time relaxation were measured under the various conditions by using this new magnet. But it is difficult to consider what phenomenon has happened in the bulk from only experimental results. In addition the quantitative evaluation cannot be done only by the experimental results, for example, the influence of the magnetic field penetration and magnetic distribution around a bulk superconductor on the maximum force and so on. Thus, in this paper, the authors simulated the levitation force of bulk superconductor by using ELF/MAGIC, which is a three-dimensional electromagnetic analytical software. In the simulation the bulk was considered as a rigid body and the simulation was executed under the same conditions and model with the experiment. The distribution of magnetic field and the levitation force were obtained and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araki, S.; Nagashima, K.; Seino, H.; Murakami, T.; Sawa, K.
2009-01-01
High temperature bulk superconductors have significant potential for various engineering applications such as a flywheel energy storage system. This system is expected to decrease the energy loss by using bulk superconductors for the bearing. Recently, the authors have developed a new superconducting magnet to realize large levitation force. In this system, the axial component of magnetic field is canceled each other but the radial component of magnetic field expects to be enhanced. Thus, it was expected that the large levitation force can be realized and its time relaxation will be decreased. And in the previous paper, the levitation force and its time relaxation were measured under the various conditions by using this new magnet. But it is difficult to consider what phenomenon has happened in the bulk from only experimental results. In addition the quantitative evaluation cannot be done only by the experimental results, for example, the influence of the magnetic field penetration and magnetic distribution around a bulk superconductor on the maximum force and so on. Thus, in this paper, the authors simulated the levitation force of bulk superconductor by using ELF/MAGIC, which is a three-dimensional electromagnetic analytical software. In the simulation the bulk was considered as a rigid body and the simulation was executed under the same conditions and model with the experiment. The distribution of magnetic field and the levitation force were obtained and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gömöry, F [Bratislava, Inst. Elect. Eng. (Slovakia)
2014-07-01
Superconductors used in magnet technology could carry extreme currents because of their ability to keep the magnetic flux motionless. The dynamics of the magnetic flux interaction with superconductors is controlled by this property. The cases of electrical transport in a round wire and the magnetization of wires of various shapes (circular, elliptical, plate) in an external magnetic field are analysed. Resistance to the magnetic field penetration means that the field produced by the superconducting magnet is no longer proportional to the supplied current. It also leads to a dissipation of electromagnetic energy. In conductors with unequal transverse dimensions, such as flat cables, the orientation with respect to the magnetic field plays an essential role. A reduction of magnetization currents can be achieved by splitting the core of a superconducting wire into fine filaments; however, new kinds of electrical currents that couple the filaments consequently appear. Basic formulas allowing qualitative analyses of various flux dynamic cases are presented.
Zhu, Xiaoyu
2018-05-01
A two-dimensional second-order topological superconductor exhibits a finite gap in both bulk and edges, with the nontrivial topology manifesting itself through Majorana zero modes localized at the corners, i.e., Majorana corner states. We investigate a time-reversal-invariant topological superconductor in two dimensions and demonstrate that an in-plane magnetic field could transform it into a second-order topological superconductor. A detailed analysis reveals that the magnetic field gives rise to mass terms which take distinct values among the edges, and Majorana corner states naturally emerge at the intersection of two adjacent edges with opposite masses. With the rotation of the magnetic field, Majorana corner states localized around the boundary may hop from one corner to a neighboring one and eventually make a full circle around the system when the field rotates by 2 π . In the end, we briefly discuss physical realizations of this system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del-Valle, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Chen Duxing
2008-01-01
The levitation force and stability of superconducting levitation devices are strongly dependent on both the geometry and dimensions of the components and the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study these effects in levitating systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. Using a model based on the critical-state model and a magnetic-energy minimization procedure, taking into account the demagnetization fields, we analyze the influence of parameters of the system such as the width and height of the superconductor and those of the permanent magnets on the levitation force and stability for two different cooling processes, field cooling and zero-field cooling. The theoretical predictions are compared with existing experimental data. From the results obtained, we provide some general trends on how the dimensions of the components of maglev systems could be chosen to improve both the levitation force and the stability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torii, S.; Yuasa, K
2004-10-01
Various magnetic levitation systems using oxide superconductors are developed as strong pinning forces are obtained in melt-processed bulk. However, the trapped flux of superconductor is moved by flux creep and fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, to examine the internal condition of superconductor, the authors measure the dynamic surface flux density distribution of YBCO bulk. Flux density measurement system has a structure with the air-core coil and the Hall sensors. Ten Hall sensors are arranged in series. The YBCO bulk, which has 25 mm diameter and 13 mm thickness, is field cooled by liquid nitrogen. After that, magnetic field is changed by the air-core coil. This paper describes about the measured results of flux density distribution of YBCO bulk in the various frequencies of air-core coils currents.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del-Valle, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Chen Duxing [Grup d' Electromagnetisme, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Catalonia (Spain)
2008-12-15
The levitation force and stability of superconducting levitation devices are strongly dependent on both the geometry and dimensions of the components and the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study these effects in levitating systems consisting of an infinitely long superconductor and a guideway of different arrangements of infinitely long parallel permanent magnets. Using a model based on the critical-state model and a magnetic-energy minimization procedure, taking into account the demagnetization fields, we analyze the influence of parameters of the system such as the width and height of the superconductor and those of the permanent magnets on the levitation force and stability for two different cooling processes, field cooling and zero-field cooling. The theoretical predictions are compared with existing experimental data. From the results obtained, we provide some general trends on how the dimensions of the components of maglev systems could be chosen to improve both the levitation force and the stability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cygorek, M; Axt, V M
2015-01-01
Starting from a quantum kinetic theory for the spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors, we derive simplified equations that effectively describe the spin transfer between carriers and magnetic impurities for an arbitrary initial impurity magnetization. Taking the Markov limit of these effective equations, we obtain good quantitative agreement with the full quantum kinetic theory for the spin dynamics in bulk systems at high magnetic doping. In contrast, the standard rate description where the carrier–dopant interaction is treated according to Fermi’s golden rule, which involves the assumption of a short memory as well as a perturbative argument, has been shown previously to fail if the impurity magnetization is non-zero. The Markov limit of the effective equations is derived, assuming only a short memory, while higher order terms are still accounted for. These higher order terms represent the precession of the carrier–dopant correlations in the effective magnetic field due to the impurity spins. Numerical calculations show that the Markov limit of our effective equations reproduces the results of the full quantum kinetic theory very well. Furthermore, this limit allows for analytical solutions and for a physically transparent interpretation. (paper)
Magnetism and electron pairing in high-Tc superconductors
Tsang, T.
1990-01-01
Correlated wave functions are used for YBa2Cu3O(7-y) where epsilon(d)-epsilon(p) is about 0 for Cu3d- and 02p-electrons. The electrons are delocalized (metallic) for y less than 0.5 with weak and temperature-independent paramagnetism. In contrast, the systems are conventional antiferromagnetic insulators for y greater than 0.6 with a narrow y between 0.5 and 0.6 transition region. These results are in agreement with magnetic and neutron diffraction data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arai, Yuuki; Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan)
2010-11-15
We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arai, Yuuki; Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken
2010-01-01
We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Soo Hun; Oh, Hueng Kuk; Yun, Keyng Reyl; Lee, Jeung Kun [Ahju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-06-01
Electricity must be used simultaneously with its generation. Existing storage methods either are dependent on special geography, are too expensive,= or are too inefficient. Electricity demand changes by as much as 30% over a 12-hour period and result in significant costs for utilities as power output get adjusted to meet these changes. The purpose of HTS FES is to store unused nighttime electricity until it is needed during the daytime. If every element of a rotating flywheel is stressed to a prescribed allowable value, the flywheel material will clearly be used in most efficient manner. The uniformlt stressed flywheel is about 25% stronger than a flat disk. The gap between superconductor and permanent magnet was 1.85 mm, and using bearing connector with the values, joining superconductor to permanent magnet Using bolt connector, joining permanent magnet to flywheel. Joined system is excited by exciting function that magnitude is 1, range is 0 up to 4000 HZ. 3 rd and 4 th natural frequency, 1857 HZ and 2340 HZ, in X direction and 2 nd natural frequency, 28.57 HZ, are avoided to prevent resonance. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 53 figs. (author)
Field generated within the SSC magnets due to persistant currents in the superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.A.
1984-01-01
This report presents the results of a number of computer studies of the magnetic fields generated by persistent circulating currents in the superconductor of superconducting dipoles. These magnetic fields are referred to as residual fields throughout this report. Since the field generated by persistent currents have a hysteric behavior, they are analagous to the residual filed found in iron bound conventional solenoids. The residual field calculations presented in this report were done using the LBL SCMAG4 computer code. This code has not been well tested against measured data, but a comparison with measured CBA data given in this report suggests that good agreement is possible. The residual fields generated by persistent superconducting currents are rich in higher multipoles. This is of concern to the accelerator designer for SSC. This report shows the effect of various superconductor parameters and coil parameters on the magnitude and structure of the residual fields. The effect of the magnet charging history on residual fields is aldo discussed. 14 references
Interaction of ultra soft magnetic materials with the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBCO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stahl, Claudia; Treiber, Sebastian; Schuetz, Gisela [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Walker, Patrick [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)
2013-07-01
We have grown bilayers of optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) and ferromagnetic CoFeB on single-crystalline substrates by pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. These heterostructures are typically composed of about 100 nm YBCO and several 10 nm of CoFeB. Regarding the superconductor, the properties of the YBCO film change as a consequence of the vicinity of the ferromagnet. In detail we investigated the critical current density as a function of temperature, applied field and time as well as the transition temperature by SQUID magnetization measurements and quantitative magneto-optical measurements. The amorphous material CoFeB exhibits an in plane anisotropy and a very low coercivity. From magneto-optical images we find that the flux line lattice of the superconductor is mapped into the magnet and still visible as significant magnetic out-of-plane contrast at room temperature. We discuss this phenomenon as a new route to high-resolution mapping of the flux line distribution on a nanometer scale.
Magneto-optical imaging of magnetic flux distribution in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueno, K.; Murakamia, H.; Kawayama, I.; Doda, Y.; Tonouchi, M.; Chikumoto, N.
2004-01-01
Prototype systems of home-made magneto-optical microscopes were fabricated, and preliminary studies were carried out using Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ single crystals and an YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor vortex flow transistor. In the study using BSCCO crystals, we succeeded in the observation of magnetic flux penetration into half-peeled thin flake region on the crystal surface, and it was found that the magnetic fluxes penetrate in characteristic one-dimensional alignment almost along the crystal a-axis. On the other hand, in the study using the YBCO device clear changes in the generated magnetic field distribution could be detected corresponding to the current direction
Flux motion in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors during pulse field magnetization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshizawa, K; Nariki, S; Sakai, N; Murakami, M; Hirabayasi, I; Takizawa, T
2004-01-01
We have studied the relationship between the magnetization and temperature change in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor during pulse field magnetization (PFM). The flux motion was monitored using both Hall sensors and pick-up coils that are placed on a surface of a Y-Ba-Cu-O disc having dimensions of 15 mm in diameter and 0.95 mm in thickness. The peak value of the field was varied from 0.2 to 0.8 T. The effect of the static bias field was also studied in the range of 0-3 T. The temperature of the sample surface was measured using a resistance temperature sensor. The temperature increased with the magnitude of the applied pulsed magnetic field, and the amount of temperature rise decreased with increasing static bias field
Magnetic and electrical properties of Pr-doped Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malik, A.I.; Halim, S.A.; Mohammed, S.B.; Khalid, K.; Hassan, Z.A.
1999-01-01
The effect of Praseodymium doping on the electrical and magnetic properties of the bismuth-based superconductors has been investigated. The doping was done on the Calcium site ranging from x=0.00 to 0.10. For low doping percentages x<0.03, the 2223 phase still persists. However beyond this concentration the samples were dominated by 2212 phase. These results were obtained from the measurements of temperature dependence of electrical resistance and ac susceptibility of the samples. The magnetic behavior of the doping element, Pr, (a 4f rare earth magnetic element) seemed to have deteriorated the superconducting properties of the system by breaking the electron pairing mechanism. Pr doping also deteriorates the coupling of the superconducting rains, as observed by the abrupt shift of the loss peaks towards lower temperatures. (author)
Vibration measurements and analyses for a magnet-superconductor levitated system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Zheng; Liu Yu; Yang Wenjiang; Qiu Ming
2007-01-01
Magnetic levitation technology, having the characteristics of low cost and high quality, has been considered a preferable option for the next generation of launcher systems. A world-wide research design on the conceptual level has been carried out on the highly reusable space transportation systems by applying magnetic levitation to the launch assistance. Recently, a research plan has been implemented in our laboratory by constructing a scale-model suspension system with high temperature superconductor (HTS henceforth) bulks over a 7 m Nd-Fe-B permanent-magnet (PM henceforth) track for the launch assistance. An experimental platform was built to investigate the dynamic responses of the PM-HTS interaction at different field-cooled positions. The critical frequencies and amplitudes which lead to the instability of levitation drift were investigated. The stiffness and the vibration damping were also discussed at the zero-field-cooled position
Critical Current Properties in Longitudinal Magnetic Field of YBCO Superconductor with APC
Kido, R.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Matsushita, T.; Jha, A. K.; Matsumoto, K.
The critical current density (Jc) properties of the Artificial Pinning Center (APC) introduced YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films in the longitudinal magnetic field were measured. Y2O3 or Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) was introduced as APCs to YBCO, and YBCO films with APC were fabricated on SrTiO3 single crystal substrate. The sizes of Y2O3 and Y211 were 5-10 nm and 10-20 nm, respectively. As a result, Jc enhancement in the longitudinal magnetic field was observed in Y2O3 introduced YBCO films. However, it was not observed in Y211 introduced YBCO films. Therefore, it was considered that Jc properties in the longitudinal magnetic field were affected by introducing of small size APC, and it was necessary that APC does not disturb the current pathway in the superconductor.
Reversible and irreversible magnetization of the Chevrel-phase superconductor PbMo6S8
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, D.N.; Ramsbottom, H.D.; Hampshire, D.P.
1995-01-01
Magnetic measurements have been carried out on the hot-isostatically-pressed Chevrel-phase superconductor PbMo 6 S 8 at temperatures from 4.2 K to T c and for magnetic fields up to 12 T. The results show that for the PbMo 6 S 8 compound there is a wide magnetically reversible region, between the irreversibility field B irr and the upper critical field B c2 , on the isothermal magnetic hysteresis curves. The B irr (T) line, i.e., the irreversibility line, was found to obey a power-law expression: B irr =B * (1-T/T c ) α with α∼1.5. Magnetic relaxation measurements revealed that the flux-creep effect in the material studied is substantial and is greater than those observed in conventional metallic alloys, but smaller than in high-temperature superconductors. The existence of the irreversibility line and pronounced flux-creep effect in PbMo 6 S 8 is attributed to the short coherence length of the material. From the reversible magnetization data, the values of the penetration depth, the coherence length, and the critical fields are obtained together with the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. At 4.2 K, the critical current density J c is 10 9 A m -2 at zero field, and decreases to 2x10 8 A m -2 at 10 T. Pinning force curves measured at different temperatures obey a Kramer-scaling law of the form: F p (=J c xB)∝b 1/2 (1-b) 2 , which indicates that the J c is limited by one predominant flux-pinning mechanism
Competition between superconductivity and magnetism in ferromagnet/superconductor heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izyumov, Yurii A; Proshin, Yurii N; Khusainov, Mensur G
2002-01-01
The mutual influence of superconductivity and magnetism in F/S systems, i.e. systems of alternating ferromagnetic (F) and superconducting (S) layers, is comprehensively reviewed. For systems with ferromagnetic metal (FM) layers, a theory of the proximity effect in the dirty limit is constructed based on the Usadel equations. For an FM/S bilayer and an FM/S superlattice, a boundary-value problem involving finite FM/S boundary transparency and the diffusion and wave modes of quasi-particle motion is formulated; and the critical temperature T c is calculated as a function of FM- and S-layer thicknesses. A detailed analysis of a large amount of experimental data amply confirms the proposed theory. It is shown that the superconducting state of an FM/S system is a superposition of two pairing mechanisms, Bardin - Cooper - Schrieffer's in S layers and Larkin - Ovchinnikov - Fulde - Ferrell's in FM ones. The competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spontaneous moment orientations in FM layers is explored for the 0- and π-phase superconductivity in FM/S systems. For FI/S structures, where FI is a ferromagnetic insulator, a model for exchange interactions is proposed, which, along with direct exchange inside FI layers, includes indirect Ruderman - Kittel - Kasuya - Yosida exchange between localized spins via S-layer conduction electrons. Within this framework, possible mutual accommodation scenarios for superconducting and magnetic order parameters are found, the corresponding phase diagrams are plotted, and experimental results are explained. The results of the theory of the Josephson effect for S/F/S junctions are presented and the application of the theory of spin-dependent transport to F/S/F junctions is discussed. Application aspects of the subject are examined. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, W M; Chao, X X; Bian, X B; Liu, P; Feng, Y; Zhang, P X; Zhou, L
2003-01-01
The levitation forces between a single-domain YBCO bulk and several magnets of different sizes have been measured at 77 K to investigate the effect of the magnet size on the levitation force. It is found that the levitation force reaches a largest (peak) value when the size of the magnet approaches that of the superconductor when the other conditions are fixed. The absolute maximum attractive force (in the field-cooled state) increases with the increasing of the magnet size, and is saturated when the magnet size approaches that of the superconductor. The maximum attractive force in the field-cooled (FC) state is much higher than that of the maximum attractive force in the zero field-cooled (ZFC) state. The results indicate that the effects of magnetic field distribution on the levitation force have to be considered during the designing and manufacturing of superconducting devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki
2008-01-01
Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldfarb, R.B.; Clark, A.F.
1985-01-01
Magnetization and ac susceptibility of a standard NbTi superconductor were measured as a function of longitudinal dc magnetic field. The ac-field-amplitude and frequency dependences of the complex susceptibility are examined. The magnetization is related to the susceptibility by means of a theoretical derivation based on the field dependence of the critical current density. Hysteresis losses, obtained directly from dc hysteresis loops and derived theoretically from ac susceptibility and critical current density, were in reasonable agreement
Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors
Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.
2011-05-01
Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y 1.65Ba 2Cu 3O 7-x (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haug, D.; Hinkov, V.; Suchaneck, A.
2009-01-01
We present a neutron-scattering study of the static and dynamic spin correlations in the underdoped high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.45 in magnetic fields up to 15 T. The field strongly enhances static incommensurate magnetic order at low temperatures and induces a spectral-weight shift...
Kramers non-magnetic superconductivity in LnNiAsO superconductors.
Li, Yuke; Luo, Yongkang; Li, Lin; Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Dai, Jianhui; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Li; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-an
2014-10-22
We investigated a series of nickel-based oxyarsenides LnNiAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) compounds. CeNiAsO undergoes two successive anti-ferromagnetic transitions at TN1=9.3 K and TN2=7.3 K; SmNiAsO becomes an anti-ferromagnet below TN≃3.5 K; NdNiAsO keeps paramagnetic down to 2 K but orders anti-ferromagnetically below TN≃1.3 K. Superconductivity was observed only in Kramers non-magnetic LaNiAsO and PrNiAsO with Tc=2.7 K and 0.93 K, respectively. The superconductivity of PrNiAsO is further studied by upper critical field and specific heat measurements, which reveal that PrNiAsO is a weakly coupled Kramers non-magnetic superconductor. Our work confirms that the nickel-based oxyarsenide superconductors are substantially different in mechanism to iron-based ones, and are likely to be described by the conventional superconductivity theory.
Radiation Limits for Nb3Sn Superconductors for ITER Magnets: A literature review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, N.J.
1995-01-01
The data base on radiation damage to Nb 3 Sn superconductors is compiled from the literature and assessed in this report. Nb 3 Sn superconductors are currently under procurement for use in ITER magnet prototypes. In contrast to the data base on insulation materials proposed for use in ITER magnets, the data base on the radiation damage of Nb 3 Sn is much more complete. Key results have often been confirmed by several groups at different institutions. The investigation of variables that influence radiation damage has also been much more complete for Nb 3 Sn than for insulators. Furthermore, in situ testing of superconducting parameters is much easier than in situ mechanical testing of insulators, and in situ testing has invariably been performed after cryogenic irradiation of Nb 3 Sn. However, in recent years, Nb 3 Sn testing has also suffered from the lack of 4-K irradiation facilities. Just as new processing methods to obtain more economical Nb 3 Sn conductor products in large quantity were being developed, cryogenic irradiation sources were being phased out. Therefore, this brief introductory section presents some basic information on the properties and structure of Nb 3 Sn superconducting composites and the distinctions between different fabrication processes. This provides a background to assess the adequacy of the current cryogenic data base on radiation damage, Also, since synergistic effects of strain and irradiation have recently been investigated, a brief discussion of the effects of strain on Nb 3 Sn properties is included in this introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forkl, A.; Kronmueller, H.
1995-01-01
The distribution of the critical current density j c (r) in hard type-II superconductors depends strongly on their sample geometry. Rules are given for the construction of j c (r). Samples with homogeneous thickness are divided into cakelike regions with a unique current direction. The spatial magnetic flux density distribution and the magnetic polarization of such a cakelike unit cell with homogeneous current density are calculated analytically. The magnetic polarization and magnetic flux density distribution of a superconductor in the mixed state is then given by an adequate superposition of the unit cell solutions. The theoretical results show good agreement with magneto-optically determined magnetic flux density distributions of a quadratic thin superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film. The current density distribution is discussed for several sample geometries
Numerical solutions to the critical state in a magnet-high temperature superconductor interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz-Alonso, D; Coombs, T A; Campbell, A M [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2005-02-01
This paper presents an algorithm to simulate the electromagnetic behaviour of devices containing high temperature superconductors in axially symmetric problems. The numerical method is built within the finite element method. The electromagnetic properties of HTSCs are described through the critical-state model. Measurements of the axial force between a permanent magnet and a melt-textured YBCO puck are obtained in order to validate the method. This simple system is modelled so that the proposed method obtains the current distribution and electromagnetic fields in the HTSC. The forces in the interaction between the magnet and the HTSC puck can then be calculated. A comparison between experimental and simulation results shows good matching. The simplification of using the critical-state model and ignoring flux creep in this type of configuration is also explored.
Magnetic uni- and tri-axial grain-orientation in superconductors with layered structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horii, S.; Yamaki, M.; Ogino, H.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.
2010-01-01
We report the grain-orientation effects under a modulated rotation magnetic field for Y-based cuprate superconductors and LaFeAsO (La1111). Tri-axial orientation has been successfully achieved only for orthorhombic Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O y and YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 powders without a twin microstructure, while separation of three crystallographic axes could not be observed in twinned YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (Y123) and tetragonal La1111 powders. The morphology of grains, in addition to the symmetry of crystal structures, seriously affects the degrees of tri-axial orientation, which means that the control of twin microstructures is required for the tri-axial magnetic orientation in Y123.
Weakening of flux-pinning strength for high-Tc superconductors in an alternating magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Q.Y.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on the flux-pinning forces in high temperature superconductors which were found to be weakened in an ac field as the applied field strength or the frequency increases. In the weakly pinned regime, flux dynamics could be described with the concept of magnetic diffusion. Flux-motion-induced finite resistivity could lead to significant skin-effect which was reflected in the ac screening effectiveness. The frequency dependence of the relative local field within a superconducting hollow cylinder were used to deduce the flux-motion resistivity ρ. For superconducting YB 2 Cu 3 O 7 - x compounds at 77K it was found that ρ ∼(mu, Omega)-cm. The corresponding magnetic diffusion coefficient was ∼ 224 cm 2 /s. At 750 Hz the skin depth is around 1.54 mm as compared with the 2-mm sample wall thickness
Michor, H.; El-Hagary, M.; Naber, L.; Bauer, E.; Hilscher, G.
2000-03-01
The investigation of pair-breaking effects in magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors reveals a considerable increase of the magnetic exchange integral Jsf by hydrostatic as well as chemical pressure. In both, Jsf is governed by the R-C distance (or lattice constant a) and is described quantitatively by a simple phenomenological model. Thereby, just two parameters Jsf0=31 meV and ΔJsf/Δa=165 meV/Å explain well the influence of chemical pressure upon the initial depression rates of Tc in solid solutions R'1-xRxNi2B2C with R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and R'=Y and Lu.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavia Santos, S; Garcia-Tabares, L
1998-05-01
A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)
Pair breaking and charge relaxation in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielson, J.B.; Pethick, C.J.; Rammer, J.; Smith, H.
1982-01-01
We present a general formalism based on the quasiclassical Green's function for calculating charge imbalance in nonequilibrium superconductors. Our discussion is sufficiently general that it applies at arbitrary temperatures, and under conditions when the width of quasiparticle states are appreciable due to pair breaking processes, and when strong coupling effects are significant. As a first application we demonstrate in detail how in the limit of smallpair breaking and for a weak coupling superconductor the collision term in the formalism reduces to the one in the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation. We next treat the case of charge imbalance generated by tunnel injection, with pair breaking by phonons and magnetic impurities. Over the range of temperatures investigated exerimentally to date, the calculated charge imbalance is rather close to that evaluated using the Boltzmann equation, even if pair braeking is so strong as almost to destroy superconductivity. Finally we consider charge imbalance generated by the combined influence of a supercurrent and a temperature gradient. We give calculations for a dirty superconductor with scattering by phonons as the pair breaking mechanism, and the results give a reasonable account of the experimental data of Clarke, Fjordboge, and Lindelof. We carry out calculations for the case of impurity scattering along which are valid not only in the clean and dirty limits, but also for intermediate situations. These enable us to see how the large contribution to the charge imbalance found for energies close to the gap edge in the clean case is reduced with increasing impurity scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schermer, R.I.
1979-09-01
The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Z.; Allen, J.W.; Yeh, J.J.
1987-01-01
We describe valence-band and core-level photoemission data for copper oxide superconductors using the Anderson Hamiltonian applied to an impurity-cluster configuration-interaction model. We obtain experimental values of the parameters of the model the copper X oxygen charge transfer energy Δ∼0.4 eV, the d-d Coulomb interaction U∼6 eV, and the ligand-d hybridization T∼2.4 eV. Using these parameters, we evaluate the linear Cu-O-Cu superexchange interaction J and find it is dominated by the charge-transfer fluctuations. The magnitude obtained for J is much larger than typical Neel temperatures of these materials, and is somewhat larger than that estimated from applying the resonating-valence-bond picture to La 2 CuO 4 . We point out that for Δ >Δ, the charge-transfer degrees of freedom, and the lattice aspects of the Anderson lattice Hamiltonian, should not be neglected in constructing models for the high-T/sub c/ superconductivity. We also emphasize our resonant-photoemission result that the very small density of states at or near the Fermi level in all these materials has a substantial contribution from Cu 3d states, suggesting their importance for the superconductivity. We report other details of the resonant-photoemission data involving La and Ba states in the materials containing these elements
Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.
1995-01-01
A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gung, C.Y.
1993-01-01
Energy dissipation, which is also called AC loss, of a composite multifilamentary superconducting wire is one of the most fundamental concerns in building a stable superconducting magnet. Characterization and reduction of AC losses are especially important in designing a superconducting magnet for generating transient magnetic fields. The goal of this thesis is to improve the understanding of AC-loss properties of superconducting wires developed for high-current ramp-field magnet applications. The major tasks include: (1) building an advanced AC-loss measurement system, (2) measuring AC losses of superconducting wires under simulated pulse magnet operations, (3) developing an analytical model for explaining the new AC-loss properties found in the experiment, and (4) developing a computational methodology for comparing AC losses of a superconducting wire with those of a cable for a superconducting pulse magnet. A new experimental system using an isothermal calorimetric method was designed and constructed to measure the absolute AC losses in a composite superconductor. This unique experimental setup is capable of measuring AC losses of a brittle Nb 3 Sn wire carrying high AC current in-phase with a large-amplitude pulse magnetic field. Improvements of the accuracy and the efficiency of this method are discussed. Three different types of composite wire have been measured: a Nb 3 Sn modified jelly-roll (MJR) internal-tin wire used in a prototype ohmic heating coil, a Nb 3 Sn internal-tin wire developed for a fusion reactor ohmic heating coil, and a NbTi wire developed for the magnets in a particle accelerator. The cross sectional constructions of these wires represent typical commercial wires manufactured for pulse magnet applications
Yang, Huan; Wang, Zhenyu; Fang, Delong; Deng, Qiang; Wang, Qiang-Hua; Xiang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Yang; Wen, Hai-Hu
2013-01-01
The origin of superconductivity in the iron pnictides remains unclear. One suggestion is that superconductivity in these materials has a magnetic origin, which would imply a sign-reversal s± pairing symmetry. Another suggests it is the result of orbital fluctuations, which would imply a sign-equal s++ pairing symmetry. There is no consensus yet which of these two distinct and contrasting pairing symmetries is the right one in iron pnictide superconductors. Here we explore the nature of the pairing symmetry in the superconducting state of Na(Fe0.97−xCo0.03Cux)As by probing the effect of scattering of Cooper pairs by non-magnetic Cu impurities. Using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we identify the in-gap quasiparticle states induced by the Cu impurities, showing signatures of Cooper pair breaking by these non-magnetic impurities–a process that is only consistent with s± pairing. This experiment provides strong evidence for the s± pairing. PMID:24248097
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, W.; Wang, J.S.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J.; Tuo, X.G.; Li, L.L.; Ye, C.Q.; Liao, X.L.; Wang, S.Y.
2012-01-01
Compared with the permanent magnet, the magnetized bulk high-T c superconductor magnet (MBSCM) can trap higher magnetic field due to its strong flux pinning ability, so it is a good candidate to improve the levitation performance of high-T c superconductive (HTS) maglev system. The trapped magnetic flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the inductive superconducting current produced by the magnetizing process and is susceptible to the current intensity as well as configuration. In the HTS maglev system, the lateral displacement is an important process to change the superconducting current within a MBSCM and then affects its levitation performance, which is essential for the traffic ability in curve-way, the loading capacity of lateral impact and so on. The research about influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of MBSCM is necessary when MBSCM is applied on the HTS maglev vehicle. The experimental investigations about the influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a MBSCM with different trapped fluxes and applied fields are processed in this article. The analyses and conclusions of this article are useful for the practical application of MBSCM in HTS maglev system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W., E-mail: tonny-violet@163.com [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China) and Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, J.S.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Tuo, X.G.; Li, L.L. [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Ye, C.Q.; Liao, X.L. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China)
2012-03-15
Compared with the permanent magnet, the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor magnet (MBSCM) can trap higher magnetic field due to its strong flux pinning ability, so it is a good candidate to improve the levitation performance of high-T{sub c} superconductive (HTS) maglev system. The trapped magnetic flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the inductive superconducting current produced by the magnetizing process and is susceptible to the current intensity as well as configuration. In the HTS maglev system, the lateral displacement is an important process to change the superconducting current within a MBSCM and then affects its levitation performance, which is essential for the traffic ability in curve-way, the loading capacity of lateral impact and so on. The research about influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of MBSCM is necessary when MBSCM is applied on the HTS maglev vehicle. The experimental investigations about the influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a MBSCM with different trapped fluxes and applied fields are processed in this article. The analyses and conclusions of this article are useful for the practical application of MBSCM in HTS maglev system.
Neutron scattering observations on the magnetic phases of rareearth ternary superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moncton, D.E.
1979-01-01
A number of ternary compounds become superconducting even though they contain a chemically ordered sublattice of magnetic rare-earth ions. Studies of the physical properties of these materials have revealed anomalies below T/sub c/ which have been attributed to magentic ordering transitions. Usng neutron spectrometers at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, a group of us has demonstrated that simple magnetic structures with long-range order do occur, and we have solved some of the magnetic structures of these superconductors. Specifically, we have found that in DyMo 6 S 8 and TbMo 6 S 8 an antiferromagnetic structure coexists with superconductivity. In two other compounds, ErRh 4 B 4 and HoMo 6 S 8 we have found that the development of ferromagnetism is responsible for the quenching of superconductivity. A study of the critical magnetic neutron scattering near the superconducting → ferromagnetic transitions shows the presence of fluctuations into a state with an oscillatory magnetization of wave length lambda = 100A
From Kondo to local singlet state in graphene nanoribbons with magnetic impurities
Diniz, G. S.; Luiz, G. I.; Latgé, A.; Vernek, E.
2018-03-01
A detailed analysis of the Kondo effect of a magnetic impurity in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is addressed. An adatom is coupled to the graphene nanoribbon via a hybridization amplitude Γimp in a hollow- or top-site configuration. In addition, the adatom is also weakly coupled to a metallic scanning tunnel microscope (STM) tip by a hybridization function Γtip that provides a Kondo screening of its magnetic moment. The entire system is described by an Anderson-like Hamiltonian whose low-temperature physics is accessed by employing the numerical renormalization-group approach, which allows us to obtain the thermodynamic properties used to compute the Kondo temperature of the system. We find two screening regimes when the adatom is close to the edge of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon: (1) a weak-coupling regime (Γimp≪Γtip ), in which the edge states produce an enhancement of the Kondo temperature TK, and (2) a strong-coupling regime (Γimp≫Γtip ), in which a local singlet is formed, to the detriment of the Kondo screening by the STM tip. These two regimes can be clearly distinguished by the dependence of their characteristic temperature T* on the coupling between the adatom and the carbon sites of the graphene nanoribbon Vimp. We observe that in the weak-coupling regime T* increases exponentially with Vimp2. Differently, in the strong-coupling regime, T* increases linearly with Vimp2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Wenjiang; Liu Yu; Wen Zheng; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yi
2008-01-01
In order to investigate the feasible application of a permanent magnet-high-temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system to a maglev train or a space vehicle launcher, we have constructed a demonstration maglev test vehicle. The force dissipation and damping of the maglev vehicle against external disturbances are studied in a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies by using a sine vibration testing set-up. The dynamic levitation force shows a typical hysteresis behavior, and the force loss is regarded as the hysteresis loss, which is believed to be due to flux motions in superconductors. In this study, we find that the hysteresis loss has weak frequency dependence at small amplitudes and that the dependence increases as the amplitude grows. To analyze the damping properties of the maglev vehicle at different field cooling (FC) conditions, we also employ a transient vibration testing technique. The maglev vehicle shows a very weak damping behavior, and the damping is almost unaffected by the trapped flux of the HTSs in different FC conditions, which is believed to be attributed to the strong pinning in melt-textured HTSs
Development of Nb3Sn based multi-filamentary superconductor wires for fusion reactor magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kundu, Sayandeep; Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.
2016-01-01
Nb 3 Sn is a proposed type II superconductor material to be used as superconducting magnet in fusion reactor for its superior superconducting properties. Fabrication of long single length wire containing Nb 3 Sn filaments is a challenge. The usual manufacturing philosophy involves deforming an assembly of tin and niobium in copper matrix to the final size, followed by the heat treatment to produce superconducting phase at Nb-Cu interface. Multi-filamentary wires were fabricated by hot extrusion of superconductor billet followed by several stages of cold drawing. Heat treatments at various temperature and time were carried out on as formed wire containing multiple filaments in order to see the growth of superconducting intermetallic phase during subsequent characterization. Post heat treatment characterization through SEM, EBSD and EDS revealed the presence of intermetallic phase of Nb and Sn, hypo stoichiometric in Sn, at the Cu-Nb interface growing towards the center of Nb filament. The manufacturing process till the desired final size of the wire happened to be a challenge, mainly because it required extraordinary co-deformability between various materials in such an assembly. Post-trial failure analysis through destructive testing using optical and scanning electron micrographs revealed the propensity of internal radial cracks at Cu-Sn interfaces, while the Nb-Cu interfaces were found to be relatively unaffected. This paper will discuss the details of the fabrication process. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinson, Jason [Department of Materials Science, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB30FS (United Kingdom)
2015-07-01
The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilisation of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap below which the density of states (DoS) is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. In this talk I will present scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb sub-gap superconducting DoS on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results verify odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor / inhomogeneous magnet interfaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey V. Chubukov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Magnetism and nematic order are the two nonsuperconducting orders observed in iron-based superconductors. To elucidate the interplay between them and ultimately unveil the pairing mechanism, several models have been investigated. In models with quenched orbital degrees of freedom, magnetic fluctuations promote stripe magnetism, which induces orbital order. In models with quenched spin degrees of freedom, charge fluctuations promote spontaneous orbital order, which induces stripe magnetism. Here, we develop an unbiased approach, in which we treat magnetic and orbital fluctuations on equal footing. Key to our approach is the inclusion of the orbital character of the low-energy electronic states into renormalization group (RG analysis. We analyze the RG flow of the couplings and argue that the same magnetic fluctuations, which are known to promote s^{+-} superconductivity, also promote an attraction in the orbital channel, even if the bare orbital interaction is repulsive. We next analyze the RG flow of the susceptibilities and show that, if all Fermi pockets are small, the system first develops a spontaneous orbital order, then s^{+-} superconductivity, and magnetic order does not develop down to T=0. We argue that this scenario applies to FeSe. In systems with larger pockets, such as BaFe_{2}As_{2} and LaFeAsO, we find that the leading instability is either towards a spin-density wave or superconductivity. We argue that in this situation nematic order is caused by composite spin fluctuations and is vestigial to stripe magnetism. Our results provide a unifying description of different iron-based materials.
Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Rectangular YBCO bulks to realize a compact combination. → The gap effect was added to consider in the trapped flux density mapping. → The trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulks is gap related. → It is possible to estimate the total magnetic flux of bulk combinations. - Abstract: Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y 1.65 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.
Gap-related trapped magnetic flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.co [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)
2011-05-15
Highlights: {yields} Rectangular YBCO bulks to realize a compact combination. {yields} The gap effect was added to consider in the trapped flux density mapping. {yields} The trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulks is gap related. {yields} It is possible to estimate the total magnetic flux of bulk combinations. - Abstract: Aiming at examining the trapped-flux dependence between single and combined bulk superconductors for field-pole applications, three rectangular Y{sub 1.65}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) bulks with a possibly compact combination were employed to investigate the trapped-flux characteristics of single and combined bulks with a field-cooling magnetization (FCM) method. A gap-related dependence was found between them. At lower gaps of 1 mm and 5 mm, the peak trapped fields and total magnetic flux of combined bulks are both smaller than the additive values of each single bulk, which can be ascribed to the demagnetization influences of the field around the bulk generated by the adjacent ones. While, at larger gaps like 10 mm, the situation becomes reversed. The combined bulks can attain bigger peak trapped fields as well as total magnetic flux, which indicates that the magnetic field by the bulk combination can reach higher gaps, thanks to the bigger magnetic energy compared with the single bulk. The presented results show that, on one hand, it is possible to estimate the total trapped magnetic flux of combined bulks by an approximate additive method of each single bulk while considering a demagnetization factor; on the other hand, it also means that the performance of combined bulks will be superior to the addition of each single bulk at larger gaps, thus preferable for large-scaled magnet applications.
Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.
2014-06-01
The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of
Lowest excited-state impurity binding energy in InGaN/GaN parabolic QWW: magnetic field effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddou El Ghazi; Anouar Jorio; Izeddine Zorkani
2013-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on the lowest excited-state binding energy of hydrogenic shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN parabolic transversal-section quantum-well wire (PQWW) using the finite-difference method within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model. The calculations are performed within the framework of the effective mass approximation. A cylindrical QWW effective radius is taken into account to describe the lateral confinement strength. The numerical results show that: (i) the probability density is the largest on a circularity whose radius is the effective radius and (ii) the lowest excited-state binding energy is the largest when an impurity is located on this circularity while it starts to decrease as the impurity is away from the circularity. (author)
Mezdrogina, M. M.; Aglikov, A. S.; Semenov, V. G.; Kozhanova, Yu. V.; Nefedov, S. G.; Shelukhin, L. A.; Pavlov, V. V.
2018-03-01
ZnO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering and doped with a Fe57 metallic 3 d impurity by the diffusion method are studied. The type of local environment of Fe57 impurity atoms on varying the deposition parameters of ZnO films is determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is established that the ground state of Fe57 impurity atoms corresponds to metallic iron in the magnetically ordered state and there is a small fraction of Fe57 atoms with a local environment corresponding to the complex oxide Fe3O4, having the magnetically ordered state; there is also a fraction of iron atoms in the paramagnetic state. The magnetic and magnetooptical parameters of the films were measured using magnetooptic Kerr effect. The spectral dependences of the polar magnetooptic Kerr effect in ZnO(Fe57) films are measured in a photon energy range of 1.5-4.5 eV and simulated by the effective-medium method. It is established that ZnO(Fe57) possess an easy-plane magnetic anisotropy with a magnetization lying in the film plane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, D.J.
1991-01-01
This dissertation is presented in two major chapters. In the first chapter, the use of ultrasonic velocity for estimating pore fraction in YBCO and other polycrystalline materials is reviewed, modeled, and statistically analyzed. This chapter provides the basis for using ultrasonic velocity to interrogate microstructure. In the second chapter, (1) the effect of pore fraction (0.10-0.25) on superconductor properties of YBCO samples is characterized, (2) spatial (within-sample) variations in microstructure and superconductor properties are investigated and (3) the effect of oxygen content on elastic behavior is examined. Experimental methods used included a.c. susceptibility, electrical, and ultrasonic-velocity measurements. Superconductor properties measured included transition temperature, magnetic transition width, transport and magnetic critical current density, magnetic shielding, a.c. loss, and sharpness of the voltage-current characteristic. Superconductor properties including within-sample uniformity were generally poorest for samples containing the lowest (0.10) pore fraction. Ultrasonic velocity was linearly related to pore fraction thereby allowing sample classification. Changes in superconducting behavior were observed consistent with changes in oxygen content
Nonlocal electrodynamics and low-temperature magnetization of clean high-κ superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogan, V.G.; Gurevich, A.; Cho, J.H.; Johnston, D.C.; Xu, M.; Thompson, J.R.; Martynovich, A.
1996-01-01
We show that magnetic properties of clean superconductors with a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ at low temperatures are affected by the nonlocality of the microscopic current-field relation and can be described by modified London equations. We argue that for clean materials at low temperatures, the standard London formula for the reversible magnetization in intermediate fields, M∼ln(H c2 /B), should contain the field H 0 ∼φ 0 /ρ 2 instead of H c2 ∼φ 0 /ξ 2 (T), with ρ being the nonlocality range on the order of ξ 0 , the zero-T coherence length. Since ρ depends weakly on T, the magnetization should exhibit an approximate scaling M(T,B)=X(T)Y(B) as observed in Bi- and Tl-based compounds in a broad temperature domain well below T c . Our expression for the magnetization reduces to the standard London result near T c and at any temperature for the dirty case. Implications of our results for interpretation of neutron scattering data and for procedures of extracting the penetration depth are discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebastian, Suchitra E; Gillett, J; Lau, P H C; Lonzarich, G G; Harrison, N; Mielke, C H; Singh, D J
2008-01-01
We report measurements of quantum oscillations in SrFe 2 As 2 -which is an antiferromagnetic parent of the iron arsenide family of superconductors-known to become superconducting under doping and the application of pressure. The magnetic field and temperature dependences of the oscillations between 20 and 55 T in the liquid helium temperature range suggest that the electronic excitations are those of a Fermi liquid. We show that the observed Fermi surface comprising small pockets is consistent with the formation of a spin-density wave. Our measurements thus demonstrate that high T c superconductivity can occur on doping or pressurizing a conventional metallic spin-density wave state. (fast track communication)
Correlation of superconductor strand, cable, and dipole critical currents in CBA magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tannenbaum, M.J.; Garber, M.; Sampson, W.B.
1982-01-01
A calibration between vendor critical current data for 0.0268'' diameter superconductor strand supplied to Fermilab, and the BNL 10 -12 Ωcm critical current specification is presented. Vendor critical current data for over 400 Fermilab type billets are shown, both as supplied by the vendor and converted to BNL units. Predictions of cable critical current are made using the sum of the critical currents of the 23 strands, where all strands from the same half billet are assigned the same critical current. The measured critical current shows excellent correlation to the predicted value and is approximately 14 +- 2 percent below it. Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) full length dipoles reach the conductor critical current limit, essentially without training. Magnet performance is predictable from the measured critical current of a short sample of cable to within 2%
Yang, Yong
2008-12-01
In an actual levitation system composed of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) and permanent magnets (PMs), the levitating bodies may traverse in arbitrary directions. Many previous researchers assumed that the levitating bodies moved in a vertical direction or a lateral direction in order to simplify the problem. In this paper, the vertical and lateral forces acting on the PM are calculated by the modified frozen-image method when a PM above an HTS traverses in arbitrary directions. In order to study the effects of the movement directions on the vertical and lateral forces, comparisons of the forces that act on a PM traversing in a tilted direction with those that act on a PM traversing in a vertical direction or a lateral direction have been presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Yong [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: yy@mail.iee.ac.cn
2008-12-15
In an actual levitation system composed of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) and permanent magnets (PMs), the levitating bodies may traverse in arbitrary directions. Many previous researchers assumed that the levitating bodies moved in a vertical direction or a lateral direction in order to simplify the problem. In this paper, the vertical and lateral forces acting on the PM are calculated by the modified frozen-image method when a PM above an HTS traverses in arbitrary directions. In order to study the effects of the movement directions on the vertical and lateral forces, comparisons of the forces that act on a PM traversing in a tilted direction with those that act on a PM traversing in a vertical direction or a lateral direction have been presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yong
2008-01-01
In an actual levitation system composed of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) and permanent magnets (PMs), the levitating bodies may traverse in arbitrary directions. Many previous researchers assumed that the levitating bodies moved in a vertical direction or a lateral direction in order to simplify the problem. In this paper, the vertical and lateral forces acting on the PM are calculated by the modified frozen-image method when a PM above an HTS traverses in arbitrary directions. In order to study the effects of the movement directions on the vertical and lateral forces, comparisons of the forces that act on a PM traversing in a tilted direction with those that act on a PM traversing in a vertical direction or a lateral direction have been presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, M C; Yan, B P; Lee, K H; Ma, Q Y; Yang, E S
2005-01-01
High temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films have been applied in making a low loss RF receiver coil for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of these coils is severely limited by their limited field of view (FOV). Stringent fabrication environment requirements and high cost are further limitations. In this paper, we propose a simpler method for designing and fabricating HTS coils. Using industrial silver alloy sheathed Bi (2-x) Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 (Bi-2223) HTS tapes, a five-inch single-turn HTS solenoid coil has been developed, and human wrist images have been acquired with this coil. The HTS tape coil has demonstrated an enhanced FOV over a six-inch YBCO thin film surface coil at 77 K with comparable signal-to-noise ratio
Moessbauer study of LaFeAsO and F-doped superconductors in external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitao, S; Kobayashi, Y; Higashitaniguchi, S; Kurokuzu, M; Saito, M; Seto, M; Mitsui, T; Kamihara, Y; Hirano, M; Hosono, H
2010-01-01
The iron-based F-doped superconductors LaFeAsO 1-x F x with a transition temperature of 24 K (for x = 0.07) and 26 K (x = 0.11) and its parent material LaFeAsO were studied using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Further investigation was carried out by applying external magnetic fields. F-doped superconductors showed a singlet pattern with no magnetic splitting throughout the temperature range from 4.2 to 298 K. On the other hand, magnetically-split spectra were observed in the parent LaFeAsO below the Neel temperature of about 140 K. The internal magnetic field reached 5.3 T at 4.2 K. The external magnetic fields up to 14 T were applied to the singlet phases, F-doped superconductors and the parent LaFeAsO above the Neel temperature. The induced magnetically-split spectra showed the internal magnetic fields with the comparable value to the applied fields. This fact confirmed that these singlet phases have the paramagnetic feature. The magnetic fields were also applied to the magnetically-ordered phase of LaFeAsO below the Neel temperature. The evolution of the spectra depending on the external magnetic fields was clearly explained by a model with two sublattice spins of the powdered antiferromagnet. This fact confirmed the magnetically-ordered phase is an antiferromagnet. The spin-flop field was also estimated by the model as about 26 T.
Ul Haq, Bakhtiar
2014-08-01
Stimulation of novel features in ZnO by impurity electrons has attracted a remarkable attention of researchers from the past decade. Consequently, ZnO has found several applications in the field of spintronics and optoelectronics. We report, the effect of 3d-(V, Ag) electrons on the properties of ZnO in stable wurtzite (WZ) and metastable zincblende (ZB) phase using the density functional theory. Introduction of V-3d electrons was found to induce a high magnetic moment value of 5.22 in WZ and 3.26 in the ZB phase, and moreover transform the semiconductor character of ZnO into a metallic nature. Ag-d electrons result in the p-type half-metallic nature of ZnO with a weak ferromagnetic background. Our calculations for ground-state magnetic ordering show that ZnO in the presence of impure 3d-(V, Ag) electrons favors ferromagnetic ordering, and obey the double exchange mechanism. However, impurity atoms have very marginal effect on the lattice parameters of ZnO, thereby exposing its potential to absorb the impurity atoms in high concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Donor impurity in nanotube with two GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells: Magnetic field effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, J D; Escorcia, R; Sierra-Ortega, J, E-mail: jdavid0831@gmail.co [Grupo de Investigacion en teorIa de la Materia Condensada, Universidad del Magdalena, A.A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia)
2009-05-01
Micro-tubes containing two GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells (QWs) in a section of the tube layer has been fabricated and optical properties of the embedded QWs has been studied. The ground state binding energy of an off-axis donor in a cylindrical nanotube, containing two GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells (QWs) in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is calculated as a function of the donor location as well as the density of states. A trial function for describing the asymmetric electron charge distribution is taken as a product of the combination of 1s and 2p{sub x,y} subband wave functions and an unknown function that depends only on electron-ion separation. We found that the increasing the magnetic field the increasing the binding energy while the impurity is located in the QW1, whereas the opposite occurs when the impurity is located in the QW2. Two peaks in the curves of the binding energy, as a function of the impurity position, are also found as well as in the density of impurity states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hwi Joo; Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Dong; Jun, Bung Hyack; Kim, Chan Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-15
This study presents that the orientation and the geometry of seed affect on the growth behavior of melt processed single grain REBCO bulk superconductor and its magnetic properties. The effects of seed geometry have been investigated for thin 30mm x 30mm rectangular powder compacts. Single grain REBCO bulk superconductors have been grown successfully by a top seed melt growth method for 8-mm thick vertical thin REBCO slab. Asymmetric structures have been developed at the front surface and at the rear surface of the specimen. Higher magnetic properties have been obtained for the specimen that c-axis is normal to the specimen surface. The relationships between microstructure, grain growth and magnetic properties have been discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narimani, Mitra; Nourbakhsh, Zahra, E-mail: z.nourbakhsh@sci.ui.ac.ir
2017-07-15
Highlights: • Gd, Np and Cm impurities induce the magnetic moment in ScPdBi compound. • ScPdBi compound with Gd, Np and Cm impurities has normal band order. • The ε(0) and R(0) increase by increasing the atomic number of X atom. - Abstract: The electronic, magnetic and optical properties of X-doped ScPdBi (X = Gd, Np, Cm) are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential is treated using generalized gradient approximation with Coulomb interaction parameter. The band order and energy band gap of X-doped ScPdBi are investigated by calculation of band structure. The effect of doping impurity on magnetic properties of ScPdBi compound is studied by calculation of total and partial magnetic moments of X-doped ScPdBi compound. Furthermore, the optical properties of X-doped ScPdBi are calculated and compared in the energy range of 0–25 eV.
Takeda, Keiji; Mori, Hatsumi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ishimoto, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Takayoshi; Kuriki, Shinya; Hozumi, Toshiya; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi
2008-03-01
We have developed a high temperature superconductor (HTS) micrometer-sized dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer for high field and high temperature operation. It was fabricated from YBa2Cu3O7-delta of 92 nm in thickness with photolithography techniques to have a hole of 4x9 microm2 and 2 microm wide grain boundary Josephson junctions. Combined with a three dimensional magnetic field coil system, the modulation patterns of critical current Ic were observed for three different field directions. They were successfully used to measure the magnetic properties of a molecular ferrimagnetic microcrystal (23x17x13 microm3), [Mn2(H2O)2(CH3COO)][W(CN)8]2H2O. The magnetization curve was obtained in magnetic field up to 0.12 T between 30 and 70 K. This is the first to measure the anisotropy of hysteresis curve in the field above 0.1 T with an accuracy of 10(-12) J T(-1) (10(-9) emu) with a HTS micro-SQUID magnetometer.
Improving magnetic properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylan Koparan, E., E-mail: etaylan20@gmail.com [Department of Science Education, Eregli Faculty of Education, Bulent Ecevit University, TR-67300, Zonguldak (Turkey); Savaskan, B. [Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61830, Of, Trabzon (Turkey); Yanmaz, E. [Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, İstanbul Gelişim University, İstanbul (Turkey)
2016-08-15
Highlights: • The effects of synthetic engine oil treatment on magnetic properties of bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductors has been first time investigated and reported. • Synthetic engine oil used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source obviously has improved the superconducting magnetic properties of MgB{sub 2}. • The critical current density of all of MgB{sub 2} samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range has been better than that of the pure MgB{sub 2} sample. • The MgB{sub 2} sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB{sub 2} samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density ( J{sub c}(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density f{sub p}(b) and T{sub c} performances of MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB{sub 2} pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB{sub 2} samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB{sub 2} samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB{sub 2} sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB{sub 2} sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The J{sub c} value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2}, whereas for the MgB{sub 2} sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the J{sub c} is enhanced to 4.8 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) did not change
Improving magnetic properties of MgB_2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The effects of synthetic engine oil treatment on magnetic properties of bulk MgB_2 superconductors has been first time investigated and reported. • Synthetic engine oil used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source obviously has improved the superconducting magnetic properties of MgB_2. • The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range has been better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample. • The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density ( J_c(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density f_p(b) and T_c performances of MgB_2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB_2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The J_c value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 10"3 A/cm"2, whereas for the MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the J_c is enhanced to 4.8 × 10"3 A/cm"2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (T_c) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was
Magnetic resonance study of hydration of Na-β''-alumina. Magnetic impurity effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gobato, Y.G.; Souto, S.P.A.; Gonzalez, J.P.D.; Souza, D.P.F. de; Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais)
1989-01-01
The various factors that can affect the hydration of polycristalline Na-β''-alumina were investigated, using magnetic resonance methods. When absorved, water molecules diffuses very fast into the conduction layers. The activation energy for the diffusion motion was found to be 0.16 eV (15.4 KJ/mol) for a pure sample, with 150 - 250 μm particle diameter, with 18.5% of water in relation to the dry sample. A striking result was that the water absorption in a pure sample was twice than in a iron doped sample (500 ppm) hydrated in identical conditions. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larbalestier, David
2009-01-01
There are over 5000 superconducting materials but only about 5 have ever been useful for applications in magnets, while HEP, which has been so vital for the development of superconducting magnet technology has made virtually every magnet out of just one, the simple bcc alloy Nb-Ti with Tc of 9 K and upper critical field ∼ 14T (at 2K). Significant demonstrations of the capability of the brittle intermetallic Nb3Sn have shown that fields of more than 15 T can be generated in dipole form. But Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn are staid, conventional superconductors, far from the cutting edge of superconducting science research where cuprates like YBa2Cu3O7-x and Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox remain at the scientific forefront and in 2008 were joined by the recently discovered Fe-As pnictide superconductors. What could it mean to have materials for magnets with 10 times the Tc of Nb-Ti (90-120 K) and 3 or more times the critical field (100-240 T)? One enormous barrier is that higher Tc so far always means more complexity and a more localized superconducting interaction which is sensitive to local loss of superconductivity. The issue that has made the cuprate high temperature superconductors so hard to apply is that grain boundaries which form a 3D network in any practical wire form, easily acquire degraded superconducting properties. But conductors can now be made with extreme texture so that grain boundaries are minimized. Moreover almost practical conductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and YBa2Cu3O7-x are now are in production and in late 2008 we were, at the Magnet Lab, able to make small solenoids operating at high current density in fields of 32 and almost 34 T respectively. Within the HEP community, there is enthusiasm to embrace HTS conductors for new very high field machines that could, like the Muon Collider, use fields of 30-50 T. In my talk I would like to explore the underlying science controlling such potential applications.
Determination of the magnetic impurities contribution to the nuclear relaxation in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, A.M.
1982-01-01
The renormalization group techniques developed by Wilson for the Kondo problem are applied, for the first time, to the calculation of nuclear spin relaxation rates in dilute magnetic alloys. A procedure that calculates the longitudinal relaxation time T 1 over the entire temperature range 0 B T 1 is derived; for distances R between the impurity and the nucleus large compared to the inverse Fermi momentum H f , the result is identical to Korringa's expression for the nuclear spin relaxation rate in the pure metal. For smaller k F R, T 1 increases and becomes infinite as k F R→0. A numerical approach, capable of calculating T 1 at finite temperatures, is presented and tested by calculating T 1 for T→0; the numerical results are in excellent agreement with the analytical expression discussed above. Only for k F R→ infinity do the results for T 1 at T=0 agree with those found by Roshen and Saam, who recently analysed this problem in the light of Nozieres's Fermi liquid theory. The reasons for the discrepancy for finite k F R are discussed. (author) [pt
Microscopic Theory of Magnetic Detwinning in Iron-Based Superconductors with Large-Spin Rare Earths
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Jannis Maiwald
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Detwinning of magnetic (nematic domains in Fe-based superconductors has so far only been obtained through mechanical straining, which considerably perturbs the ground state of these materials. The recently discovered nonmechanical detwinning in EuFe_{2}As_{2} by ultralow magnetic fields offers an entirely different, nonperturbing way to achieve the same goal. However, this way seemed risky due to the lack of a microscopic understanding of the magnetically driven detwinning. Specifically, the following issues remained unexplained: (i ultralow value of the first detwinning field of approximately 0.1 T, two orders of magnitude below that of BaFe_{2}As_{2}, and (ii reversal of the preferential domain orientation at approximately 1 T and restoration of the low-field orientation above 10–15 T. In this paper, we present, using published as well as newly measured data, a full theory that quantitatively explains all the observations. The key ingredient of this theory is a biquadratic coupling between Fe and Eu spins, analogous to the Fe-Fe biquadratic coupling that drives the nematic transition in this family of materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasztor, G.; Schmidt, C.
1978-01-01
The behavior of NbTi superconductors under dynamic mechanical stress was investigated. A training effect was found in short-sample tests when the conductor was strained in a magnetic field and with a transport current applied. Possible mechanisms are discussed which were proposed to explain training in short samples and in magnets. A stress-induced microplastic as well as an incomplete pseudoelastic behavior of NbTi was detected by monitoring acoustic emission. The experiments support the hypothesis that microplastic or shape memory effects in NbTi involving dislocation processes are responsible for training. The minimum energy needed to induce a normal transition in short-sample tests is calculated with a computer program, which gives the exact solution of the heat equation. A prestrain treatment of the conductor at room temperature is shown to be a simple method of reducing training of short samples and of magnets. This is a direct proof that the same mechanisms are involved in both cases
Development of superconducting magnetic bearing using superconducting coil and bulk superconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seino, H; Nagashima, K; Arai, Y [Railway Technical Research Institute, Hikari-cho 2-8-38, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: seino@rtri.or.jp
2008-02-01
The authors conducted a study on superconducting magnetic bearing, which consists of superconducting rotor and stator to apply the flywheel energy-storage system for railways. In this study, high temperature bulk superconductor (HTS bulk) was combined with superconducting coils to increase the load capacity of the bearing. In the first step of the study, the thrust rolling bearing was selected for application by using liquid nitrogen cooled HTS bulk. 60mm-diameter HTS bulks and superconducting coil which generated a high gradient of magnetic field by cusp field were adopted as a rotor and a stator for superconducting magnetic bearing, respectively. The results of the static load test and the rotation test, creep of the electromagnetic forces caused by static flux penetration and AC loss due to eccentric rotation were decreased to the level without any problems in substantial use by using two HTS bulks. In the result of verification of static load capacity, levitation force (thrust load) of 8900N or more was supportable, and stable static load capacity was obtainable when weight of 460kg was levitated.
Development of superconducting magnetic bearing using superconducting coil and bulk superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seino, H; Nagashima, K; Arai, Y
2008-01-01
The authors conducted a study on superconducting magnetic bearing, which consists of superconducting rotor and stator to apply the flywheel energy-storage system for railways. In this study, high temperature bulk superconductor (HTS bulk) was combined with superconducting coils to increase the load capacity of the bearing. In the first step of the study, the thrust rolling bearing was selected for application by using liquid nitrogen cooled HTS bulk. 60mm-diameter HTS bulks and superconducting coil which generated a high gradient of magnetic field by cusp field were adopted as a rotor and a stator for superconducting magnetic bearing, respectively. The results of the static load test and the rotation test, creep of the electromagnetic forces caused by static flux penetration and AC loss due to eccentric rotation were decreased to the level without any problems in substantial use by using two HTS bulks. In the result of verification of static load capacity, levitation force (thrust load) of 8900N or more was supportable, and stable static load capacity was obtainable when weight of 460kg was levitated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devred, A
2002-07-01
Among the superconductors with low critical temperature that are used to build magnets, NbTi has reached a development state that allows a massive production for big equipment of physics and an industrial production in the domain of medicine imaging. The material that might challenge the supremacy of NbTi is Nb{sub 3}Sn but some technical difficulties have yet to be overcome. This report begins with a review of the different industrial processes used to produce superconducting wires based on the NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn materials. The transition from the superconducting state to the resistive normal state is described for both materials, the magnetizing of multi-wire superconducting cables is also presented. The author details the different patterns of wires in cables and proposes a formulary that allows the determination, in some simple cases,of energy losses that are generated in a superconducting cable by a variable magnetic field. (A.C.)
Koshelev, Alexei E.; Song, Kok Wee
We investigate the superconducting instability in the magnetic field for a clean two-dimensional multiple-band superconductor in the vicinity of the Lifshitz transition when one of the bands is very shallow. Due to a small number of carriers in this band, the quasiclassical Werthamer-Helfand approximation breaks down and Landau quantization has to be taken into account. We found that the transition temperature Tc 2 (H) has giant oscillations and is resonantly enhanced at the magnetic fields corresponding to full occupancy of the Landau levels in the shallow band. This enhancement is especially pronounced for the lowest Landau level. As a consequence, the reentrant superconducting regions in the temperature-field phase diagram emerge at low temperatures near the magnetic fields at which the chemical potential matches the Landau levels. These regions may be disconnected from the main low-field superconducting region. The specific behavior depends on the relative strength of the intraband and interband coupling constants and the effect is most pronounced when the interband coupling dominates. The Zeeman spin splitting reduces sizes of the reentrant regions and changes their location in the parameter space. The predicted behavior may realize in the gate-tuned FeSe monolayer. This work was supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, under Award No. DEAC0298CH1088.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)
2011-09-15
Four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulks as representatives. A coupling ratio to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside multi-seeded bulks. An averaged trapped magnetic flux density parameter was introduced. The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, P.R.
1994-01-01
Detailed and systematic μ + SR experiments have been performed in order to (i) investigate the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in various cuprate high-T c superconductors and (ii) study the vortex structures and dynamics in the highly anisotropic Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . The μ + SR method and its application to superconductivity has been discussed. The positive muon is a microscopic probe of the local magnetic field in the bulk of a sample. The μ + SR technique can therefore measure the magnetic field distribution p(B) which is determined by the flux structure in the superconductor. The second moment (ΔB 2 ) of p(B) is closely related to the magnetic penetration depth λ, a fundamental parameter of superconductivity. It has been shown that in high-quality sintered samples a good estimate of the in-plane penetration depth λ ab can be given in terms of the muon-depolarization rate σ. Since the penetration depth is related to the superconducting order parameter, the temperature dependence of the penetration depth is a potential probe of the pairing state. Systematic measurements of the temperature dependence of σ have been performed in sintered samples of high quality in various members of the Y123 family, Pb and Y doped Tl1212 family, and also in Y124 and Bi2212. It is found that the extracted temperature behaviour of λ ab -2 is characteristic of each compound. This can be interpreted as a varying coupling strength in these systems. In well oxygenated Y123, λ ab -2 (T) is well described by the two-fluid model indicating strong coupling. The rest of the cuprates investigated show a λ ab -2 (T) which points to weaker coupling, with λ ab -2 (T) of highly oxygen deficient Y123 being similar to the weak-coupling BCS prediction. In the Y123 family the decreasing coupling strength with decreasing oxygen content is related to the increasing anisotropy. Comparison with theoretical predictions of λ ab -2 (T) revealed that the observed
First Results from Tests of High Temperature Superconductor Magnets on Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gryaznevich, M.; Todd, T.T., E-mail: mikhail.gryaznevich@ccfe.ac.uk [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Svoboda, V.; Markovic, T.; Ondrej, G. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Stockel, J.; Duran, I.; Kovarik, K. [IPP Prague, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Sykes, A.; Kingham, D. [Tokamak Solutions, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Melhem, Z.; Ball, S.; Chappell, S. [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lilley, M. K.; De Grouchy, P.; Kim, H. -T. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
2012-09-15
Full text: It has long been known that high temperature superconductors (HTS) could have an important role to play in the future of tokamak fusion research. Here we report on first results of the use of HTS in a tokamak magnet and on the progress in design and construction of the first fully-HTS tokamak. In the experiment, the two copper vertical field coils of the small tokamak GOLEM were replaced by two coils each with 6 turns of HTS (Re)BCO tape. Liquid nitrogen was used to cool the coils to below the critical temperature at which HTS becomes superconducting. Little effect on the HTS critical current has been observed for perpendicular field up to 0.5 T and superconductivity has been achieved at {approx} 90.5K during bench tests. There had been concerns that the plasma pulses and pulsed magnetic fields might cause a 'quench' in the HTS, i.e., a sudden and potentially damaging transition from superconductor to normal conductor. However, many plasma pulses were fired without any quenches even when disruptions occurred with corresponding induced electrical fields. In addition, experiments without plasma have been performed to study properties of the HTS in a tokamak environment, i.e., critical current and its dependence on magnetic and electrical fields generated in a tokamak both in DC and pulsed operations, maximum current ramp-up speed, performance of the HTS tape after number of artificially induced quenches etc. No quench has been observed at DC currents up to 200 A (1.2 kA-turns through the coil). In short pulses, current up to 1 kA through the tape (6 kA-turns) has been achieved with no subsequent degradation of the HTS performance with a current ramp rate up to 0.6 MA/s. In future experiments, increases in both the plasma current and pulse duration are planned. Considerable experience has been gained during design and fabrication of the cryostat, coils, isolation and insulation, feeds and cryosystems, and GOLEM is now routinely operated with HTS coils. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vobornik, I. E-mail: ivana.vobornik@elettra.trieste.it; Avramova, I.; Giovanelli, L.; Panaccione, G.; Fujii, J.; Vobornik, S.; Cepek, C.; Sancrottti, M.; Rossi, G
2003-01-01
A number of recent results indicate that C{sub 60} films can superconduct at considerably high temperatures. The response of a material to impurities can give an information about its superconducting properties when more conventional methods for spotting superconductivity are difficult to apply. While magnetic impurities act as strong Cooper pair breakers in conventional superconductors, nonmagnetic impurities have none or negligible effect. We investigated the influence of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on the electronic structure of one monolayer C{sub 60} on Ag(1 0 0). Preliminary results show that the gap persists in the presence of nonmagnetic Au but it is completely suppressed in the presence of magnetic Fe, as expected for a superconductor. This result gives a support for the possible superconducting scenario in one monolayer C{sub 60} on Ag(1 0 0) and certainly requires additional experiments to be performed to assure the superconducting character of the film.
investigation of Y-Ba-Cu-O type superconductors in pulsed ultrahigh magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlovskii, A.I.; Tatsenko, O.M.; Platonov, V.V.; Voronov, S.A.; Kolokolchikov, N.P.; Markevtsev, I.M.; Deryugin, Y.N.; Druzhinin, V.V.; Shcherbak, Y.P.
1990-01-01
In this paper a possibility of microelectronic technique devices creation based on high-temperature superconductors (HTS) as well as HTS using in heavy-current electronic and, in particular, in electrical energy storage, radio-frequency accelerators and transmission lines, superconducting solenoids is considered. Critical current I c and upper critical magnetic field H c2 are key parameters defining engineering feasibility of HTS. H c2 measurement near the temperature of a superconducting transition doesn't present any difficulties, but extrapolation of H c2 (T) dependence to a low-temperature region owing to thermal activation processes gives uncertainties in H c2 (OK) value equal to 150-300 T. Prediction of H c2 (OK) values from H c1 data hindered, since the first critical field is greatly defined by the samples inhomogeneous macrostructure. It has been shown that H c2 (4.2 K) > 60 T, this is a threshold magnetic field obtained in undestructable pulsed solenoids
Magnetic properties of Bi- and Tl- based new high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Togano, K.; Kumakura, H.; Dietderich, D.H.
1988-01-01
Upper critical field H c2 and Magnetization curve were measured for new high-T c oxide superconductors of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems. H c2 values at 77K for the high-T phase of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, low-T c (T c (ρ = 0) = 105K) phase of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O, and high-T c (T c (ρ = 0)=115K) phase of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O are 41T, 50T, and 100T, respectively. The magnetization curve of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O shows a relatively small hysterisis, suggesting a weak pinning force compared to Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O as well as Ba 2 YCU 3 O x . Critical current density J c of 600A/Cm 2 at 77K and zero-magnetiac field was attained for the high-T c sample of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, J; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, S
2009-01-01
In order to improve the performance of the present high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the maglev performance of single- and double-layer bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSC) was investigated above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). It is found that the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC is not a simple addition of each layer's levitation and guidance force. Moreover, the applied magnetic field at the position of the upper layer bulk HTSC is not completely shielded by the lower layer bulk HTSC either. 53.5% of the levitation force and 27.5% of the guidance force of the upper layer bulk HTSC are excited in the double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement in the applied field-cooling condition and working gap, bringing a corresponding improvement of 16.9% and 8.8% to the conventional single-layer bulk HTSC. The present research implies that the cost performance of upper layer bulk HTSC is a little low for the whole HTS maglev system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J. P.; Kim, H. G.; Han, S. C.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we designed Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) for large scale Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System (SFESS) and PD controller for AMB. And we experimentally evaluated SFESS including hybrid type AMB. The radial AMB was designed to provide force slew rate that was sufficient for the unbalance disturbances at the maximum operating speed. The thrust AMB is a hybrid type where a permanent magnet carries the weight of the flywheel and an electromagnetic actuator generates the dynamic control force. We evaluated the design performance of the manufactured AMB through comparison of FEM analysis and the results of experimental force measurement. In order to obtain gains of PD controller and design a notch filter, the system identification was performed through measuring frequency response including dynamics for the AMBs, a power amp and a sensor using a sine swept test method after levitating the flywheel. Through measuring the current input of the AMBs and the orbit of a flywheel according to rotational speed, we verified excellent control performance of the AMBs with small amount current for the large scale SFESS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, J; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, S [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn
2009-05-15
In order to improve the performance of the present high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the maglev performance of single- and double-layer bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSC) was investigated above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). It is found that the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC is not a simple addition of each layer's levitation and guidance force. Moreover, the applied magnetic field at the position of the upper layer bulk HTSC is not completely shielded by the lower layer bulk HTSC either. 53.5% of the levitation force and 27.5% of the guidance force of the upper layer bulk HTSC are excited in the double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement in the applied field-cooling condition and working gap, bringing a corresponding improvement of 16.9% and 8.8% to the conventional single-layer bulk HTSC. The present research implies that the cost performance of upper layer bulk HTSC is a little low for the whole HTS maglev system.
Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.
2011-09-01
The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.
Bayer, Christoph M
2017-01-01
Nuclear fusion is a key technology to satisfy the basic demand for electric energy sustainably. The official EUROfusion schedule foresees a first industrial DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant for 2050. In this work several high temperature superconductor sub-size cables are investigated for their applicability in large scale DEMO toroidal field coils. Main focus lies on the electromechanical stability under the influence of high Lorentz forces at peak magnetic fields of up to 12 T.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, Sergey; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Nori, Franco
2006-01-01
Josephson plasma waves are scattered by the Josephson vortex lattice. This scattering results in a strong dependence, on the in-plane magnetic-field H ab , of the reflection and transmission of THz radiation propagating in layered superconductors. In particular, a tunable band-gap structure (THz photonic crystal) occurs in such a medium. These effects can be used, by varying H ab , for the selective frequency-filtering of THz radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayer, Christoph M.
2017-05-01
Nuclear fusion is a key technology to satisfy the basic demand for electric energy sustainably. The official EUROfusion schedule foresees a first industrial DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant for 2050. In this work several high temperature superconductor sub-size cables are investigated for their applicability in large scale DEMO toroidal field coils. Main focus lies on the electromechanical stability under the influence of high Lorentz forces at peak magnetic fields of up to 12 T.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, I.G. de.
1994-04-01
Using the London theory, a correction is obtained between the direction of the magnetic induction B and the applied magnetic field H in superconductors with uniaxial anisotropy when the Ginsburg-Landau constant is not so large. One analysis of the magnetization as function of angle α is made. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, I.G. de
1994-04-01
Using the London theory, a correction is obtained between the direction of the magnetic induction B and the applied magnetic field H in superconductors with uniaxial anisotropy when the Ginsburg-Landau constant is not so large. One analysis of the magnetization as function of angle {alpha} is made. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergeev, V. Yu.; Bakhareva, O. A.; Kuteev, B. V.; Tendler, M.
2006-01-01
The ablation of impurity pellets in tokamak and stellarator plasmas is investigated. Different mechanisms for shielding the heat fluxes from the surrounding plasma to the pellet surface are discussed. A model for impurity pellet ablation is developed that can account for both neutral and electrostatic shielding. It is shown that the experimental values of the impurity pellet ablation rate are well described by the neutral gas shielding model over a wide range of plasma temperatures and densities. Taking into account the electrostatic shielding leads to worse agreement between the predictions of the model and the experimental data; this result still remains unclear. Scaling laws are obtained that allow one to estimate the local ablation rate of impurity pellets made of various materials over a wide range of plasma parameters in the neutral gas shielding model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Goto, M.; Kawamura, G.; Zhang, H.M.; Hunag, X.L.; Wang, E.H.
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of impurity line emissions has been measured in Large Helical Device (LHD) based on the 2-D extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy for studying the edge impurity transport in stochastic magnetic field layer with three-dimensional (3-D) structure. The impurity behavior in the vicinity of two X-points at inboard and outboard sides of torus becomes separately visible with the 2-D measurement. As a result, it is found that the carbon location changes from inboard to outboard X-points when the plasma axis is shifted from R_a_x=3.6 m to 3.75 m. A 3-D simulation with EMC3-EIRENE code agrees with the result at R_a_x=3.75 m but disagreed with the result at R_a_x=3.60 m. The discrepancy between the measurement and simulation at R_a_x=3.60 m is considerably reduced when the effect of neutral hydrogen localized at the inboard side is taken into account, which can modify the density gradient and friction force along the magnetic field. (author)
Magnetic tri-axial orientation in (Y1-xErx)2Ba4Cu7O15-y superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horii, S.; Okuhira, S.; Yamaki, M.; Haruta, M.; Maeda, T.; Shimoyama, J.
2011-01-01
(Y 1-x Er x ) 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15-y [(Y,Er)247] was synthesized for clarifying a magnetic role of Er ion. The three magnetization axes of (Y,Er)247 were obtained from tri-axial orientation using a modulated rotation magnetic field. Magnetic anisotropy of Er ion is roughly ten times higher than that for Y247 at room temperature. Importance of rare-earth ions was shown for reduction of required magnetic fields in the tri-axial magnetic orientation. We report the tri-axial grain-orientation effects under a modulated rotation magnetic field for (Y 1-x Er x ) 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O y [(Y, Er)247]. The magnetic easy axis at room temperature was drastically changed around x ∼ 0.1; however, the Er-doping levels for the conversion of magnetic easy axes from the c-axis to the ab-direction and from the a- to b-axes were quite different. Tri-axial single-ion magnetic anisotropy of Er 3+ was roughly 10 times greater than tri-axial magnetic anisotropy generated by both the superconducting CuO 2 plane and the blocking Cu-O chain layer. An appropriate choice of rare-earth (RE) ions in RE-based cuprate superconductors enables the reduction of the required magnetic field for the production of bulks and thick films based on the magnetic orientation technique.
Temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field at an s–p impurity diluted in RNi_2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, A.L. de; Chaves, C.M.; Oliveira, N.A. de; Troper, A.
2016-01-01
We study the formation of local magnetic moments and magnetic hyperfine fields at an s–p impurity diluted in intermetallic Laves phase compounds RNi_2 (R=Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy) at finite temperatures. We start with a clean host and later the impurity is introduced. The host has two-coupled (R and Ni) sublattice Hubbard Hamiltonians but the Ni sublattice can be disregarded because its d band, being full, is magnetically ineffective. Also, the effect of the 4f electrons of R is represented by the polarization they produce on the d band. This leaves us with a lattice of effective rare earth R-ions with polarized electrons. For the dd electronic interaction we use the Hubbard–Stratonovich identity in a functional integral approach in the static saddle point approximation. - Highlights: • Functional integral method in the static limit, producing site disorder, is used. • The site disorder is treated with the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). • Non magnetic Ni generates an effective lattice with only a polarized R d band. • The effective R lattice differ from the pure R metal: Results and Discussions. • The experimental curve of hyperfine fields × temperature are very well reproduced.
Spin power and efficiency in an Aharnov-Bohm ring with an embedded magnetic impurity quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xi; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zheng, Jun [College of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Chi, Feng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Huhehaote 010023 (China)
2015-05-11
Spin thermoelectric effects in an Aharnov-Bohm ring with a magnetic impurity quantum dot (QD) are theoretically investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that due to the exchange coupling between the impurity and the electrons in QD, spin output power, and efficiency can be significant and be further modulated by the gate voltage. The spin thermoelectric effect can be modulated effectively by adjusting the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the magnetic flux. The spin power and efficiency show zigzag oscillations, and thus spin thermoelectric effect can be switched by adjusting the magnetic flux phase factor and RSOI ones. In addition, the spin efficiency can be significantly enhanced by the coexistence of the RSOI and the magnetic flux, and the maximal value of normalized spin efficiency η{sub max}/η{sub C} = 0.35 is obtained. Our results show that such a QD ring device may be used as a manipulative spin thermoelectric generator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Bezakova, E.
1998-01-01
Static magnetic hyperfine fields acting on impurities recoil-implanted into ferromagnetic hosts following heavy-ion induced reactions have been studied using the implantation perturbed angular correlation (IMPAC) technique to determine the magnetic moments of subnanosecond excited states in neutron-deficient nuclei. Problems, which in time-integral measurements cannot always be treated independently were studied and include: (i) corrections for the transient field effect, (ii) whether the hyperfine field is parallel to the applied field, (iii) whether the implanted nuclei all experience the same magnetic interaction, (iv) the time the static field takes to reach equilibrium after implantation. The focus here is on pre-equilibrium phenomena associated with the implantation process and the direction of the internal magnetic field at implanted impurities after equilibrium is reached. It was found that the internal field does become increasingly misaligned with respect to external field direction at fields below 0.08 T. This is due to the incomplete saturation of the foil and not to the microscopic effect as proposed by Aharoni
Temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field at an s–p impurity diluted in RNi{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, A.L. de, E-mail: alexandre.oliveira@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Nilópolis, RJ (Brazil); Chaves, C.M., E-mail: cmch@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física Armando Dias Tavares, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Troper, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2016-03-01
We study the formation of local magnetic moments and magnetic hyperfine fields at an s–p impurity diluted in intermetallic Laves phase compounds RNi{sub 2} (R=Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy) at finite temperatures. We start with a clean host and later the impurity is introduced. The host has two-coupled (R and Ni) sublattice Hubbard Hamiltonians but the Ni sublattice can be disregarded because its d band, being full, is magnetically ineffective. Also, the effect of the 4f electrons of R is represented by the polarization they produce on the d band. This leaves us with a lattice of effective rare earth R-ions with polarized electrons. For the dd electronic interaction we use the Hubbard–Stratonovich identity in a functional integral approach in the static saddle point approximation. - Highlights: • Functional integral method in the static limit, producing site disorder, is used. • The site disorder is treated with the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). • Non magnetic Ni generates an effective lattice with only a polarized R d band. • The effective R lattice differ from the pure R metal: Results and Discussions. • The experimental curve of hyperfine fields × temperature are very well reproduced.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekin, J.W.; Finnemore, D.K.; Li, Q.; Tenbrink, J.; Carter, W.
1992-01-01
The irreversible strain limit ε irrev for the onset of permanent axial strain damage to Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x superconductors has been measured to be in the range of 0.2%--0.35%. This strain damage onset is about an order of magnitude higher than for bulk sintered Y-, Bi-, or Tl-based superconductors and is approaching practical values for magnet design. The measurements show that the value of ε irrev is not dependent on magnetic field, nor does the critical current depend on strain below ε irrev at least up to 25 T at 4.2 K. Both of these factors indicate that the observed strain effect in Ag-sheathed Bi-based superconductors is not intrinsic to the superconductor material. Rather, the effect is extrinsic and arises from superconductor fracture. Thus, the damage onset is amenable to further enhancement. Indeed, the data suggest that subdividing the superconductor into fine filaments or adding Ag to the superconductor powder prior to processing significantly enhances the damage threshold ε irrev to above 0.6%
Wang, Yuxing; Lortz, Rolf; Paderno, Yuriy; Filippov, Vladimir; Abe, Satoko; Tutsch, Ulrich; Junod, Alain
2005-01-01
We measured the specific heat, the magnetization, and the magnetoresistance of a single crystal of ZrB12, which is superconducting below Tc ~ 6 K. The specific heat in zero field shows a BCS-type superconducting transition. The normal- to superconducting-state transition changes from first order (with a latent heat) to second order (without latent heat) with increasing magnetic field, indicating that the pure compound is a low-kappa, type-II/1 superconductor in the classification of Auer and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Philippe, M P; Wéra, L; Fagnard, J-F; Vanderheyden, B; Vanderbemden, P; Ainslie, M D; Dennis, A R; Shi, Y-H; Cardwell, D A
2015-01-01
Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y–Ba–Cu–O high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction at the surface of each structure and report the surface magnetic flux density measured by Hall probe mapping. These configurations have been modelled using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H-formulation and the results show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. The model has also been used to study the magnetic flux distribution and predict the behaviour for other constitutive laws and geometries. The results show that the ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic shield, but the flux density and its gradient are enhanced on the face opposite to the ferromagnet. The thickness and saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic material are important and a characteristic ferromagnet thickness d* is derived: below d*, saturation of the ferromagnet occurs, and above d*, a weak thickness-dependence is observed. The influence of the ferromagnet is observed even if its saturation magnetization is lower than the trapped flux density of the superconductor. Conversely, thin ferromagnetic discs can be driven to full saturation even though the outer magnetic field is much smaller than their saturation magnetization. (paper)
Large superconductors and joints for fusion magnets: From conceptual design to testing at full scale
Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Turck, B.
2001-02-01
A new kind of superconductor, using the cable-in-conduit concept, is emerging, mainly in the context of fusion activity. At present no large Nb3Sn magnet in the world is operating using this concept. The difficulty of this technology, which has now been studied for 20 years, is that it requires major advances in several interconnected new fields, such as handling a large number (1000) of superconducting strands, high current conductors (50 kA), forced flow cryogenics, Nb3Sn technology, low loss conductors in pulsed operation, high current connections and high voltage insulation (10 kV), as well as demonstration of its economical and industrial feasibility. CEA has been very much involved, during the past ten years, in this development, which took place in the framework of the NET and ITER technological programmes. One major milestone was reached in 1998-1999 with the successful tests by Euratom-CEA of three full size conductor and connection samples in the SULTAN facility in Switzerland.
Thorwart, Michael
2018-01-01
Realizing Majorana bound states (MBS) in condensed matter systems is a key challenge on the way toward topological quantum computing. As a promising platform, one-dimensional magnetic chains on conventional superconductors were theoretically predicted to host MBS at the chain ends. We demonstrate a novel approach to design of model-type atomic-scale systems for studying MBS using single-atom manipulation techniques. Our artificially constructed atomic Fe chains on a Re surface exhibit spin spiral states and a remarkable enhancement of the local density of states at zero energy being strongly localized at the chain ends. Moreover, the zero-energy modes at the chain ends are shown to emerge and become stabilized with increasing chain length. Tight-binding model calculations based on parameters obtained from ab initio calculations corroborate that the system resides in the topological phase. Our work opens new pathways to design MBS in atomic-scale hybrid structures as a basis for fault-tolerant topological quantum computing. PMID:29756034
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, Corwin H.; Bauer, Eric D.; Mitchel, Jeremy N.
2010-01-01
The effects of various chemical substitutions and induced lattice disorder in the Ce- and Pu-based 115 superconductors are reviewed, with particular emphasis on results from x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. The PuCoGa 5 system offers the opportunity to follow changes in magnetic and electronic properties due to lattice disorder as a function of time in the same samples, in addition to the more traditional approach of perturbing the superconducting state through chemical substitutions. The reviewed work establishes a baseline for such future studies by determining the intrinsic lattice order in the 115 system, successfully understanding disorder as introduced through chemical substitutions in the Ce-based 115s, and beginning to explore the surprisingly large role of self-irradiation damage directly on the PuCoGa 5 lattice. These studies lay the foundation for the harder future work toward measuring chemical substitutions in PuCoGa 5 , correlating effects with non-Fermi liquid behavior, and obtaining a better structural picture of the distortions induced by α-decay of the plutonium nucleus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodeau, J.L.; Marezio, M.; Pannetier, J.; Benoit, A.
1984-01-01
The compound [Sn(1)sub(1-x)Er(1)sub(x)]Er(2) 4 Rh 6 Sn 18 with x = 1/3 is a reentrant superconductor; it belongs to a series of compounds whose formula is MRhsub(x)Snsub(y), M = rare earth. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the structure of these compounds and we have also studied the magnetic ordering by neutron diffraction of the reentrant superconductor [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatter, Nino
2016-12-14
In this thesis, we investigate individual molecular switches and metal-organic complexes on surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) at low temperatures. One focus addresses the switching ability and mechanism of diarylethene on Ag(111). The other focus lies on resolving and tuning magnetic interactions of individual molecules with superconductors. 4,4'-(4,4'-(perfluorocyclopent-1-ene-1,2-diyl)bis (5-methylthiophene-4,2-diyl)dip yridine (PDTE) is a prototypical photochromic switch. We can induce a structural change of individual PDTE molecules on Ag(111) with the STM tip. This change is accompanied by a reduction of the energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the induced switching corresponds to a ring-closing reaction from an open isomer in a flat adsorption configuration to a ring-closed isomer with its methyl groups in a cis configuration. The final product is thermodynamically stabilized by strong dispersion interactions with the surface. A linear dependence of the switching threshold with the tip-sample distance with a minimal threshold of 1.4 V is found, which we assign to a combination of an electric-field induced process and a tunneling-electron contribution. DFT calculations suggest a large activation barrier for a ring-closing reaction from the open flat configuration into the closed cis configuration. The interaction of magnetic molecules with superconductors is studied on manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) adsorbed on Pb(111). We find triplets of Shiba states inside the superconducting gap. Different adsorption sites of MnPc provide a large variety of exchange coupling strengths, which lead to a collective energy shift of the Shiba triplets. We can assign the splitting of the Shiba states to be an effect of magnetic anisotropy in the system. A quantum phase transition from a ''Kondo screened'' to a &apos
Effects of impurities and magnetic divertors on high-temperature tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meade, D.M.; Furth, H.P.; Rutherford, P.H.; Seidl, F.G.P.; Duechs, D.F.
1974-10-01
A one-dimensional tokamak plasma transport code has been adapted to include impurity influx, stripping, radiation, and diffusion, as well as the usual processes of hydrogen plasma and heat transport, recycling at the boundary, and multigeneration charge-exchange. Neutral-beam heating, adiabatic compression, and divertor boundary conditions are included as optional features. Illustrative computations are given for present-day and next-generation tokamaks. The problems of impurity control are discussed, and two technical approaches are examined in greater detail: the transient cold-plasma shield, and the poloidal divertor. (auth)
Investigating the effects of Co magnetic impurity on optical properties of Zn1-xCoxO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taghavi mendi, R. A.; Majidiyan, M.; Bouchani, A.; Elahi, M.
2012-01-01
In this paper the effect of Co magnetic impurity on Zn 1-x Co x O in the Wurtzite structure has been studied, and some optical properties such as dielectric function, energy loss function, optical transition, plasmonic energy and refractive index have been calculated with Ab Initio calculations. The results show that adding Co to the compound strongly changes the isotropic features; so that dielectric function and refraction index at low energies are extremely increased. Also, Co has significantly affected the optical transitions . The results of refraction index for pure Zn O are in a good agreement with experimental data.
Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv
2012-04-01
A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations.
Study of the YBa2Cu3O-7-δ superconductor application as a low magnetic field sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, G.L; Shigue, C.Y.; Santos, C.A.M. dos; Machado, A.J.
2000-01-01
It has been proposed in the literature a new regime for high critical temperature superconductors labeled as thermally activated flux flow (TAFF). This regime presents a state in which vortex dynamic exhibit a ohmic behavior. The resistivity in this regime is proportional to the applied magnetic field for small current densities. Materials showing this behavior have high disordering and present semiconductor behavior in normal state with broad transition temperature. In this work is presented a systematic study of the magnetoresistance as a function of the applied magnetic field for polycrystalline samples with several thickness. Results of X ray diffraction, resistivity as a function of the temperature, I-V characteristic curves and magnetoresistance are showed. Finally is proposed a calibration curve of the magnetoresistance as a function of the magnetic field, that show the possibility of its use as magnetic field sensor. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernas, H.
1977-01-01
The influence of the strong d character of the Fe conduction band on the hyperfine interaction of dilute rare earth impurities is emphasized, and the contact contributions are estimated. Apparent inconsistencies between hyperfine field measurements for Eu and Gd in Fe are noted
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rømer, A. T.; Jensen, P.; Jacobsen, H.
2015-01-01
We present neutron-scattering studies of the interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4 (Tc=27 K). The correlations are studied both in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the CuO2 planes, and in zero field under different cooling conditions. We...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chang, J.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Niedermayer, C.
2009-01-01
Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the high-temperature superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4 reveal a magnetic excitation gap Delta that decreases continuously upon application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. The gap vanishes at the critical field required to induce long...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sørensen, Mads Peter, E-mail: mpso@dtu.dk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Pedersen, Niels Falsig [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Ögren, Magnus [School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro SE-70182 (Sweden)
2017-02-15
We investigate the dynamics of magnetic vortices in type II superconductors with normal state pinning sites using the Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulation results demonstrate hopping of vortices between pinning sites, influenced by external magnetic fields and external currents. The system is highly nonlinear and the vortices show complex nonlinear dynamical behaviour.
Study of the implementation of high temperature superconductors to accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleiter, Jerome
2013-01-01
Particle colliders are the main tool for investigating and understanding the fundamental laws of physics. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is a circular accelerator which steers and collides two counter-rotating protons beams. It has four collision points where detectors are placed to analyze the products emerging from the collisions. In a synchrotron machine a magnetic flux density is used to guide and focus particles around the orbit. The maximum energy that a circular machine with a given geometry can achieve is limited by the maximum strength of the dipole magnetic flux density. There is therefore an interest in the particle physics community in searching for dipole magnets with higher strength. The LHC has a beam trajectory radius of 4.3 km and a collision center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The accelerator employs 1232 large superconducting Nb-Ti dipole magnets operated at a flux density of up to 8.3 T in a bath of superfluid helium at 1.9 K. Energies higher than that achieved with the LHC require magnets made from superconductors with higher upper critical flux density. Nb 3 Sn is an option for magnets operated up to about 14 T. The level of energies of the type being discussed for a potential energy upgrade of the LHC machine - 33 TeV- would require the use of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Three technical HTS are available today: YBCO, Bi-2212 and Bi-2223. At low temperature YBCO conductors present both irreversible flux density and current density in excess of those measured in Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 conductors. In addition, YBCO can be used as reacted conductor, which makes its use for applications simpler than Bi-2212, which requires heat treatment at high temperature and in oxygen atmosphere after cabling and winding. The level of currents required for application to accelerator magnets, which is above 10 kA at the nominal operating temperature and flux density, excludes the use of single strands. The high current and high current density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maluf, W.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.
2002-01-01
We have shown that the Paramagnetic Meissner Effect (PME) is directly associated with pinning, and not necessarily related to the presence of π-junctions. Through the study of the magnetic properties of two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays (2D-JJA) in the present work we show that, among the systems exhibiting PME, only those with sufficiently low dissipation and high capacitance will show dynamics reentrance. The concept of a critical state and its use in the interpretation of AC magnetization data in terms of a critical current density were introduced to derive the magnetic properties of hard type-II superconductors. In the critical state model proposed by Bean, flux lines penetrate into the sample and, due to the presence of disorder they give rise to a steady flux gradient. Here we show that in 2D-JJA this typical picture is valid only in short-range distances. For long-range distances, the picture of uniform flux fronts, as described by a critical state model, breaks down and the penetration of the magnetic field takes place through the growth of magnetic dendrites. De Gennes originally compared the slope of a pile of vortices to a sand-pile, with the slope being proportional to the local magnitude of the critical current. Dynamical properties of the sand-pile problem have attracted new attention since it consists of a marginally stable system displaying self-organized criticality. In this case, when a superconductor is in the Bean critical state, the addition of vortices occurs by increasing the external magnetic field. This procedure is analogous to the introduction of new grains to a sand-pile and is expected to produce an avalanche of grains of sand (or, equivalently, vortices) of all sizes to maintain a constant gradient in the grain (or, magnetic flux) density. We show in this work strong evidences pointing out that, for some specific conditions, magnetic field penetrates 2D-JJA in flux avalanches. (author)
Interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in iron based high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, Stephen
2013-01-01
In this thesis, magnetic properties of a series of different Fe-based superconducting materials have been studied by means of neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic correlations in underdoped Ba(Fe 0.95 Co 0.05 ) 2 As 2 have been investigated for three phases of the phase diagram. It was possible to detect the spin gap and spin resonance signal, two features of the particle hole excitation spectrum at Q=(0.5,0.5,0), characteristic for the superconducting phase. The spin wave excitations present in the ordered phase have been analyzed quantitatively in terms of a linear spin wave model, whereas a spin diffusion model was applied to the collective excitations of the paramagnetic phase. However, it was found that both models can be applied to excitations in all three phases. In optimally doped CaFe 0.88 Co 0.12 AsF, a spin resonance signal was detected as part of the spin excitation spectrum at Q=(0.5,0.5,0). The observation of the spin resonance signal supports the s ± symmetry of the superconducting gap function. In the undoped CaFeAsF compound three dimensional spin wave like excitations of the static Fe-SDW order have been observed at Q AFM =(0.5,0.5,0.5), for temperatures below T N . Above T N and for energies below 20 meV, the spin wave like excitations are replaced by short range two dimensional paramagnetic excitations, which persist up to 270 K. In superconducting FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 polarized neutron scattering investigations revealed the magnetic nature of the spin resonance signal and the excitation spectrum at Q=(0.5,0.5,0) up to 30 meV. The whole excitation spectrum including the spin resonance signal consists of an isotropic distribution of spin excitations with magnetic moments fluctuating in the ab-plane and perpendicular to the ab-plane, χ ab ''(Q,ω)∼χ c ''(Q,ω). In Eu(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 and EuFe 2 (As 1-x P x ) 2 the effect of impurity doping on the static order of the magnetic lattice of the Eu 2+ -moments has been studied by means of
Dynamical response of local magnons: single impurity limit in one dimensional magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koiller, B.; Rezende, S.M.
1979-11-01
The dynamic response of local magnon modes associated with a single impurity spin in one-dimensional ferro and antiferromagnetic insulators is studied theoretically with the use of a Green's function formulation solved exactly, by transfer matrix techniques, for zero temperature. The calculations are applied to the typical 1 - d ferromagnet CsNiF 3 and the antiferromagnet TMMC as functions of the impurity parameters in a way to allow the interpretation of possible future measurements of defect modes in these materials. The theory also explains qualitatively recent measurements in the three dimensional defect antiferromagnets FeF 2 : Mn 2+ , CoF 2 : Mn 2+ and FeF 2 : Co 2+ . (Author) [pt
Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures
Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2018-04-01
Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giorgi, A.L.
1987-01-01
Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabani, H.; Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.
2007-01-01
Full text: Fulde, Ferrell, Larkin and Ovchnnikov (FFLO), first proposed the possibility that a superconducting state with a periodic spatial variation of the gap parameter would become stable when a large Zeeman splinting is present [1,2]. The order parameter varies periodically in space when the Pauli paramagnetism or the Zeeman term dominates the orbital effect. The Zeeman splitting could be due to either a strong magnetic field or an internal exchange field. Under these fields there is a splitting of the Fermi surfaces of spin up and spin down electrons, and the condensed pair has a non-zero total momentum, 2q, which causes the phase of the superconducting order parameter to vary. This state is known as the FF state. We determine the penetration depth of the Fulde-Ferrell State (FF) for quasi-two dimensional (2D) d-wave superconductor by calculating the electromagnetic nonlocal kernel response function. The behavior of the penetration depth at low temperatures is an important probe to determine the stability of the FF state. We start from a mean field Hamiltonian for the FF state and we calculate the electromagnetic nonlocal response tensor relating the current density to an applied vector potential to determine the magnetic penetration depth. We show that a linear T dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in the FF state superconductor violates indeed the third law of thermodynamics and the FF state is unstable due to Nernst theorem. (authors)
Magnetotransport study of in situ magnetic field textured Dy1Ba2Cu3O7-δ superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pekala, M.; Liege Univ.; Cloots, R.; Liege Univ.; Bougrine, H.; Liege Univ.; Maka, E.; Ausloos, M.
1995-01-01
The electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and the Nernst effect have been studied as a function of temperature and magnetic field for a typical superconductor DyBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ magnetically textured in situ at 1035 C. The three transport coefficients show hybrid microscopic features. In particular, we show the anisotropy with respect to the field direction (H // a, H // c) in all transport coefficients. We verify that Tinkham's law is obeyed for the broadening of the resistive transition in a magnetic field. Similarly we obtain anisotropic broadening exponents for each integrated excess property. From Arrhenius plots we obtain orders of magnitude for the activation energies characterizing each property. They are markedly different from each other. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra Vargas, C.A.; Landinez Tellez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.
2007-01-01
In this work, we report analysis of magnetization fluctuations for the CaLaBaCu 3 O 7- δ superconducting system. We describe a procedure for extracting the penetration depth λ(T) and the coherence length ξ parameters from the magnetization, as a function of the applied magnetic field. This procedure takes the vortex fluctuation into account. The data of the magnetization excess ΔM(T) are analyzed for different values of temperature in the interval from 65 to 73 K. For several magnetic fields we observed a crossover in the magnetization curves at the characteristic temperature value T *=72.2 K. We calculated the data of magnetization excess from the curves of magnetization as a function of the logarithm of the applied field. This procedure was performed for polycrystalline samples of CaLaBaCu 3 O 7- δ by using the proposition of Bulaevskii, Ledvij and Kogan. We notice that the values for these superconducting parameters are in agreement with reports for high-temperature superconductors
Friction in levitated superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, E.H.
1988-01-01
A type I superconductor levitated above a magnet of low symmetry has a unique equilibrium position about which it may oscillate freely. In contrast, a type II superconductor has a continuous range of stable equilibrium positions and orientations where it floats rigidly without swinging or orbiting as if it were stuck in sand. A strong internal friction conspicuously indicates the existence and unpinning of flux lines in oxide superconductors levitated above liquid nitrogen. It is shown how these effects follow from the hysteretic magnetization curves and how the energy is dissipated
Macroscopic theory of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, W.J. Jr.
1981-01-01
A macroscopic theory for bulk superconductors is developed in the framework of the theory for other magnetic materials, where ''magnetization'' current is separated from ''free'' current on the basis of scale. This contrasts with the usual separation into equilibrium and nonequilibrium currents. In the present approach magnetization, on a large macroscopic scale, results from the vortex current, while the Meissner current and other surface currents are surface contributions to the Maxwell j. The results are important for the development of thermodynamics in type-II superconductors. The advantage of the description developed here is that magnetization becomes a local concept and its associated magnetic field can be given physical meaning
Kallin, Catherine; Berlinsky, John
2016-05-01
Chiral superconductivity is a striking quantum phenomenon in which an unconventional superconductor spontaneously develops an angular momentum and lowers its free energy by eliminating nodes in the gap. It is a topologically non-trivial state and, as such, exhibits distinctive topological modes at surfaces and defects. In this paper we discuss the current theory and experimental results on chiral superconductors, focusing on two of the best-studied systems, Sr2RuO4, which is thought to be a chiral triplet p-wave superconductor, and UPt3, which has two low-temperature superconducting phases (in zero magnetic field), the lower of which is believed to be chiral triplet f-wave. Other systems that may exhibit chiral superconductivity are also discussed. Key signatures of chiral superconductivity are surface currents and chiral Majorana modes, Majorana states in vortex cores, and the possibility of half-flux quantum vortices in the case of triplet pairing. Experimental evidence for chiral superconductivity from μSR, NMR, strain, polar Kerr effect and Josephson tunneling experiments are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salmani, El Mehdi, E-mail: elmehdisalmani@gmail.com [LMPHE, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Laghrissi, Ayoub; Lamouri, Rachida; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid [LMPHE, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, Abdelilah [Institute for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Académie Hassan II des Sciences et Techniques, Rabat (Morocco)
2017-01-15
Electronic structure, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with single and double impurities Zn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O, Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O, and Zn{sub 1−2x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub x}O (x=0.03 and 0.06) are investigated using first-principles calculations. Based on the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) doped ZnO. To support our results, we apply the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (SIC-LDA) to study the electronic structure, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) showing that the half-metallic ferromagnetic state still persists. The stability of the ferromagnetic state compared with the spin-glass state is investigated by comparing their total energies. The exchange interactions obtained from first principle calculations and used in a classical Ising model by a Monte Carlo approach resulted in ferromagnetic states with high Neel temperature. - Highlights: • The electronic structure calculations for ZnO doped with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) have been discussed. • The half-metallic aspect was proven to take place for doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) codoped ZnO. • The doubles impurities (Cr, Fe)impurities are shown to introduce the necessary magnetic moment that makes ZnO good candidates for spintronic applications.
Interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in iron based high temperature superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Price, Stephen
2013-07-01
impurity doping on the static order of the magnetic lattice of the Eu{sup 2+}-moments has been studied by means of polarized and non-polarized neutron diffraction experiments. The introduction of cobalt leads to a helical type structure of the Eu-sublattice with Eu{sup 2+}-moments oriented parallel to the ab-plane. Whereas, partial replacement of arsenic by phosphorous leads to a ferromagnetic type structure and eventually results in a coexistence of long range ferromagnetic order and superconductivity.
Non-uniform current distribution in a force-cooled superconductor under changing magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Norikiyo
2000-02-01
Strands in a large current force-cooled superconductor, referred to a CICC (cable-in-conduit conductor) hereafter, are coated with formvar (insulated layer) or chrome plating (high resistive layer) to reduce coupling current loss due to magnetic field variation. The author first carried out an experiment of the large superconducting coil consisting of such CICCs for demonstration of their applicability to a large superconducting coil. These CICCs exhibited instability, i.e. the normal zone propagation with thermal runaway (quench), at 1/20 and 1/5 of the expected conductor critical currents, respectively. The author constructed the database of this instability and studies its reason through experimental and theoretical investigations and then finds such instability is caused as a result of non-uniform current distribution in the conductor. Joule heating loss at electrical connections at the ends of the conductor should be small. Therefore, the strands in the CICC are electrically connected from each other with low resistance there. Circulation current is induced in the loop composed of the strands electrically connected at the ends of the conductor if its leakage magnetic flux is not completely vanished. The non-uniform current distribution is caused as a result of superimposition of the circulation and transport currents. The strand carrying large current becomes the normal state when it reaches or approaches to its critical current. Thus, the strands are twisted in order to vanish the leakage magnetic flux. The instability due to the current imbalance was not observed in the middle-scale coil (an element coil, such as a single double-pancake, of a large superconducting coil) consisting of the conductor in which the formvar-coated strands were twisted as above-mentioned. Consequently, it was believed that the leakage magnetic flux could be vanished by the normal twisting. However, the magnetic field increases in a large coil as a result of piling element coils
Morinari, Takao
2018-06-01
The central issue in high-temperature cuprate superconductors is the pseudogap state appearing below the pseudogap temperature T*, which is well above the superconducting transition temperature. In this study, we theoretically investigate the rapid increase of the magnetic anisotropy below the pseudogap temperature detected by the recent torque-magnetometry measurements on YBa2Cu3Oy [Y. Sato et al., 10.1038/nphys4205" xlink:type="simple">Nat. Phys. 13, 1074 (2017)]. Applying the spin Green's function formalism including the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arising from the buckling of the CuO2 plane, we obtain results that are in good agreement with the experiment and find a scaling relationship. Our analysis suggests that the characteristic temperature associated with the magnetic anisotropy, which coincides with T*, is not a phase transition temperature but a crossover temperature associated with the short-range antiferromagnetic order.
Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lăcătuşu, M. E.
2018-01-01
We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-Temperature superconductor, La2CuO4+y. We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes...
Magnetic flux lines in type-II superconductors and the 'hairy ball' theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laver, Mark; Forgan, Edward M.
2010-01-01
that discontinuities must exist in lattice shape as a function of field direction relative to the crystal. Extraordinary, 'unconventional' flux line lattice shapes that spontaneously break the underlying crystal symmetry are thus remarkably likely across all type-II superconductors, both conventional...
On the relevance of the ac magnetic susceptibility on the study of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoder, A.F.; Couach, M.; Barbara, B.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the ac susceptibility method allows to study in details the bulk superconductivity of as well homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, such as high-T c superconductors. Shielding and Meissner effects at T c can be distinguished by a careful analysis of x' and x'' components of the susceptibility
Anomalous behavior of the magnetic hyperfine field at 140Ce impurities at La sites in LaMnSi2
Domienikan, C.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N.; Carbonari, A. W.
2018-05-01
Magnetic hyperfine field has been measured in the orthorhombic intermetallic compound LaMnSi2 with perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using radioactive 140La(140Ce) nuclear probes. Magnetization measurements were also carried out in this compound with MPSM-SQUID magnetometer. Samples of LaMnSi2 compound were prepared by arc melting the component metals with high purity under argon atmosphere followed by annealing at 1000°C for 60 h under helium atmosphere and quenching in water. X-ray analysis confirmed the samples to be in a single phase with correct crystal structure expected for LaMnSi2 compound. The radioactive 140La (T1/2 = 40 h) nuclei were produced by direct irradiation of the sample with neutrons in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN with a flux of ˜ 1013 n cm-2s-1 for about 3 - 4 min. The PAC measurements were carried out with a six BaF2 detector spectrometer at several temperatures between 10 K and 400 K. Temperature dependence of the hyperfine field, Bhf was found to be anomalous. A modified two-state model explained this anomalous behavior where the effective magnetic hyperfine field at 140Ce is believed to have two contributions, one from the unstable localized spins at Ce impurities and another from the magnetic Mn atoms of the host. The competition of these two contributions explains the anomalous behavior observed for the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field at 140Ce. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC) of LaMnSi2 was determined to be 400(1) K confirming the magnetic measurements.
Superconductors with excess quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.
1981-01-01
This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data
Photoionization cross-section of shallow donors impurities at all magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorkani, I.; Filali, L.
1998-09-01
The dependence of the photoionization cross-section for shallow donors on photon energy is calculated. The effects of strong and weak magnetic fields are considered by means of a variational wave function which is a linear combination of the cylindrical wave function and the oscillator one. Simple analytical expressions, valid for all magnetic fields, are obtained. It has been found that the photoionization cross-section is affected by the magnetic field. We give some results of Germanium. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.
1979-01-01
The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN 2 cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishi, K.; Tachi, K.; Sawa, K. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, K. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Cambridge (United States); Nagashima, K.; Fujimoto, H. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M. [Superconducting Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
1999-11-25
This paper describes a new [electromaglev] system, in which multiple Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors are levitated on a DC magnet. In this system, we have succeeded in controlling the levitation height and force like the case of a single bulk system. We also simulated the total levitation force for multiple bulks, which were in good agreement with the experimental results. (author)
Effect of magnetic field on the donor impurity in CdTe/Cd1-xMnxTe quantum well wire
Kalpana, P.; Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K.
2016-05-01
The donor impurity binding energy in CdTe / Cd1-xMnxTe QWW with square well confinement along x - direction and parabolic confinement along y - direction under the influence of externally applied magnetic field has been computed using variational principle in the effective mass approximation. The spin polaronic shift has also been computed. The results are presented and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhuchenko, N K; Yagud, R Z [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1993-09-01
Neutron depolarization measurements in the mixed state of both high-T[sub c] and low-T[sub c] weak-link superconductors have been carried out. Samples of YBCO, BSCCO, SnMo[sub 6]S[sub 8] and 0.5 Nb-0.5 Ti of different magnetic prehistory were analyzed at temperatures T 4.2 K under applied magnetic fields II <= 16.5 kOe. We ascribe the appearance of magnetic inhomogeneities and their hysteresis behaviour to the interaction between dipole magnetic fields (diamagnetic and paramagnetic ones) and applied magnetic fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuierer, P.A.; Srinivasan, T.T.; Newnham, R.E.
1988-01-01
A polymer matrix provides a composite with flexibility and improved impact strength as well as protection against humidity and chemical attack. Superconductor/polymer 0-3 composites have been prepared by mixing YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ powder with silicone rubber, pressing and curing. The resistivities of these composites do not go to zero, however, the magnetic flux exclusion is maintained in the temperature range, T< T/sub c/(--91K). The composite resistivities show percolation behavior and diamagnetism increases with increasing volume fraction of the superconductor filler. The composites exhibit levitation and large diamagnetic susceptibilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izumi, M; Xu, C; Xu, Y; Morita, E; Kimura, Y; Hu, A; Ichihara, M; Murakami, M; Sakai, N; Hirabayashi, I; Sugimoto, H; Miki, M
2008-01-01
Gd123 bulk superconductor is one of the promising magnet materials. We studied the materials processing to grow high performance magnet with a doping of nano-sized metal oxides such as ZrO 2 as a candidature of pinning centre. The enhancement of the critical current density was obtained. Growth of nano-sized particles of Gd211 in addition to BaZrO 3 were observed by TEM. The formation of nano-sized particles appears a key to improve the integrated flux trapped inside the bulks and the TEM reveals an intriguing effect of the addition to the microstructure of bulk materials. Magnetization process is crucial especially for an extended machinery. Pulsed field magnetization was applied to the field-pole bulk on the rotor disk of the tested synchronous motor. The trapped flux density of 1.3 T for Gd123 bulk sample and of 60 mm diameter was reached in the limited dimension of the tested motor by a step cooling method down to 38 K with a closed-cycle condensed neon. The pulsed magnetic field was applied with a new type of split-armature coil. A large bulk of 140 mm diameter has also shown a potential flux trapping superior to other smaller specimens. The bulk magnet provides a strong magnetic field around the bulk body itself with high current density relative to a coil winding. A comparative drawing of a 'torque density' of a variety of motors which is defined as the torque divided by the volume of the motor indicates a potential advantage of bulk motor as a super permanent magnet motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Masaru; Suematsu, Hisataka; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio; Ishida, Takekazu
2005-01-01
We have developed a numerical method to solve the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation for nano-scaled isotropic and d-wave superconductors. It is based on the finite element method, and therefore applicable to arbitrary geometries. We argue the difference of the local density of states between isotropic and a d-wave superconducting square plate. For d-wave case, it appears as intrinsic surface bound states
Optical conductivity and electronic Raman response of cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanyolos, A.; Dora, B.; Virosztek, A.
2010-01-01
We present the results of detailed analytical calculations for the in-plane optical conductivity and the electronic Raman susceptibility in quasi two-dimensional systems possessing a ground state with two competing order parameters: a d-wave density wave (dDW) and d-wave superconductor (dSC). In the coexisting dDW+dSC phase we determine the frequency dependence of these correlation functions in the presence of randomly distributed non-magnetic impurities in the unitary limit.
Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.
Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada
2016-07-19
In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.
Room temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sleight, A.W.
1995-01-01
If the Holy Grail of room temperature superconductivity could be achieved, the impact on could be enormous. However, a useful room temperature superconductor for most applications must possess a T c somewhat above room temperature and must be capable of sustaining superconductivity in the presence of magnetic fields while carrying a significant current load. The authors will return to the subject of just what characteristics one might seek for a compound to be a room temperature superconductor. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ainslie, Mark D.; Flack, Tim J.; Campbell, Archie M.
2012-01-01
Properties of stacks of HTS coated conductors with and without a magnetic substrate. Non-magnetic substrate model is consistent with existing methods. Presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack. Differences and similarities between certain tapes within stacks are explained. Ferromagnetic loss of substrate negligible in most cases except small currents/fields. In this paper, the authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of stacks of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors with a particular focus on calculating the total transport AC loss. The cross-section of superconducting cables and coils is often modeled as a two-dimensional stack of coated conductors, and these stacks can be used to estimate the AC loss of a practical device. This paper uses a symmetric two dimensional (2D) finite element model based on the H formulation, and a detailed investigation into the effects of a magnetic substrate on the transport AC loss of a stack is presented. The number of coated conductors in each stack is varied from 1 to 150, and three types of substrate are compared: non-magnetic weakly magnetic and strongly magnetic. The non-magnetic substrate model is comparable with results from existing models for the limiting cases of a single tape (Norris) and an infinite stack (Clem). The presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack, due to an increased localized magnetic flux density, and the stronger the magnetic material, the further the flux penetrates into the stack overall. The AC loss is calculated for certain tapes within the stack, and the differences and similarities between the losses throughout the stack are explained using the magnetic flux penetration and current density distributions in those tapes. The ferromagnetic loss of the substrate itself is found to be negligible in most cases, except for small magnitudes of current. Applying these findings to practical applications, where AC
Performance boundaries in Nb3Sn superconductors
Godeke, A.
2005-01-01
Superconducting magnets for High Energy Physics, Fusion, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, benefit from the extremely high current densities that can be achieved in superconductors compared to normal conducting materials. These magnets are usually constructed starting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, R.X.; Zheng, J.; Liao, X.L.; Che, T.; Gou, Y.F.; He, D.B.; Deng, Z.G.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Thickness optimization of double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement is studied. • The new bulk HTSC arrangement makes better use of the flux distribution of the magnetic rails. • Levitation performance can be enhanced with the optimization. • The optimization can meet large levitation force requirements for HTS Maglev system. - Abstract: A double-layer high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) arrangement was proposed and proved to be able to bring improvements to both levitation force and guidance force compared with present single-layer HTSC arrangement. To fully exploit the applied magnetic field by a magnetic rail, the thickness dependence of a double-layer HTSC arrangement on the levitation performance was further investigated in the paper. In this study, the lower-layer bulk was polished step by step to different thicknesses, and the upper-layer bulk with constant thickness was directly superimposed on the lower-layer one. The levitation force and the force relaxation of the double-layer HTSC arrangement were measured above a Halbach magnetic rail. Experimental result shows that a bigger levitation force and a less levitation force decay could be achieved by optimizing the thickness of the lower-layer bulk HTSC. This thickness optimization method could be applied together with former reported double-layer HTSC arrangement method with aligned growth sector boundaries pattern. This series of study on the optimized combination method do bring a significant improvement on the levitation performance of present HTS maglev systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scurti, F; Ishmael, S; Schwartz, J; Flanagan, G
2016-01-01
High temperature superconducting materials are the only option for the generation of magnetic fields exceeding 25 T and for magnets operating over a broad range of temperature and magnetic field for power applications. One remaining obstacle for the implementation of high temperature superconductors magnets into systems, however, is the inability to rapidly detect a quench. In this letter we present a novel quench detection technique that has been investigated experimentally. Optical fibers are co-wound into two small Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x superconducting coils and interrogated by Rayleigh-backscattering. Two different configurations are used, one with the fiber atop the conductor and the other with the fiber located as turn-to-turn insulation. Each coil is also instrumented with voltage taps (VTs) and thermocouples for comparison during heater-induced quenches. The results show that Rayleigh-backscattering interrogated optical fibers (RIOF) have significant advantages over traditional techniques, including very high spatial resolution and the ability to detect a hot-spot well before the peak local temperature exceeds the current sharing temperature. Thus, RIOF quench detection is intrinsically faster than VTs, and this intrinsic advantage is greater as the coil size and/or current margin increases. (letter)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, R.X.; Zheng, J.; Liao, X.L.; Che, T.; Gou, Y.F.; He, D.B.; Deng, Z.G., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com
2014-10-15
Highlights: • Thickness optimization of double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement is studied. • The new bulk HTSC arrangement makes better use of the flux distribution of the magnetic rails. • Levitation performance can be enhanced with the optimization. • The optimization can meet large levitation force requirements for HTS Maglev system. - Abstract: A double-layer high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) arrangement was proposed and proved to be able to bring improvements to both levitation force and guidance force compared with present single-layer HTSC arrangement. To fully exploit the applied magnetic field by a magnetic rail, the thickness dependence of a double-layer HTSC arrangement on the levitation performance was further investigated in the paper. In this study, the lower-layer bulk was polished step by step to different thicknesses, and the upper-layer bulk with constant thickness was directly superimposed on the lower-layer one. The levitation force and the force relaxation of the double-layer HTSC arrangement were measured above a Halbach magnetic rail. Experimental result shows that a bigger levitation force and a less levitation force decay could be achieved by optimizing the thickness of the lower-layer bulk HTSC. This thickness optimization method could be applied together with former reported double-layer HTSC arrangement method with aligned growth sector boundaries pattern. This series of study on the optimized combination method do bring a significant improvement on the levitation performance of present HTS maglev systems.
Magnetic properties of point defect interaction with impurity atoms in Fe-Cr alloys
Nguyen-Manh, D.; Lavrentiev, M. Yu.; Dudarev, S. L.
2009-04-01
An integrated ab initio and statistical Monte Carlo investigation has been recently carried out to model the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys. We found that the conventional Fe-Cr phase diagram is not adequate at low temperature region where the magnetic contribution to the free energy plays an important role in the prediction of an ordered Fe 15Cr phase and its negative enthalpy of formation. The origin of the anomalous thermodynamic and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys can be understood using a tight-binding Stoner model combined with the charge neutrality condition. We investigate the environmental dependence of magnetic moment distributions for various self-interstitial atom dumbbells configurations using spin density maps found using density functional theory calculations. The mixed dumbbell Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn binding energies are found to be positive due to magnetic interactions. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the migration energy of vacancy in Fe-Cr alloys and magnetism at the saddle point configuration.
Hall viscosity of a chiral two-orbital superconductor at finite temperatures
Yazdani-Hamid, Meghdad; Shahzamanian, Mohammad Ali
2018-06-01
The Hall viscosity known as the anti-symmetric part of the viscosity fourth-rank tensor. Such dissipationless response which appears for systems with broken time reversal symmetry. We calculate this non-dissipative quantity for a chiral two-orbital superconductor placed in a viscoelastic magnetic field using the linear response theory and apply our calculations to the putative multiband chiral superconductor Sr2RuO4. The chirality origin of a multiband superconductor arises from the interorbital coupling of the superconducting state. This feature leads to the robustness of the Hall viscosity against temperature and impurity effects. We study the temperature effect on the Hall viscosity at the one-loop approximation.
Voronov, A V; Shuvalov, V V
2001-01-01
The phenomenological model, describing the magnetic dipole self-organization of charge carriers (formation of so-called stripe-structures and energy gap in the states spectrum), is designed for interpreting the data on the nonstationary nonlinear spectroscopy of the high-temperature superconductors. It is shown that after fast heating of the superconducting sample the kinetics of the subsequent phase transition depends on the initial temperature T. The destruction of the stripe-structures at low overheating T* < T < T sub m approx = (1.4-1.5)T*, whereby T sub c and T* approx = T sub c are the temperatures of transition into the superconducting state and formation of the stripe-structures occurs slowly (the times above 10 sup - sup 9 s) in spite of practically instantaneous disappearance of the superconductivity
Zheng, J.; Liao, X. L.; Jing, H. L.; Deng, Z. G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.
2013-10-01
Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correa, J. D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M. E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C. A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)
2014-06-07
We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.
Measuring condensate fraction in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakravarty, Sudip; Kee, Hae-Young
2000-01-01
An analysis of off-diagonal long-range order in superconductors shows that the spin-spin correlation function is significantly influenced by the order if the order parameter is anisotropic on a microscopic scale. Thus, magnetic neutron scattering can provide a direct measurement of the condensate fraction of a superconductor. It is also argued that recent measurements in high-temperature superconductors come very close to achieving this goal. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Choi, Deung-Jang; Fernández, Carlos García; Herrera, Edwin; Rubio-Verdú, Carmen; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Pascual, José Ignacio; Lorente, Nicolás
2018-04-01
We show that the magnetic ordering of coupled atomic dimers on a superconductor is revealed by their intragap spectral features. Chromium atoms on the superconductor β -Bi2Pd surface display Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states, detected as pairs of intragap excitations in tunneling spectra. By means of atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope's tip, we form Cr dimers with different arrangements and find that their intragap features appear either shifted or split with respect to single atoms. These spectral variations are associated with the magnetic coupling, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, of the dimer, as confirmed by density functional theory simulations. The striking qualitative differences between the observed tunneling spectra prove that intragap Shiba states are extremely sensitive to the magnetic ordering on the atomic scale.
Inversion satellites of isolated Perl vortex in thin film of magnetic superconductor
Lomtev, A I
2001-01-01
The electrodynamics equation is derived for the magnetic field of the Perl isolated vortex, moving by the arbitrary law in the ultrafine magnetic conductor and true for every type of the magnetic ordering in the magnetic subsystem. The magnetic structure of the Perl isolated oscillating vortex in the magnetic conductor fine film is studied. It is shown that the oscillations process and the magnetic subsystem essentially renorm the vortex field as compared to the Perl decision. The new events of the inversion satellite (the inversion forerunners in the front of the vortex and the inversion traces behind it) are forecasted, which may be actually observed in the magnetic optical experiments
Review of the critical current densities and magnetic irreversibilities in high T_c superconductors
Senoussi, S.
1992-07-01
This review article is concerned with critical current density (J) and magnetic irreversibilities in high-T_c superconductors (HTSC). The apparent J derived from different experimental techniques (transport, hysteresis cycle, ac-susceptibility) are compared. The influence of time (relaxation effects) as well as the macroscopic size of the sample on the criteria defining J are discussed. The dependences of the critical current on grain boundaries (“weaks-links”), texturing and other physical and chemical defects are examined in detail. The role of self fields is clarified. The critical current is strongly influenced by the anisotropy of the layered structure practically whatever the experimental conditions. Intrinsic pinning is lowered by defects. Demagnetizing effects and surface pinnings are reviewed. The usual critical state and flux creep models are recalled emphasizing the physical aspects most specific to HTSC. A theoretical model which takes into account the equilibrium magnetization and sample granularity is developed. It reproduces most of the characteristic features of both the hysteresis cycle and ac-susceptibility. A number of new formulae are introduced. They generalize the Bean model and show how to correct for the dimensions of the grains (granular materials), the macroscopic radius of the sample, anisotropy and demagnetization effects in certain situations. Several limits beyond which the usual critical state breaks down are discussed: (1) the quasi elastic limit where the variable field is too weak to depin the vortices, (2) H≈ H_C1 so that the interaction between vortex lines is exponentially weak and (3) T and H close to the “irreversibility line” where the influence of viscous forces are strong. (4) Hgg H_C1 so that J is governed by collective pinning. Ce papier de revue est consacré aux courant critiques (J) et aux irréversibilités magnétiques dans les nouveaux matériaux supraconducteurs (HTSC). Nous y comparons les densités des
Calculation of the electronic and magnetic structures of 3d impurities in the Hcp Fe matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, Fernando
1995-01-01
In this work we investigate the local magnetic properties and the electronic structure of HCP Fe, as well introducing transition metals atoms 3d (Cs, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in HCP iron matrix. We employed the discrete variational method (DVM), which is an orbital molecular method which incorporate the Hartree-Fock-Slater theory and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), in the self-consistent charge approximation and the local density approximation of Von Barth and Hedin to the exchange-correlation potential. We used the embedded cluster model to investigate the electronic structure and the local magnetic properties for the central atom of a cluster of 27 atoms immersed in the microcrystal representing the HCP Fe. (author)
Orbital magnetic moment and extrinsic spin Hall effect for iron impurities in gold
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shick, Alexander; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Janiš, Václav; Lichtenstein, A.I.
2011-01-01
Roč. 84, č. 11 (2011), "113112-1"-"113112-4" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA AV ČR IAA100100912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : spin Hall effect * XMCD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v84/i11/e113112
Structure stability and magnetism in graphene impurity complexes with embedded V and Nb atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thakur, Jyoti [Department of Physics, University College, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana (India); Kashyap, Manish K., E-mail: manishdft@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana (India); Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Taya, Ankur; Rani, Priti [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana (India); Saini, Hardev S. [Department of Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana (India); Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies – Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)
2017-07-01
Highlights: • V/Nb embedding in graphene containing monovacancies/divacancies is presented. • Spin polarization near/equal to 100% ensures use of studied nanosystems in spin filter devices. • Bandstructures are analyzed to identify shifting of Dirac cone of graphene. - Abstract: The appearance of vacancy defects could produce appropriate magnetic moment in graphene and the sensitivity to absorb atoms/molecules also increases with this. In this direction, a DFT study of embedding V and Nb atom in graphene containing monovacancies (MV) and divacancies (DV) is reported. Complete/almost complete spin polarization is detected for V/Nb embedding. The origin of magnetism has been identified via interaction of 3d-states of embedded atom with C-p states present in the vicinity of embedded site. The band structures have been analyzed to counter the observed semiconducting nature of graphene in minority spin on embedding V/Nb atom. The isosurface analysis also confirms the induced magnetism of present nanosystems. The present results reveal that these nanosystems have the potential for futuristic applications like spintronics and energy resources.
Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Kharat, Prashant B.; Chavan, Apparao R.; Humbe, Ashok V.; Borade, R. M.; Jadhav, K. M.
2018-04-01
The present study, deals with the phase symmetry transformation of lithium ferrite after introducing tetravalent (Ti4+) impurity. The sol-gel auto combustion technique was adopted for the synthesis of nanoparticle samples with generic chemical formula Li0.5Fe2.5O4 and Li0.55Ti0.10Fe2.35O4. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique for structural analysis. The XRD patterns show the single phase cubic structure without any impurity phase but the P4332 to Fd-3m transformation was observed after introducing Ti4+ impurity. The Nano size of the synthesized particles was confirmed by crystallite size ( 20nm) calculated using Debye-Scherrer's formula. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies shows shifting of band frequencies which reflect the structural changes after tetravalent substitutional impurities. The magnetic properties were studied through pulse field hysteresis loop (M-H loop) technique at room temperature, the M-H loops showdecrease in magnetic properties afternonmagnetic Ti4+ ion substitution. This is attributed to transition of inverse spinel structure of lithium ferrite to random spinel structure.
Normal state magnetic behavior of (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be13 pseudobinaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zirngiebl, E.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.
1987-01-01
Any impurity doping seems to modify the low temperature properties of UBe 13 in a way rather unusual compared to normal superconductors. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the modification of the normal state properties of impurity doped UB 13 . We have investigated the normal state magnetic behavior of impurity doped (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be 13 pseudobinaries (RE = Th, Y, La, Lu, Sc) in the temperature range between 2 K and 380 K for impurity concentrations x ≤ 0.05 to see if there are correlations with T/sub c/(x)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohlleben, D.
1991-01-01
We have investigated intensively the parameters of preparation of HTSC of the BiCaSrCuO system and could prepare the 2212- and 2232 phases separately in X-ray pure form. Concerning the 123-system the substitution of Cu by 3d-elements changed the superconducting behaviour strongly where as a replacement of Y by other Rare Earth-elements does not influence much the superconducting properties. Fluctuations occur in a wide range around T c . The layered-structure and granular character of the HTSC determine strongly the magnetic behaviour of HTSC especially the so-called Meissnereffect. Our first magnetic data of HTSC showed that even in magnetic fields smaller than Hc 1 (perpendicular) we did not receive 100% fluxexpulsion (Meissner). The fluxexpulsion of most of our samples was only 1/3 of -1/4 π. However in very small fields ( [de
Symmetric Anderson impurity model: Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and Wilson ratio
Zalom, Peter; Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav
2018-05-01
We extend the spin-polarized effective-interaction approximation of the parquet renormalization scheme from Refs. [1,2] applied on the symmetric Anderson model by adding the low-temperature asymptotics of the total energy and the specific heat. We calculate numerically the Wilson ratio and determine analytically its asymptotic value in the strong-coupling limit. We demonstrate in this way that the exponentially small Kondo scale from the strong-coupling regime emerges in qualitatively the same way in the spectral function, magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat.
Granular Superconductors and Gravity
Noever, David; Koczor, Ron
1999-01-01
As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.
Shcherbakova, O. V.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, J. L.; Shcherbakov, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Wexler, D.; Babić, E.; Jerčinović, M.; Husnjak, O.
2008-01-01
In this paper we report the results of an extended study of the effect of sugar doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. High values of the upper critical field (Bc2) of 36 T and the irreversibility field (Birr) of 27 T have been estimated at the temperature of 5 K in a bulk MgB2 sample with the addition of 10 wt% of sugar. The critical current density (Jc(Ba)) of sugar-doped samples has been significantly improved in the high field region. The value of transport Jc has reached as high as 108 A m-2 at 10 T and 5 K for Fe-sheathed sugar-doped MgB2 wire. The analysis of the pinning mechanism in the samples investigated indicated that dominant vortex pinning occurs on the surface type of pinning defects, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults etc, for both pure and doped MgB2. In sugar-doped samples, pinning is governed by numerous crystal lattice defects, which appear in MgB2 grains as a result of crystal lattice distortion caused by carbon substitution for boron and nano-inclusions. The drastically improved superconducting properties of sugar-doped samples are also attributed to the highly homogeneous distribution and enhanced reactivity of this dopant with host Mg and B powders. The results of this work suggest that sugar is the optimal source of carbon for doping MgB2 superconductor, especially for application at high magnetic fields.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Trushin, M.; Výborný, Karel; Moraczewski, P.; Kovalev, A.A.; Schliemann, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2009-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 13 (2009), 134405/1-134405/14 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100100802; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet; European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Boltzmann equation * conduction bands * enhanced magnetoresistance * Fermi surface * ferromagnetic materials * gallium compounds * III-V semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.80.134405
Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)
2008-08-15
Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.
Effect of magnetic field on the donor impurity in CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te quantum well wire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalpana, P.; Nithiananthi, P.; Jayakumar, K., E-mail: kjkumar-gri@rediffmail.com [Nanostructure Lab, Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram – 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai-600104, TamilNadu (India)
2016-05-23
The donor impurity binding energy in CdTe / Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te QWW with square well confinement along x – direction and parabolic confinement along y – direction under the influence of externally applied magnetic field has been computed using variational principle in the effective mass approximation. The spin polaronic shift has also been computed. The results are presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeBlanc, M.A.R.; LeBlanc, D.; Cameron, D.S.M.; Celebi, S.
2000-01-01
We report on measurements of the evolution of the magnetization upon warming from T 0 (4.2 or 77 K) to T c for type II superconductors with the locus of initially situated along bridges between the envelopes of the major hysteresis curves. Strongly hysteretic and semi-reversible specimens of low and high T c type II superconductors have been studied (Nb 3 Zr, VTi, YBCO, Nb and BiSCCO). Concentric, oppositely directed magnetic moments coexist in the specimens when lies along the bridges. We focused on the cases where =0, hence, before warming, the constituent moments cancel each other exactly. Since they diminish in magnitude at different rates as T is increased to T c , their sequential 'release' leads to a rich variety of phenomena. A simple model exploiting the critical state, an equilibrium Meissner current and conservation of flux accounts for all the intricate behaviour encountered. (author)
Kajikawa, K.; Funaki, K.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.
2010-11-01
AC losses in a superconductor strip are numerically evaluated by means of a finite element method formulated with a current vector potential. The expressions of AC losses in an infinite slab that corresponds to a simple model of infinitely stacked strips are also derived theoretically. It is assumed that the voltage-current characteristics of the superconductors are represented by Bean's critical state model. The typical operation pattern of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil with direct and alternating transport currents in an external AC magnetic field is taken into account as the electromagnetic environment for both the single strip and the infinite slab. By using the obtained results of AC losses, the influences of the transport currents on the total losses are discussed quantitatively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, N; McDonald, R D
2009-01-01
We propose a quantum oscillation experiment by which the rotation of an underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x sample about two different axes with respect to the orientation of the magnetic field can be used to infer the shape of the in-plane cross-section of corrugated Fermi surface cylinder(s). Deep corrugations in the Fermi surface are expected to give rise to nodes in the quantum oscillation amplitude that depend on the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic induction B. Because the symmetries of electron and hole cylinders within the Brillouin zone are expected to be very different, the topology can provide essential clues as to the broken symmetry responsible for the observed oscillations. The criterion for the applicability of this method to the cuprate superconductors (as well as other layered metals) is that the difference in quantum oscillation frequency 2ΔF between the maximum (belly) and minimum (neck) extremal cross-sections of the corrugated Fermi surface exceeds |B|. (fast track communication)
Distinct Nature of Static and Dynamic Magnetic Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors
Jacobsen, H.; Holm, S. L.; Lǎcǎtuşu, M.-E.; Rømer, A. T.; Bertelsen, M.; Boehm, M.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Grivel, J.-C.; Emery, S. B.; Udby, L.; Wells, B. O.; Lefmann, K.
2018-01-01
We present detailed neutron scattering studies of the static and dynamic stripes in an optimally doped high-temperature superconductor, La2 CuO4 +y . We observe that the dynamic stripes do not disperse towards the static stripes in the limit of vanishing energy transfer. Therefore, the dynamic stripes observed in neutron scattering experiments are not the Goldstone modes associated with the broken symmetry of the simultaneously observed static stripes, and the signals originate from different domains in the sample. These observations support real-space electronic phase separation in the crystal, where the static stripes in one phase are pinned versions of the dynamic stripes in the other, having slightly different periods. Our results explain earlier observations of unusual dispersions in underdoped La2 -xSrx CuO4 (x =0.07 ) and La2 -xBax CuO4 (x =0.095 ).
Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy
2015-01-01
This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism. We present the ground state results for lattice models of superconductor (SC) with extremely short coherence length, which also involve the interplay with charge (CO) and (anti-)ferromagnetic orderings. Our preliminary results at zero-temperature (derived by means of the variational approach which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the in...
Superconducting Gap Symmetry of LaFeP(O,F Observed by Impurity Doping Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shigeki Miyasaka
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We have investigated Mn, Co and Ni substitution effects on polycrystalline samples of LaFePO0.95F0.05 by resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. In LaFe1-xMxPO0.95F0.05 (M = Mn, Co and Ni, the superconducting transition temperature (Tc monotonously decreases with increasing the impurity doping level of x. There is a clear difference of Tc suppression rates among Mn, Co and Ni doping cases, and the decreasing rate of Tc by Mn doping as a magnetic impurity is larger than those by the nonmagnetic doping impurities (Co/Ni. This result indicates that in LaFePO0.95F0.05, Tc is rapidly suppressed by the pair-breaking effect of magnetic impurities, and the pairing symmetry is a full-gapped s-wave. In the nonmagnetic impurity-doped systems, the residual resistivity in the normal state has nearly the same value when Tc becomes zero. The residual resistivity value is almost consistent with the universal value of sheet resistance for two-dimensional superconductors, suggesting that Tc is suppressed by electron localization in Co/Ni-doped LaFePO0.95F0.05.
Pinning and creep in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.
1994-01-01
All superconductors can be separated into two large groups: type I and type II. The behaviour of these two groups in a magnetic field is quite different. The superconductors of type I, in a strong magnetic field, enter the intermediate state. Phenomenological picture of this state was given by Landau. The type II superconductors, in strong magnetic fields, form the mixed state (or Shubnikov phase). The microscopic picture of the mixed state was given by Abrikosov on the basis of Ginzburg-Landau equations. In ideal homogeneous superconductors the free energy is not changed if all the vortex structure is shifted on some distance u. The transport current will be proportional, therefore, to the electric field E. All the real superconductors, however, are inhomogeneous. Inhomogeneities interact with vortex lattice and pin it. In this new state the transport current below some critical value does not lead to the motion of the flux lattice and to the energy dissipation. The value of critical current strongly depends on the type of inhomogeneities, on the value of magnetic field and on temperature. In new layered superconductors, the critical current depends also on the orientation of the magnetic field B with respect to the layer planes. Temperature and quantum fluctuations lead to the transition between different metastable states in superconductors with current. As a result, the vortex lattice slowly moves (creep phenomenon). Below we will briefly discuss all these phenomena. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesche, Rainer; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; March, Stephen; Marinucci, Claudio; Stepanov, Boris; Uglietti, Davide
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► RE-123 tapes j c ≥ 500 A/cm (77 K) would enable fusion magnets operating above 20 K. ► Quench studies indicate that the protection of RE-123 fusion magnets is a challenge. ► Possibilities to test 50 kA class HTS conductors in SULTAN have been identified. ► HTS bus bar of large thermal resistance needed to connect sample and NbTi flux pump. ► Tests in the 20–50 K range require additional changes in the SULTAN cryogenics. -- Abstract: In the last few years, the critical current densities of long commercially available REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (RE-123, where RE represents Y or a rare earth element) coated conductors have reached values of 250 A/cm-width at 77 K and zero applied field. Even higher values of 600 A/cm-w (77 K, B = 0) have been demonstrated in shorter lengths. The attractive features of the use of these high-T c superconductors (HTS) are operation temperatures above 20 K and/or magnetic fields higher than those envisaged for the ITER TF coils. Possible operation conditions for HTS fusion magnets have been studied taking into consideration the possible further improvements of RE-123 coated conductors. Investigations of stability and quench behavior indicate that stability is not a problem, whereas quench detection and protection need attention. Because of the high currents necessary for fusion magnets, many tapes need to be assembled into a transposed conductor. The qualification of HTS conductors for fusion magnets would require their test at magnetic fields of 11 T and currents well above 10 kA. The possibilities to test straight HTS conductor samples in SULTAN have been considered. For a test at 4.5 K, only the development of a low resistance joint between the HTS conductor under test and the NbTi transformer of SULTAN would be necessary. Tests up to 20 K would require that the HTS sample is connected with the NbTi transformer by a conduction-cooled HTS bus bar of large thermal resistance similar to the HTS module of a current
A Double-Decker Levitation Experiment Using a Sandwich of Superconductors.
Jacob, Anthony T.; And Others
1988-01-01
Shows that the mutual repulsion that enables a superconductor to levitate a magnet and a magnet to levitate a superconductor can be combined into a single demonstration. Uses an overhead projector, two pellets of "1-2-3" superconductor, Nd-Fe-B magnets, liquid nitrogen, and paraffin. Offers superconductor preparation, hazards, and disposal…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vanderbemden, P [SUPRATECS and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science B28, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Hong, Z [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ausloos, M [SUPRATECS and Department of Physics B5, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Babu, N Hari [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cardwell, D A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Campbell, A M [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2007-09-15
Bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) has significant potential for a variety of high-field permanent-magnet-like applications, such as the rotor of a brushless motor. When used in rotating devices of this kind, however, the YBCO can be subjected to both transient and alternating magnetic fields that are not parallel to the direction of magnetization and which have a detrimental effect on the trapped field. These effects may lead to long-term decay of the magnetization of the bulk sample. In the present work, we analyze both experimentally and numerically the remagnetization process of a melt-processed YBCO single domain that has been partially demagnetized by a magnetic field applied orthogonal to the initial direction of trapped flux. Magnetic torque measurements are used as a tool to probe changes in the remanent magnetization during various sequences of applied field. The application of a small magnetic field between the transverse cycles parallel to the direction of original magnetization results in partial remagnetization of the sample. Rotating the applied field, however, is found to be much more efficient at remagnetizing the bulk material than applying a magnetizing field pulse of the same amplitude. The principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law. Finally, the remagnetization process is shown to result from the complex modification of current distribution within the cross-section of the bulk sample.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanderbemden, P; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A; Ausloos, M; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A; Campbell, A M
2007-01-01
Bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) has significant potential for a variety of high-field permanent-magnet-like applications, such as the rotor of a brushless motor. When used in rotating devices of this kind, however, the YBCO can be subjected to both transient and alternating magnetic fields that are not parallel to the direction of magnetization and which have a detrimental effect on the trapped field. These effects may lead to long-term decay of the magnetization of the bulk sample. In the present work, we analyze both experimentally and numerically the remagnetization process of a melt-processed YBCO single domain that has been partially demagnetized by a magnetic field applied orthogonal to the initial direction of trapped flux. Magnetic torque measurements are used as a tool to probe changes in the remanent magnetization during various sequences of applied field. The application of a small magnetic field between the transverse cycles parallel to the direction of original magnetization results in partial remagnetization of the sample. Rotating the applied field, however, is found to be much more efficient at remagnetizing the bulk material than applying a magnetizing field pulse of the same amplitude. The principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law. Finally, the remagnetization process is shown to result from the complex modification of current distribution within the cross-section of the bulk sample
Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors
Yang, W. M.; Chao, X. X.; Guo, F. X.; Li, J. W.; Chen, S. L.
2013-10-01
A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN2 temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications.
Regularities of magnetic field penetration into half-space in type-II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medvedev, Yu.V.; Krasnyuk, I.B.
2003-01-01
The equations, modeling the distributions of the magnetic field induction and current density in the half-space with an account of the exponential volt-ampere characteristics, are obtained. The velocity of the magnetization front propagation by the assigned average rate of the change by the time of the external magnetic field at the sample boundary is determined. The integral condition for the electric resistance, nonlinearly dependent on the magnetic field, by accomplishing whereof the magnetic flux penetrates into the sample with the finite velocity is indicated. The analytical representation of the equation with the exponential boundary mode, which models the change in the magnetic field at the area boundary, is pointed out [ru
Tunneling processes into localized subgap states in superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruby, Michael; Heinrich, Benjamin W.; Franke, Katharina J. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Pientka, Falko; Peng, Yang; Oppen, Felix von [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2016-07-01
The Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states bound by magnetic impurities in conventional s-wave superconductors are a simple model system for probing the competition between superconducting and magnetic correlations. Shiba states can be observed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) as a pair of resonances at positive and negative bias voltages in the superconducting gap. These resonances have been interpreted in terms of single-electron tunneling into the localized sub-gap states. This requires relaxation mechanisms that depopulate the state after an initial tunneling event. Recently, theory suggests that the current can also be carried by Andreev processes which resonantly transfer a Cooper pair into the superconductor. We performed high-resolution STS experiments on single adatom Shiba states on the superconductor Pb, and provide evidence for the existence of two transport regimes. The single-electron processes dominate at large tip-sample distances and small tunneling currents, whereas Andreev processes become important at stronger tunneling. Our conclusions are based on a careful comparison of experiment and theory.
Ul Haq, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Rashid; Shaari, Amiruddin; Goumri-Said, Souraya
2014-01-01
Stimulation of novel features in ZnO by impurity electrons has attracted a remarkable attention of researchers from the past decade. Consequently, ZnO has found several applications in the field of spintronics and optoelectronics. We report
Surface impedance and optimum surface resistance of a superconductor with an imperfect surface
Gurevich, Alex; Kubo, Takayuki
2017-11-01
We calculate a low-frequency surface impedance of a dirty, s -wave superconductor with an imperfect surface incorporating either a thin layer with a reduced pairing constant or a thin, proximity-coupled normal layer. Such structures model realistic surfaces of superconducting materials which can contain oxide layers, absorbed impurities, or nonstoichiometric composition. We solved the Usadel equations self-consistently and obtained spatial distributions of the order parameter and the quasiparticle density of states which then were used to calculate a low-frequency surface resistance Rs(T ) and the magnetic penetration depth λ (T ) as functions of temperature in the limit of local London electrodynamics. It is shown that the imperfect surface in a single-band s -wave superconductor results in a nonexponential temperature dependence of Z (T ) at T ≪Tc which can mimic the behavior of multiband or d -wave superconductors. The imperfect surface and the broadening of the gap peaks in the quasiparticle density of states N (ɛ ) in the bulk give rise to a weakly temperature-dependent residual surface resistance. We show that the surface resistance can be optimized and even reduced below its value for an ideal surface by engineering N (ɛ ) at the surface using pair-breaking mechanisms, particularly by incorporating a small density of magnetic impurities or by tuning the thickness and conductivity of the normal layer and its contact resistance. The results of this work address the limit of Rs in superconductors at T ≪Tc , and the ways of engineering the optimal density of states by surface nanostructuring and impurities to reduce losses in superconducting microresonators, thin-film strip lines, and radio-frequency cavities for particle accelerators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magnusson, N., E-mail: niklas.magnusson@sintef.no [SINTEF Energy Research, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Abrahamsen, A.B. [DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Liu, D. [Electrical Power Processing Group, TU Delft, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Runde, M. [SINTEF Energy Research, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Polinder, H. [Electrical Power Processing Group, TU Delft, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)
2014-11-15
Highlights: • A method for calculating hysteresis losses in the low AC – high DC magnetic field and transport current range has been shown. • The method can be used in the design of wind turbine generators for calculating the losses in the generator DC rotor. • First estimates indicate tolerable current ripple in the 0.1% range for a 4 T DC MgB{sub 2} generator rotor coil. - Abstract: MgB{sub 2} superconductors are considered for generator field coils for direct drive wind turbine generators. In such coils, the losses generated by AC magnetic fields may generate excessive local heating and add to the thermal load, which must be removed by the cooling system. These losses must be evaluated in the design of the generator to ensure a sufficient overall efficiency. A major loss component is the hysteresis losses in the superconductor itself. In the high DC – low AC current and magnetic field region experimental results still lack for MgB{sub 2} conductors. In this article we reason towards a simplified theoretical treatment of the hysteresis losses based on available models in the literature with the aim of setting the basis for estimation of the allowable magnetic fields and current ripples in superconducting generator coils intended for large wind turbine direct drive generators. The resulting equations use the DC in-field critical current, the geometry of the superconductor and the magnitude of the AC magnetic field component as parameters. This simplified approach can be valuable in the design of MgB{sub 2} DC coils in the 1–4 T range with low AC magnetic field and current ripples.
Effects of magnetizing on flux pinning force for sintered YBCO superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, S.Y.; Yan, J.L.; Yu, Z.; Shi, K.X.; Tong, H.W.; Qiu, L.
1989-01-01
It is shown that magnitude and course of magnetizing field influence magnetization and transport current. Effective flux pinning force density with two types is extracted by an iterative procedure based on the critical state equation. One of the types is attributed to the weak links and the other is considered to be resulted from the intragrain flux pinning centers
Fluctuoscopy of Superconductors
Varlamov, Andrey
2012-02-01
The study of superconducting fluctuations (SF) is a subject of fundamental and practical importance. Since the moment of discovery SF became a noticeable part of research in the field of superconductivity (SC) and a variety of fluctuation effects have been detected. The interest to SF in SC was regenerated by the discovery of HTS, where, due to extremely short coherence length and low effective dimensionality of the electron system, SF manifest themselves in a wide range of temperatures. The characteristic feature of SF is their strong dependence on temperature and magnetic field. This allows to separate SFs from other contributions and to use them as a tool for characterization of SC systems (``fluctuoscopy'') for example to extract the values of Tc, Hc2(T) and phase-breaking time from experimental data. We present the complete results for fluctuation magneto-conductivity (FMC) and Nernst signal (FNS) of impure 2D superconductor in the whole phase diagram above the transition line Hc2(T), including the domain of quantum fluctuations. Along some line H0(T), in agreement with experimental findings, FMC becomes zero and beyond it remains small and negative. The corresponding surface in coordinates (T,H) becomes in particular non-trivial at low temperatures and close to Hc2(0), where it is trough-shaped. The observation of large FNS in HTS and conventional SC above Tc(H), has attracted much attention recently. The idea to attribute it to the entropy transport by analogy to vortices was proposed. On the other hand this giant effect, close to Tc(0), was explained in terms of SF. Our general results allow to successfully fit the available experimental data in a wide range of magnetic fields and temperatures, to extract the value of the ``ghost'' field and other parameters of SC. We offer also a qualitative consideration, which gives a natural explanation for the giant value of FNS attributing it to a strong dependence of the fluctuation Cooper pair (FCP) chemical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Jun, E-mail: linxj8686@163.com; Huang, Chenguang; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe, E-mail: zhouyh@lzu.edu.cn
2017-03-15
Highlights: • A strong magnetic coupling appears if the gap between the superconducting rings is small. • The saturation magnetization of superconducting rings is related to the radial gap but independent of the vertical gap. • The array of rings in a non-uniform field experiences a levitation force, which increases with increasing height or thickness of the rings. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the magnetic and mechanical properties of arrays of superconducting rings arranged in axial, radial, and matrix configurations under different magnetic fields. In terms of the Bean's critical state model and the minimum magnetic energy method, the dependences of the magnetization and levitation behaviors on the geometry, number, and gap of the superconducting rings are obtained. The results show that when the applied field is spatially uniform, the magnetic property of the superconducting array is associated with the gaps between the rings. For the case of small gaps, the entire array becomes not easy to be fully penetrated by the induced currents, and the magnetic field profiles of which are almost the same as ones in a single large ring. If the superconducting array is fully penetrated, its saturation magnetization value is affected by the radial interval and, however, is almost independent of the vertical separation. When the applied field produced by a cylindrical permanent magnet is nonuniform, the superconducting array will be subjected to a levitation force. The levitation force increases monotonically and finally reaches a saturation value with increasing height or thickness of the rings, and such saturation value is closely related to the inner radius of the array.
Evaluation of APC NbTi superconductor in a model dipole magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scanlan, R.M.; Lietzke, A.; Royet, J.; Wandesforde, A.; Taylor, C.E.; Wong, J.; Rudziak, M.K.
1993-01-01
The artificial pinning center (APC) approach to NbTi superconductor fabrication offers the potential benefits of higher current density and lower cost than the conventional process for NbTi. We have been evaluating several approaches for fabricating NbTi via the APC approach to determine whether these advantages can be realized in a practical conductor. The study began with the fabrication by several vendors of 10kg size samples which were evaluated as short samples. This was followed by the scale-up of one process to 150mm diameter billets. This material was evaluated first in a solenoid configuration and recently in a one-meter long dipole. We will report here on the results of these coil tests and other characterization results for this new material. We will also describe the plans to continue the scale-up to full size billets and we will discuss the potential cost savings of this approach compared with conventional NbTi fabrication
The impurity transport in HT-6B tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Rong; Xie Jikang; Li Linzhong; He Yexi; Wang Shuya; Deng Chuanbao; Li Guoxiang; Qiu Lijian
1992-06-01
The quasi-stationary profiles of the impurity ionization stages in HT-6B tokamak were determined by monitoring the VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) and visible line emissions from impurities. An impurity transport code was set up. The impurity transport coefficients and other parameters of impurities in that device were simulated and determined. From the measurement of impurity emission profiles and simulation analysis, it is concluded that the impurity confinement is improved and the impurity recycling is reduced by the slow magnetic compression. Some characteristics of impurity transport in that device are also discussed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnusson, N.; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Liu, Dawei
2014-01-01
MgB2 superconductors are considered for generator field coils for direct drive wind turbine generators. In such coils, the losses generated by AC magnetic fields may generate excessive local heating and add to the thermal load, which must be removed by the cooling system. These losses must...... a simplified theoretical treatment of the hysteresis losses based on available models in the literature with the aim of setting the basis for estimation of the allowable magnetic fields and current ripples in superconducting generator coils intended for large wind turbine direct drive generators. The resulting...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watahiki, M.; Murakami, M.; Yoo, S.I.
1997-01-01
We report the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the complex a.c. susceptibility with bias d.c. magnetic fields for melt-processed Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductor. The onset temperature (T onset ) of the real part of a.c. susceptibility shifted to a lower temperature with increasing d.c. magnetic field. The superconducting transition temperature (T c ) determined by d.c. magnetization measurements did not shift appreciably to a lower-temperature region with increasing d.c. magnetic field. The distinction between T onset and T c indicates that the a.c. susceptibility measurements detect the energy dissipation generated by the motion of flux lines. We have also measured flux profiles and found that there was no appreciable change in flux penetration below and above the peak field, which suggests that the peak effect in Nd-Ba-Cu-O is not due to the phase transition in the flux line lattice. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chupis, I.E.; Mamaluy, D.A.
2000-01-01
Surface phonon polaritons in a semi-infinite insulator in a constant magnetic field at the boundary with an ideal metal or a superconductor have been considered. These phonon polaritons are induced by dynamic magnetoelectric interaction, which exists in the presence of a magnetic field. The modes of these surface polaritons appreciably differ in opposite directions of the magnetic field or the propagation of the wave. As a result, polaritons of a given optical or infrared frequency propagate only in one direction with respect to the magnetic field, which is the effect of rectification of surface electromagnetic waves. The inversion of the magnetic field results in 'switching on' or 'switching off' of surface polaritons. The existence of radiant surface polariton modes is predicted. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Bruus, Henrik
2000-01-01
The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field on the neu......The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, J.; Liao, X.L.; Jing, H.L.; Deng, Z.G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S.Y.; Wang, J.S.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The single-layer bulk HTSC with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP. • The double-layer bulk with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP too. • The double-layer bulk finding is contrast to MGSBP if pursuing high trapped field. • The optimization is highlighted by simple and easy operation, thus economical in the practice. -- Abstract: Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, J., E-mail: jzheng@swjtu.edu.cn; Liao, X.L.; Jing, H.L.; Deng, Z.G.; Yen, F.; Wang, S.Y.; Wang, J.S.
2013-10-15
Highlights: • The single-layer bulk HTSC with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP. • The double-layer bulk with AGSBP obtains better levitation performance than that of MGSBP too. • The double-layer bulk finding is contrast to MGSBP if pursuing high trapped field. • The optimization is highlighted by simple and easy operation, thus economical in the practice. -- Abstract: Growth anisotropies of bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) fabricated by a top-seeded melt texture growth process, that is, different pinning effect in the growth sectors (GSs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), possess effect on the macro flux trapping and levitation performance of bulk HTSCs. Previous work (Physics Procedia, 36 (2012) 1043) has found that the bulk HTSC array with aligned GSB pattern (AGSBP) exhibits better capability for levitation and suppression of levitation force decay above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) compared with misaligned GSB pattern (MGSBP). In this paper, we further examine this growth anisotropy effect on the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC. In contrast to reported trapped flux cases (Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S466), the two superposed bulk HTSCs with same AGSBP with PMG are found to show better maglev performance. These series of results are helpful and support a new way for the performance optimization of present HTS maglev systems.
Superconductors and medical imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubert, Guy
2011-01-01
After difficult beginnings in the 1970's, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved to become nowadays the jewel in the crown of medical technology. Superconductors have been a key factor for the extraordinary expansion of MRI which in turn represents about 75 % of their total market. After recalling some basic principles, this article traces their common history and refers to future developments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulaevskij, L.N.; Shchegolev, I.F.
1986-01-01
Main achievements in creating new organic conducting materials - synthetic metals and superconductors, are considered. The processes of superconductivity occurrence in organic materials are discussed. It is shown that conjugated bonds between C and H atoms in organic molecules play an important role in this case. At present ''crystal direction'' in organic superconductor synthesis is mainly developed. Later on, organic superconductor crystals are supposed to be introduced into usual polymers, e.g. polyethylene
Alternating magnetic field losses in ATLAS type aluminium stabilized NbTi superconductors
Boxman, E W; ten Kate, H H J
2002-01-01
During ramping up- and down of the current in large-scale magnets the ramp losses are an important factor affecting the thermal and electro-magnetic stability of the system. The calculation of the losses is not straightforward due to the large dimensions of the conductor (~600 mm/sup 2/) implying that diffusion effects have to be taken into account. The AC-losses of the Al stabilized NbTi cable conductors used in the ATLAS magnet system were measured in 0.5 m long samples, using an inductive method with pick-up coils as well as the calorimetric method. External varying magnetic fields up to 2 tesla amplitude were applied parallel and perpendicular to the conductor wide surface. The results are compared to theory. It is found that hysteresis loss, eddy current loss in the Aluminum cladding and cable-to-cladding coupling loss contribute most to the AC loss. (5 refs).