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Sample records for superconducting transmission lines

  1. Ultrafast response of superconducting transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwalek, J.M.; Dykaar, D.R.; Whitaker, J.F.; Sobolewski, R.; Grupta, S.; Hsiang, T.Y.; Mourou, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    The authors report investigations of picosecond transient propagation on normal and superconducting transmission lines and new results for a variety of lines that include YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ (YBCO) coplanar lines, a superconducting coaxial cable, and a dielectric-matched gold-line structure. A previously developed algorithm for analyzing transient propagation was used to identify the dominant mechanisms for signal distortion in most of these cases, and the essential properties of all lines tested to date are summarized for a direct comparison.

  2. Characterization of superconducting transmission line resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Jan; Summer, Philipp; Meier, Sebastian; Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Schwarz, Manuel; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Krawczyk, Marta; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting transmission line resonators are widely used in circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments as quantum bus or storage devices. For these applications, long coherence times, which can be linked to the internal quality factor of the resonators, are crucial. Here, we show a systematic study of the internal quality factor of niobium thin film resonators. We analyze different cleaning methods and substrate parameters for coplanar waveguide as well as microstrip geometries. In addition, we investigate the impact of a niobium-aluminum interface which is necessary for galvanically coupled flux qubits made from aluminum. This interface can be avoided by fabricating the complete resonator-qubit structure using Al/AlO{sub x}/Al technology during fabrication.

  3. Modeling of unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting microstrip transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan, E-mail: smh_javadzadeh@ee.sharif.edu [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Avoiding of considering just quadratic or modulus nonlinearity. ► Proposing a nonlinear model to predict unusual nonlinear behaviors at low temperatures. ► Description of temperature dependency of nonlinear behaviors in superconducting lines. ► Analytical formulation for each parameter in our proposed model. ► Obtaining very good results which shows this model can predict unusual nonlinear behavior. -- Abstract: There are unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting materials, especially at low temperatures. This paper describes the procedure to reliably predict this nonlinearity in superconducting microstrip transmission lines (SMTLs). An accurate nonlinear distributed circuit model, based on simultaneously considering of both quadratic and modulus nonlinearity dependences, is proposed. All parameters of the equivalent circuit can be calculated analytically using proposed closed-form expressions. A numerical method based on Harmonic Balance approach is used to predict nonlinear phenomena like intermodulation distortions and third harmonic generations. Nonlinear analyses of the SMTLs at the different temperatures and the input powers have been presented. This proposed model can describe the unusual behaviors of the nonlinearity at low temperatures, which are frequently observed in the SMTLs.

  4. The wave phase velocity in superconducting transmission lines near T{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzhakhmetov, A.R.; Lobov, G.D.; Shtykov, V.V.; Zhgoon, S.A. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst. (Russian Federation). Radio Engineering Dept.

    1998-06-01

    A peculiarity in behavior of electromagnetic waves phase velocity ({nu}{sub ph}), propagating in superconducting planar transmission lines, in the vicinity of the transition temperature (T{sub c}) was observed in experiment and deduced theoretically. (orig.) 5 refs.

  5. submitter Superconducting transmission lines – Sustainable electric energy transfer with higher public acceptance?

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Heiko; Chervyakov, Alexander; Stückrad, Stefan; Salmieri, Delia; Rubbia, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive research and development investments into superconducting science and technology, both at the fundamental and at the applied levels, many benefits of superconducting transmission lines (SCTL) remain unknown to the public and decision makers at large. This paper aims at informing about the progress in this important research field. Superconducting transmission lines have a tremendous size advantage and lower total electrical losses for high capacity transmission plus a number of technological advantages compared to solutions based on standard conductors. This leads to a minimized environmental impact and enables an overall more sustainable transmission of electric energy. One of the direct benefits may be an increased public acceptance due to the low visual impact with a subsequent reduction of approval time. The access of remote renewable energy (RE) sources with high-capacity transmission is rendered possible with superior efficiency. That not only translates into further reducing $CO_2...

  6. Optical and electrical enhancement of the propagation time in superconducting transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, S H

    2000-01-01

    optical pulse energy and current controlled delays in the propagation time of electrical picosecond pulses in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x (YBCO) superconducting transmission lines have been investigated by using picosecond optoelectronic techniques. Electrical pulses, generated using silicon-on-sapphire photoconductive switches driven by a mode-locked Nd:YAG pumped dye laser, are propagated on superconducting transmission lines. The lines are patterned in the geometry of a microstrip and illuminated by the frequency-doubled output of an Nd:YAG laser. The measured propagation time shows a squared dependence on the optical pulse energy. For the applied current dependence, the delay through the line is tuned by 16 psec by varying the bias from zero to 190 mA. The results are in good agreement with the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the case of a uniform current density through a thin film.

  7. A test of a 2 Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Carcagno, Ruben; Claypool, Brad; Foster, George W.; Hays, Steven L.; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Malamud, Ernest; Mazur, Peter O.; Nehring,; Oleck, Andrew; Rabehl, Roger; Schlabach, Phil; Sylvester, Cosmore; Velev, Gueorgui; Volk, James; /Fermilab; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    Superconducting transmission line magnet test system for an injector accelerator of a staged VLHC proton-proton colliding beam accelerator has been built and operated at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, twin-aperture, combined function dipole magnet of 2 Tesla field is excited by a single turn 100 kA transmission line superconductor. The 100 kA dc current is generated using dc-dc switching converters powered by a bulk 240 kW supply. A pair of horizontally placed conventional leads facilitates transfer of this current to the magnet transmission line superconductor operating at liquid helium temperature. Fabrication of magnet components and magnet assembly work are described. The magnet test system and its operation are presented, and the performance is summarized.

  8. Normal modes of a superconducting transmission-line resonator with embedded lumped element circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Henrik Lund; Mølmer, Klaus; Andersen, Christian Kraglund

    2016-11-01

    We present a method to identify the coupled, normal modes of a superconducting transmission line with an embedded lumped element circuit. We evaluate the effective transmission-line nonlinearities in the case of Kerr-like Josephson interactions in the circuit and in the case where the embedded circuit constitutes a qubit degree of freedom, which is Rabi coupled to the field in the transmission line. Our theory quantitatively accounts for the very high and positive Kerr nonlinearities observed in a recent experiment [M. Rehák, P. Neilinger, M. Grajcar, G. Oelsner, U. Hübner, E. Il'ichev, and H.-G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 162604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4873719], and we can evaluate the accomplishments of modified versions of the experimental circuit.

  9. CAD model for circuit parameters of superconducting-based hybrid planar transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohebbi, Hamid Reza; Hamed Majedi, A, E-mail: hmohebbi@maxwell.uwaterloo.c, E-mail: ahmajedi@maxwell.uwaterloo.c [Integrated Quantum Optoelectronics Lab (IQOL), Department of ECE, Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Using the concept of surface impedance associated with a superconductor or normal conductor's plate, we extend the CAD (computer aided design) formalisms on modeling and simulation of superconducting and normal transmission lines (STL and NTL) in order to include hybrid transmission lines (HTL). STL and NTL are entirely made of superconductor or normal conductor materials, respectively. In this paper, HTL refers to a planar transmission line (TL) such as parallel plate (PPTL), microstrip ({mu}TL) and coplanar waveguide (CPW) whose ground plate is superconducting and whose top/center strip is a normal conductor or vice versa. We develop and present a set of closed-form equations in a tidy and succinct form for each configuration (STL, NTL and HTL) for widely-used planar TLs (PPTL, {mu}TL and CPW). They can be easily implemented in a systematic way by the user for the purpose of fast TL design. The results obtained with this CAD tool are compared with previously reported results in the literature, and good agreement is observed.

  10. Fiber Optic Cryogenic Sensors for Superconducting Magnets and Superconducting Power Transmission lines at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A; Cusano, A; Bajko, M; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Giordano, M; Breglio, G; Palmieri, L

    2014-01-01

    The design, fabrication and tests of a new generation of superconducting magnets for the upgrade of the LHC require the support of an adequate, robust and reliable sensing technology. The use of Fiber Optic Sensors is becoming particularly challenging for applications in extreme harsh environments such as ultra-low temperatures, high electromagnetic fields and strong mechanical stresses offering perspectives for the development of technological innovations in several applied disciplines.

  11. Superconducting qubit in a nonstationary transmission line cavity: Parametric excitation, periodic pumping, and energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Remizov, S. V.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-02-01

    We consider a superconducting qubit coupled to the nonstationary transmission line cavity with modulated frequency taking into account energy dissipation. Previously, it was demonstrated that in the case of a single nonadiabatical modulation of a cavity frequency there are two channels of a two-level system excitation which are due to the absorption of Casimir photons and due to the counterrotating wave processes responsible for the dynamical Lamb effect. We show that the parametric periodical modulation of the resonator frequency can increase dramatically the excitation probability. Remarkably, counterrotating wave processes under such a modulation start to play an important role even in the resonant regime. Our predictions can be used to control qubit-resonator quantum states as well as to study experimentally different channels of a parametric qubit excitation.

  12. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Sensors for Superconducting Magnets and Power Transmission Lines in High Energy Physics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081689; Bajko, Marta

    In the framework of the Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL - LHC), a remarkable R&D effort is now ongoing at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in order to develop a new generation of accelerator magnets and superconducting power transmission lines. The magnet technology will be based on Nb3Sn enabling to operate in the 11 - 13 T range. In parallel, in order to preserve the power converters from the increasing radiation level, high power transmission lines are foreseen to feed the magnets from free - radiation zones. These will be based on high temperature superconductors cooled down with helium gas in the range 5 - 30 K. The new technologies will require advanced design and fabrication approaches as well as adapted instrumentation for monitoring both the R&D phase and operation. Resistive sensors have been used so far for voltage, temperature and strain monitoring but their integration still suffers from the number of electrical wires and the complex compensation o...

  13. Magnetic field dependence of the coupling efficiency of a superconducting transmission line due to the proximity effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.; Zijlstra, T.; Golubov, A.A.; Van den Bemt, M.; Baryshev, A.M.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The coupling efficiency of a Nb superconducting transmission line has been measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer for different magnetic fields. It is found that the coupling decreases with increasing magnetic field when the frequency is close to the gap of the Nb superconductor. This is at

  14. Flexible superconducting Nb transmission lines on thin film polyimide for quantum computing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, David B.; Hamilton, Michael C.; Reilly, David J.; Bai, Rujun; Hernandez, George A.; Hornibrook, John M.; Sellers, John A.; Ellis, Charles D.

    2016-08-01

    We describe progress and initial results achieved towards the goal of developing integrated multi-conductor arrays of shielded controlled-impedance flexible superconducting transmission lines with ultra-miniature cross sections and wide bandwidths (dc to >10 GHz) over meter-scale lengths. Intended primarily for use in future scaled-up quantum computing systems, such flexible thin-film niobium/polyimide ribbon cables could provide a physically compact and ultra-low thermal conductance alternative to the rapidly increasing number of discrete coaxial cables that are currently used by quantum computing experimentalists to transmit signals between the several low-temperature stages (from ˜4 K down to ˜20 mK) of a dilution refrigerator. We have concluded that these structures are technically feasible to fabricate, and so far they have exhibited acceptable thermo-mechanical reliability. S-parameter results are presented for individual 2-metal layer Nb microstrip structures having 50 Ω characteristic impedance; lengths ranging from 50 to 550 mm were successfully fabricated. Solderable pads at the end terminations allowed testing using conventional rf connectors. Weakly coupled open-circuit microstrip resonators provided a sensitive measure of the overall transmission line loss as a function of frequency, temperature, and power. Two common microelectronic-grade polyimide dielectrics, one conventional and the other photo-definable (PI-2611 and HD-4100, respectively) were compared. Our most striking result, not previously reported to our knowledge, was that the dielectric loss tangents of both polyimides, over frequencies from 1 to 20 GHz, are remarkably low at deep cryogenic temperatures, typically 100× smaller than corresponding room temperature values. This enables fairly long-distance (meter-scale) transmission of microwave signals without excessive attenuation, and also permits usefully high rf power levels to be transmitted without creating excessive dielectric

  15. Algorithm for spectral response analysis of superconducting microwave transmission-line resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    It has always been a challenge for researchers to efficiently and accurately post process experimental data which is distorted by the noise. Superconducting microwave devices e.g. resonators, directional filters, beam-splitters etc. operate at frequency of several GHz to THz and temperatures well below critical temperature (Tc) with few exceptions like transition edge sensors where devices are operated at temperatures close to Tc. These devices are measured usually with vector network analyser in terms of scattering parameters. Two kinds of errors, systematic and drift can easily be removed from the measurements taken with VNA. However, random errors are not easy to address and remove due to their unpredictability and randomness. In this manuscript we will present an algorithm to post process experimental data to cope with measurements that have been corrupted or useful spectral response is buried in spurious signal. We have developed a robust and efficient algorithm, implemented in MATLAB, to detect peaks in...

  16. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  17. A transmission calibration method for superconducting resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, Samuel H; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2014-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for \\textit{in-situ} calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response was modeled in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microst...

  18. Scheme for realizing quantum computation and quantum information transfer with superconducting qubits coupling to a 1D transmission line resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhen-Gang; Chen Xiong-Wen; Zhu Xi-Xiang; Song Ke-Hui

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple scheme for realizing one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates as well as multiqubit entanglement based on dc-SQUID charge qubits through the control of their coupling to a ID transmission line resonator (TLR). The TLR behaves effectively as a quantum data-bus mode of a harmonic oscillator, which has several practical advantages including strong coupling strength, reproducibility, immunity to 1// noise, and suppressed spontaneous emission. In this protocol, the data-bus does not need to stay adiabatically in its ground state, which results in not only fast quantum operation, but also high-fidelity quantum information processing. Also, it elaborates the transfer process with the 1D transmission line.

  19. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  20. Superconducting cables: Long distance energy transmission. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of superconducting cables and power transmission lines for long distance energy transmission. Topics include methods of cryogenic refrigeration and electrical insulation, fabrication and development of niobium alloy conductors, energy loss analysis, and dielectric design of superconducting power transmission systems. Government research reports on superconducting technology for electric power transmission and distribution are also reviewed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  2. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  3. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  4. Analysis of DC Power Transmission Using High Tc Superconducting Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Lian Zhang; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual superconducting DC cable model is designed and its magnetic fields distribution is analyzed with Ansoft/Maxwell soft. A DC Power transmission system is also studied by using the Matlab/Simulink. With the DC Line and AC Ground Fault, the system losses analysis is introduced.The analysis results mainly include the magnetic fields distribution of the HTS cable model with Ansoft/Maxwell, the system loss, the DC Line and AC Ground Fault with Matlab/Simulation.

  5. Case study on the US superconducting power transmission program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, E.F.

    1996-02-01

    After the 1911 discovery of superconductivity (the abrupt loss of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures), attempts were made to make practical use of this phenomenon. Initially these attempts failed, but in the early 1960s (after 50 years of research) they succeeded. By then, the projected growth in the production and consumption of electrical energy required much higher capacity power transmission capabilities than were available or likely to become available from incremental improvements in existing transmission technology. Since superconductors were capable in principle of transmitting huge amounts of power, research programs to develop and demonstrate superconducting transmission lines were initiated in the US and abroad. The history of the US program, including the participants, their objectives, funding and progress made, is outlined. Since the R&D program was terminated before the technology was completely demonstrated, the reasons for and consequences of this action are discussed in a final section.

  6. Analysis and characterizations of planar transmission structures and components for superconducting and monolithic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    The research effort was continued to design and characterize superconducting transmission line structures. The research during this period was concentrated on the implementation of a superconductor into coplanar waveguide structures. First, the superconducting coplanar waveguide was examined, and compared with a superconducting microstrip line in terms of loss characteristics and their design aspects. Then, the research was carried on the design and characterization of the coplanar waveguide family in the packaging environment. The transition between the coaxial line to the conductor backed coplanar waveguide was also designed for the measurement of the superconducting conductor backed coplanar waveguide.

  7. Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, S.

    1996-01-01

    When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...

  8. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...... that the thermal insulation and cooling machine efficiency are the most important loss element in a superconducting cable system...

  9. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  10. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  11. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed.

  12. Flux qubit to a transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlein, Max; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the last decade, superconducting qubits coupled to microwave resonators have been extensively studied within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Ultimately, quantum computing seems within reach in such architectures. However, error correction schemes are necessary to achieve the required fidelity in multi-qubit operations, drastically increasing the number of qubits involved. In this work, we couple a flux qubit to a transmission line where it interacts with itinerant microwave photons granting access to all-optical quantum computing. In this approach, travelling photons generate entanglement between two waveguides, containing the qubit information. In this presentation, we show experimental data on flux qubits coupled to transmission lines. Furthermore, we will discuss entanglement generation between two separate paths.

  13. Multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

    2013-10-18

    Quantum transmission lines are central to superconducting and hybrid quantum computing. In this work we show how coupling them to a left-handed transmission line allows circuit QED to reach a new regime: multimode ultrastrong coupling. Out of the many potential applications of this novel device, we discuss the preparation of multipartite entangled states and the simulation of the spin-boson model where a quantum phase transition is reached up to finite size effects.

  14. Transmission line model for nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin E. A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical expressions for resonant parametres and characteristics of typical barrier nanoelectronic structures have been received on the basis of the transmission line model. Characteristics illustrating the efficiency of such approach are presented in the article.

  15. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  16. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...

  17. Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-07-12

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

  18. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO based high temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current limiting matrix.

  19. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  20. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  1. Modelling and transmission-line calculations of the final superconducting dipole and quadrupole chains of CERN's LHC collider methods and results

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A long chain of superconducting magnets represents a complex load impedance for the powering and turns into a complex generator during the energy extraction. Detailed information about the circuit is needed for the calculation of a number of parameters and features, which are of vital importance for the choice of powering and extraction equipment and for the prediction of the circuit performance under normal and fault conditions. Constitution of the complex magnet chain impedance is based on a synthesized, electrical model of the basic magnetic elements. This is derived from amplitude and phase measurements of coil and ground impedances from d.c. to 50 kHz and the identification of poles and zeros of the impedance and transfer functions. An electrically compatible RLC model of each magnet type was then synthesized by means of a combination of conventional algorithms. Such models have been elaborated for the final, 15-m long LHC dipole (both apertures in series) as well as ...

  2. Development of superconducting transmission cable. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, R.; Stovall, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hughey, R.L.; Sinha, U.K. [Southwire Co., Carrollton, GA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwire Company is to develop the technology necessary to proceed to commercialization of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. Power transmission cables are a promising near-term electric utility application for high-temperature superconductivity. Present HTS wires match the needs for a three-phase transmission cable: (1) the wires must conduct high currents in self-field, (2) there are no high forces developed, and (3) the cables may operate at relatively low current density. The commercially-available HTS wires, in 100-m lengths, make construction of a full three-phase, alternating current (ac) transmission cable possible. If completed through the pre-commercialization phase, this project will result in a new capability for electric power companies. The superconducting cable will enable delivery with greater efficiency, higher power density, and lower costs than many alternatives now on the market. Job creation in the US is expected as US manufacturers supply transmission cables to the expanding markets in Asia and to the densely populated European cities where pipe-type cable is prevalent. Finally, superconducting cables may enable delivery of the new, diverse and distributed sources of electricity that will constitute the majority of new installed electrical generation in the world during the coming decades.

  3. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.

    1977-11-01

    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  4. Analogue Hawking Radiation in a dc-SQUID Array Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Rimberg, A. J.; Buks, E.

    2009-08-01

    We propose the use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of direct-current superconducting quantum interference devices for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. Being a fundamentally quantum mechanical device, this setup allows for investigations of quantum effects such as backreaction and analogue space-time fluctuations on the Hawking process.

  5. EM transmission-line metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George V. Eleftheriades

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are understood to be artificially engineered materials that exhibit unusual or difficult to obtain electromagnetic (EM properties. Such properties would include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and index of refraction. In this article, we review the fundamentals of metamaterials with emphasis on negative-refractive-index ones, which are synthesized using loaded transmission lines. A number of applications of such metamaterials are discussed, including peculiar lenses that can overcome the diffraction limit and small antennas for emerging wireless communication applications.

  6. The US market for high-temperature superconducting wire in transmission cable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 utility engineers concerning the future prospects for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. All have direct responsibility for transmission in their utility, most of them in a management capacity. The engineers represented their utilities as members of the Electric Power Research Institute`s Underground Transmission Task Force (which has since been disbanded). In that capacity, they followed the superconducting transmission cable program and are aware of the cryogenic implications. Nineteen of the 23 engineers stated the market for underground transmission would grow during the next decade. Twelve of those specified an annual growth rate; the average of these responses was 5.6%. Adjusting that figure downward to incorporate the remaining responses, this study assumes an average growth rate of 3.4%. Factors driving the growth rate include the difficulty in securing rights-of-way for overhead lines, new construction techniques that reduce the costs of underground transmission, deregulation, and the possibility that public utility commissions will allow utilities to include overhead costs in their rate base. Utilities have few plans to replace existing cable as preventive maintenance, even though much of the existing cable has exceeded its 40-year lifetime. Ten of the respondents said the availability of a superconducting cable with the same life-cycle costs as a conventional cable and twice the ampacity would induce them to consider retrofits. The respondents said a cable with those characteristics would capture 73% of their cable retrofits.

  7. Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Electric power generation/transmission Energy storage Acoustic projectors Weapon launchers Catapult Ship propulsion • • • Stabilized...temperature superconductive shields could be substantially enhanced by use of high-Tc materials. 27 28 NRAC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS...motor shown in the photograph. As a next step in the evolution of electric-drive ship propulsion technology, DTRC has proposed to scale up the design

  8. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  9. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  10. Sevick's transmission line transformers theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    An updated and reorganized revision of the classic book Transmission Line Transformers (2001) by Jerry Sevick, this book provides communication engineers with a clear technical presentation of both the theory and practical applications of the transmission of radio communication.

  11. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV...... and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  12. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  13. Overvoltage Suppression for UHV Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongli; LIU Taihua; LI Zhongqing; JING Lei; LONG Ying; FAN Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The overvoltage phenomena of ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission lines are analyzed and verified by EMTDC/PSCAD simulation. Referring to the theoretical analyses and operating experiences of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines in China and UHV transmission lines in Russia and Japan, the methods to suppress the internal overvoltage in UHV transmission lines by protection and control strategies are discussed. Through the cooperation among the recloser, shunt reactor, tripping and closing resistance, and metal oxide varistor (MOV), the overvoltage can be restrained within an acceptable level.

  14. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, electric transmission line, Published in unknown, Kleinschmidt.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'electric transmission line'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  15. Cryogenic-temperature profiling of high-power superconducting lines using local and distributed optical-fiber sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Palmieri, Luca; Consales, Marco; Giordano, Michele; Borriello, Anna; Bajas, Hugues; Galtarossa, Andrea; Bajko, Marta; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents distributed and multipoint fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multipoint measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300-4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300-30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  16. Cryogenic-temperature profiling of high-power superconducting lines using local and distributed optical-fiber sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, Antonella; Consales, Marco; Giordano, Michele; Borriello, Anna; Bajas, Hugues; Galtarossa, Andrea; Bajko, Marta; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents distributed and multi-point fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multi-point measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and PMMA) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300 – 4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300 K to 30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  17. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  18. Transient Stability Analysis Using Transmission Line Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国伟; 程浩忠; 陈家荣; 王承民

    2004-01-01

    The novel quantitative assessment method using transmission line measurement was developed. A new style of stability criterion was suggested which is based on the line measurement. The stability indices for lines,cutsets and power system according to features of transient energy in the lines were given, which not only provide a reliable and accurate assessment of the transient stability of power system, but also can be used to assess the effect of lines and cutsets on the transient stability and identify the weak transmission segment. Examples were presented by simulation on the IEEE-39 buses test system.

  19. Microwave transmission-line impedance data

    CERN Document Server

    Gunston, M A R

    1996-01-01

    A compendium of data for computing the characteristic impedance of transmission lines based on physical dimensions. Covers both conventional structures and unusual geometries, including coaxial, eccentric and elliptic coaxial, twin-wire, wire-above-ground, microstrip and derivatives, stripline, slabline and trough line. Also details numerous configurations of coupled lines.

  20. TRANSMISSION LINE FAULT ANALYSIS USING WAVELET THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Malkar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Wavelet transform technique to analyze power system disturbance such as transmission line faults with Biorthogonal and Haar wavelets. In this work, wavelet transform based approach,which is used to detect transmission line faults, is proposed. The coefficient of discrete approximation of the dyadic wavelet transform with different wavelets are used to be an index for transmission line fault detection and faulted – phase selection and select which wavelet is suitable for this application. MATLAB/Simulation is used to generate fault signals. Simulation results reveal that the performance of the proposed fault detection indicator is promising and easy to implement for computer relaying application.

  1. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mok, E-mail: jmkim@kriss.re.kr; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Brain Cognition Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  2. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2013-12-01

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  3. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  4. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  5. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  6. Signal Transmission on Power Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of power-line networks over a large frequency span, the time-domain method used in programs like EMTP (Electromagnetic Time domain Program) can not be used. A more rigorous analysis method must be employed. The correct analysis method (assuming TEM-mode propagation) for multiple....... An approximate analysis method must be usedIn this paper it is shown that an eigenvectormatrix, that is the propagation modes, can be chosen almost arbitrarily if the frequency interval of interest lies below the frequency, where the line length is about 1/3 times the wavelength for the propagation mode...... with the lowest phase velocity. The propagation constants corresponding to the chosen eigenvector matrix (the quasi modes) are found iteratively, which is a much simpler procedure than finding the eigenvalues....

  7. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  8. Transmission of Electric Energy Along Long Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.P.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of electric energy along long lines is examined and characteristics of the change of capacities at the beginning and at the end of a line are submitted: factor of capacity, efficiency of a transmission line, currents depending on length, parameters of a line and parameters of loading. Influence of losses upon the dynamics of instant values of voltages and currents in the opened and short-circuited long lines is investigated and effects of nonlinearity in such chains are revealed at a power supply from a sinusoidal source of voltage. It is shown, that the method of complex amplitudes is not always applicable for the calculation of modes in long lines.

  9. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  10. Transmission Characteristics Simulation on Power Line Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Masashi; Nakabayashi, Miyuki; Abe, Junichi; Tanabe, Shinji

    In Power Line Communication (PLC) systems, medium and low voltage power distribution lines are used as a communication network. However, since no consideration is given to signal transmission characteristics in the high frequency used for PLC systems, reflections caused by impedance mismatches deteriorate transmission characteristics. If channel characteristics of power lines can be estimated by simulation, it will be efficient for the design and the operation of PLC networks. This paper proposes a method to estimate transmission characteristics of a channel model between a transmitter and a receiver installed on a distribution network. Propagation characteristics of PLC signals at each distribution facility is described using two port networks. A channel model is automatically generated from the combination of component models along the topology of distribution network and the locations of a transmitter and a receiver. The proposed method was validated using measurement data of a test distribution network and was proved to be effective.

  11. Discontinuity effects on radial cavity transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, D.B.

    1979-04-01

    Pulse propagation in radial cavity transmission lines such as those found on a radial line accelerator is considered. Specifically, the effects of discontinuities along the line are examined in detail. It is found that previous analyses of such effects have been incorrect, and here two alternate solution techniques are presented. Depending upon the parameters of such a radial line, the discontinuity effects considered here may or may not be significant; however, if they are significant, it is recommended that the alternate solution techniques presented here be used.

  12. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  13. Electromagnetic analysis using transmission line variables

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This book employs a relatively new method for solving electromagnetic problems, one which makes use of a transmission line matrix (TLM). The propagation space is imagined to be filled with this matrix. The propagating fields and physical properties are then mapped onto the matrix. Mathematically, the procedures are identical with the traditional numerical methods; however, the interpretation and physical appeal of the transmission line matrix are far superior. Any change in the matrix has an immediate physical significance. What is also very important is that the matrix becomes a launching pad

  14. Artificial Dielectric Shields for Integrated Transmission Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Rejaei, B.; Zhuang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel shielding method for on-chip transmission lines built on conductive silicon substrates. The shield consists of an artificial dielectric with a very high in-plane dielectric constant, built from two patterned metal layers isolated by a very thin dielectric film. Inserted below an i

  15. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  16. Tornado risk model for transmission line design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milford, RV

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available is in combination with ice loading. The wind load used in most codes of practice and design recommendations for transmission line design have until recently been based almost exclusively on large-scale wind storms, which may include severe storms such as hurricanes...

  17. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and...

  18. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line...

  19. PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN GRADIENT TRANSMISSION LINE

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterov Iurii Gavriilovitch; Silin Nikolay Vitalievich

    2015-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of transmission lines with smooth continuous spatial distribution of capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of recently developed mathematical model. Strong heterogeneity-induced artificial dispersion is described by means of this model. Reflectance and transmittance spectra are shown on example of different gradient transmission lines. In conclusion, applicability of gradient transmission lines in areas o...

  20. A new class of negative refractive index transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new class of negative refractive index transmission line in which ideal operational amplifiers are applied to form the periodically loaded negative-impedance-converted inductors and capacitors. The phase response of the new transmission line is opposite to that of a positive refractive index conventional transmission line. Unlike the existing negative refractive index transmission line, the new negative refractive index transmission line is non-dispersive and thus can lead to many novel applications such as designing new broadband devices.

  1. Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2012-08-01

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  2. Self-Shielding Of Transmission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The use of shielding to contend with noise or harmful EMI/EMR energy is not a new concept. An inevitable trade that must be made for shielding is physical space and weight. Space was often not as much of a painful design trade in older larger systems as they are in today’s smaller systems. Today we are packing in an exponentially growing number of functionality within the same or smaller volumes. As systems become smaller and space within systems become more restricted, the implementation of shielding becomes more problematic. Often, space that was used to design a more mechanically robust component must be used for shielding. As the system gets smaller and space is at more of a premium, the trades starts to result in defects, designs with inadequate margin in other performance areas, and designs that are sensitive to manufacturing variability. With these challenges in mind, it would be ideal to maximize attenuation of harmful fields as they inevitably couple onto transmission lines without the use of traditional shielding. Dr. Tom Van Doren proposed a design concept for transmission lines to a class of engineers while visiting New Mexico. This design concept works by maximizing Electric field (E) and Magnetic Field (H) field containment between operating transmission lines to achieve what he called “Self-Shielding”. By making the geometric centroid of the outgoing current coincident with the return current, maximum field containment is achieved. The reciprocal should be true as well, resulting in greater attenuation of incident fields. Figure’s 1(a)-1(b) are examples of designs where the current centroids are coincident. Coax cables are good examples of transmission lines with co-located centroids but they demonstrate excellent field attenuation for other reasons and can’t be used to test this design concept. Figure 1(b) is a flex circuit design that demonstrate the implementation of self-shielding vs a standard conductor layout.

  3. ULTRA HIGH POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultra-high power transmission line techniques including both failure mechanisms and component design are discussed. Failures resulting from...a waveguide. In view of the many advantages of the low loss mode in circular waveguide for ultra-high power levels, a mode transducer and a two...percent of the peak power of a standard rectangular wave guide. Water cooling is provided for high average power operation. Analysis of mode sup pression

  4. Resonant Transmission Line Method for Econophysics models

    CERN Document Server

    Raptis, T E

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper [1304.6846], Racorean introduced a formal similarity of the Black-Sholes stock pricing model with a Schr\\"odinger equation. We use a previously introduced method of a resonant transmission line for arbitrary 2nd order Sturm-Liouville problems to attack the same problem from a different perspective revealing some deep structures in the naturally associated eigenvalue problem.

  5. Development of a Peltier Current Lead for the 200-m-Class Superconducting Direct Current Transmission and Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    Reducing cryogenic heat leaks is critical for superconducting applications. Reduction of heat leak at the terminals is essential for uses with short-length applications, where cryogenic losses at the terminals dominate. We are developing a 200-m-class superconducting direct current (DC) transmission and distribution system (CASER-2), and have used a Peltier current lead (PCL) for heat insulation at the terminals. The PCL consists of thermoelectric elements and copper leads, which enhance the performance of superconducting systems. As DC flows through the current lead, thermoelectric elements on opposite terminations of a superconducting line can be used to decrease the heat ingress to the cryogenic environment ( n-type on one end, p-type on the opposite end). During the current feeding and cooling test, a large temperature difference was observed across thermoelectric elements in the PCL. This demonstrates that we have successfully insulated the heat leak at the current lead. During the fourth cooling test, we established a new PCL design with p-type elements at terminal B, and then compared the performance of the terminals. Several improvements were implemented, including balancing the resistances of the PCL to enhance the stability of the superconducting systems.

  6. Microwave properties of monolithic Y-Ba-Cu-O transmission line devices fabricated by the laser-writing patterning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maung, W.N.; Butler, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Xiong, W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering]|[Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The authors report on the microwave characteristics of coplanar strip transmission line devices fabricated in epitaxial YBaCuO thin films deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates using the novel laser-writing patterning technique. This technique uses laser heating to selectively anneal regions of an oxygen depleted YBaCuO thin film to form local superconducting phases. In this manner, superconductive coplanar strip transmission line structures surrounded by the semiconducting YBaCuO phase were patterned with no photomasks, surface contamination or edge degradation. The propagation characteristics of transmission line devices were measured with a HP8510 network analyzer from 1 to 20 GHz. At 300 K, the transmission line circuits displayed poor transmission characteristics due to the high conductivity of the semiconducting phase and small conductivity enhancement of the oxygenated regions. As the circuits were cooled below 89 K, the {Tc} of the superconducting phase, the measured S{sub 21} was near 0 dB indicating little attenuation along the high quality transmission lines. Q-factors as high as 5,000 were measured from coplanar strip transmission line resonator circuits at 6 GHz and 24 K.

  7. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  8. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  9. Science Letters: Lattice type transmission line of negative refractive index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we introduce a novel passive transmission line of negative refractive index (i.e., left-handedness) based on identical symmetrical lattice type structures [thus called "lattice type transmission line" (LT-TL)]. The dispersion characteristic and the transmission response of the proposed LT-TL are analyzed. While all the other left-handed passive transmission lines are of high pass, the present passive left-handed transmission line is of low pass. Compared with a conventional transmission line, the LT-TL has a phase shift of 180° in the entire wide pass-band.

  10. Optoelectronic line transmission an introduction to fibre optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Raymond L

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic Line Transmission: An Introduction to Fibre Optics presents a basic introduction as well as a background reference manual on fiber optic transmission. The book discusses the basic principles of optical line transmission; the advantages and disadvantages of optical fibers and optoelectronic signalling; the practical applications of optoelectronics; and the future of optoelectronics. The text also describes the theories of optical line transmission; fibers and cables for optical transmission; transmitters including light-emitting diodes and lasers; and receivers including photodi

  11. Conditions of the Classical Transmission Line Equations at High Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    New transmission line equations are deduced applying Maxwell's equations in this paper. The conditions of the classical transmission line equations have been discussed, which is important to solve the EM problems in high frequency case.

  12. PSpice for filters and transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact

  13. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-3875 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  14. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  15. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  16. 49 CFR 192.707 - Line markers for mains and transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Line markers for mains and transmission lines. 192... § 192.707 Line markers for mains and transmission lines. (a) Buried pipelines. Except as provided in... buried main and transmission line: (1) At each crossing of a public road and railroad; and (2)...

  17. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  18. Analysis and application of transmission line conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Orin

    Skin effect is usually a concern reserved for radio frequency design and for high current conductors used in utility power distribution. Proximity effect between adjacent conductors has traditionally been a concern for the design of magnetic windings and other applications involving wire bundles. The rise in the ubiquity of high speed bit streams and other signals of very wide bandwidth has broadened the range of applicable contexts and increased the need to account for such effects. This is especially true for transmission lines used to interconnect critical signal paths in applications ranging from microelectronic devices to the signal integrity of printed circuit traces and implementation of system cabling. Optimal conductor design is obviously fundamental to transmission line performance. Researchers have paid considerable attention to the topic but the results are scattered throughout the literature. This thesis collected information on extant conductor designs, and the theoretical considerations behind each solution. A detailed analysis of current flow in a conducting half-space was included as a foundation. The conductor types discussed were solid cylindrical, rectangular, ribbonoid, bimetallic, tubular, laminated, litz, and stranded constructions. Discussions of the performance of stranded shields and conductor roughness e¤ects were included for completeness of understanding.

  19. Modeling Transmission Line Networks Using Quantum Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Trystan; Antonsen, Thomas

    Quantum graphs--one dimensional edges, connecting nodes, that support propagating Schrödinger wavefunctions--have been studied extensively as tractable models of wave chaotic behavior (Smilansky and Gnutzmann 2006, Berkolaiko and Kuchment 2013). Here we consider the electrical analog, in which the graph represents an electrical network where the edges are transmission lines (Hul et. al. 2004) and the nodes contain either discrete circuit elements or intricate circuit elements best represented by arbitrary scattering matrices. Including these extra degrees of freedom at the nodes leads to phenomena that do not arise in simpler graph models. We investigate the properties of eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions on these graphs, and relate these to the statistical description of voltages on the transmission lines when driving the network externally. The study of electromagnetic compatibility, the effect of external radiation on complicated systems with numerous interconnected cables, motivates our research into this extension of the graph model. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research (N0014130474) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  20. The Transmission Line for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldrin, Marco, E-mail: marco.boldrin@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); De Lorenzi, Antonio; Recchia, Mauro; Toigo, Vanni [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Bonicelli, Tullio; Simon, Muriel [Fusion For Energy, c/o Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The 100 keV Ion Source Test facility - Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma (SPIDER) - is aimed to test the full scale prototype of the Ion Source for the ITER 1 MeV Neutral Beam Injector (NBI). The SPIDER facility requires the construction of a High Voltage Deck (HVD) and of a High Voltage Transmission Line (TL) respectively to host the Ion Source Power Supplies system polarized at 100 kV and to carry the power and signal conductors to the beam accelerator. In already existing NBI systems with beam energy above 100 keV, the TL is realized with the SF{sub 6} Gas Insulated Line technology. In the SPIDER TL case, the presence of a large inner conductor (half meter diameter), would make the pressurized TL a complex and costly component; therefore a free air insulated solution has been proposed. The paper focuses on the design of this TL, which has to host inside the complex high potential (100 kV) inner electrode a number of power and measuring conductors and has to minimize the Electro Magnetic Interferences (EMI) produced by the frequent grids breakdowns. Finite Element (FE) analyses have been performed to verify the configuration from the electrostatic point of view, to evaluate EMI screening effectiveness and to assess the impact of the relatively high thermal dissipation of power conductors located inside the high potential electrode. Moreover, an experimental test campaign has been carried out on a TL mockup to validate the TL electrostatic configuration under DC voltage. Finally, the paper reports on the status of procurement activities for the Transmission Line.

  1. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  2. Survey of transmission line corridors. [Data on delays in transmission line construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-05

    The intent of this study is to determine the extent of delays experienced in planning and constructing transmission lines in the continental United States. The reasons for the delays are identified for each line studied and their effect on the total electrical system is sought. Data was collected for 136 different lines either recently built or currently under study. Statistics were developed for each line in several categories and comparisons of lines delayed were made by company, area served and generation capacity. From the study presented here it was found that: right-of-way acquisition procedures including condemnation and easement negotiation practices delay more projects than local, state and federal regulatory requirements combined; load growth reductions particularly in the east have reduced the impact of regulatory delays; the south, southeast and southwestern areas of the country experience fewer delays in constructing transmission lines than the more populated states, and the cost for corridor delays was responded to for only 17 of the 142 projects surveyed. By far the most costly delay is the expense of condemning land for transmission right-of-way.

  3. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-12-06

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa.

  4. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa.

  5. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  6. Thermal Rectification in Graded Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文; 陈伟中; 陶锋

    2011-01-01

    We consider heat conduction in a nonlinear inductance-capacitance(LC)transmission line with an inductance gradient by adding white-noise signals.It is found that the heat flux in the direction of inductance decrease is larger than that in the direction of inductance increase.When the low-inductance end is at higher temperature,the phonon density decreases due to conversion to high-frequency phonons,which can not move to the high-inductance end due to its lower cutoff frequency.However,when the high-inductance end is at higher temperature,the loss of phonon density can be compensated for because some high-frequency phonons can move to the low-inductance end dur to its higher cutoff frequency.This leads to the asymmetry of energy transfer.Discussion shows that this asymmetry exists in a particular range of temperatures,and increases with the increase of the difference between heat baths and the inductance gradient.%We consider heat conduction in a nonlinear inductance-capacitance (LC) transmission line with an inductance gradient by adding white-noise signals. It is found that the heat flux in the direction of inductance decrease is larger than that in the direction of inductance increase. When the low-inductance end is at higher temperature, the phonon density decreases due to conversion to high-frequency phonons, which can not move to the high-inductance end due to its lower cutoff frequency. However, when the high-inductance end is at higher temperature, the loss of phonon density can be compensated for because some high-frequency phonons can move to the low-inductance end dur to its higher cutoff frequency. This leads to the asymmetry of energy transfer. Discussion shows that this asymmetry exists in a particular range of temperatures, and increases with the increase of the difference between heat baths and the inductance gradient.

  7. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract...

  8. 49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission... adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for indications of leaks, construction activity, and...

  9. 49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192.709... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.709 Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each operator shall maintain the following records for transmission...

  10. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  11. A New Concept for Superconducting DC Transmission from a Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Tønnesen, Ole; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas;

    2002-01-01

    Projects with large offshore wind farms (up to 500 MW) are in progress. Connecting the parks to the power grid with conventional AC transmission technique is difficult due to non-controllable power flow and voltage stability problems. A new concept for connecting remotely located wind farms is su...... is suggested and described. The concept is based on combining superconducting DC power transmission and cooled power electronic....

  12. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  13. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179... line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments, must have sectionalizing block valves spaced as follows, unless in a particular case the Administrator finds that alternative...

  14. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  15. Modelling lightning caused transmission line outages in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Shen, S.S.P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences; Koval, D.O. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The characteristics of lightning and the relationship between lightning and transmission line outages is not fully understood by utility planners. This study used 20 year data sets of lightning events to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of lightning in Alberta. Studies of geographical and temporal characteristics of lightning caused transmission line outages for several voltage level transmission lines were also examined. A lasso regression variable selection procedure and Cp criterion were used to model the duration of the lightning-caused transmission line outages as a function of weather and lightning patterns. The province was divided into 110 by 110 grids, and lightning variables were calculated for each cell. All the lightning variables for each cell were then averaged based on their areas. The overall cloud-ground lightning flashes 20-year mean frequency and the physical locations of power transmission lines were then plotted. Estimated probability density functions of the duration of lightning caused transmission line outages were classified by their voltage levels. The study showed that the characteristics of the lightning caused outages were different for different voltage levels of the transmission lines. Results suggested that the findings will have a significant impact on the accuracy of reliability methodologies that use the average duration of transmission line outages in their calculations. It was concluded that the new methodology can be applied to any transmission line system operating in a unique geographical environmental area. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Wind adaptive modeling of transmission lines using minimum description length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Yoonseok; Sohn, Gunho

    2017-03-01

    The transmission lines are moving objects, which positions are dynamically affected by wind-induced conductor motion while they are acquired by airborne laser scanners. This wind effect results in a noisy distribution of laser points, which often hinders accurate representation of transmission lines and thus, leads to various types of modeling errors. This paper presents a new method for complete 3D transmission line model reconstruction in the framework of inner and across span analysis. The highlighted fact is that the proposed method is capable of indirectly estimating noise scales, which corrupts the quality of laser observations affected by different wind speeds through a linear regression analysis. In the inner span analysis, individual transmission line models of each span are evaluated based on the Minimum Description Length theory and erroneous transmission line segments are subsequently replaced by precise transmission line models with wind-adaptive noise scale estimated. In the subsequent step of across span analysis, detecting the precise start and end positions of the transmission line models, known as the Point of Attachment, is the key issue for correcting partial modeling errors, as well as refining transmission line models. Finally, the geometric and topological completion of transmission line models are achieved over the entire network. A performance evaluation was conducted over 138.5 km long corridor data. In a modest wind condition, the results demonstrates that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of non-wind-adaptive initial models on an average of 48% success rate to produce complete transmission line models in the range between 85% and 99.5% with the positional accuracy of 9.55 cm transmission line models and 28 cm Point of Attachment in the root-mean-square error.

  17. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.431 Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act...

  18. Analysis of transmission efficiency of SSRF electron beam transfer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the main factors which influence transmission efficiency of the SSRF electron beam transfer lines are described, including physical requirements for magnet system, vacuum system, beam diagnostic system,trajectory correction system, etc. The dynamic simulation calculation and transmission efficiency analysis of the SSRF electron beam transfer lines are presented, and the studies show that the design purpose of efficient beam transmission and injection will be achieved.

  19. Low-temperature transmission electron microscopy study of superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierning, G.; Theissmann, R. [Faculty of Engineering and CeNIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Acet, M. [Experimentalphysik and CeNIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hoelzel, M. [Fachbereich Materialwissenschaften, Technical University of Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); FRM-II, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany); Gruendmayer, J.; Zweck, J. [Physics Faculty, University of Regensburg, 93047 Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    By low-temperature transmission electron microscopy we have found nanodomains in a polycrystalline Nb{sub 3}Sn sample. We interpret that these nanodomains form due to a tetragonal distortion. Because twinning seems to be a prominent feature of the real structure of many high T{sub c} superconductors, possible interactions between a twinned structure and superconductivity are briefly discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Propagation of microwaves in gradient transmission lines: exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Silin, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Propagation of microwaves along the transmission line with smoothly continuously distributed capacitance and inductance (gradient transmission line) is considered in the framework of an exactly solvable model. The appearance of strong heterogeneity-induced plasma-like dispersion in gradient transmission line determined by the sizes and shapes of these distributions, is visualized by means of this model. Owing to this dispersion the energy transport in the line discussed can be ensured by both travelling and evanescent microwave modes, characterized by the real and imaginary wave numbers, respectively. The reflectance spectra for microwaves, incident on this heterogeneous transition section located between two homogeneous sections of transmission line are presented, the antireflection properties of this section are demonstrated. The interference of evanescent and anti-evanescent microwave modes is shown to provide the effective weakly attenuated energy transfer in the tunneling regime. The analogy between this microwave system and gradient nano-optical photonic barrier in revealed.

  1. Algorithm for predictive control implementation on fiber optic transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Voronkov, Andrey A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the algorithm for predictive control implementation on fiber-optic transmission lines. In order to improve the maintenance of fiber optic communication lines, the algorithm prediction uptime optic communication cables have been worked out. It considers the results of scheduled preventive maintenance and database of various works on the track cable line during maintenance.

  2. Transmission-line networks cloaking objects from electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Alitalo, Pekka; Jylhä, Liisi; Venermo, Jukka; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    We consider a novel method of cloaking objects from the surrounding electromagnetic fields in the microwave region. The method is based on transmission-line networks that simulate the wave propagation in the medium surrounding the cloaked object. The electromagnetic fields from the surrounding medium are coupled into the transmission-line network that guides the waves through the cloak thus leaving the cloaked object undetected. The cloaked object can be an array or interconnected mesh of small inclusions that fit inside the transmission-line network.

  3. BERTHA: A versatile transmission line and circuit code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, D. D.

    1983-11-01

    An improved version of the NRL transmission line code of W. H. Lupton is presented. The capabilities of the original program were extended to allow magnetically insulated transmission lines, plasma opening switches, imploding plasma loads and discrete element electrical networks, for example, to be modeled. BERTHA is used to simulate any system that is represented by a configuration of transmission line elements. The electrical behavior of the system is calculated by repeatedly summing the reflected and transmitted waves at the ends of each element. This program is versatile, easy to use and easily implemented on desktop microcomputers.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MULTICONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION LINES USING THE MACCORMACK METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Lei; Wang Zhiquan

    2006-01-01

    The MacCormack method is applied to the analysis of multiconductor transmission lines by introducing a new technique that does not require decoupling. This method can be used to analyze a wide range of problems and does not have to consider the matrix forms of distributed parameters. We have developed software named MacCormack Transmission Line Analyzer based on the proposed method. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method and illustrate its application to analyzing multiconductor transmission lines.

  5. High speed electrical transmission line design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Buytaert, J.; Eklund, L.; de Acedo, L. F. S.; Longstaff, I.; Naik, S.; Sullivan, S.; Wraight, K.

    2017-02-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments have unique requirements for data communication. High data speeds, combined with extreme restrictions on materials allowed, leads to custom transmission lines. This paper will present transmission line design theory, simulation and testing methods. Transmission line designs options like flexes and rigid PCBs as well as cables will be studied. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software packages simulate energy dissipation and quality of transmitted signals. The characterisation techniques of time-domain reflectometry and frequency-domain measurements are discussed and compared. Bit-error-rate testing is presented and its limitations for design discussed. Methods to improve quality, like three different types of equalization are described.

  6. Bottlenecks reduction using superconductors in high voltage transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daloub Labib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy flow bottlenecks in high voltage transmission lines known as congestions are one of the challenges facing power utilities in fast developing countries. Bottlenecks occur in selected power lines when transmission systems are operated at or beyond their transfer limits. In these cases, congestions result in preventing new power supply contracts, infeasibility in existing contracts, price spike and market power abuse. The “Superconductor Technology” in electric power transmission cables has been used as a solution to solve the problem of bottlenecks in energy transmission at high voltage underground cables and overhead lines. The increase in demand on power generation and transmission happening due to fast development and linked to the intensive usage of transmission network in certain points, which in turn, lead to often frequent congestion in getting the required power across to where it is needed. In this paper, a bottleneck in high voltage double overhead transmission line with Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced was modeled using conductor parameters and replaced by Gap-Type Superconductor to assess the benefit of upgrading to higher temperature superconductor and obtain higher current carrying capacity. This proved to reduce the high loading of traditional aluminum conductors and allow more power transfer over the line using superconductor within the same existing right-of-way, steel towers, insulators and fittings, thus reducing the upgrade cost of building new lines.

  7. Coupled Transmission Lines as Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the use of a coupled line section as an impedance transformer is presented. We show how to properly select the terminations of the coupled line structures for effective matching of real and complex loads in both narrow and wide frequency ranges. The corresponding....... Wideband matching performance with relative bandwidth beyond 100% and return loss > 20 dB is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted performance of the coupled line transformer section....

  8. PROPAGATION BEHAVIOUR OF OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-02-27

    Feb 27, 2004 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. ... Goschler(l 983) described a practical application of data networks utilising power lines during and after the ... The principle is extended to load.

  9. AC Loss of Ripple Current in Superconducting DC Power Transmission Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, K.; Otabe, E. S.; Vyatkin, V. S.; Kiuchi, M.; Matsushita, T.; Hamabe, M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Inada, R.

    As a method of largely reducing the transmission loss in the electric power grid, superconducting direct current (DC) power transmission cable has been investigated. Using superconducting DC power transmission cables, large amounts of current and energy can be transferred compared to conventional copper cables. In this case, an alternating current (AC) is converted to DC and superposed AC which is known as ripple current, and the energy loss by the ripple current is generated. Therefore it is desired to estimate the energy loss density for the case of DC current and superposed AC current for a design of DC transmission cable system. In this study, the hysteresis loss for DC current of 2 kA rectified from 60 Hz alternating current is calculated using the Bean model, and coupling loss was also estimated. The diameter of the cable was 40 mm. The ripple currents generated by multi-pulse rectifiers, 6-pulse, 12-pulse, and 24-pulse were considered. It is found that the total AC loss including the hysteresis loss and the coupling loss is considerably smaller than the supposed heat loss of 0.5 W/m which is obtained with a newly developed cable.

  10. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  11. Stabilizing control for power converters connected to transmission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zainea, Marius; Schaft, Arjan van der; Buisson, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a switching control strategy for the set-point stabilization of a power converter connected via a transmission line to a resistive load. The strategy employs a Lyapunov function that is directly based on energy considerations of the power converter, as well as of the transmission

  12. High aspect ratio transmission line circuits micromachined in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Shane Truman

    The performance of complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) fabricated on silicon has improved dramatically. The scaling down of silicon transistors has increased the maximum frequency of transistors to the point where silicon MMICs have become a viable alternative to compound semiconductor MMICs in certain applications. A fundamental problem still exists in silicon MMICs however in that transmission lines fabricated on silicon can suffer from high loss due to the finite conductivity of the silicon substrate. A novel approach for creating low-loss transmission lines on silicon is presented in this work. Low-loss transmission lines are created on low resistivity silicon by using a micromachining method that combines silicon deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), thermal oxidation, electroplating, and planarization. Two types of high aspect ratio transmission lines are created with this method including high aspect ratio coplanar waveguide (hicoplanar) and semi-rectangular coaxial (semicoaxial). Transmission lines with impedances ranging from 20--80 O have been fabricated with minimum measured loss lower than 1 dB/cm at 67 GHz. Low-loss dielectrics are created for the high aspect ratio transmission lines using the mesa merging method. The mesa merging method works by creating silicon mesa arrays using DRIE and then converting and merging the mesa arrays into a solid oxide dielectric using thermal oxidation. The transmission lines are designed so that the fields penetrate the low-loss oxide dielectric and are isolated from the lossy silicon substrate. The mesa merging method has successfully created large volume oxide with depth up to 65 microm and width up to 240 microm in short oxidation times. Other advantages of the high aspect ratio transmission lines are demonstrated including low-loss over a wide impedance range, high isolation, and high coupling for coupled-line circuits. Transmission line models have been

  13. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, IPPCalifLine, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'IPPCalifLine'. Data by this...

  14. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, IPPMonaLine, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'IPPMonaLine'. Data by this...

  15. Application of EPON Technology in Transmission Line Video Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zongze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operating condition of transmission lines directly determines the efficiency of the power system. Therefore, faced with a complex operating environment, it is extremely important to protect transmission line video monitoring. At present, the technology widely used in the power distribution and network communication in domestic power industry is EPON technology. This technology has a broad application prospect on the transmission of electrical circuit video monitoring information. On this basis, this paper carries out a further research on the application of EPON technology in transmission line video monitoring. This paper firstly proposes the design principle of transmission line video monitoring, and on this basis, it carries out a comparative analysis of merits and demerits of different types of EPON networking schemes. In addition, quantification is given for the EPON networking power consumption, so as to obtain a complete EPON combining scheme which is combined with specific examples to validate, and finally realize that the EPON technology has a certain application value because it is in line with various indicators after application in transmission line video monitoring.

  16. Impedance matching with an adjustable segmented transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunqi; Brey, William W

    2009-07-01

    A capability for impedance matching between the RF probe and the spectrometer is a standard requirement for NMR. Both lumped element and branched transmission line methods are widely used for this purpose. Here, we propose to use the segmented transmission line structure which is well known in wireless communications. It relies upon reflections between transmission lines of different characteristic impedances that are serially connected to match the impedance of a coil or resonator to the characteristic impedance of the NMR spectrometer. In our implementation, two quarter wave length dielectric slugs are placed within a coaxial transmission line. Adjustment of the positions of the slugs allows the variable tuning and matching needed for NMR probes, eliminating the need for variable capacitors and inductors. As a demonstration of the usefulness of this approach, we have incorporated a variable segmented transmission line into a home-built Variable Angle Spinning probe. Finally, we discuss the range of possible application for segmented transmission line networks in NMR probe design.

  17. Five Mass Power Transmission Line of a Ship Computer Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakoff Alexander Borisoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work, presented in this paper, appears to be a natural continuation of the work presented and reported before, on the design of power transmission line of a ship, but with different multi-mass model. Some data from the previous investigations are used as a reference data, mainly from the analytical investigations, for the developed in the previ- ous study, frequency and modal analysis of a five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship. In the paper, a profound dynamic analysis of a concrete five mass dynamic model of the power transmission line of a ship is performed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, based on the previously recommended model, investigated in the previous research and reported before. Thus, the partially validated by frequency analysis five mass model of a power transmission line of a ship is subjected to dynamic analysis. The objective of the work presented in this paper is dynamic modelling of a five mass transmission line of a ship, partial validation of the model and von Mises stress analysis calculation with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA and comparison of the derived results with the analytically calculated values. The partially validated five mass power transmission line of a ship can be used for definition of many dy- namic parameters, particularly amplitude of displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively in time and frequency domain. The frequency behaviour of the model parameters is investigated in frequency domain and it corresponds to the predicted one.

  18. Analysis of transmission efficiency of the superconducting resonance coil according the materials of cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Kyeong; Hwang, Jun Won; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The wireless power transfer (WPT) system using a magnetic resonance was based on magnetic resonance coupling of the transmission and the receiver coils. In these system, it is important to maintain a high quality-factor (Q-factor) to increase the transmission efficiency of WPT system. Our research team used a superconducting coil to increase the Q-factor of the magnetic resonance coil in WPT system. When the superconductor is applied in these system, we confirmed that transmission efficiency of WPT system was higher than normal conductor coil through a preceding study. The efficiency of the transmission and the receiver coil is affected by the magnetic shielding effect of materials around the coils. The magnetic shielding effect is dependent on the type, thickness, frequency, distance, shape of materials. Therefore, it is necessary to study the WPT system on the basis of these conditions. In this paper, the magnetic shield properties of the cooling system were analyzed using the High-Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS, Ansys) program. We have used the shielding materials such as plastic, aluminum and iron, etc. As a result, when we applied the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), the transmission efficiency of WPT was not affected because electromagnetic waves went through the FRP. On the other hand, in case of a iron and aluminum, transmission efficiency was decreased because of their electromagnetic shielding effect. Based on these results, the research to improve the transmission efficiency and reliability of WPT system is continuously necessary.

  19. Continuous Tera-Hertz wave transmission spectroscopy of Nb double superconducting split-ring resonator array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, JunWei; Liu, RuiYuan; Zhou, YuRong; Li, YanRong; Wang, YunPing

    2012-02-01

    Transmission spectroscopy of two Nb double superconducting split-ring samples with different thicknesses on MgO substrates was measured by a continuous Tera-Hertz spectrometer. The transmission curves of two different samples with the thicknesses of 50 and 150 nm at 7.5 K show dips at 480, 545 GHz, respectively, which origin from the different capacities and inductances of the samples. For the sample of 50 nm, the dip shifts to lower frequency, also decreases in depth and increases in width with temperature or field increasing below T c of Nb film, while the sample of 150 nm does not show such a phenomenon. This thickness-dependent transmission behavior is due to the kinetic inductance and conductivity change of superfluid electrons in Nb film and may suggest a practical tunable THz filter based on the thinner samples.

  20. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  1. Reprint of “Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  2. Overhead three-phase transmission lines - Non-diagonalizable situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, J.A.B. (Centro de Electrotecnia da U.T.L. - Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa (PT))

    1988-10-01

    Physically realizable transmission lines exist to which the standard modal theory does not apply since the ZY diagonalization cannot always be undertaken successfully. In this paper the non-diagonalizing conditions for typical overhead three-phase lines are established. Algorithms are described and implemented to synthesize concrete non-diagonalizable configurations, numerical examples being presented and discussed.

  3. ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS WITH MULTIPLE COUPLED LOSSY TRANSMISSION LINES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of coupled lossy transmission line structures like microwave directional couplers and filters, 3-phase power cable networks or a databus is not simple. In this paper it is shown that the admittance parameters for the 2N port network, N coupled lossy transmission lines form, may be fo...... be found using a set of almost arbitrary (orthogonal) quasi propagation modes instead of the true modes, if the up-per frequency is so low that the electrical length of the lines is smaller than about 1/3 of the wavelength for the propagation mode with the lowest phase velocity....

  4. Computation of nonuniform transmission lines using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, G.C.; Paulino, J.O.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). School of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Calculation of lightning overvoltages on transmission lines has been described. Lightning induced overvoltages are of great significance under certain conditions because of the main characteristics of the phenomena. The lightning channel model is one of the most important parameters essential to obtaining the generated electromagnetic fields. In this study, nonuniform transmission line equations were solved using the finite difference method and the leap-frog scheme, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The subroutine was interfaced with the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Two models were used to represent the characteristic impedance of the nonuniform lines used to model the transmission line towers and the lightning main channel. The advantages of the FDTD method was the much smaller code and faster processing time. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Installation of optical shieldwire on existing transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trausch, S. (Fluor Daniel, Chicago, IL (US))

    1988-01-01

    The author reports the development of a communication network between Minneapolis and Chicago. The fiber optics cable was installed, with a few exceptions, on existing transmission lines. Most of the utilized transmission structures are 138-161 kV wood pole H-frame structures with two shield wires. One of the shield wires was removed and replaced by the fiber optic cable. In a 30-mile section the fiber optic cable was installed on 345 kV lines supported on steel poles and steel lattice towers. Generally, however, 345 kV lines were avoided because it was difficult to obtain outages for the installation of the optic ground wire (OPGW). In some cases, where existing transmission line structures could not be used, the fiber optic cable was installed on 30- to 50-foot single wood pole structures designed to support this cable.

  6. HPEM protection on HF transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krzikalla

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional protection concepts against electromagnetic interferences are combinations of nonlinear elements like spark gaps, varistors or suppressor diodes. Due to parasitic capacitances and inductivities and the general behavior of the elements, a trade off has to be made between the frequency bandwidth and the energy absorption capability of the protection circuit. For high frequency applications with signal frequencies above about 500MHz a sufficient protection can not be given without changing the transmitted signals itself. Additionally this kind of protection concept is designed and optimized against transient interferences with rise times down to some nanoseconds, for example the LEMP, the NEMP or the ESD. Current researches focus on transient interferences with rise times in the picosecond range and pulse widths of a few nanoseconds, the so called ultra wideband (UWB pulses, combined with a significant voltage amplitude of some kilovolts. In this paper investigations on nonlinear protection elements and linear filters against line-coupled UWB pulses with high voltage amplitudes will be done with special focus on the protection of high frequency data-lines.

  7. Electric transmission line flashover prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarh, Felix

    Near industrial, agricultural, or coastal areas, contamination is a frequent cause of insulator flashover, most cases of which result in lengthy service interruptions. Utilities spend significant amounts of money on insulator washing and cleaning before the restoration of the service. Laboratory studies and industrial experience have shown that both contamination and wetting of insulator surfaces, which initiate the flow of leakage current, are required for insulator flashover. The leakage current leading to flashover has distinctive stages of development. Flashover is preceded by dry-band arcing and extension of the arc to bridge the insulator. This combination significantly modifies both the magnitude and shape of the leakage current. A condition-based monitoring (CBM) system that monitors the easily measurable insulator leakage current as a means of assessing pollution severity and would possibly predict an approaching flashover could prove beneficial to utilities. The overall aim of this project is the development of a system that monitors pollution build-up through the signature changes in the leakage current and alerts an operator when there is a danger of flashover. The operator can, in turn, order maintenance personnel to wash the insulators. This will safeguard against unforeseen flashovers, since the system is constantly being monitored and diagnosed. Additionally, the washing cycles of insulators will be optimized, saving money and eventually rendering the power transmission system more reliable.

  8. Atlas transmission line/transition design and fabrication status

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Ricketts, R L; Valdez, G A

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. Design has been completed for this new generation pulsed-power machine consisting of an azimuthal array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission line consists of a cable header, load protection switch, and tri-plate assembly interfacing to the center transition section. The cable header interface to the Marx module provides a mechanism to remove the Marx module for maintenance without removing other components of the transmission line. The load protection switch provides a mechanism for protecting the load during charging of the Marx in the event of a pre-fire condition. The aluminum tri-plate is a low-inductance transmission line that carries radial current flow from the Marx energy storage system at the machine periphery toward the load. All transmission line components are oil insulated except the...

  9. Superconducting optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.

    2000-12-01

    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  10. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  11. Transmission line matrix modelling of thermal injuries to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliouat Bellia, S; Saidane, A; Hamou, A; Benzohra, M; Saiter, J M

    2008-08-01

    A numerical model based on the transmission line matrix method is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin burn resulting from exposure of a specific region of human skin surface to a high temperature heat source. Transient temperatures were numerically estimated by Pennes' bioheat equation, and the damage function denoting the extent of burn was calculated using the Arrhenius assumptions for protein damage rate. A two-dimensional transmission line matrix model was used to predict the effects of exposure time and structure thicknesses on the transient temperature distribution and damage extent. Compared with other numerical sources the transmission line matrix results revealed good agreement, suggesting that this method may be an effective tool for the thermal diagnostic of burns.

  12. Transmission line icing prediction based on DWT feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. N.; Niu, D. X.; Huang, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Transmission line icing prediction is the premise of ensuring the safe operation of the network as well as the very important basis for the prevention of freezing disasters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of icing, a transmission line icing prediction model based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) feature extraction was built. In this method, a group of high and low frequency signals were obtained by DWT decomposition, and were fitted and predicted by using partial least squares regression model (PLS) and wavelet least square support vector model (w-LSSVM). Finally, the final result of the icing prediction was obtained by adding the predicted values of the high and low frequency signals. The results showed that the method is effective and feasible in the prediction of transmission line icing.

  13. Design aspects and comparison between high Tc superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  14. Design aspects and comparison between high T(sub c) superconducting coplanar waveguide and microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, K. S.; Bhasin, K. B.; Itoh, T.

    1991-01-01

    The high T sub c superconducting microstrip line and coplanar waveguide are compared in terms of the loss characteristics and the design aspects. The quality factor Q values for each structure are compared in respect to the same characteristic impedance with the comparable dimensions of the center conductor of the coplanar waveguide and the strip of the microstrip line. Also, the advantages and disadvantages for each structure are discussed in respect to passive microwave circuit applications.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT FEEDING TO PARALLEL-PLATE TRANSMISSION LINES FROM COAXIAL LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunming; Wang Jianguo; Meng Fenxia; Zhang Maoyu; Ge Debiao

    2001-01-01

    The transient feeding to parallel-plate transmission lines from coaxial line is optimized by using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method and a simple FDTD feed model. Observing the reflected voltages, this letter presents the optimal feeding position and ratio of width to height for a given input impedance of the coaxial line.

  16. Computation of electrical environmental effects of transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanya Kumari, M.; Rajesh Kumar, O.; Nambudiri, P.V.V.; Srinivasan, K.N. [Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore (India)

    1999-07-01

    EHV and UHV AC Transmission lines and electrical equipment produce electric and magnetic fields around their vicinity which are likely to produce various induction and biological effects when their levels exceed certain values. In addition to this, the electric field may initiate corona resulting in corona loss with associated interference nuisances like radio interference, audible noise etc. Transmission line planners should take these factors into consideration at the design stage. This necessitates the requirement for establishing computational methods to estimate the above mentioned factors. The paper presents the software developed in CPRI for this purpose and discusses the algorithm used in the software for these computations. (author)

  17. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  18. A development of ITV system for power transmission line monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hong Keun; Kim, Seok Ku; Lee, Kwang Joong; Lee, Won Bin [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Transmission lines which are important to supply the electricity installed on the terrestrially severe site such as mountains needed to be monitored to prevent electric fault by snow accelerating, icing, tree contact, fire etc. Inspections by human patrol has been done but it seems not so efficient and satisfiable. To cope with this a transmission line monitoring system using industrial television and OPGW was developed and field trilled at the site. This paper describes about the optical video transceiver, video distributor and control devices (author).

  19. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1978 to March 31, 1979 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; and (2) cable insulation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-11

    The objective of the program is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, thus enabling it to supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors, and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications. Progress in cable conductor and cable insulation development and in the engineering facilities for fabricating and testing the superconducting cables is reported. (LCL)

  20. Study of the cavity-magnon-polariton transmission line shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Michael; Bai, LiHui; Match, Christophe; Sirker, Jesko; Hu, CanMing

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigate the microwave transmission line shape of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) created by inserting a low damping magnetic insulator into a high quality 3D microwave cavity. While fixed field measurements are found to have the expected Lorentzian characteristic, at fixed frequencies the field swept line shape is in general asymmetric. Such fixed frequency measurements demonstrate that microwave transmission can be used to access magnetic characteristics of the CMP, such as the field line width Δ H. By developing an effective oscillator model of the microwave transmission we show that these line shape features are general characteristics of harmonic coupling. At the same time, at the classical level the underlying physical mechanism of the CMP is electrodynamic phase correlation and a second model based on this principle also accurately reproduces the experimental line shape features. In order to understand the microscopic origin of the effective coupled oscillator model and to allow for future studies of CMP phenomena to extend into the quantum regime, we develop a third, microscopic description, based on a Green's function formalism. Using this method we calculate the transmission spectra and find good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Asymmetrical coupled coplanar-type transmission lines with anisotropic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Mittra, R.

    1986-07-01

    Various types of transmission lines with anisotropic substances were investigated for use in microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits. These include single and coupled striplines, slot lines, and coplanar-type transmission lines. The coplanar-type transmission lines (CTLs) are promising because of their easy adaptation to shunt element connections. The application of coupled coplanar-type transmission lines (C-CTLs) were studied based on the quasistatic and hybrid mode formulations and accurate numerical values are available for the cases with isotropic and/or anisotropic substrates. However, most of them assume structural symmetry. The theoretical approach for the asymmetrical version is available only for the propagation constant of the case with a single isotropic substrate. The analytical method for the general structure of asymmetrical C-CTLs with an anisotropic substrate. This method includes both the hybrid mode and the quasistatic formulations and is useful for accurately computing the characteristics impedances as well as propagation constants of various types of assymetrical C-CTLs.

  2. Coaxial line configuration for microwave power transmission study of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorey, C. M.; Miranda, F. A.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave transmission measurements through YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) high-transition-temperature superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) have been performed in a coaxial line at 10 GHz. LaAlO3 substrates were ultrasonically machined into washer-shaped discs, polished, and coated with laser-ablated YBCO. These samples were mounted in a 50-ohm coaxial air line to form a short circuit. The power transmitted through the films as a function of temperature was used to calculate the normal state conductivity and the magnetic penetration depth for the films.

  3. TRANSMISSION OF DATA USING POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Serrao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as a general and technical reference to transmission of data using a power line carrier communication system which is a preferred choice over Wireless or other Home Networking technologies due to the ease of installation, availability of AC outlets, higher throughput, low cost, reliability and security. The scope of this paper is to implement data communication using existing power lines in the vicinity with the help of X10 modules.

  4. Rigorous theoretical derivation of lumped models to transmission line systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jixiang

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of the negative electric parameter concept,i.e.negative lumped resistance,inductance,conductance and capacitance (N-RLGC),the lumped equivalent models of transmission line systems,including the circuit model,two-port π-network and T-network,are given.We start from the N-segment-ladder-like equivalent networks composed distributed parameters,and achieve the input impedance in the form of a continued fraction.Utilizing the continued fraction theory,the expressions of input impedance are obtained under three kinds of extreme cases,i.e.the load impedances are equal to zero,infinity and characteristic impedance,respectively.When the number of segment N is limited to infinity,they are transformed to lumped elements.Comparison between the distributed model and lumped model of transmission lines,the expression of tanh yd,which is the key term in the transmission line equations,are obtained by RLGC,furthermore,according to input admittance,admittance matrix and ABCD matrix of transmission lines,the lumped equivalent circuit models,π-networks and T-networks have been given.The models are verified in the frequency and time domain,respectively,showing that the models are accurate and efficient.

  5. THE EC H&CD TRANSMISSION LINE FOR ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, F.; Bigelow, T. S.; Becket, B.; Caughman, J. B.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Gassmann, T.; Henderson, M. A.; Jean, O.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Nazare, C.; Oda, Y.; Omori, T.; Purohit, D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Saibene, G.; Sakamoto, K.; Shapiro, M. A.; Takahashi, K.; Temkin, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The transmission line (TL) subsystem associated with the ITER electron cyclotron heating and current drive system has reached the conceptual design maturity. At this stage the responsibility of finalizing the design has been transferred from the ITER Organization to the U.S. Domestic Agency. The pur

  6. 78 FR 60273 - Granby Pumping Plant Switchyard-Windy Gap Substation Transmission Line Rebuild, Grand County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Area Power Administration Granby Pumping Plant Switchyard-Windy Gap Substation Transmission Line... Substation (Project) transmission line in Grand County, Colorado. The transmission line is 13.6 miles long... Western's existing transmission line between the Windy Gap Substation and Stillwater Tap and provide a...

  7. A novel transmission line protection using DOST and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaya Bharata Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a smart fault detection, classification and location (SFDCL methodology for transmission systems with multi-generators using discrete orthogonal Stockwell transform (DOST. The methodology is based on synchronized current measurements from remote telemetry units (RTUs installed at both ends of the transmission line. The energy coefficients extracted from the transient current signals due to occurrence of different types of faults using DOST are being utilized for real-time fault detection and classification. Support vector machine (SVM has been deployed for locating the fault distance using the extracted coefficients. A comparative study is performed for establishing the superiority of SVM over other popular computational intelligence methods, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and artificial neural network (ANN, for more precise and reliable estimation of fault distance. The results corroborate the effectiveness of the suggested SFDCL algorithm for real-time transmission line fault detection, classification and localization.

  8. Integrated micromachined transmission lines and endfire slotline antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Steven S.; Willke, Theodore L.; Onggosanusi, Eko N.

    1997-09-01

    An entirely new class of micromachined 3D microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits and antennas are being developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison using a subset o the LIGA micromachining process. The deep x-ray lithography and metal plating portions of the LIGA process are used to precisely form tall metal structures on semiconductor and dielectric substrates. This micromachining process allows metal height to be included as a parameter in the design of integrated circuits, which will permit several important advancements in high frequency waveguiding circuits and integrated antennas. With appropriate thick- metal cross-sectional geometry, transmission line losses and dispersion may both be reduced on a given substrate. Vertical-walled metal structures allow increased control over element-to-element coupling for integrated coupled-line filters and couplers and result in very significant reductions in ohmic loss. It will be demonstrated that the first single-level coupled-line 3dB coupler can be fabricated using the LIGA process. In addition, the mechanical properties of the thick metal structures will be utilized in the fabrication of integrated antennas and transmission lines that are unsupported by a dielectric substrate. The elimination of the substrate beneath antennas reduces losses to substrate modes, and the elimination o the substrate beneath transmission line filters is necessary for extremely high Q integrated filters. This paper will present simulated loss results that demonstrate the advantages of thick metal transmission lines, measured results of a coupled-line bandpass filter, and a recently fabricated thick-metal tapered slotline antenna which extends nearly a centimeter off of the edge of a GaAs wafer.

  9. Theory and Circuit Model for Lossy Coaxial Transmission Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoni, T. C.; Anderson, C. N.; Clark, R. E.; Gansz-Torres, J.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, Dale Robert

    2017-04-01

    The theory of signal propagation in lossy coaxial transmission lines is revisited and new approximate analytic formulas for the line impedance and attenuation are derived. The accuracy of these formulas from DC to 100 GHz is demonstrated by comparison to numerical solutions of the exact field equations. Based on this analysis, a new circuit model is described which accurately reproduces the line response over the entire frequency range. Circuit model calculations are in excellent agreement with the numerical and analytic results, and with finite-difference-time-domain simulations which resolve the skindepths of the conducting walls.

  10. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF NONUNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINES WITH NONLINEAR TERMINAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A semi-analytical method in time domain is presented for analysis of the transient response of nonuniform transmission lines. In this method, the telegraph equations in time domain is differenced in space domain first, and is transformed into a set of first-order differential equations of voltage and current with respect to time. By integrating these differential equations with respect to time, and precise computation, the solution of these differential equations can be obtained. This method can solve the transient response of various kinds of transmission lines with arbitrary terminal networks. Particularly, it can analyze the nonuniform lines with initial conditions, for which there is no existing effective method to analyze the time response so far. The results obtained with this method are stable and accurate. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of this method.

  11. Analytical Model for High Impedance Fault Analysis in Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maximov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high impedance fault (HIF normally occurs when an overhead power line physically breaks and falls to the ground. Such faults are difficult to detect because they often draw small currents which cannot be detected by conventional overcurrent protection. Furthermore, an electric arc accompanies HIFs, resulting in fire hazard, damage to electrical devices, and risk with human life. This paper presents an analytical model to analyze the interaction between the electric arc associated to HIFs and a transmission line. A joint analytical solution to the wave equation for a transmission line and a nonlinear equation for the arc model is presented. The analytical model is validated by means of comparisons between measured and calculated results. Several cases of study are presented which support the foundation and accuracy of the proposed model.

  12. Current Sharing Technology in Transmission Conductors of Cold Dielectric High Temperature Superconducting Cables Using Second-generation HTS Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiahui; BAO Xuzheng; QIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    The cold dielectric high temperature superconducting (CD HTS) cable has multilayer conductors. The non-uniform AC current distribution in these multilayer conductors will increase the AC loss and decrease the current transmission efficiency. So it is important to understand the current sharing among layers in order to fully exploit the performance of the HTS cable.

  13. Cooperative effects for Qubits in a Transmission Line: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, K.; Blais, A.; Sanders, B. C.; van Loo, A. F.; Fedorov, A.; Wallraff, A.

    2012-02-01

    Strong extinction of the transmitted power in a 1D transmission line coupled to an artificial atom has recently been achieved [1]. In contrast to the 3D case, large extinctions are made possible by the strong light-matter coupling occurring because of reduced dimensionality. Motivated by this, here we consider the situation where multiple artificial atoms (ie transmon qubits) are coupled to the 1D line. Following the work of Lehmberg for the 3D case [2], we obtain a master equation describing the dynamics of an arbitrary number of qubits coupled to the line. This master equation reveals interaction between the qubits mediated by the line. Using the input-output formalism, the model is compared to experimental results for multiple qubits coupled to the 1D line. [1] O. Astafiev et al., Science 327, 840 (2010) [2] R. H. Lehmberg. Phys. Rev. A 2, 883 (1970).

  14. Sensor Placement For Structural Monitoring of Transmission Line Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eRaphael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are usually analyzed using linear elastic idealized truss models. Due to the assumptions used in the analysis, there are discrepancies between the actual results obtained from full scale prototype testing and the analytical results. Therefore, design engineers are interested in assessing the actual stress levels in transmission line towers. Since it is costly to place sensors on every member of a tower structure, the best locations for sensors need to be carefully selected. This study evaluates a methodology for sensor placement in transmission line towers. The objective is to find optimal locations for sensors such that the real behavior of the structure can be explained from measurements. The methodology is based on the concepts of entropy and model falsification. Sensor locations are selected based on maximum entropy such that there is maximum separation between model instances that represent different possible combinations of parameter values which have uncertainties. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to that of an intuitive method in which sensor locations are selected where the forces are maximum. A typical 220 kV transmission tower is taken as case study in this paper. It is shown that the intuitive method results in much higher number of non-separable models compared to the optimal sensor placement algorithm. Thus the intuitive method results in poor identification of the system.

  15. Smart Grid Network Transmission Line RLC Modelling Using Random Power Line Synthesis Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezennaya S.O

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes Random Power line Synthesis (RPLS as a quicker computational approach to solving RLC parameters of a modern smart grid transmission network. Since modern grid systems provide a holistic perspective of modern grid development, it is obvious that a transmission network that is ageing cannot serve the expanded load demand. The need to revoltionalize the traditional transmission model while exploiting basic electrical theories and principles in Smart Grid (SG architecture necessitated this paper. This work seeks to address the RLC parameter modelling for SG template to provision dynamic power in Nigerian context. Other schemes of transmission RLC modelling were studied as well as outlining their limitations. Consequently, we then proposed a fuzzy smart grid framework for RLC computation and developed a proposed SG overhead transmission line from its conductor characteristics and tower geometry considering the RLC parameters of the conductor while applying RPLS to generate the parameter metrics.

  16. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  17. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Major power transmission lines. Extracted from 1992 U.S. Census Bureau TIGER/Line files., Published in 1992, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 1992. It is described as 'Major power...

  18. Modeling of overhead transmission lines for lightning overvoltage calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Velasco, J.A.; Castro-Aranda, F.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed the modelling of overhead transmission lines for lightning overvoltage calculations. Such a model must include those parts of the line that get involved when a lightning return stroke hits a wire or a tower and that have some influence on the voltage developed across insulator strings. Modelling guidelines differ depending on whether the goal is to estimate overvoltages or to determine arrester energy stresses. Modelling guidelines were summarized for each component, including shield wires and phase conductors; transmission line towers; insulators; phase voltages at the instant lightning hits the line; surge arresters; and the lightning stroke. The applied Monte Carlo procedure was summarized. For line span models, a constant-parameter model generally suffices when the goal is to calculate overvoltages across insulators or to obtain the flashover rate, but a frequency-dependent parameter model is necessary to estimate the energy discharged by arresters. The model selected for representing towers can have some influence on both flashover rates and arrester energy stresses. The representation of footing impedances is critical for calculating overvoltages and arrester energy stresses, but different modelling techniques produce significantly different results. The models are limited in that the corona effect is not included in the line models, the voltages induced by the electric and magnetic fields of lightning channels to shield wires and phase conductors are neglected, and the footing models are too simple, but they are nonetheless realistic approaches for simulating lightning effects. 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Current dependence of heat leak on the terminals in the superconducting DC transmission and distribution system of CASER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Emoto, Masahiko; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Superconductivity can solve the energy problems in the world as energy saving technologies. In particular, superconducting direct current (DC) transmission and distribution (T&D) systems is promising, as it can be easily extended to large scale energy transmission systems for energy sharing. We are developing criogenic systems for effective cooling of superconducting T&D systems. In the cooling experiments with the 200 m-class superconducting DC T&D system at Chubu University (CASER-2), we have estimated the performance of the system. For example, our superconducting cable is connected to the outside at the terminals using Peltier current leads (PCLs). The PCL is composed of a thermoelectric material and a copper lead. Small thermal conductivity and large thermopower of the thermoelectric modules can effectively insulate the heat leak to the low temperature end. We measured the temperature along the current leads and the heat leak at the terminals. As current leads have an optimal shape factor, the optimum operation current exists. The current dependence of the system performance is discussed.

  20. Power Improvement of Transmission Line Using High Voltage Direct Current (Hvdc Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasisi, H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of long EHV (Extremely High Voltage ac lines for the transmission of electrical energy increases the line reactance and susceptance which limits the thermal loadings on the line in order to keep sufficient margin against transient instability. With the scheme proposed in this paper, it is possible to load the lines very close to their limit with zero reactance and susceptance. The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability. The scheme comprises a twelve-pulse bridge rectifier, dc-links, pulse width modulated (PSW-voltage sourced inverter (VSI and converter transformers. The master current controller is used to implement the scheme which senses ac current and regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit. This paper gives the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into composite ac–dc power transmission line given the advantage of stability improvement, damping oscillations, voltage stabilization and reactive power compensation for ac weak buses. Simulation and experimental studies using MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory are carried out for the coordinated control as well as independent control of ac and dc power transmissions.

  1. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  2. 7 CFR 1726.76 - Substation and transmission line materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line materials and... Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.76 Substation and transmission line materials and equipment. (a... $500,000 and for all materials. (b) Standards and specifications. Substation and transmission line...

  3. Beam coupling impedances of fast transmission-line kickers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S. (Sergey)

    2002-01-01

    Fast transmission-line kickers contain no ferrite and consist of two long metallic parallel plates supported by insulators inside a beam pipe. A beam is deflected by both the electric and magnetic fields of a TEM wave created by a pulse propagating along the strips in the direction opposite to the beam. Computations of the beam coupling impedances for such structures are difficult because of their length. In the paper, the beam coupling impedances of transmission-line kickers are calculated by combining analytical and numerical methods: the wake potentials computed in short models are extended analytically to obtain the wakes for the long kickers, and then the corresponding beam impedances are derived. At very low frequencies the results are compared with simple analytical expressions for the coupling impedances of striplines in beam position monitors.

  4. Tunable Lowpass Filter with RF MEMS Capacitance and Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul C. Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have presented an RF MEMS tuneable lowpass filter. Both distributed transmission lines and RF MEMS capacitances were used to replace the lumped elements. The use of RF MEMS capacitances gives the flexibility of tuning the cutoff frequency of the lowpass filter. We have designed a low-pass filter at 9–12 GHz cutoff frequency using the theory of stepped impedance transmission lines. A prototype of the filter has been fabricated using parallel plate capacitances. The variable shunt capacitances are formed by a combination of a number of parallel plate RF MEMS capacitances. The cutoff frequency is tuned from C to X band by actuating different combinations of parallel capacitive bridges. The measurement results agree well with the simulation result.

  5. Microtubule as a Transmission Line for Ionic Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ILI(C) D.I.; SATARI(C) M.V.; RALEVI(C) N.

    2009-01-01

    We establish a new model for ionic waves along microtubules based on polyelectrolyte features of cylindrical biopolymers. The nonlinear transmission line described by a nonlinear differential equation is obtained with stable kink solution pertinent to the shape of the front of accompanying potential. The localized ionic wave could be used to explain the behavior of microtubules as biomolecular transistors capable of amplifying electrical information in neurons.

  6. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  7. Introduction of DC line structures into a superconducting microwave 3D cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Wei-Cheng; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, China and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-02-15

    We report a technique that can noninvasively add multiple DC wires into a 3D superconducting microwave cavity for electronic devices that require DC electrical terminals. We studied the influence of our DC lines on the cavity performance systematically. We found that the quality factor of the cavity is reduced if any of the components of the electrical wires cross the cavity equipotential planes. Using this technique, we were able to incorporate a quantum dot (QD) device into a 3D cavity. We then controlled and measured the QD transport signal using the DC lines. We have also studied the heating effects of the QD by the microwave photons in the cavity.

  8. Cyber Risk Assessment of Transmission Lines in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of information technologies in power systems has increased the risk of power systems to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we assess the risk of transmission lines being overloaded due to cyber-based false data injection attacks. The cyber risk assessment is formulated as bilevel optimization problems that determine the maximum line flows under false data injection attacks. We propose efficient techniques to reduce the computation complexity of solving the bilevel problems. Specifically, primary and secondary filtering techniques are employed to identify the lines whose flows will never exceed their limits, which can significantly reduce computation burden. A special feasibility cut-based acceleration technique is introduced to further reduce the computation burden. The simulation results on the IEEE 30-bus, IEEE 118-bus, IEEE 300-bus and IEEE 2383-bus systems verify the proposed risk assessment model and the effectiveness of the proposed filtering and acceleration techniques.

  9. Development of Live-working Robot for Power Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Ren, Chengxian; Li, Jinliang; Li, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Dream-I, the first reconfigurable live-working robot for power transmission lines successfully developed in China, has the functions of autonomous walking on lines and accurately positioning. This paper firstly described operation task and object of the robot; then designed a general platform, an insulator replacement end and a drainage plate bolt fastening end of the robot, presented a control system of the robot, and performed simulation analysis on operation plan of the robot; and finally completed electrical field withstand voltage tests in a high voltage hall as well as online test and trial on actual lines. Experimental results show that by replacing ends of manipulators, the robot can fulfill operation tasks of live replacement of suspension insulators and live drainage plate bolt fastening.

  10. Analysis of Real-Time Monitoring Technology andDynamic Rating method of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘聪

    2015-01-01

    Transmission line dynamic rating method as an important part of the inteligent transmission technical system can effectively solve the problem of insufficient power supply capacity of transmission lines. In this paper,the overal scheme of the dynamic rating method is briefly ilustrated. Next,transmission lines real-time monitoring technology and transmission line dynamic rating method are described respectively. Finaly,the influence of external factors on carrying capacity of transmission lines is analysed. Numerical results show that the proposed dynamic rating method is very effective.

  11. Concepts and methods of refrigeration for superconducting power transmission cables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, S.A.; Wapato, P.G.; Stanko, J.; Baumgartner, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    An analysis of refrigeration system requirements for the superconducting power transmission cables currently under study at the three principal US cable development centers indicates the need for cable system design considering the interrelated performance of the various cable system elements to successfully develop these systems for commercial operation in the 1990's. Hardware alternatives, compatible with the application timeframe, are evaluated to establish reliable refrigerator system design to a composite requirement typical of the range of refrigerator requirements presented by the cables currently under development. In addition, a methodology is presented and utilized to establish an estimate of hardware reliability and to evaluate redundancy requirements to a specific refrigerator system reliability allocation for a cable system used in previous cable development center studies. Reliability and performance of several compressor systems are evaluated. The oil-flooded screw compressor is felt to be the superior positive displacement compressor; however, the efficiency advantage resulting from preliminary design analysis of a multistage compliant toll process gas bearing centrifugal compressor system indicates a potential major operating cost reduction and the elimination of the need for oil lubrication and its subsequent cleanup requirements. Heat exchangers and expansion engines are evaluated. A preliminary design for a compliant foil process gas bearing permanent magnet turboalternator operating entirely at expansion turbine temperatures is discussed.

  12. Line Capacity Expansion and Transmission Switching in Power Systems With Large-Scale Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Bronmo, Geir; Philpott, Andy B.

    2013-01-01

    of power generation. We allow for active switching of transmission elements to reduce congestion effects caused by Kirchhoff's voltage law. Results show that actively switching transmission lines may yield a better utilization of transmission networks with large-scale wind power and increase wind power...... penetration. Furthermore, it is shown that transmission switching is likely to affect the optimal line capacity expansion plan....

  13. Walking Posture Control of Transmission Line Single Arm Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinliang; Ou, Yuexiong

    2017-07-01

    To control the walking posture according to transmission line single arm inspection robot, the robot is divided into normal walking and climbing walking two state, and gives the definition, then based on the state space method of state variable feedback and PD control method is used to control the two states, two kinds of control method of simulation by using Matlab, in the end, the two control methods proposed is validated in the actual circuit structures. The results show that, the proposed control method is rapid and effective, and can meet the needs of practical application.

  14. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tian; Wenming Wang; Hui Qian

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results sho...

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR SOME RADIO-FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION-LINE TRANSFORMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATRICES(MATHEMATICS), *PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, *RADIOFREQUENCY, *TRANSFORMERS, *TRANSMISSION LINES, BROADBAND, DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE, FERRITES, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS.

  16. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  17. LineCast: line-based distributed coding and transmission for broadcasting satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coding and transmission scheme, called LineCast, for broadcasting satellite images to a large number of receivers. The proposed LineCast matches perfectly with the line scanning cameras that are widely adopted in orbit satellites to capture high-resolution images. On the sender side, each captured line is immediately compressed by a transform-domain scalar modulo quantization. Without syndrome coding, the transmission power is directly allocated to quantized coefficients by scaling the coefficients according to their distributions. Finally, the scaled coefficients are transmitted over a dense constellation. This line-based distributed scheme features low delay, low memory cost, and low complexity. On the receiver side, our proposed line-based prediction is used to generate side information from previously decoded lines, which fully utilizes the correlation among lines. The quantized coefficients are decoded by the linear least square estimator from the received data. The image line is then reconstructed by the scalar modulo dequantization using the generated side information. Since there is neither syndrome coding nor channel coding, the proposed LineCast can make a large number of receivers reach the qualities matching their channel conditions. Our theoretical analysis shows that the proposed LineCast can achieve Shannon's optimum performance by using a high-dimensional modulo-lattice quantization. Experiments on satellite images demonstrate that it achieves up to 1.9-dB gain over the state-of-the-art 2D broadcasting scheme and a gain of more than 5 dB over JPEG 2000 with forward error correction.

  18. 49 CFR 192.713 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance § 192.713 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of imperfections and damages. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of pipe in a steel transmission line operating at or... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair...

  19. 49 CFR 192.717 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.717 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of leaks. Each permanent field repair of a leak on a transmission line must be made by— (a) Removing the leak by cutting out and replacing...

  20. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  1. 76 FR 15970 - Central Ferry to Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Central Ferry to Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project... the Central Ferry--Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line Project in Garfield, Columbia... identified in the Central Ferry--Lower Monumental 500-kV Transmission Line Project Final Environmental Impact...

  2. Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-07-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk.

  3. Analysis on Electric Field Around HVAC-HVDC Hybrid Transmission Lines%Analysis on Electric Field Around HVAC-HVDC Hybrid Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; LIU Jun-xiang; LI Hua; LIN Fu-chang

    2011-01-01

    As the transmission line corridors become more and more rare in China, it is now inevitable for people to construct HVAC-HVDC hybrid transmission lines. The research on the electric field around the transmission lines plays an important role in evaluating the electromagnetic environment nearby. However, few existing research now considered the mutual effect of HVAC-HVDC hybrid transmission lines. Thus, this research designed a program based on windows, which calculated the surface voltage gradient on the transmission lines and the electric field at ground level respectively. This research calculated the surface voltage gradient on the transmission lines by applying the improved method of successive images. For the electric field at ground level under AC transmission line, simula- tion charge method is used, while for the electric field at the ground level under DC transmission lines, deutsch as- sumption method is used. Comparing the results generated by the calculation with those in published literature, the program is reliable. Taking 500 kV transmission lines as an example, when considering the mutual effect of the HVAC-HVDC'lines, the amplitude of the surface voltage gradient will increase by about 10% and the amplitude of the electric field at ground level will increase by about 8%, making the mutual effect of the AC and DC lines unneglectable. Larger part of the electric field at ground level under hybrid lines is produced by the DC line. Thus, in order to control the electric field at ground level under hybrid lines, it should pay more attention on that produced by the DC line.

  4. The Congestion Management of Transmission Line using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul Mokhtarpur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The power systems movement to the electricity industry restructuring circumstance is done with the purpose of deformation of this industry up to elimination of exclusion and fairy competition increment and freely accessing to transmission line. But the possibility of congestion creation in the transmission line could encounter market role makers with problems such as energy price exclusion, difference in energy price at some busses and abusing of some jobbers in the market in these new systems. The study and survey in the interest of prevention and lowering of this phenomenon is done in the name of 'Congestion Management'.In this study after investigation of energy markets and the definition of congestion, local marginal price concept and ordinary method are introduced and then Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm will be investigated in order to optimal determination of Local Marginal Price (LMP in the busses with purpose of production minimizing in pool market and lately it will be tested on a 24-bus standard network to formulate the optimization problem and to make it applicable.

  5. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-03-17

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems.

  6. Realignment of the flux-line lattice by a change in the symmetry of superconductivity in UPt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Andrew; Rodière, Pierre; Paul, Donald M. K.; van Dijk, Niels; Cubitt, Robert; Flouquet, Jacques

    2000-07-01

    In 1957, Abrikosov described how quanta of magnetic flux enter the interior of a bulk type II superconductor. It was subsequently predicted that, in an isotropic superconductor, the repulsive forces between the flux lines would cause them to order in two dimensions, forming a hexagonal lattice. Flux-line lattices with different geometry can also be found in conventional (type II) superconductors; however, the ideal hexagonal lattice structure should always occur when the magnetic field is applied along a hexagonal crystal direction. Here we report measurements of the orientation of the flux-line lattice in the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt3, for this special case. As the temperature is increased, the hexagonal lattice, which is initially aligned along the crystal symmetry directions, realigns itself with the anisotropic superconducting gap. The superconductivity in UPt3 is unusual (even compared to unconventional oxide superconductors) because the superconducting gap has a lower rotational symmetry than the crystal structure. This special feature enables our data to demonstrate clearly the link between the microscopic symmetry of the superconductivity and the mesoscopic physics of the flux-line lattice. Moreover, our observations provide a stringent test of the theoretical description of the unconventional superconductivity in UPt3.

  7. Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.

  8. A study of electric power transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to study the operating characteristics of electrical transmission lines for use on the lunar surface. Important design considerations for a transmission line operating on the lunar surface are mass, temperature, and efficiency. Transmission line parameters which impact these considerations include voltage, power loss, and waveform. The electrical and thermal models developed are used to calculate transmission line mass, size, and temperature as a function of voltage, geometry, waveform, location, and efficiency. The analyses include ac and dc for above and below ground operation. Geometries studied include a vacuum-insulated, two-wire transmission line and a solid-dielectric insulated, coaxial transmission line. A brief discussion of design considerations and the models developed is followed by results for parameter studies for both dc and ac transmission lines.

  9. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Chi Zhang; Qian Zhang; Jun Feng Liu; Wenxuan Tang; Yifeng Fan; Tie Jun Cui

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wav...

  10. Design and simulation of on-chip lossy transmission line pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Demeester, Thomas; De Zutter, Daniël

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-TM reciprocity based multi-conductor transmission line model is used to investigate the influence of the geometry on the performance of on-chip transmission line pairs for high-frequency differential signal transmission. It is shown that both the knowledge of the fundamental transmission line modes and of the internal impedance of both connected circuits, are essential for a good design.

  11. Transmission-line decelerators for atoms in high Rydberg states

    CERN Document Server

    Lancuba, P

    2014-01-01

    Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg states with principal quantum number $n=52$, and traveling with an initial speed of 1950 m/s, have been accelerated, decelerated and guided while confined in moving electric traps generated above a curved, surface-based electrical transmission line with a segmented center conductor. Experiments have been performed with atoms guided at constant speed, and with accelerations exceeding $10^7$ m/s$^2$. In each case the manipulated atoms were detected by spatially resolved, pulsed electric field ionization. The effects of tangential and centripetal accelerations on the effective trapping potentials experienced by the atoms in the decelerator have been studied, with the resulting observations highlighting contributions from the density of excited Rydberg atoms to the acceleration, deceleration and guiding efficiencies in the experiments.

  12. Transmission-line decelerators for atoms in high Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancuba, P.; Hogan, S. D.

    2014-11-01

    Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg states with principal quantum number n =52 , and traveling with an initial speed of 1950 m/s, have been accelerated, decelerated, and guided while confined in moving electric traps generated above a curved, surface-based electrical transmission line with a segmented center conductor. Experiments have been performed with atoms guided at constant speed, and with accelerations exceeding 107 m /s 2. In each case, the manipulated atoms were detected by spatially resolved, pulsed electric field ionization. The effects of tangential and centripetal accelerations on the effective trapping potentials experienced by the atoms in the decelerator have been studied, with the resulting observations highlighting contributions from the density of excited Rydberg atoms to the acceleration, deceleration, and guiding efficiencies in the experiments.

  13. Gas insulated transmission line having low inductance intercalated sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1978-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line including an outer sheath, an inner conductor disposed within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. The outer sheath comprises an insulating tube having first and second ends, and having interior and exterior surfaces. A first electrically conducting foil is secured to the interior surface of the insulating tube, is spirally wound from one tube end to the second tube end, and has a plurality of overlapping turns. A second electrically conducting foil is secured to the exterior surface of the insulating tube, and is spirally wound in the opposite direction from the first electrically conducting foil. By winding the foils in opposite directions, the inductances within the intercalated sheath will cancel each other out.

  14. Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallaee, Amir Ali

    Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 - 5 THz (λ ˜ 60 - 500 µm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invention in 2001, rapid development has enabled demonstration of cw powers greater than 100 mW. However, challenges still remain in the areas of operating temperature, laser efficiency and power, and beam quality to name a few. The highest-temperature operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (200 K pulsed, 117 K cw) depends on the use of a low-loss "metal-metal" waveguide where the active gain material is sandwiched between two metal cladding layers; a technique similar, in concept, to microstrip transmission line technology at microwave frequencies. Due to the subwavelength transverse dimensions of the metal-metal waveguide, however, obtaining a directive beam pattern and efficient out-coupling of THz power is non-trivial. This thesis reports the demonstration of a one-dimensional waveguide for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers that acts as a leaky-wave antenna and tailors laser radiation in one dimension to a directional beam. This scheme adapts microwave transmission-line metamaterial concepts to a planar structure realized in terahertz metal-metal waveguide technology and is fundamentally different from distributed feedback/photonic crystal structures that work based on Bragg scattering of propagating modes. The leaky-wave metamaterial antenna operates based on a propagating mode with an effective phase index smaller than unity such that it radiates in the surface direction via a leaky-wave mechanism. Surface emission (˜ 40° from broadside) with a single directive beam (FWHM ˜ 15°) at 2.74 THz

  15. Acoustic solitons in waveguides with Helmholtz resonators: transmission line approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, V; Richoux, O; Theocharis, G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2015-02-01

    We report experimental results and study theoretically soliton formation and propagation in an air-filled acoustic waveguide side loaded with Helmholtz resonators. We propose a theoretical modeling of the system, which relies on a transmission-line approach, leading to a nonlinear dynamical lattice model. The latter allows for an analytical description of the various soliton solutions for the pressure, which are found by means of dynamical systems and multiscale expansion techniques. These solutions include Boussinesq-like and Korteweg-de Vries pulse-shaped solitons that are observed in the experiment, as well as nonlinear Schrödinger envelope solitons, that are predicted theoretically. The analytical predictions are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations and in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  16. A modular restoration tower for electric power line transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolazzi, L.C.; Pereira, J.C.; Leonel, C.E.L.; Rocha, G.B.; Bianchezzi, V.; Mendes, F. [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: lauro@grante.ufsc.br, jcarlos@grante.ufsc.br; Luz, R.L. [ELETROSUL Centrais Eletricas S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], Email: rluz@eletrosul.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The main target of this R and D project is to develop an restoration tower for electric energy lines transmission. Whereas these towers should present the main features like transport facility, easiest assembling associated with a low cost of manufacture, it was applied the single-column tower concepts supported by stays, modularized, framed and articulated at the base. The concepts used for this development was a design methodology. From the different definition situations of load, numerical models have been developed focusing the design to the best of structural element arrangements of its modules. Then, tests were performed in laboratory to determine the module structural performance for different work load situations. These tests served to identify inconsistencies in the numerical models and proposed adjustments in its design to improve its performance on the strength and stability. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Fibre Lifetime in Optical Ground Wire Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunvalds, R.; Ciekurs, A.; Porins, J.; Supe, A.

    2017-06-01

    In the research, measurements of polarisation mode dispersion of two OPGWs (optical ground wire transmission lines), in total four fibres, have been carried out, and the expected lifetime of the infrastructure has been assessed on the basis of these measurements. The cables under consideration were installed in 1995 and 2011, respectively. Measurements have shown that polarisation mode dispersion values for cable installed in 1995 are four times higher than that for cable installed in 2011, which could mainly be explained by technological differences in fibre production and lower fibre polarisation mode dispersion requirements in 1995 due to lack of high-speed (over 10 Gbit/s) optical transmission systems. The calculation methodology of non-refusal work and refusal probabilities, using the measured polarisation mode dispersion parameters, is proposed in the paper. Based on reliability calculations, the expected lifetime is then predicted, showing that all measured fibres most likely will be operational within minimum theoretical service life of 25 years accepted by the industry.

  18. Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Martin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It is desirable to optimize (minimizing both the inductance and electron flow the magnetically insulated vacuum sections of low impedance pulsed-power drivers. The goal of low inductance is understandable from basic efficiency arguments. The goal of low electron flow results from two observations: (1 flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach most loads, and thus constitute a loss mechanism; (2 energetic electrons deposited in a small area can cause anode damage and anode plasma formation. Low inductance and low electron flow are competing goals; an optimized system requires a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when optimization is crucial. For example, in large pulsed-power drivers used to energize high energy density physics loads, the electron flow as a fraction of total current is small, but that flow often reaches the anode in relatively small regions. If the anode temperature becomes high enough to desorb gas, the resulting plasma initiates a gap closure process that can impact system performance. Magnetic-pressure driven (z pinches and material equation of state loads behave like a fixed inductor for much of the drive pulse. It is clear that neither fixed gap nor constant-impedance transmission lines are optimal for driving inductive loads. This work shows a technique for developing the optimal impedance profile for the magnetically insulated section of a high-current driver. Particle-in-cell calculations are used to validate the impedance profiles developed in a radial disk magnetically insulated transmission line geometry. The input parameters are the spacing and location of the minimum gap, the effective load inductance, and the desired electron flow profile. The radial electron flow profiles from these simulations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions when driven at relatively high voltage (i.e., V≥2  MV.

  19. Mechanical Calculation of Power Lines and Strands in Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of shape and stress of overhead transmission lines. It fully considers that the conductor is subjected to axial force, shear, bending moment simultaneousiy. And the flat wire is basically in the elastic range. Because the stress is the strength of a certain point, the bending rigidity of the overhead lines can not be ignored. However, the catenary has been used in previous research and the force of the overhead lines is obtained on this basis. The author establishes a model of wire calculation under real condition, and gives a feasible simplified model. And then it gives the line shape formula, internal force formula, formula of stress in the strands. The results show that the original stress is significantly smaller.In this paper, the stress formula is almost close to the reality. It proves the reliability of the simplified model that the line shape includes the original flexible part.The results can not only fill the gaps in the theoretical study of the overhead lines, but also have some guidance to the production and design of overhead lines.

  20. Research on cost control and management in high voltage transmission line construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    Enterprises. The cost control is of vital importance to the construction enterprises. It is the key to the profitability of the transmission line project, which is related to the survival and development of the electric power construction enterprises. Due to the long construction line, complex and changeable construction terrain as well as large construction costs of transmission line, it is difficult for us to take accurate and effective cost control on the project implementation of entire transmission line. Therefore, the cost control of transmission line project is a complicated and arduous task. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the cost control scheme of transmission line project by a more scientific and efficient way. Based on the characteristics of the construction project of the transmission line project, this paper analyzes the construction cost structure of the transmission line project and the current cost control problem of the transmission line project, and demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of studying the cost control scheme of the transmission line project more accurately. In this way, the dynamic cycle cost control process including plan, implementation, feedback, correction, modification and re-implement is achieved to realize the accurate and effective cost control of entire electric power transmission line project.

  1. 49 CFR 192.715 - Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of... § 192.715 Transmission lines: Permanent field repair of welds. Each weld that is unacceptable under § 192.241(c) must be repaired as follows: (a) If it is feasible to take the segment of transmission...

  2. 49 CFR 192.711 - Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance § 192.711 Transmission lines: General requirements for repair procedures. (a) Temporary repairs... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: General requirements for..., imperfection, or damage that impairs its serviceability is found in a segment of steel transmission...

  3. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  4. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  5. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  6. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil....... The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters.The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated under quasistatic approximation and compared to the regular transmission line resonator. Finally, a more...... practical case of a microstrip line coil with two series capacitors is considered....

  7. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-04-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over electrical conducting aluminum strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125°C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements, but these methods do not provide information about the structural integrity of connectors. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to induce structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  8. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...... that HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground...

  9. An Insight on Right of Way and its Cost for Power Transmission Cable and Conventional Overhead Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, P.; Pachori, A.; Khandelwal, T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides the complete information related to Right of Way (RoW) for the construction of new power transmission line (TL) in terms of present cost for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable. The former part of the paper describes the general procedure and rules for acquisition of land for RoW by transmission asset owner (TAO) while in the later part the cost associated to acquire RoW and its impact on the cost of adjacent land have been detailed. It also discusses the actual dismantling cost including the cost of waste metal what TAO get after completion of lifecycle of TL due to increase in metal prices. In this paper cost of RoW after completion of lifecycle of TL is also highlighted. This paper compares the cost of RoW for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable for construction of new TL. Also for old transmission infrastructure cost of RoW for change from overhead transmission line to underground XLPE transmission cable is detailed by application of replacement model.

  10. Reduction of the visual impact of overhead transmission line systems through utilisation of line surge arresters as lightning protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    in line performance and lightning protection of the nearest substations requires thorough modelling of the new line including all electrical parameters necessary for performance evaluation under all conditions. In this paper, explicit use of line surge arresters as lightning protection on the line...... of the line and the required protection level in substations. The use of line surge arresters gives the possibility to decrease the height of towers thereby improving the visual impression of the overhead line transmission systems. However the usage of line surge arresters will, dependent upon line surge...

  11. Mixed refrigerant cycle with neon, hydrogen, and helium for cooling sc power transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, S.; Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch; Quack, H.

    2017-02-01

    The use of superconductors in very long power transmission lines requires a reliable and effective cooling. Since the use of cryocoolers does not appear feasible for very long distances, a cryogenic refrigeration cycle needs to be developed. For cooling superconducting cables based on MgB2 (T c = 39 K), liquid hydrogen (LH2) is the obvious cooling agent. For recooling LH2, one would need a refrigeration cycle providing temperatures at around 20 K. For this purpose, one could propose the use of a helium refrigeration cycle. But the very low molecular weight of helium restricts the use of turbo compressors, which limits the overall efficiency. In order to increase the molecular weight of the refrigerant a mixture of cryogens could be used, allowing the use of a turbo compressor. Temperatures below the triple point of neon are achieved by phase separation. This paper presents a possible layout of a refrigeration cycle utilizing a three component mixture of neon, hydrogen, and helium.

  12. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  13. Microwave properties of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) high-transition-temperature superconducting thin films measured by the power transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Bhasin, K. B.; Heinen, V. O.; Warner, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The microwave response of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting thin films deposited on LaAlO3, MgO, YSZ, and LaGaO3 substrates are studied. It is found that the microwave transmission properties are very weakly dependent on temperature in the normal state but change drastically upon transition to the superconducting state. In particular, the transmission decreases and there is a negative phase shift with respect to the phase at room temperature when the sample is cooled through its transition temperature. The magnetic penetration depth for all the films was determined from the surface reactance of the films. The microwave complex conductivity is determined in both the normal and the superconducting state. It is observed that both sigma1 and sigma2 increase in transition to the superconducting state. The surface resistivity is calculated for all the films.

  14. Transmission line resonance technique for eccentric core optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantzos, E.; Boucouvalas, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    In several cases optical fibers in telecommunications have cores of non circular geometry. Fibre optic deformations appear in optical fibres for many reasons. Optical fibre core ellipticity for example where the fibre optic core is not perfectly circular due to fibre optic manufacturing tolerances, is measured and often is a problem. Optical fibre core eccentricity, where the fibre core is not on the axis of the fibre, but it is offset by a small length. This is another issue and very important for ensuring performance low loss splices and connector losses. Both of ellipticity and eccentricity are specified in accordance to international standards for fibre optic manufacturing telecommunications grade fibres. The present paper studies ellipticity and core eccentricity specifically and presents a new method for analysing their effect. We present an extension of the transmission line technique as a means of studying such fibers and deriving necessary parameters. Conformal mapping on the other hand is a simple mathematical tool by which we can generate sets of orthogonal two-dimensional coordinate systems. Shortly a conformal map of Cartesian two-dimensional space is defined by any analytical function W(z) where z, w, are: z = x + jy, W = θ + j φ The function deriving by the conformal mapping transformation h(θ ,φ )=| ∂w/∂z | = 1/|∂z/∂w|, can be used in order to define ∇A → and ∇×A → where A → is the magnetic or electric field in the derived orthogonal coordinate system. Useful conformal maps for fiber optics applications should have the property that the equation θ(x, y) = constant, is forming closed curves in a Cartesian two-dimensional space (x,y). If θ(x, y) = constant represents a set of co-eccentric circles, we obtain the normal case of conventional fibers with circular cores. If θ(x, y) = constant represents a set of eclipses, we are have the formation of elliptic core optical fibers. If θ(x, y) = constant represents a set of

  15. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Chul [Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils.

  16. Improved Field Homogeneity for Transmission Line MRI Coils Using Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Dong, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    High field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems often use short sections of transmission lines for generating and sensing alternating magnetic fields. Due to distributed nature of transmission lines, the generated field is inhomogeneous. This work investigates the application of series capaci...... capacitors to improve the field homogeneity. The resulting magnetic field distribution is estimated analytically and evaluated numerically. The results are compared to a case of a conventional transmission line coil realization....

  17. Transfer Capability Enhancement of Transmission Line using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Pateriya,Nitin Saxena ,Manoj Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Growth of complex electrical power networks introduces lack of controllability of active and reactive power flow in energies networks Power flow control in an existing long transmission line, plays an important role in power system area. This paper employs the shunt connected compensation STATCOM based FACTS devices for the control of voltage and the power flow in long distance transmission line. The proposed device is used in different locations of transmission line and also deals with deter...

  18. Transfer Capability Enhancement of Transmission Line using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Pateriya; Nitin Saxena; Manoj Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Growth of complex electrical power networks introduces lack of controllability of active and reactive power flow in energies networks Power flow control in an existing long transmission line, plays an important role in power system area. This paper employs the shunt connected compensation STATCOM based FACTS devices for the control of voltage and the power flow in long distance transmission line. The proposed device is used in different locations of transmission line and also deals with deter...

  19. Possibility of a gas-cooled Peltier current lead in the 200 m-class superconducting direct current transmission and distribution system of CASER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    Global energy problems should be solved quickly, and superconducting applications are highly demanded as energy saving technologies. Among them, long-distance superconducting transmission seems to be one of the most promising for energy saving by energy sharing. On the other hand, such large systems can be constructed from smaller network systems that can be enhanced by scaling up to the superconducting grid. Reducing heat leak to the low temperature end is the most important aspect of technology for practical superconducting applications, and heat leak reduction at the terminal is a key goal especially for small-length applications. At Chubu University, we have developed a 200 m-class superconducting direct current transmission and distribution system (CASER-2), in which we also used a Peltier current lead (PCL) as heat insulation at the terminal. PCL is composed of a thermoelectric material and a copper lead. In actual transmission and distribution applications, the cables are also cooled by the coolant. After the circulation, the coolant could also be used to cool the current lead. We will discuss the performance of such gas-cooled systems as the total performance of applied superconducting systems using the experimental parameters obtained in CASER-2.

  20. Transmission Line Analogy for Relativistic Poynting-Flux Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, R V E

    2012-01-01

    Radio emission, polarization, and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C 303 have shown that one knot of this jet carries a {\\it galactic}-scale electric current and that it is magnetically dominated. We develop the theory of magnetically dominated or Poynting-flux jets by making an analogy of a Poynting jet with a transmission line or waveguide carrying a net current and having a potential drop across it (from the jet's axis to its radius) and a definite impedance which we derive. Time-dependent but not necessarily small perturbations of a Poynting-flux jet are described by the "telegrapher's equations." These predict the propagation speed of disturbances and the effective wave impedance for forward and backward propagating wave components. A localized disturbance of a Poynting jet gives rise to localized dissipation in the jet which may explain the enhanced synchrotron radiation in the knots of the 3C 303 jet, and also in the apparently stationary knot HST-1 in the jet near the nucleus of t...

  1. Managing raptor interactions with transmission lines in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A. [Cape Town Univ., Capetown (South Africa). Percy Fitzpatrick Inst.; Van Rooyen, C.S.; Goede, J.H.; Matshikiza, M.T. [Eskom-Endangered Wildlife Trust Strategic Partnership, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    A project launched to investigate methods of reducing power outages associated with eagle nests on transmission structures in central South Africa was presented. The frequency of eagle-related line outages was linked to the distribution and density of active eagle nests. However, many outages occurred on towers other than the actual nesting towers, and were attributed to the fact that the eagles roosted away from the nest. Eagle-related outages were concentrated in a 5-10 tower radius around an active nest. The frequency of eagle-related outages was correlated with tower design. The study also demonstrated that certain designs were favoured by eagles as nest sites, which then made the towers susceptible to bird streamer induced outages. A correlation was also found between the location of the nest on the tower and the preferred roost site of birds associated with the nest. Birds with nests below the phase conductors tended to roost below the phases. It was concluded that nest relocation could be a potential management tool to reduce eagle-related outages. Management recommendations to minimize the incidence of suspected eagle-related outages also included the development of a database detailing the location and properties of all potentially problematic nests, and annual monitoring of eagles in the study area. 10 refs., 2 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  3. Design of 1000-kV AC Single-Circuit Overhead Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li

    2010-01-01

    The UHVAC 1 000-kV transmission system is so far the one with the most advanced transmission technique applied and highest operation voltage. There are no guidelines or standards available for the design of 1 000-kV overhead transmission line in China. Study on key technologies and design schemes shall be carried out to ascertain the technical principles and construction standards for project construction, which are presented in this paper based on the Southeast Shanxi-Nanyang-Jingmen test and demonstration transmission line. A comparison and analysis of technical data and economic indices between UHV line and other lines are also described.

  4. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Electric Transmission Lines in Bacon County, GA, Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. It...

  5. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Transmission_lines, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is...

  6. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Electric Transmission Lines in Coffee County, GA, Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2000. It...

  7. Economic analysis of transmission line engineering based on industrial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    The modern industrial engineering is applied to the technical analysis and cost analysis of power transmission and transformation engineering. It can effectively reduce the cost of investment. First, the power transmission project is economically analyzed. Based on the feasibility study of power transmission and transformation project investment, the proposal on the company system cost management is put forward through the economic analysis of the effect of the system. The cost management system is optimized. Then, through the cost analysis of power transmission and transformation project, the new situation caused by the cost of construction is found. It is of guiding significance to further improve the cost management of power transmission and transformation project. Finally, according to the present situation of current power transmission project cost management, concrete measures to reduce the cost of power transmission project are given from the two aspects of system optimization and technology optimization.

  8. Novel Micromachined Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Lines for Application in Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Chang-Wook; Jung, Sanghwa; Kim, Hong-Teuk; Kwon, Youngwoo; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, novel micromachined coplanar waveguide(CPW) transmission lines for application in millimeter-wave circuits are proposed. Two types of transmission lines with the length of 1 cm are fabricated and the measured characteristics are compared with those of the conventional CPW transmission line. One is the elevated CPW(ECPW) transmission line and the other is the overlay CPW(OCPW) line. These transmission lines are composed of 3-μm-thick electroplated gold lines with overhanging parts. By elevating the metal lines from the substrate using micromachining technology, the conductor and substrate dielectric loss can be reduced and easily integrated with conventional monolithic microwave integrated circuits. Compared with the conventional CPW line showing 2.65 dB/cm insertion loss at 50 GHz, the loss can be reduced to 1.9 dB/cm and 1.25 dB/cm at 50 GHz in the case of the ECPW and OCPW transmission lines, respectively. Also, the OCPW transmission line shows that the insertion loss does not vary with the change of the characteristic impedance. As shown in the measured and simulated results, the insertion loss is maintained below 1.4 dB/cm over wide impedance ranges.

  9. Transfer Capability Enhancement of Transmission Line using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Pateriya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of complex electrical power networks introduces lack of controllability of active and reactive power flow in energies networks Power flow control in an existing long transmission line, plays an important role in power system area. This paper employs the shunt connected compensation STATCOM based FACTS devices for the control of voltage and the power flow in long distance transmission line. The proposed device is used in different locations of transmission line and also deals with determination of the optimal location of shunt flexible A.C. transmission line (FACTS devices for a long transmission line for voltage and power transfer improvement. The results also show the line loading and system initial operating conditions. In this paper the two machine 4-bus test system is simulated using MATLAB Simulink environment.

  10. Transfer Capability Enhancement of Transmission Line using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Pateriya,Nitin Saxena ,Manoj Tiwari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of complex electrical power networks introduces lack of controllability of active and reactive power flow in energies networks Power flow control in an existing long transmission line, plays an important role in power system area. This paper employs the shunt connected compensation STATCOM based FACTS devices for the control of voltage and the power flow in long distance transmission line. The proposed device is used in different locations of transmission line and also deals with determination of the optimal locationof shunt flexible a.c. transmission line (FACTS devices for a long transmission line for voltage and power transfer improvement. The results also showthe line loading and system initial operating conditions. In this paper the two machine 4-bus test system is simulated using MATLAB Simulink environment.

  11. Electromagnetic modelling of conductive or superconductive microstrip lines using spice as electromagnetic solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh Vu; Cabon, Béatrice; Daoud, Nahla; Chilo, Jean

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents a simple and efficient method for calculating the propagating line parameters (actually, a microstrip one) and its magnetic fields, by simulating an original equivalent circuit with an electrical nodal simulator (SPICE). The losses in the normal conducting line (due to DC losses and to skin effect losses) and also in the superconducting one can be investigated. This allows us to integrate the electromagnetic solutions to the CAD softwares. Dans ce papier, une méthode simple et efficace pour calculer les paramètres de propagation d'une ligne microruban et les champs magnétiques qu'elle engendre est présentée; pour cela, nous simulons un circuit original équivalent à l'aide du simulateur nodal SPICE. Les pertes dans une ligne conductrice (pertes continues et par effet de peau) ainsi que dans une ligne supraconductrice peuvent être considérées. Les solutions électromagnétiques peuvent être intégrées dans les simulateurs de CAO.

  12. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  13. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  14. Recent progress of the improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jian-De; Liu, Jin-Liang; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Cheng-Wei; Luo, Ling

    2008-03-01

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube driven by a 550 kV, 57 kA, 50 ns electron beam. It has allowed us to generate 2.4 GW pulse of 22 ns duration. The recent progress of the improved MILO is presented in this paper. First, a field shaper cathode is introduced into the improved MILO to avoid the cathode flares in the triple point region. The experimental results show that the cathode flares are avoided, so the lifetime of the velvet cathode is longer than that of the taper cathode. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot reproducibility is better than that of the taper cathode. Second, In order to prolong the pulse duration and increase the radiated microwave power, a self-built 600 kV, 10 Omega, 80 ns pulser: SPARK-03 is employed to drive the improved MILO. Simulation and experimental investigation are performed. In simulation, when the improved MILO is driven by a 600 kV, 57 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with output power of 4.15 GW, frequency of 1.76 GHz, and relevant power conversion efficiency of 12.0%. In experiments, when the diode voltage is 550 kV and current is 54 kA, the measured results are that the radiated microwave power is above 3.1 GW, the pulse duration is above 40 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.755 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 10.4%.

  15. Extragalactic circuits, transmission lines, and CR particle acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, Philipp P.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

    2015-08-01

    A non-negligible fraction of a Supermassive Black Hole's (SMBH) rest mass energy gets transported into extragalactic space by a remarkable process in jets which are incompletely understood. What are the physical processes which transport this energy? It is likely that the energy flows electromagnetically, rather than via a particle beam flux. The deduced electromagnetic fields may produce particles of energy as high as ˜ 1020 eV. The energetics of SMBH accretion disk models and the electromagnetic energy transfer imply that a SMBH should generate a 1018 - 1019 Ampères current close to the black hole and its accretion disk. We describe the so far best observation-based estimate of the magnitude of the current flow along the axis of the jet extending from the nucleus of the active galaxy in 3C303. The current is measured to be I ˜ 1018 Ampères at ˜ 40 kpc away from the AGN. This indicates that organised current flow remains intact over multi-kpc distances. The electric current I transports electromagnetic power into free space, P = I2Z, where Z ˜ 30 Ohms is related to the impedance of free space, and this points to the existence of cosmic electric circuit. The associated electric potential drop, V = IZ, is of the order of that required to generate Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). We also explore further implications, including disruption/deflection of the power flow and also why such measurements, exemplified by those on 3C303, are currently very difficult to make and to unambiguously interpret. This naturally leads to the topic of how such measurements can be extended and improved in the future. We describe the analogy of electromagnetically dominated jets with transmission lines. High powered jets in vacuo can be understood by approximate analogy with a waveguide. The importance of inductance, impedance, and other laboratory electrical concepts are discussed in this context.

  16. Extragalactic circuits, transmission lines, and CR particle acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronberg Philipp P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-negligible fraction of a Supermassive Black Hole's (SMBH rest mass energy gets transported into extragalactic space by a remarkable process in jets which are incompletely understood. What are the physical processes which transport this energy? It is likely that the energy flows electromagnetically, rather than via a particle beam flux. The deduced electromagnetic fields may produce particles of energy as high as ∼ 1020 eV. The energetics of SMBH accretion disk models and the electromagnetic energy transfer imply that a SMBH should generate a 1018 − 1019 Ampères current close to the black hole and its accretion disk. We describe the so far best observation-based estimate of the magnitude of the current flow along the axis of the jet extending from the nucleus of the active galaxy in 3C303. The current is measured to be I ∼ 1018 Ampères at ∼ 40 kpc away from the AGN. This indicates that organised current flow remains intact over multi-kpc distances. The electric current I transports electromagnetic power into free space, P = I2Z, where Z ∼ 30 Ohms is related to the impedance of free space, and this points to the existence of cosmic electric circuit. The associated electric potential drop, V = IZ, is of the order of that required to generate Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR. We also explore further implications, including disruption/deflection of the power flow and also why such measurements, exemplified by those on 3C303, are currently very difficult to make and to unambiguously interpret. This naturally leads to the topic of how such measurements can be extended and improved in the future. We describe the analogy of electromagnetically dominated jets with transmission lines. High powered jets in vacuo can be understood by approximate analogy with a waveguide. The importance of inductance, impedance, and other laboratory electrical concepts are discussed in this context.

  17. Characterization and Analysis of A Healthy 330 Kilovolt Double Circuit Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onuegbu J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 330KV healthy transmission line was analyzed with the aim to investigating the influence of high voltage on human being at normal regime. Some of the operating parameters of the line, namely: shock current and voltage, inductance, reactance, radio interference, electric field charge and corona effect were highlighted. The level of protection of humans and safety operation of the power system were investigated using numerical analysis. From the analysis, a healthy 330KV transmission line can generate a carrier frequency of about 85 KHz and that corona formation in double circuit power lines is slower than in single circuit lines and that step voltage is proportional to transmission line sag. Based on the results of the paper, normally operating 330KV transmission line parameters do exceed their rated values and this is not good for healthy living

  18. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, upl line, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  19. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Underground Electric Lines, Published in unknown, North Georgia College and State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Underground...

  20. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  1. A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler utilizing composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HU Li; HE Sai-ling

    2005-01-01

    A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler (BLC) utilizing composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines is presented. Two λ/4 segments consisting of CRLH transmission lines are added to each port to broaden the dual bands of the branch-line coupler. Numerical simulation and optimal design of the novel coupler are presented. The dual bands of the novel coupler are tunable and broad. The 1-dB bandwidth of each passband is more than 16% of the central frequency.

  2. The Issues of Reactive Power Compensation in High-voltage Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lubośny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the selection of compensation shunt reactors for a double-circuit 400 kV transmission line using the example of the newly built Elk Bis – Alytus transmission line. The analysis takes into account various conditions of the power system. The published results relate to voltage levels in steady states and during switching processes and short circuits.

  3. 78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft... Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0447). The... permit to the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct, operate,...

  4. A Complex Frequency Method for A Loaded Resonant Cavity of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGChanghong; LILong; SUTao; FANShengcai

    2004-01-01

    A complex frequency method for analyzing a loaded resonant cavity of transmission lines is presented in this paper. A sub-resonance system theory is used to treat the various loaded transmission lines cavity more effectively. Some practice examples are given to illustrate the application and validity of the proposed approach in this paper.

  5. A Study on the optimal reclosing method of the transmission and distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.D.; Han, K.N. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    We studied Auto-Reclosing(AR) schemes of the transmission and distribution line in the various power system. Major results of this study are ; - Investigation on the overseas AR schemes - Analysis of existing AR schemes in KOREA - Optimal reclosing method of the transmission and distribution line - Study of 765kV AR scheme related in HSGS. (author). 142 refs., 113 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project... previously announced this change in public meeting location on both the Northern Pass EIS Web site at...

  7. Explanation of the inverse Doppler effect observed in nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W

    2005-05-27

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator.

  8. Research on Electro-Magnetic Environment of UHV Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Employing even higher voltage level to promote power transmission economy is an important subject in the program of power transmission from west to east. The influence of electro-magnetic environment of transmission project being closely related with human health and construction cost has to be seriously considered before advancing transmission voltage. This paper analyzes and discusses overseas and domestic research achievements on radio interference, audible noise, power frequency electric field, power frequency magnetic fields, DC resultant field intensity and ion stream involved in power transmission at ultra-high-voltage (UHV)AC and ± 800 kV DC or even higher voltage levels. Suggestions on limiting electro-magnetic effects and their ceiling value as well as measures to improve electro-magnetic environment are put forward.

  9. Laboratory Investigation on Lightning Flashes to High Voltage Transmission Lines%Laboratory Investigation on Lightning Flashes to High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thongchai Disyadej; Stanislaw Grzybowski

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the attractive width of high voltage transmission lines to lightning strikes. In order to design the optimal lightning protection, the estimated number of lightning flashes on the line, which is based on its attractive width, needs to be determined. The investigation was performed using experiments with model tests at the Mississippi State University High Voltage Laboratory. For laboratory experiments, a total of 2,100 negative and positive switching impulse voltages were applied to transmission line models from a conducting rod, which represented a lightning downward leader. Different tested models of transmission lines on a scale of 1:100 were used. The effects of overhead ground wires, phase conductors, tower structures, and the magnitude and polarity of lightning strokes were also studied. The attractive width increased gradually with the height of overhead ground wires and towers as well as the magnitude of the lightning stroke current. Impulse polarity had an impact on the at- tractive width, and the attractive width for negative polarity was larger than that {or positive polarity. The taller tower had more effect on flash distribution to transmission lines than the shorter one. The experimental results agree with the actual transmission line observations published in literature. The new expressions for the attractive width of transmission lines, based on the experimental results, were established. The accurate estimation of the attractive width can help electric power utilities plan transmission systems reliably and economically. The detailed description of the back- ground problem, proposed method, experimental results, and analysis are presented in this paper.

  10. Review and Latest Trends in Mobile Robots Used on Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Sales Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current state of the art in mobile robots used on power transmission lines. Many theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in order to develop autonomous machines to travel along transmission lines to perform inspection and/or repair work. These machines can improve efficiency, reduce labour costs and are expected to reduce the risk of injury to maintenance personnel. Despite there already being a number of pieces of theoretical research and technological developments in this area, problems related to stability, ability and autonomy still exist. As such, first this paper presents the main studies already carried out and the devices generally used on power transmission lines. After the latest trends have been presented, a new idea for module robots carrying out inspections/maintenance of power transmission lines is presented. Finally, the future of mobile robots applied to power transmission lines is discussed.

  11. From devil to angel, transmission lines boost parallel computing of linear resistor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Transmission line is always big trouble for integrated circuits designers; however, it could be of great help to the parallel computing of extremely large linear resistor networks. In this paper, we introduce the virtual transmission method (VTM), which brings virtual transmission lines into linear resistor networks to achieve distributed and asynchronous parallel computing in the virtual time domain. Numerical experiments show that VTM could be efficiently running on the 2D or 3D microprocessor with arbitrary number of cores.

  12. Omega Transmission Lines with Applications to Effective Medium Models of Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of transmission lines with inherent bi-anisotropy and establish an analogy between these lines and volumetric bi-anisotropic materials. In particular, we find under what conditions a periodically loaded transmission line can be treated as an effective omega medium. Two example circuits are introduced and analyzed. The results have two-fold implications: opening a route to emulate electromagnetic properties of bi-anisotropic omega media using transmission-line meshes and understanding and improving effective medium models of composite materials with the use of effective circuit models of unit cells.

  13. Symmetry-Related Electromagnetic Properties of Resonator-Loaded Transmission Lines and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Naqui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress in the analysis and applications of the symmetry-related electromagnetic properties of transmission lines loaded with symmetric configurations of resonant elements. It will be shown that the transmission characteristics of these reactively loaded lines can be controlled by the relative orientation between the line and the resonant elements. Two main types of loaded lines are considered: (i resonance-based structures; and (ii frequency-splitting structures. In resonance-based transmission lines, a line is loaded with a single resonant (and symmetric element. For a perfectly symmetric structure, the line is transparent if the line and resonator exhibit symmetry planes of different electromagnetic nature (electric or magnetic wall, whereas the line exhibits a notch (resonance in the transmission coefficient if the symmetry planes behave as either electric or magnetic walls (symmetric configuration, or if symmetry is broken. In frequency-splitting lines, paired resonators are typically loaded to the transmission line; the structure exhibits a single notch for the symmetric configuration, whereas generally two split notches appear when symmetry is disrupted. Applications of these structures include microwave sensors (e.g., contactless sensors of spatial variables, selective mode suppressors (of application in common-mode suppressed differential lines, for instance and spectral signature barcodes, among others.

  14. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoltzfus, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fowler, William E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LeChien, Keith R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mazarakis, Michael G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, James K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulville, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Savage, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stygar, William A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKenney, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Peter A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacRunnels, Diego J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Finis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Porter, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  15. TWO-CONDUCTOR LOW-PASS TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    be incorporated into a practical line design. This may be accomplished through the use of lauric acid to solidify the line. (Author)...periodically load the line. Ferrite-filled dielectrics were investi gated. Experimental evidence indicates that little additional benefit is derived from

  16. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  17. Line nodes and surface Majorana flat bands in static and kicked p -wave superconducting Harper model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Qiang; Chen, M. N.; Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Gong, Jiangbin; Xing, D. Y.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of introducing nearest-neighbor p -wave superconducting pairing to both the static and kicked extended Harper model with two periodic phase parameters acting as artificial dimensions to simulate three-dimensional systems. It is found that in both the static model and the kicked model, by varying the p -wave pairing order parameter, the system can switch between a fully gapped phase and a gapless phase with point nodes or line nodes. The topological property of both the static and kicked model is revealed by calculating corresponding topological invariants defined in the one-dimensional lattice dimension. Under open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, Majorana flat bands at energy zero (quasienergy zero and π ) emerge in the static (kicked) model at the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone. For certain values of pairing order parameter, (Floquet) Su-Schrieffer-Heeger-like edge modes appear in the form of arcs connecting different (Floquet) Majorana flat bands. Finally, we find that in the kicked model, it is possible to generate two controllable Floquet Majorana modes, one at quasienergy zero and the other at quasienergy π , at the same parameter values.

  18. Beam imaging in the injection line of the INFN-LNS superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolosi, Dario, E-mail: dario.nicolosi@lns.infn.it; Cosentino, Luigi; Mascali, David; Pappalardo, Alfio; Castro, Maurizio; Celona, Luigi; Marchetta, Carmelo; Marletta, Salvatore; Maugeri, Antonio; Rifuggiato, Danilo; Seminara, Angelo; Gammino, Santo [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    A cheap and efficient diagnostic system for beam monitoring has been recently developed at INFN-LNS in Catania. It consists of a high sensitivity CCD camera detecting the light produced by an ion beam hitting the surface of a scintillating screen and a frame grabber for image acquisition. A scintillating screen, developed at INFN-LNS and consisting of a 2 μm BaF{sub 2} layer evaporated on an aluminium plate, has been tested by using {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar beams in the keV energy range. The CAESAR ECR ion source has been used for investigating the influence of the frequency and magnetic field tuning effects, the impact of the microwave injected power, and of the focusing solenoids along the low energy beam transport on the beam shape and current. These tests will allow to better understand the interplay between the plasma and beam dynamics and, moreover, to improve the transport efficiency along the low energy beam line and the matching with the superconducting cyclotron, particularly relevant in view of the expected upgrade of the machine.

  19. Stillbirth and residential proximity to extremely low frequency power transmission lines: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Yacouba, Soumana; Goneau, Marc; Zayed, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between electromagnetic field exposure and stillbirth has not been evaluated. We assessed associations between residential proximity to extremely low frequency power transmission lines and stillbirth across gestational age. Data included singleton live births (N=514,826) and stillbirths (N=2033) for 1998-2007 in metropolitan areas of Québec, Canada. Using power transmission line maps, the distances between lines and residential six-digit postal codes (rule out a possible link.

  20. Josephson junction-embedded transmission-line resonators: from Kerr medium to in-line transmon

    CERN Document Server

    Bourassa, J; Gambetta, Jay M; Blais, A

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general method to find the Hamiltonian of a linear circuit in the presence of a nonlinearity. Focussing on the case of a Josephson junction embedded in a transmission-line resonator, we solve for the normal modes of the system by taking into account exactly the effect of the quadratic (i.e. inductive) part of the Josephson potential. The nonlinearity is then found to lead to self and cross-Kerr effect, as well as beam-splitter type interactions between modes. By adjusting the parameters of the circuit, the Kerr coefficient K can be made to reach values that are weak (K \\kappa) or even very strong (K >> \\kappa) with respect to the photon-loss rate \\kappa. In the latter case, the resonator+junction circuit corresponds to an in-line version of the transmon. By replacing the single junction by a SQUID, the Kerr coefficient can be tuned in-situ, allowing for example the fast generation of Schr\\"odinger cat states of microwave light. Finally, we explore the maximal strength of qubit-resonator coupling...

  1. Interpretation of transmission through type II superconducting thin film on dielectric substrate as observed by laser thermal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindler, M.; Tesař, R.; Koláček, J.; Skrbek, L.

    2012-12-01

    We provide a thorough analysis of THz properties of BCS-like superconducting thin films. Temperature and frequency dependence of complex conductivity in zero magnetic field is discussed by utilizing the Zimmerman et al. explicit BCS based formula [Physica C 183 (1991) 99]. We extend this approach by employing the effective medium theory and develop a phenomenological model capable of accounting for the influence of external magnetic field. Using Yeh powerful formalism [Surface Sci. 96 (1980) 41] we calculate optical transmission of linearly polarized laser beam normally incident to a multilayered sample consisting of a thin NbN film grown on birefringent sapphire substrate, entirely covering ranges of interest in temperature and frequency. A proposal to exploit linear polarization of the incident beam parallel with principal axes of conductivity tensor is explained and theoretical predictions for a realistic NbN sample are computed and discussed.

  2. Performance Evaluation on Transmission Tower-Line System with Passive Friction Dampers Subjected to Wind Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration control and performance evaluation on a transmission-tower line system by using friction dampers subjected to wind excitations are carried out in this study. The three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a transmission tower is firstly constructed. A two-dimensional lumped mass model of a transmission tower is developed for dynamic analysis. The analytical model of transmission tower-line system is proposed by taking the dynamic interaction between the tower and the transmission lines into consideration. The mechanical model of passive friction damper is presented by involving the effects of damper axial stiffness. The equation of motion of the transmission tower-line system incorporated with the friction dampers disturbed by wind excitations is established. A real transmission tower-line system is taken as an example to examine the feasibility and reliability of the proposed control approach. An extensive parameter study is carried out to find the optimal parameters of friction damper and to assess the effects of slipping force axial stiffness and hysteresis loop on control performance. The work on an example structure indicates that the application of friction dampers with optimal parameters could significantly reduce wind-induced responses of the transmission tower-line system.

  3. Planning Electric Transmission Lines: A Review of Recent Regional Transmission Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-13

    The first Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) recommends that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a national review of transmission plans and assess the barriers and incentives to their implementation. DOE tasked Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to prepare two reports to support the agency’s response to this recommendation. This report reviews regional transmission plans and regional transmission planning processes that have been directed by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order Nos. 890 and 1000. We focus on the most recent regional transmission plans (those issued in 2015 and through approximately mid-year 2016) and current regional transmission planning processes. A companion report focuses on non-plan-related factors that affect transmission projects.

  4. Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code%Dynamic Model for the Z Accelerator Vacuum Section Based on Transmission Line Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼义翔; 雷天时; 吴撼宇; 郭宁; 韩娟娟; 邱爱慈; 王亮平; 黄涛; 丛培天; 张信军; 李岩; 曾正中; 孙铁平

    2011-01-01

    The transmission-line-circuit model of the Z accelerator, developed originally by W. A. STYGAR, P. A. CORCORAN, et al., is revised. The revised model uses different calculations for the electron loss and flow impedance in the magnetically insulated transmission line system of the Z accelerator before and after magnetic insulation is established. By including electron pressure and zero electric field at the cathode, a closed set of equations is obtained at each time step, and dynamic shunt resistance (used to represent any electron loss to the anode) and flow impedance are solved, which have been incorporated into the transmission line code for simulations of the vacuum section in the Z accelerator. Finally, the results are discussed in comparison with earlier findings to show the effectiveness and limitations of the model.

  5. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  6. A Novel Design of Radio Frequency Energy Relays on Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Tong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the energy problem of monitoring sensors on high-voltage power transmission lines and propose a wireless charging scheme for a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID sensor tag to solve a commercial efficiency problem: the maintenance-caused power outage. Considering the environmental influences on power transmission lines, a self-powered wireless energy relay is designed to meet the energy requirement of the passive RFID sensor tag. The relay can obtain the electric field energy from the transmission lines and wirelessly power the RFID sensor tags around for longer operating distance. A prototype of the energy relay is built and tested on a 110 kv line. The measurement results show that the energy relay can provide stable energy even with the influences of wind, noise and power outage. To our knowledge, it is the first work to power the RFID sensor tags on power transmission lines.

  7. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  8. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION LINE CIRCUITS BASED ON THE SEMIDISCRETIZATION OF TELEGRAPH EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yushun

    2001-01-01

    A new transient analysis method for the transmission line circuits is presented in this paper. Based on the semidiscretization of the telegraph equations, a discretized time domain companion models for the transmission lines which can be conveniently implemented in a general circuit simulator such as SPICE is derived. The computation required for the model is linear with time, equivalent to the recursive convolution-based method. The formulations for both single and coupled lossy transmission lines are given. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the method.

  9. Plasmonic transmission lines: from micro to nano scale with lambda/4 impedance matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Orenstein, Meir

    2007-05-28

    The downscaling of conventional RF transmission lines methodologies to subwavelength plasmonic circuits is discussed and demonstrated for a lambda/4 transformer impedance matching. The nano-size transformer, matching between 0.5mum and 50nm wide plasmonic transmission lines, enhances the coupling efficiency by more than 285% compared to the direct ("end fire") coupling - i.e. harvesting more than 86% of total incident power. The influence of the transverse resonances induced by the metal claddings of the input transmission line on the light harvesting is discussed as well.

  10. Semiannual report for the period April 1 to September 30, 1978 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project technical note No. 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-07

    Progress in the development, fabrication and testing of superconductors for HVAC power transmission systems is reported. Information is included on the materials evaluation of superconducting alloys, production of tapes from these alloys, principally Nb/sub 3/Sn cable insulation requirements and development, and the cryogenic equipment used in this research program. (LCL)

  11. Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Attamimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.

  12. Microstrip filters for measurement and control of superconducting qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Luigi; Bennett, Douglas A; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Wei; Lukens, James E

    2013-01-01

    Careful filtering is necessary for observations of quantum phenomena in superconducting circuits at low temperatures. Measurements of coherence between quantum states require extensive filtering to protect against noise coupled from room temperature electronics. We demonstrate distributed transmission line filters which cut off exponentially at GHz frequencies and can be anchored at the base temperature of a dilution refrigerator. The compact design makes them suitable to filter many different bias lines in the same setup, necessary for the control and measurement of superconducting qubits.

  13. Cryogenic Tests of 30 m Flexible Hybrid Energy Transfer Line with Liquid Hydrogen and Superconducting MgB2 Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Blagov, E. V.; Kostyuk, V. V.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    Recently we reported about first in the world test of 10 m hybrid energy transfer line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2 superconducting cable. In this paper we present the new development of our second hybrid energy transfer line with 30 m length. The flexible 30 m hydrogen cryostat has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section: simple vacuum superinsulation, vacuum superinsulation with liquid nitrogen shield and active evaporating cryostatting (AEC) system. We performed thermo-hydraulic tests of the cryostat to compare three thermo-insulating methods. The tests were performed at temperatures from 20 to 26 K, hydrogen flow from 100 to 450 g/s and pressure from 0.25 to 0.5 MPa. It was found that AEC thermal insulation practically eliminated completely heat transfer from room temperature to liquid hydrogen in the 10 m section. AEC thermal insulation method can be used for long superconducting power cables. High voltage current leads were developed as well. The current leads and superconducting MgB2 cable have been passed high voltage DC test up to 50 kV DC. Critical current of the cable at ∼21 K was ∼3500 A. The 30 m hybrid energy system developed is able to deliver up to 135 MW of chemical and electrical power in total.

  14. High precision ultrasonic guided wave technique for inspection of power transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Wang, Enrong; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Due to the merits of high inspection speed and long detecting distance, Ultrasonic Guided Wave(UGW) method has been commonly applied to the on-line maintenance of power transmission line. However, the guided wave propagation in this structure is very complicated, leading to the unfavorable defect localization accuracy. Aiming at this situation, a high precision UGW technique for inspection of local surface defect in power transmission line is proposed. The technique is realized by adopting a novel segmental piezoelectric ring transducer and transducer mounting scheme, combining with the comprehensive characterization of wave propagation and circumferential defect positioning with multiple piezoelectric elements. Firstly, the propagation path of guided waves in the multi-wires of transmission line under the proposed technique condition is investigated experimentally. Next, the wave velocities are calculated by dispersion curves and experiment test respectively, and from comparing of the two results, the guided wave mode propagated in transmission line is confirmed to be F(1,1) mode. Finally, the axial and circumferential positioning of local defective wires in transmission line are both achieved, by using multiple piezoelectric elements to surround the stands and send elastic waves into every single wire. The proposed research can play a role of guiding the development of highly effective UGW method and detecting system for multi-wire transmission line.

  15. Capacitive Coupling in Double-Circuit Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Benesova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm for calculation of capacitances and charges on conductors in systems with earth wires and in double-circuit overhead lines with respect to phase arrangement. A balanced voltage system is considered. A suitable transposition of individual conductors enables to reduce the electric and magnetic fields in vicinity of overhead lines and to limit the inductive and capacitive linkage. The procedure is illustrated on examples the results of which lead to particular recommendations for designers.

  16. TRANSMISSION LINE-WIRE DANCING (GALLOPING) – LYAPUNOV INSTABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Vanko; I. K. Marchevski

    2014-01-01

    This article describes aerodynamic losses of damping, or aerodynamic instability, which we observe in experiments and in engineering practice. As applied to industrial high-voltage lines this phenomenon is usually called galloping (dancing) of phase line wires. This phenolmenon can be explained by Lyapunov’s instability of equilibrium state of wires profile (cross-section). In addition to known condition of Grauert-den-Hartog’s instability there was obtained practical condition of instability...

  17. Investigation of structure of superconducting power transmission cables with LN2 counter-flow cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Higuchi, Noboru

    2003-04-01

    Establishment of long-distance cooling techniques and design of a compact cross section are required for development of HTC superconducting underground power cables. To save space of return coolant, a counter-flow cooling system appears promising. However, it is difficult to cool down long cables because of heat exchange between counter-flows due to high thermal conductivity of dielectric materials which separate both flows in range of liquid nitrogen temperature. We estimated temperature distributions analytically along model HTS power cables with counter-flow. Results of calculation showed that when liquid-nitrogen-impregnated polypropylene laminated paper was chosen for a dielectric material, great thickness was required to reduce heat exchange between counter-flows. We investigated various cable structures to optimize the counter-flow cooling system and cable size.

  18. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  19. MIDOT: A novel probe for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, K.; Novac, B. M.; Graneau, N.; Senior, P.; Smith, I. R.; Sinclair, M.

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductive probe, termed MIDOT, was developed for monitoring high-current flat transmission lines. While being inexpensive the probe does not require calibration, is resistant to both shock waves and temperature variations, and it is easy to manufacture and mount. It generates strong output signals that are relatively easy to interpret and has a detection region limited to a pre-defined part of the transmission line. The theoretical background related to the MIDOT probes, together with their practical implementation in both preliminary experimentation and high-current tests, is also presented in the paper. The novel probe can be used to benchmark existing 2D numerical codes used in calculating the current distribution inside the conductors of a transmission line but can also easily detect an early movement of a transmission line component. The probe can also find other applications, such as locating the position of a pulsed current flowing through a thin wire.

  20. Brazilian production development of class 2 polymeric surge arresters for transmission line application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellallibera, Adriano A. [Industria Eletromecanica Balestro, Mogi Mirim, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianoad@balestro.com; Andrade, Antonio Donizetti de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Guara; Duarte, Jose Vicente Pereira; Gois, Paulo Marcio Batista; Markiewicz, Rubens Leopoldo [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], Emails: andonize@cemig.com.br, anacris@cemig.com.br, vicente@cemig.com.br, pgois@cemig.com.br, rlmark@cemig.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper shows the steeps of Brazilian class 2 ZnO lightning surge arrester development and production, aiming to attend the goal of CEMIG transmission lines performance improvement against lightning discharges action. The description of CEMIG transmission lines performance, before and after the ZnO lightning arresters installation, the necessity of use of ZnO lightning surge arrester, the prototypes manufacture, tests, problems and solutions are presented. (author)

  1. Large field-of-view transmission line resonator for high field MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johannesson, Kristjan Sundgaard; Boer, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators is often a preferable choice for coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because they provide a number of advantages over traditional loop coils. The size of such resonators, however, is limited to shorter than half a wavelength due to high standing wave....... Achieved magnetic field distribution is compared to the conventional transmission line resonator. Imaging experiments are performed using 7 Tesla MRI system. The developed resonator is useful for building coils with large field-of-view....

  2. Large field-of-view transmission line resonator for high field MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johannesson, Kristjan Sundgaard; Boer, Vincent;

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators is often a preferable choice for coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because they provide a number of advantages over traditional loop coils. The size of such resonators, however, is limited to shorter than half a wavelength due to high standing wave....... Achieved magnetic field distribution is compared to the conventional transmission line resonator. Imaging experiments are performed using 7 Tesla MRI system. The developed resonator is useful for building coils with large field-of-view....

  3. Optimized Minimal Inductance Transmission Line Configuration for Z-Pinch Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O

    2003-10-16

    Successful dynamic Z-pinch experiments generally require good current delivery to the target load. Power flow losses through highly inductive transmission line configurations reduce the current available to the load. In this Brief Report, a variational calculus technique is used to determine the transmission line configuration that produces the least possible inductance and therefore the best possible current delivery for Z-pinch experiments.

  4. Optimized Minimal Inductance Transmission Line Configuration for Z-Pinch Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O

    2003-10-16

    Successful dynamic Z-pinch experiments generally require good current delivery to the target load. Power flow losses through highly inductive transmission line configurations reduce the current available to the load. In this Brief Report, a variational calculus technique is used to determine the transmission line configuration that produces the least possible inductance and therefore the best possible current delivery for Z-pinch experiments.

  5. The Numerical Analysis of Transmission Tower-Line System Wind-Induced Collapsed Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoqun Zhang; Hongnan Li; Gang Li; Wenming Wang; Li Tian

    2013-01-01

    The numerical simulation of transmission tower-line systems' progressive collapse performance is considered as a major research hotspot and significant project, due to the increasing number of wind-induced collapse accidents recently. In this study, the finite element models for single tower and transmission tower-line system were established to simulate wind-induced progressive collapse by birth-to-death element technique in ABAQUS/Explicit. The wind field, based on the Kaimal fluctuating wi...

  6. Frequency Selective Properties of Coaxial Transmission Lines Loaded with Combined Artificial Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Falcone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a modified coaxial transmission line by periodic inclusions will be discussed. The introduction of split ring resonators, conductor stubs, air gaps, and combination of these gives rise to new frequency selective properties, such as stopband or passband behavior, observable in planar as well as volumetric metamaterial structures. These results envisage new potential applications and implementation of devices in coaxial transmission line technology.

  7. Corporate-Feed Multilayer Bow-Tie Antenna Array Design Using a Simple Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Didouh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmission line model is used to design corporate-fed multilayered bow-tie antennas arrays; the simulated antennas arrays are designed to resonate at the frequencies 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 8 GHz corresponding to RFID, WIFI, and radars applications. The contribution of this paper consists of modeling multilayer bow-tie antenna array fed through an aperture using transmission line model. The transmission line model is simple and precise and allows taking into account the whole geometrical, electrical, and technological characteristics of the antennas arrays. The proposed transmission line model showed its interest in the design of different multilayered bow-tie antennas and predicted the correct resonance frequency for different applications in telecommunications. To validate the proposed transmission line model, the simulation results obtained are compared with those obtained by the method of moments. The results of simulations are presented and discussed. Using this transmission line approach, the resonant frequency, input impedance, and return loss can be determined simultaneously. The paper reports several simulation results that confirm the validity of the developed model. The obtained results are then presented and discussed.

  8. Digital simulation studies on long transmission line protection based on balance of energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文明浩; 陈德树; 尹项根

    2001-01-01

    The protection based balance of energy is a new technique specially proposed for long transmission lines. This technique depends upon the calculation of net energy into the transmission line by two independent methods and comparing them to indicate healthy and faulty conditions. In order to study the performance and feasibility of the protection based on balance of energy, the new protection has been extensively tested by using EMTP on a long transmission line with various configurations and operating conditions (including single pole line, double circuit lines and two-phase operation). The results calculated by EMTP show that under any condition of a power system, the proposed technique has excellent performance,the viability even for high resistance ground faults and a short operation time.

  9. Millikelvin thermal and electrical performance of lossy transmission line filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slichter, Daniel; Naaman, Ofer; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2009-03-11

    We report on the scattering parameters and Johnson noise emission of low-pass stripline filters employing a magnetically loaded silicone dielectric down to 25 mK. The transmission characteristic of a device with f-3dB=1.3 GHz remains essentially unchanged upon cooling. Another device with f-edB=0.4 GHz, measured in its stopband, exhibits a steady state noise power emission consistent with a temperature difference of a few mK relative to a well-anchored cryogenic microwave attenuator at temperatures down to 25 mK, thus presenting a matched thermal load.

  10. Electric characterization of a nonlinear dispersive transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.S.; Ricotta, R.M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: ferreira@fatecsp.br, regina@fatecsp.br

    2009-07-01

    A preliminary study of electrical soliton propagation in a nonlinear dispersion electrical line is presented. This is probably the simplest system that allows the observation of such waves whose main characteristic is the perfect balance of nonlinear and dispersive aspects. (author)

  11. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindler, M.; Tesař, R.; Koláček, J.; Skrbek, L.

    2017-02-01

    Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.

  12. Fractal model of lightning channel for simulating lightning strikes to transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JinLiang; ZHANG XueWei; DONG Lin; ZENG Rong; LIU ZeHong

    2009-01-01

    How to accurately evaluate the direct-strike lightning protection is one of the key issues in the design of transmission lines.In this paper, three important issues in applying the fractal simulation to the lightning protection of transmission lines were discussed, including the criteria and implementation of upward leader inception, the connection with the magnitude of lightning current, and the calculation and control of fractal dimensions.Then we conducted the simulation iterately, leading to statistical results, which indicate that even if the transmission line satisfies the perfect shielding condition, shielding failure fault remains possible.Furthermore, we calculated the shielding failure fault rates of an EHV line with different ground obliquities and distribution of strike points over the interval between two neighboring towers along a UHV-DC line to find out the weak point of transmission-line lightning protection.This work provides a promising approach for improving the lightning protection property of transmission lines by optimizing the configuration of shielding wires and phase or pole conductors.

  13. Fractal model of lightning channel for simulating lightning strikes to transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    How to accurately evaluate the direct-strike lightning protection is one of the key issues in the design of transmission lines. In this paper, three important issues in applying the fractal simulation to the lightning protection of transmission lines were discussed, including the criteria and implementation of upward leader inception, the connection with the magnitude of lightning current, and the calculation and control of fractal dimensions. Then we conducted the simulation iterately, leading to statistical results, which indicate that even if the transmission line satisfies the perfect shielding condition, shielding failure fault remains possible. Furthermore, we calculated the shielding failure fault rates of an EHV line with different ground obliquities and distribution of strike points over the interval between two neighboring towers along a UHV-DC line to find out the weak point of transmission-line lightning protection. This work provides a promising approach for improving the lightning protection property of transmission lines by optimizing the configuration of shielding wires and phase or pole conductors.

  14. Problems and countermeasures in construction of transmission line projects in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoShang Wang; QiHao Yu; YanHui You; Ze Zhang; Lei Guo; ShiJun Wang; Yong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Construction of power transmission lines is becoming an important part of permafrost engineering in China. This paper reviews the construction status and problems of transmission lines in different countries, as well as corresponding solutions that would be of practical significance for sustainable engineering practices. Russia has the longest history of transmission line construction in permafrost areas, with transmission lines (mainly 220 kV and 500 kV) spanning approximately 100,000 km. However, all countries suffer from permafrost-related tower foundation stability problems caused by freez-ing-thawing hazards such as frost heave and thaw settlement, frost lifting, and harmful cryogenic phenomena. As point-line transmission line constructions, the lines, poles and towers should be reasonably selected and installed with a comprehensive consideration of frozen soil characteristics to effectively reduce the occurrence of freezing-thawing dis-asters. Reinforced concrete pile foundations are widely used in the permafrost regions, and construction in winter is also a universal practice. Moreover, facilitating engineering measures like thermosyphons are an effective way to reduce freez-ing-thawing hazards and to maintain the stability of tower foundations.

  15. Fresnel equations and transmission line analogues for diffraction gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S.

    1995-08-01

    A simple and intuitive formalism is presented to describe diffraction in multi-layered periodic structures. We use the well known results from scalar analysis (wave propagation in homogeneous layered media) and show that they can be generalized rather readily to vector problems such as diffraction analysis. Specifically, we derive: (1) generalized Fresnel equations appropriate for reflection and transmission from an infinitely thick grating, (2) a generalized Airy formula for thin-film to describe reflection and transmission of light through a lamellar grating and (3) a matrix propagation method akin to that used for multi-layer thin film analysis. The results developed here complement the recent work on R-matrix and S-matrix propagation algorithms that have been used in connection with modal and differential grating theories. These algorithms have proven to be numerically stable for calculating diffraction efficiencies from deep groove gratings. The formalism developed here expands upon the earlier literature by providing important details that are hitherto unavailable.

  16. Stationary levitation and vibration transmission characteristic in a superconducting seismic isolation device with a permanent magnet system and a copper plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S., E-mail: s.sasaki@ecei.tohoku.ac.j [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Shimada, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T. [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Kawai, N.; Yasui, K. [Okumura Corporation, 5-6-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 180-8381 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We have devised a magnetic levitation type superconducting seismic isolation device taking advantage of the specific characteristic of HTS bulk that the HTS bulk returns to its original position by restoring force against a horizontal displacement. The superconducting seismic isolation device is composed of HTS bulks and permanent magnets (PM rails). The PMs are fixed on an iron plate to realize the same polarities in the longitudinal direction and the different polarities in the transverse direction. The superconducting seismic isolation device can theoretically remove any horizontal vibrations completely. Therefore, the vibration transmissibility in the longitudinal direction of the PM rail becomes zero in theory. The zero vibration transmissibility and the stationary levitation, however, cannot be achieved in the real device because a uniform magnetic field distribution in the longitudinal direction of PM rail cannot be realized due to the individual difference of the PMs. Therefore, to achieve stationary levitation in the real device we adopted a PM-PM system that the different polarities are faced each other. The stationary levitation could be achieved by the magnetic interaction between the PMs in the PM-PM system, while the vibration transmitted to the seismic isolation object due to the magnetic interaction. We adopted a copper plate between the PMs to reduce the vibration transmissibility. The PM-PM system with the copper plate is very useful for realizing the stationary levitation and reducing the vibration transmissibility.

  17. Practical Aspects of the Transmission Line Stub Matching in Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Novak

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available While designing microwave circuits with microstrip lines using open or shorted stubs for matching or realization of filters, the actual circuit can be substantially mismatched when the length of the open stub is below 30 degrees of electrical length, or shorted stub is over 60 degrees of electrical length. Realization of such stubs could lead to practical difficulties because the normal etching accuracy does not support the exact lengths required for such stubs.

  18. State Inspection for Transmission Lines Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-jia; JIANG Xiu-chen; SHENG Ge-hao; YANG Wei-wei

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring transmission towers is of great importance to prevent severe thefts on them and ensure the reliability and safety of the power grid operation. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a method for finding underlying factors or components from multivariate statistical data based on dimension reduction methods, and it is applicable to extract the non-stationary signals. FastICA based on negentropy is presented to effectively extract and separate the vibration signals caused by human activity in this paper. A new method combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique with the adaptive threshold method is applied to extract the vibration pulses, and suppress the interference signals. The practical tests demonstrate that the method proposed in the paper is effective in separating and extracting the vibration signals.

  19. 76 FR 26183 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the safety of life on... Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register...

  20. Interconnection of the power systems of the far east by using line HVDC transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Dydchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the interconnection continental part of the Russian Far East with the energy systems of Sakhalin and Japan. Indicate the technical possibility of this decision. The comparative analysis of the prospects for the construction of transmission lines of AC and DC. Proved the advantage of applying the lines of direct current for the interconnection of the Far East.

  1. Insulator and Clerance Requirements in Overhead Line Transmission Systems without Shield Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically examines the required insulation lengths and clearances in 400 kV overhead line systems when not making use of ground wires as lightning protection. The influence of lightning strikes to the system is investigated based on dynamic transmission line simulations of a 400 kV...

  2. Insulator and Clerance Requirements in Overhead Line Transmission Systems without Shield Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This paper theoretically examines the required insulation lengths and clearances in 400 kV overhead line systems when not making use of ground wires as lightning protection. The influence of lightning strikes to the system is investigated based on dynamic transmission line simulations of a 400 k...

  3. Corona noise model of high-voltage AC transmission lines and engineering applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jiuhui; Di Zelong

    2013-01-01

    In order to predict the levels of corona noise from high-voltage alternating current (AC) transmission lines,the mechanism of corona noise and the corresponding theoretical prediction model are investigated.On the basis of Drude model,the motion of positive and negative ions produced by high-voltage corona is analyzed,and the mechanism of corona noise is discovered.The theoretical prediction model is put forward by using Kirchhoff formula,which is verified by the well agreement between our result and others',considering the case of three-phase single lines.Moreover,the calculation results show that for both single and bundled lines,the sound pressure level of the typical frequency,i.e.twice the power frequency,attenuates slowly and leads to an obviously interferential phenomenon near the transmission lines,but the level of the bundled lines is smaller than that of the single ones under the same transmission voltage.Based on the mechanism of corona noise and the prediction model,it is obvious that bundled lines and/or increased line radius can be adopted to reduce corona noise in the practical engineering applications effectively.This model can also provide a theoretical guidance for the high-volt-age AC transmission line design.

  4. Identification of Optimum Location of STATCOM in Transmission Line Employing RCGA Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Falehi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects the optimum location of STATCOM device in long transmission line to acquire the maximum power system transient stability improvement. STATCOM is a kind of prominent and effective shunt FACTS device which is used in power system to enhance the power system stability and to regulate the line voltage. When it has been placed at the center point of a transmission line, play a key role in controlling the reactive power flow and enhancing the power system transient stability. The active power losses caused by transmission line resistance alter the neutral position or optimum location of STATCOM in transmission line. RCGA optimization due to have high ability to solve non-linear objective function has been implanted to identify the optimum location of STATCOM. The results of non-linear simulation under severe disturbance approve that the optimum location of STATCOM in order to access the maximum power system transient stability by reducing the active power losses approaches to midpoint of transmission line.

  5. Radiating nonuniform transmission-line systems and the partial element equivalent circuit method

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsch, Juergen; Wollenberg, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    High frequencies of densely packed modern electronic equipment turn even the smallest piece of wire into a transmission line with signal retardation, dispersion, attenuation, and distortion. In electromagnetic environments with high-power microwave or ultra-wideband sources, transmission lines pick up noise currents generated by external electromagnetic fields. These are superimposed on essential signals, the lines acting not only as receiving antennas but radiating parts of the signal energy into the environment. This book is outstanding in its originality. While many textbooks rephrase

  6. Modeling of Multilayer Transmission Lines for High-Speed Digital Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan M. Musa,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the finite element modeling of multilayer transmission lines for high-speed digital interconnects. We mainly focused on the modeling of the transmission structures with both cases of symmetric and asymmetric geometries. We specifically designed asymmetric coupled microstrips and four-line symmetric coupled microstrips with a two-layer substrate. We computed the capacitance matrix for asymmetric coupled microstrips and the capacitance, inductance, and impedance matrices for four-line symmetric coupled microstrips on a two-layer substrate. We also provide the potential distribution spectrums of the models and their meshing analysis.

  7. Accurate Modeling of Multilayer Transmission Lines for High-Speed Digital Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarhan M. Musa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the finite element modeling of multilayer transmission lines for high-speed digital interconnects. We mainly focused on the modeling of the transmission structures with both cases of symmetric and asymmetric geometries. We specifically designed asymmetric coupled microstrips and four-line symmetric coupled microstrips with a two-layer substrate. We computed the capacitance matrix for asymmetric coupled microstrips and the capacitance, and inductance matrices for four-line symmetric coupled microstrips on a twolayer substrate. We also provide the potential distribution spectrums of the models.

  8. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... alternative to conventional cables, as they are able to transmit two or more times the energy than a conventional cable. HTS cables with a room temperature dielectric design are especially interesting as a target for replacing overhead lines. Superconducting cables in the overall network are of interest...... in cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...

  9. Arcing Faults Location Methods for Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Pustułka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three different fault location approaches: one-end Takagi algorithm, two-end algorithm considering natural fault loops and neural network. It is assumed that three-phase voltages and currents from both ends of the line measured asynchronously are the input signals of the fault locator. In addition to natural fault loop signals also the use of symmetrical components (positive and negative or incremental positive sequence components for fault location were considered. Results of the evaluation study have been included, analyzed and discussed. The impact of filtration has also been considered.

  10. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  11. Modulational Instability in a Pair of Non-identical Coupled Nonlinear Electrical Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Tala-Tebue; Aurelien Kenfack-Jiotsa; Marius Hervé Tatchou-Ntemfack; Timoléon Crépin Kofané

    2013-01-01

    In this work,we investigate the dynamics of modulated waves non-identical coupled nonlinear transmission lines.Traditional methods for avoiding mode mixing in identical coupled nonlinear electrical lines consist of adding the same number of linear inductors in each branch.Adding linear inductors in a single line leads to asymmetric coupled nonlinear electrical transmission lines which propagate the signal and the mode mixing.On one hand,the difference between the two lines induced the fission for only one mode of propagation.This fission is influenced by the amplitude of the signal and the amount of the input energy as well; it also narrows the width of the input pulse soliton,leading to a possible increasing of the bit rate.On the other hand,the dissymmetry of the two lines converts the network into a good amplifier for the w_ mode which corresponds to the regime admitting low frequencies.

  12. Comparative analysis of techniques for control of switching overvoltages during transmission lines energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestas, P.; Tavares, M.C. [School of Electrical and Computing Engineering, University of Campinas, PO Box: 6101, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The energization of long transmission lines can cause high overvoltage stresses not only along the transmission line, but also in the rest of the network. The traditional method of limiting switching overvoltages to acceptable levels is the use of circuit breakers equipped with pre-insertion resistors. The present paper describes a study comparing this traditional method with two other alternatives for the limitation of switching overvoltages during line energization in an actual 500 kV transmission system: the use of metal oxide surge arresters at both line closing of circuit breaker poles. Digital simulations were made with PSCAD/EMTDC software and the degree of shunt compensation is considered as an independent parameter. (author)

  13. Current and field distributions of a superconducting power transmission cable composed of helical tape conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaka, Toshiharu

    2009-12-01

    The current distributions within a power transmission cable composed of helically wound long tape superconductors have been studied by solving the circuit equation with the inductance matrix among divided segments within a tape conductor under the Bean model. The self- and mutual inductances of helical thin tape conductors are calculated from the analytical expressions in the form of an infinite series. In addition, it is shown that the distinction between the right-handed and left-handed helixes is generally necessary in the mutual inductance between two long coaxial helical conductors.

  14. Current and field distributions of a superconducting power transmission cable composed of helical tape conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaka, Toshiharu, E-mail: tominaka@mext.go.j, E-mail: tominaka@riken.j [Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan); RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The current distributions within a power transmission cable composed of helically wound long tape superconductors have been studied by solving the circuit equation with the inductance matrix among divided segments within a tape conductor under the Bean model. The self- and mutual inductances of helical thin tape conductors are calculated from the analytical expressions in the form of an infinite series. In addition, it is shown that the distinction between the right-handed and left-handed helixes is generally necessary in the mutual inductance between two long coaxial helical conductors.

  15. Assessment of Fecundity and Germ Line Transmission in Two Transgenic Pig Lines Produced by Sleeping Beauty Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried A. Kues

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome.

  16. Assessment of fecundity and germ line transmission in two transgenic pig lines produced by sleeping beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Wiebke; Holler, Stephanie; Cleve, Nicole; Niemann, Heiner; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A

    2012-10-12

    Recently, we described a simplified injection method for producing transgenic pigs using a non-autonomous Sleeping Beauty transposon system. The founder animals showed ubiquitous expression of the Venus fluorophore in almost all cell types. To assess, whether expression of the reporter fluorophore affects animal welfare or fecundity, we analyzed reproductive parameters of two founder boars, germ line transmission, and organ and cell specific transgene expression in animals of the F1 and F2 generation. Molecular analysis of ejaculated sperm cells suggested three monomeric integrations of the Venus transposon in both founders. To test germ line transmission of the three monomeric transposon integrations, wild-type sows were artificially inseminated. The offspring were nursed to sexual maturity and hemizygous lines were established. A clear segregation of the monomeric transposons following the Mendelian rules was observed in the F1 and F2 offspring. Apparently, almost all somatic cells, as well as oocytes and spermatozoa, expressed the Venus fluorophore at cell-type specific levels. No detrimental effects of Venus expression on animal health or fecundity were found. Importantly, all hemizygous lines expressed the fluorophore in comparable levels, and no case of transgene silencing or variegated expression was found after germ line transmission, suggesting that the insertions occurred at transcriptionally permissive loci. The results show that Sleeping Beauty transposase-catalyzed transposition is a promising approach for stable genetic modification of the pig genome.

  17. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric - VOLUSIA COUNTY MAJOR POWER LINES (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Power Line data was aggregated by using parcel data and visual inspection of 2005 aerial photography to determine centerline of Power Lines Right of...

  18. Assessment and study of existing concepts and methods of cryogenic refrigeration for superconducting transmission cables. Progress report, 1 September 1975--31 October 1975. [Operation of helium liquefiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadi, F J; Longsworth, R C

    1975-01-01

    Progress made in a six task program on methods for cryogenic refrigeration for superconducting transmission cables is reported. The current report period included a review of equipment versus requirements, development of an optimization criteria, and evaluation of component reliability and efficiency. The results and findings of the helium refrigerator user visits, system and component manufacturers responses to questionnaires, telephone calls and visits, and the information obtained from a review of APCI standard N/sub 2/ plant experience are presented.

  19. Analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of coupled resonant elements and application to sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqui, J.; Su, L., E-mail: lijuan.suri.su@gmail.com; Mata, J.; Martín, F., E-mail: Ferran.Martin@uab.es

    2015-06-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of magnetically coupled resonators. We have considered two different structures: (i) a microstrip line loaded with pairs of stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), and (ii) a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line loaded with pairs of split ring resonators (SRRs). In both cases, the line exhibits a single resonance frequency (transmission zero) if the resonators are identical (symmetric structure with regard to the line axis), and this resonance is different to the one of the line loaded with a single resonator due to inter-resonator coupling. If the structures are asymmetric, inter-resonator coupling enhances the distance between the two split resonance frequencies that arise. In spite that the considered lines and loading resonators are very different and are described by different lumped element equivalent circuit models, the phenomenology associated to the effects of coupling is exactly the same, and the resonance frequencies are given by identical expressions. The reported lumped element circuit models of both structures are validated by comparing the circuit simulations with extracted parameters with both electromagnetic simulations and experimental data. These structures can be useful for the implementation of microwave sensors based on symmetry properties. - Highlights: • Magnetic-coupling between resonant elements affects transmission properties. • Inter-resonant coupling enhances the distance of two resonant frequencies. • The structures are useful for sensors and comparators, etc.

  20. Modern Travelling Wave Based Fault Location Techniques for HVDC Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ping; XU Bingyin; LI Jing; GE Yaozhong

    2008-01-01

    The modern travelling wave based fault location principles for transmission lines are ana-lyzed. In order to apply the travelling wave principles to HVDC transmission lines, the special tech-nical problems are studied. Based on this, a fault locating system for HVDC transmission lines is developed. The system can support modern double ended and single ended travelling wave princi-ples simultaneously, and it is composed of three different parts: travelling wave data acquisition and processing system, communication network and PC based master station. In the system, the fault generated transients are induced from the ground leads of the over-voltage suppression ca-pacitors of an HVDC line through specially developed travelling wave couplers.The system was applied to 500 Kv Gezhouba-Nanqiao(Shanghai)HVDC transmission line in China. Some field op- eration experiences are summarized, showing that the system has very high reliability and accu- racy,and the maximum location error is about 3 km(not more than 0.3% of the total line length). Obviously, the application of the system is successful, and the fault location problem has finally been solved completely since the line operation.

  1. Assessment and study of existing concepts and methods of cryogenic refrigeration for superconducting transmission cables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadi, F J; Longsworth, R C

    1976-02-01

    A review of current programs to develop superconducting power transmission shows that current plans require helium refrigerators operating at 5 to 13/sup 0/K and 3 to 15 atm pressure with compressor power input in the range of 1,300 to 3,500 HP. Future requirements will probably trend toward slightly higher temperatures and larger refrigerators. Present large helium refrigerators and APCI standard nitrogen plants were studied and an average outage frequency of about 18 per year is found to be typical for both. Cost and reliability studies of alternate refrigeration systems based on studies of components shows that the best current system which would have a failure rate of once in 20 years would consist of two full size oil flooded screw compressors in parallel, manifolded to two full size cold boxes and a liquid helium back up dewar. The principal area of development needed to implement this system is in the switch over mechanisms. These include switching to an auxillary power source in the event of power interruption, switching to the standby compressor, and switching to the back up liquid helium dewar. Costs are projected as being only slightly greater than preliminary estimates.

  2. Analog Signal Processing in Transmission Line Metamaterial Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several novel dispersion-engineered CRLH TL metamaterial analog signal processing systems, exploiting the broadband dispersive characteristics and design flexibility of CRLH TLs, are presented. These systems are either guided-wave or radiated-wave systems, and employ either the group velocity or the group velocity dispersion parameters. The systems presented are: a frequency tunable impulse delay line, a pulse-position modulator, a frequency discriminator and real-time Fourier transformer, pulse generators, an analog real-time spectrum analyzer, a frequencyresolved electrical gating, a spatio-temporal Talbot effect imager, and analog true-time delayer. They represent a new class of impulse-regime metamaterial structures, while previously reported metamaterials were mostly restricted to the harmonic regime.

  3. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  4. Electromagnetic Field Interference on Transmission Lines due to On-Board Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekwon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the available space in the board of a mobile device becomes smaller and more compact, circuit elements and transmission lines are arranged in very close proximity, especially from the antennas which are usually installed on the same board. Due to the various on-board antennas which are designed in small space, the transmission lines on the board are electromagnetically interfered, resulting in the performance degradation of the circuit. So the engineers and circuit designers should find the least interfered place for the transmission lines and components to minimize the electromagnetic interferences. This paper discusses and presents a methodology to find the least sensitive position in the induced current distribution as well as in the noise power delivered from the antenna. For this purpose some vertical, horizontal, and bent transmission lines with antenna on the same board are designed and fabricated with and without common ground, and the transferred powers to the transmission lines were measured and were also simulated using a full-wave simulator. The results predicted by the EM simulation model were successfully confirmed through the measurement of S-parameters in the experimental setup, which shows the validness of the suggested analysis method.

  5. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B. [ITER-India, IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States); Ellis, R. F. [Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  6. Tracing overhead transmission line corridors with regard to environmental and spatial qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cof

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities for running the proposed overhead transmission line Okroglo-Italian border. The Slovene and Italian methods are shown as methods enabling consideration of environmental and spatial impact within the process of planning overhead transmission line corridors. The Slovene method consists of analyses of attractiveness and vulnerability, whereby the first considers those functional and economic factors that affect spatial attractiveness for overhead transmission lines. Thus we can assess the level of economic and functional suitability of alternative routes of the proposed 400 kilovolt overhead transmission line from transformation station Okroglo (Slovenia to Srednje, Golo Brdo and Vrtojba, three potential contact points on the Slovene–Italian border. In accordance with stipulations of the Law on spatial management vulnerability models were prepared, which were used to simulate the development’s potential negative environmental effects and to analyse suitability, which implies harmonisation of development and protection demands. Their result is a possible corridor that can be developed without significant conflicts. The Italian procedure was developed to trace the transmission line corridor from the Slovenian border to the transformation station in Udine. It was also applied on the Slovenian side. Three groups of factors were considered in the procedure: exclusion, repulsion, and attraction. The much simpler procedure enables comparisons, since it uses the same or at least similar spatial data. In conclusion a short commentary is added about the corridor concept as a planning tool.

  7. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  8. Coupling and corona effects research plan for transmission lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J E; Formanek, V C

    1976-06-01

    Concern has arisen over the possible effects of electric and magnetic fields produced by EHV-UHV transmission lines. Past and ongoing research concerning the electric and magnetic field effects from EHV-UHV transmission lines was reviewed as it pertains to the following areas: (1) electromagnetic interference, (2) acoustic noise, (3) generation of gaseous effluents, and (4) safety considerations of induced voltages and currents. The intent of this review was to identify the short and long range research projects required to address these areas. The research plan identifies and gives priority to twenty programs in corona and coupling effects. In the case of the corona effects, a number of programs were recommended for acoustic noise and electromagnetic interference to delineate improved power line design criteria in terms of social, meteorological, geographical and cost constraints. Only one project is recommended in the case of ozone generation, because the results of comprehensive analyses, laboratory studies and field measurements have demonstrated that power lines do not contribute significant quantities of ozone. In the case of the coupling effects, a number of programs are recommended for HVAC transmission lines to improve the theoretically developed design guidelines by considering practical constraints. For HVDC transmission lines, programs are suggested to engender a better theoretical understanding and practical measurements capability for the coupling mechanisms of the dc electric and magnetic field with nearby objects. The interrelationship of the programs and their role in a long-term research plan is also discussed.

  9. Transient Stability of the Power System with the Exact Long Transmission Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The exact long transmission line model consists of the lump of the series resistance, reactance and shunt capacitance. With the consideration the actual long transmission line model, it causes in the difficulty of deriving the mathematical model. Approach: This study investigates the transient stability of power system with consideration the exact long transmission line model. The concept of two-port network is applied in this study. The generator, transformer and short transmission line are represented by two-port networks. With the combination principles of the series and shunt connection, the mathematical model is achieved in a much simpler way. The proposed method is tested on the sample system and compared on various cases. Results: The first swing of rotor angle curve of the faulted system without the resistance is obviously higher than that of with the resistance whereas the second swing of the faulted system without the resistance is slightly less than that of with the resistance. The critical clearing time of the system with the resistance is better than that of with resistance. Conclusion: It was found from the simulation results that the resistance of the line provides the improvement of the first swing but not for the second swing. It was found from this study that for practical long line, the resistance is very import parameters to determine the critical clearing time of the single machine infinite system whereas shunt capacitance insignificantly affects on the critical clearing time of the single machine infinite bus system.

  10. Determing the Time Dependence of Electrical Gradients in Railguns using the Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Phys., 40, 274-283. Feynman , R., Leighton, R., and Sands, M. 1964: The Feynman Lectures in Physics vol II, 3rd ed. Addison Wesley, 238 pp...2) This is similar to the familiar transmission line equation ( Feynman , et al, 1964) relating the gradient of the voltage along a transmission...strong function of time (skin effect) while LX is relatively insensitive to time. We attribute this to fundamental differences in the physics of the

  11. Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

  12. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. Hossein; Williamson, Ian A. D.; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines. PMID:27137628

  13. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC-constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1THz and plasmonic effects at higher frequencies. Our numerical modelling between the microwave and optical regimes reveals that conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband LC region. This resultant frequency-independent attenuation is an ideal characteristic that is known to be non-existent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines.

  14. Research of Bipolar HVDC Transmission Lines Based on Traveling Wave Differential Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baina He

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle of the traveling wave based differential protection for bipolar HVDC transmission lines is proposed in the paper. Unlike the traditional current differential protection, the quantity of current is replaced by the quantity of the traveling wave for comparison. The traveling wave at the remote end is transferred to the local end for comparison to the local traveling wave. For the bipolar DC transmission lines, the polar-mode (aerial mode traveling waves are employed to establish the discriminative criterion. The ground-mode traveling waves are utilized for faulty line detector for bipolar operation modes. The entire protection scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC associated with the standard ±500kV HVDC transmission system. The simulation results show that the new protection has the advantages of higher sensitivity, reliability and security. The fault resistance can be coverd by the traveling wave based differential protection reaches to 500 Ohm.    

  15. Fast Decoupled Power Flow for Power System with High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Line System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High voltage direct current transmission line system has been widely applied for control power flow in power system. The power flow analysis was the one of powerful tools by which the power system equipped was analyzed both for planning and operation strategies. Approach: This study presented the method to analyze power flow of power system consisted of HVDC system. HVDC was modeled as the complex power injections. The presented complex power injected was incorporated into the existing power flow program based on fast decoupled method. The presented method was tested on the multimachine power system. Results: The transmission line loss of the system with and without HVDC was compared. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the HVDC can reduce transmission line loss of power system.

  16. Kinetic inductance driven nanoscale 2D and 3D THz transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S Hossein; Williamson, Ian A D; Wang, Zheng

    2016-05-03

    We examine the unusual dispersion and attenuation of transverse electromagnetic waves in the few-THz regime on nanoscale graphene and copper transmission lines. Conventionally, such propagation has been considered to be highly dispersive, due to the RC time constant-driven voltage diffusion below 1 THz and plasmonic effects at higher optical frequencies. Our numerical modeling across the microwave, THz, and optical frequency ranges reveals that the conductor kinetic inductance creates an ultra-broadband linear-dispersion and constant-attenuation region in the THz regime. This so-called LC region is an ideal characteristic that is known to be absent in macro-scale transmission lines. The kinetic-LC frequency range is dictated by the structural dimensionality and the free-carrier scattering rate of the conductor material. Moreover, up to 40x wavelength reduction is observed in graphene transmission lines.

  17. High voltage transmission lines studies with the use of artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    The paper presents an alternative approach for the studies of high voltage transmission lines based on artificial intelligence and more specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). In contrast to the existing conventional-analytical techniques and simulations which are using in the calculations empirical and/or approximating equations, this approach is based only on actual field data and actual measurements. The proposed approach is applied on high voltage transmission lines in order to calculate the lightning outages, on grounding systems in order to assess the grounding resistance and on high voltage transmission lines' polluted insulators in order to estimate the critical flashover voltage. The obtained results are very close to the actual ones for all three case studies, something which clearly implies that the ANN approach is well working and has an acceptable accuracy, constituting an additional tool of electric engineers. (author)

  18. Experimental analysis of a TEM plane transmission line for DNA studies at 900 MHz EM fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS INFN sez. di Lecce, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Doria, D [Dipartimento di Fisica, Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS INFN sez. di Lecce, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Lorusso, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS INFN sez. di Lecce, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V [Dipartimento di Fisica, Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS INFN sez. di Lecce, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Velardi, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Laboratorio di Elettronica Applicata e Strumentazione, LEAS INFN sez. di Lecce, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Arnesano, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Laboratorio di Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Monaco, C [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Laboratorio di Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Tala, A [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Laboratorio di Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Tredici, M [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Laboratorio di Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, CP 193, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Raino, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, INFN sez. di Bari, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Amendola, 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2006-07-07

    A suitable plane transmission line was developed and its behaviour analysed at 900 MHz radiofrequency fields to study DNA mutability and the repair of micro-organisms. In this work, utilizing such a device, we investigated the behaviour of DNA mutability and repair of Escherichia coli strains. The transmission line was very simple and versatile in changing its characteristic resistance and field intensity by varying its sizes. In the absence of cell samples inside the transmission line, the relative modulation of the electric and/or magnetic field was {+-}31% with respect to the mean values, allowing the processing of more samples at different exposure fields in a single run. A slight decrease in spontaneous mutability to rifampicin-resistance of the E. coli JC411 strain was demonstrated in mismatch-repair proficient samples exposed to the radio-frequency fields during their growth on solid medium.

  19. Onset of dispersion in Nb microstrip transmission lines at submillimeter wave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, H. H. S.; Mcgrath, William R.; Bumble, B.; Leduc, Henry G.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the dispersion in phase velocity of a Nb-SiO(x)-Nb microstrip transmission line resonator over a frequency range from 50 GHz to 800 GHz. A submicron Nb/Al-AlO(x)/Nb Josephson junction was used as a voltage-controlled oscillator to excite the high order modes in the resonator. The same junction is used as a direct detector resulting in a series of step-like structures in the DC current-voltage characteristic at the position of each mode frequency. The transmission line is dispersionless up to about 500 GHz where the phase velocity begins to decrease. This is well below the gap frequency f(sub g) approx. equals 700 GHz. Results agree qualitatively with the expected theoretical behavior near f(sub g). This onset of dispersion and loss in Nb transmission lines will have a significant impact on the design of submillimeter wave RF circuits.

  20. Enhanced coherent OTDR for long span optical transmission lines containing optical fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Koyamada, Yahei; Sumida, Masatoyo

    1995-05-01

    We have newly constructed an enhanced coherent optical time domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) for use in testing optical cable spans in transmission lines containing erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's), which is based on heterodyne detection using acousto-optic (AO) switches. In order to avoid any optical surges in the EDFA's in the transmission lines, optical dummy pulses were added between the signal pulses by an AO switch to keep the probe power from the C-OTDR as uniform as possible. We achieved a large single-way dynamic range of 42 dB with 5 dBm less probe power. The measurable portion of the fiber spans was more than 80 km in optical transmission lines containing EDFA's. This is twice the previously reported value.

  1. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  2. Competition Mechanism of Lightning Upward Leaders Issued from UHVDC Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei; LI Qingmin; LU Xinchang; ZOU Liang; SUN Qiuqin

    2012-01-01

    Research on the lightning shielding failure characteristics of UHVDC transmission lines is important for adequate transmission line protection and safe operation of a power grid. Focusing the competition characteristics of upward leaders in the lightning attachment process, this work provides technical reference for efficient evaluations of lightning shielding failures and reliable lightning protection designs of UHVDC transmission lines. The charge simulation method is employed to calculate electric field distributions. Based on the calculation and some data obtained by recent long-gap discharge and lightning observations, the effect of several upward leaders starting from UHVDC transmission lines on lightning attachment processes is studied by numerical simulation. The results show that the upward leader inception is delayed, the propagation velocity is smaller, and the propagation direction of the upward leader is changed with interaction among all upward leaders, which influences the selection of lightning striking point. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy of calculating the lightning shielding failure rate of UHVDC transmission lines, the interaction characteristics of upward leaders should be taken into account . In addition, an analysis of the influence of operating voltage and the protection angle of UHVDC transmission lines based on competition mechanism of upward leaders is made. It is found that the existence of operating voltage mainly affects the ability of the conductor and the overhead ground wire at the same side to incept upward leaders, while the protection angle mainly affects the position of the "starting points" of upward leaders. The results indicate that positive polar conductors should be installed closer to hillsides and the negative protection angle of towers is suggested.

  3. Study on the principle of intelligent helmet's electric alarm device in transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zehao; Peng, Lin; Bao, Xingchuan; Zhu, Liang; Wang, He; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    This thesis made study on the Principle of Intelligent Helmet's Electric Alarm Device in Transmission Line. Based on the simulation analysis of the electric field strength and electric field characteristics of three-phase 10kV transmission line, this thesis put forward the calculation method of the electric alarm distance by developing a calculation model, and then explains proof of the accuracy of intelligent helmet's electric alarm and discusses its theoretical basis. At last, the theoretical analysis' correctness and the measurement's accuracy of the intelligent helmet's electric alarm device is proved by tests.

  4. Using technique vibration diagnostics for assessing the quality of power transmission line supports repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpakov Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The considered method for assessing the quality of the repair work to restore the rack supports of transmission lines is based on the method of vibration diagnostics. Power transmission line supports with a symmetrical destruction of the protective layer of concrete in the ground in violation of the construction section were chosen as an object. Finite element modelling package Ansys was used in assessing the quality of repair work. The example of evaluating the quality of repair using the relative adhesion defective area design criteria in the analysis of natural vibration frequencies is given.

  5. A microwave transmission-line network guiding electromagnetic fields through a dense array of metallic objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alitalo, Pekka; Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of a transmission-line network, designed for cloaking applications in the microwave region. The network is used for channelling microwave energy through an electrically dense array of metal objects, which is basically impenetrable to the impinging electromagnetic radiation. With the designed transmission-line network the waves emitted by a source placed in an air-filled waveguide, are coupled into the network and guided through the array of metallic objects. Our goal is to illustrate the simple manufacturing, assembly, and the general feasibility of these types of cloaking devices.

  6. Study on Reactance Relays for Single Phase to Earth Fault on EHV Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two questions about zero-sequence-reactance relay to overcome the disadvantages of high fault resistance for single phase to earth fault of high voltage transmission lines are discussed in this paper. The first question is about the phase difference between the measured zero-sequence current and voltage at fault position for un-balanced transmission lines. The second question is about the “in-phase” problem in reactance relays (or fault component reactance relays. This paper analyzes the two questions theoretically and the reactance relay is improved by a new discriminative principle. The capability against the fault resistance is largely enhanced by the improved schemes.    

  7. Transmission efficiency improvement of the injector line of SFC by particle beam decorrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尧; 赵红卫; 原有进; 冯玉成; 孙良亭; 方兴; 卢旺; 张文慧; 曹云; 张雪珍

    2015-01-01

    The operation of the HIRFL accelerator has shown that the beam transmission efficiency of the sector focusing cyclotron (SFC) injector line is rather poor. Beam simulations have been performed to investigate the possible causes for this low transmission. It is predicted that the property of transversal coupling of the ion beam from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source can be an important factor to degrade the beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, resulting in a serious particle loss. An improved operation scheme for the SECRAL associated line has been proposed, and the corresponding experiment was carried out. This paper presents the test results.

  8. Robust phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Diana M.; Neves, Washington L.A. [Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Aprigio Veloso, 882 Campina Grande, PB 58.109-970 (Brazil); Boaventura, Wallace do C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG 31.270-010 (Brazil)

    2006-05-15

    This work presents a methodology for deriving a phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting. A polynomial matrix in the discrete-time domain describes the resulting model. The robustness of the representation, its stability and passivity, is attained by imbedding a set of constraints in the solution of the fitting equations, which are solved using quadratic programming. Results demonstrating from transient simulations the features of the derived representation are presented for the case of an asymmetric, untransposed two-phase transmission line. (author)

  9. Reflection and transmission calculations in a multilayer structure with coherent, incoherent, and partially coherent interference, using the transmission line method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, N A; Savaidis, S P; Botsialas, A; Ioannidis, Z C; Georgiadou, D G; Vasilopoulou, M; Pagiatakis, G

    2015-02-20

    A generalized transmission line method (TLM) that provides reflection and transmission calculations for a multilayer dielectric structure with coherent, partial coherent, and incoherent layers is presented. The method is deployed on two different application fields. The first application of the method concerns the thickness measurement of the individual layers of an organic light-emitting diode. By using a fitting approach between experimental spectral reflectance measurements and the corresponding TLM calculations, it is shown that the thickness of the films can be estimated. The second application of the TLM concerns the calculation of the external quantum efficiency of an organic photovoltaic with partially coherent rough interfaces between the layers. Numerical results regarding the short circuit photocurrent for different layer thicknesses and rough interfaces are provided and the performance impact of the rough interface is discussed in detail.

  10. Ground-Wave Propagation Effects on Transmission Lines through Error Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transient calculation of overhead transmission lines is strongly influenced by the natural resistivity of the ground. This varies from 1-10K (Ω·m depending on several media factors and on the physical composition of the ground. The accuracy on the calculation of a system transient response depends in part in the ground return model, which should consider the line geometry, the electrical resistivity and the frequency dependence of the power source. Up to date, there are only a few reports on the specialized literature about analyzing the effects produced by the presence of an imperfectly conducting ground of transmission lines in a transient state. A broad range analysis of three of the most often used ground-return models for calculating electromagnetic transients of overhead transmission lines is performed in this paper. The behavior of modal propagation in ground is analyzed here into effects of first and second order. Finally, a numerical tool based on relative error images is proposed in this paper as an aid for the analyst engineer to estimate the incurred error by using approximate ground-return models when calculating transients of overhead transmission lines.

  11. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Voltage Stability of Long Transmission Line Equipped with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power-Voltage curve provides very important information for voltage stability analysis. The exact long transmission line model consists of the resistance and the reactance. The resistance causes in the active line loss. It is not easy task to achieve the power-voltage curve characteristics of power system with the exact long line model equipeed with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC. Approach: This study applies the concept of the Newton-Raphson method to iteratively solve the nonlinear power flow equations. The Power-Voltage (P-V curve charateristic of the system without line loss and with line loss are plotted and compared on various cases. Results: It is found from the study that the resistance of the line obviously provides the negative effects on the voltage stability. The line loss causes in the decrement of the critical point. In addition, it is found that the leading power factor can increase the critical point of P-V curve. Conclusion: The exact long line model should be considered for voltage stability analysis of the system with the long transmission line.

  13. Voltage Stability of Medium Transmission Line Equipped with a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power-Voltage curve provides very important information for voltage stability analysis. The exact medium transmission line model consists of the resistance and the reactance. The resistance causes in the active line loss. It is not an easy task to achieve the power-voltage curve characteristics of power system with the exact medium line model equipped with a. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC. Approach: This study applies the concept of the Newton-Raphson method to iteratively solve the nonlinear power flow equations. The Power-Voltage (P-V curve characteristic of the system without line loss and with line loss are plotted and compared with various cases. Results: It is found from the study that the resistance of the line obviously provides the negative effects on the voltage stability. The line loss causes in the decrement of the critical point. In addition, it is found that the leading power factor can increase the critical point of P-V curve. Conclusion: The exact medium line model should be considered for voltage stability analysis of the system with the medium transmission line.

  14. Power-Voltage Characteristics of Power System with the Long Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Power- Voltage curve provides very important information for voltage stability analysis. The exact long transmission line model consists of the resistance and the reactance. The resistance causes in the active line loss. It is not easy task to achieve the power-voltage curve characteristics of power system with the exact long line model. Approach: This study applies the concept of the Newton-Raphson method to iteratively solve the nonlinear power flow equations. The Power-Voltage (P-V curve characteristic of the system without line loss and with line loss are plotted and compared on various cases. Results: It is found from the study that the resistance of the line obviously provides the negative effects on the voltage stability. The line loss causes in the decrement of the critical point. In addition, it is found that the leading power factor can increase the critical point of P-V curve. Conclusion: The exact long line model should be considered for voltage stability analysis of the system with the long transmission line.

  15. Modeling Delays of Microwave Transistors and Transmission Lines by the 2nd Order Bessel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulovec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of simulation programs can characterize gate delays of microwave transistors. However, the delay is mostly approximated by means of first-order differential equations. In the paper, a more accurate way is suggested which is based on an appropriate second-order differential equation. Concerning the transmission line delay, majority of the simulation programs use both Branin (for lossless lines and LCRG (for lossy lines models. However, the first causes extreme simulation times, and the second causes well-known spurious oscillations in the simulation results. In the paper, an unusual way for modeling the transmission line delay is defined, which is also based on the second-order Bessel function. The proposed model does not create the spurious oscillations and the simulation times are comparable with those obtained with the classical models. Properties of the implementation of the second-order Bessel function are demonstrated by analyses of both digital and analog microwave circuits.

  16. A Novel Fault Location Algorithm for Double-Circuit Transmission Lines based on Distributed Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商立群; 施围

    2006-01-01

    A new fault location algorithm for double-circuit transmission lines is described in this paper. The proposed method uses data extracted from two ends of the transmission lines and thus eliminates the effects of the source impedance and the fault resistance. The distributed parameter model and the modal transformation are also employed. Depending on modal transformation, the coupled equations of the lines are converted into decoupled ones. In this way, the mutual coupling effects between adjacent circuits of the lines are eliminated and therefore an accurate fault location can be achieved. The proposed method is tested via digital simulation using EMTP in conjunction with MATLAB. The test results corroborate the high accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. 600 GHz resonant mode in a parallel array of Josephson tunnel junctions connected by superconducting microstrip lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper;

    1994-01-01

    The high frequency properties of the one-dimensional transmission line consisting of a parallel array of resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions have been studied in the limit of relatively low damping where this nonlinear system exhibits new and interesting phenomena. Here we report...

  18. Obtaining statistics of cascading line outages spreading in an electric transmission network from standard utility data

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We show how to use standard transmission line outage historical data to obtain the network topology in such a way that cascades of line outages can be easily located on the network. Then we obtain statistics quantifying how cascading outages typically spread on the network. Processing real outage data is fundamental for understanding cascading and for evaluating the validity of the many different models and simulations that have been proposed for cascading in power networks.

  19. Electrical and mechanical design criteria for EHV and UHV: overhead transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The results are presented of a program devoted to the selection of electrical and mechanical design criteria and parameters for overhead power transmission lines for ac systems rated at from 345 to 1100 kV and for dc systems rated at from 600 to 1200 kV. Information is included on the environmental effects, i.e., audible noise and electric fields, of the lines, mechanical and economic requirements, safety, failures, grounding, and lightning protection. (LCL)

  20. Analysis on Lighting Withstand Characteristics of Polymeric ZnO Surge Arrester for Transmission Line against Lightning Overvoltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.W.; Cho, H.G. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea); He, J.L. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (Switzerland)

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the lightning withstand levels (LWLs) of two 110 kV transmission lines before and after line arresters made with polymeric housing are installed on the towers, the lightning discharging currents through arresters and lightning energies absorbed by line arresters. The LWLs can be highly increased by installing line arresters on the transmission line towers in parallel with the insulator strings. It is not problem that the polymeric ZnO surge arresters are used in transmission lines to limit lightning overvoltages. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Deicing of medium voltage power transmission lines by Joule heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, S.; Vahidi, B. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2005-07-01

    A Joule heating method for the de-icing of overhead transmission lines was presented. The combined use of short circuits and reduced voltage was introduced as as effective method for the de-icing of sub-transmission lines of a utility in Iran. The method is able to melt ice in a short period of time. The required electrical current and the time needed for melting the ice as a function of wind speed, air temperature and ice thickness was determined by using a finite difference heat transfer model which considered the heat flux terms. An algorithm of the application method was proposed using the finite difference heat transfer model and considering steady state radial heat conduction. The required time for melting the accumulated ice on overhead transmission lines for different values of line current and climatic conditions was calculated. In the proposed method, after disconnecting the end of the line, a 3 phase short circuit was applied and accumulated ice was melted because of Joule losses. The main restrictions to the method were the current rating of facilities, and source capacity. After a consideration of these restrictions, instead of feeding the line by rated voltage, a voltage with a value of about 20 to 40 per cent of its rated voltage was applied and a short circuit on the end of the line should be made. The algorithm was made by collecting the data for the power system, disconnecting both ends of the line from the system and applying required changes on loads. transformers calculated from the load flow of the system. The line was fed with the reduced voltage by connecting the line to a lower level voltage. A case study of the method was presented. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Stability Enhancement of Power System by Controlling Hvdc Power Flow through the Same Ac Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Upendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Long extra high voltage (EHV ac lines cannot be loaded to their thermal limits in order to keep sufficient margin against transient instability. With the scheme proposed in this paper, it is possible to load these lines very close to their thermal limits. The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability. This paper presents the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into composite ac–dc power transmission line to get the advantages of parallel ac–dc transmission to improve stability and damping out oscillations. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out for the coordinated control as well as independent control of ac and dc power transmissions. No alterations of conductors, insulator strings, and towers of the original line are needed. Substantial gain in the loadability of the line is obtained. Master current controller senses ac current and regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit. The present paper is implemented by using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  3. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's perspective on overhead transmission line protection against lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutil, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's interest in transmission line surge arresters (TLSA) was discussed. The utility conducted studies regarding the use of TLSAs to reduce outages caused by lightning in overhead transmission lines having voltages of 52 to 330 kV. It was determined that in some cases, TLSA is the only solution to reducing flashover initiated by lightning. This paper presented the results of 4 different TLSA configurations in which the impact of grounding resistance on TLSA performance was examined in an effort to determine the most effective configuration. The study revealed that lightning flashovers could be reduced by 70 per cent by installing 1 TLSA on every 2 poles of a 52 kV transmission line. The TLSA should be mounted on one pole structure and the earth wire on the unprotected poles should be removed. According to several tests conducted at Hydro-Quebec's Institut de Recherche en Electricite du Quebec (IREQ), the energy absorption capability of arresters from 4 different manufacturers proved to be at least 6 kJ/kv. The arresters failure rate was estimated to 3 per cent every time a lightning strike occurred on a transmission line. It was suggested that a 100 km long line with one pole every 60 meters should not have more than one arrester failure per year. The arresters must be installed with a mechanical device that could disconnect a failed unit from the transmission system to avoid a permanent fault on the network. It was concluded that TLSAs are useful in reducing lightning flashovers caused by lightning. However, Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie still has concerns regarding their cost, reliability, impact on line maintenance, testing difficulties in the field, mechanical stress on the conductors, and their ability to withstand dielectric behaviour under ice. tabs., figs.

  4. Mechanical Implementation and Simulation of MoboLab, A Mobile Robot for Inspection of Power Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Saadat Foumani; Mostafa Nayyerloo; Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi Yeganehparast; Alireza Barati

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase in development of a mobile robot that can navigate aerial power transmission lines completely unattended by human operator. Its ultimate purpose is to automate inspection of power transmission lines and their equipments. The authors have developed a scaled functional model of such a mobile robot with a preliminary simple computer based on-off controller. MoboLab (Mobile Laboratory) navigates a power transmission line between two strain towers. It can maneu...

  5. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  6. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  7. On-chip sub-terahertz surface plasmon polariton transmission lines in CMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Hao Chi; Yang, Chang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-10-08

    A low-loss and low-crosstalk surface-wave transmission line (T-line) is demonstrated at sub-THz in CMOS. By introducing periodical sub-wavelength structures onto the metal transmission line, surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) are excited and propagate signals via a strongly localized surface wave. Two coupled SPP T-lines and two quasi-TEM T-lines are both fabricated on-chip, each with a separation distance of 2.4 μm using standard 65 nm CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the SPP T-lines achieve wideband reflection coefficient lower than -14 dB and crosstalk ratio better than -24 dB, which is 19 dB lower on average than the traditional T-lines from 220 GHz to 325 GHz. The demonstrated compact and wideband SPP T-lines have shown great potential for future realization of highly dense on-chip sub-THz communications in CMOS.

  8. Broad band Transmission Performance over Residential Power Lines Employing VDSL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani K R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging and Transmission of VDSL2 broadband over power lines has received considerable attention recently to cater to broadband distribution within the premises of a residence. Power lines are fundamentally different from telephone lines both in topology and load impedance. Power lines have a thicker gauge and shorter straight lengths, apart from a large number of bridge taps (BT with inductive load terminations, which are not matched to line impedances. In this paper ABCD parameters of the individual sections are used to analyze the power line channel of upto 10 bridge taps over a 600 meter length. The noise profiles considered include periodic impulse noise which is predominant over power line sections, apart from AWGN. Tone loading profiles have been obtained using Discrete Multitone Transmission (DMT as in VDSL2 over a bandwidth of 30 MHz. This analysis points to the fact that lower Transmit PSD would suffice to match the rates achievable by traditional VDSL2 when bridge taps are open. However with inductive loads typical in residences, we recommend a two step approach of (a equipping existing VDSL2 modem front end hybrids with settable impedances that would approach a conjugate match of the loaded line along with (b capability to nominally increase the Transmit PSD and added subbands to achieve the desired rates in a seamless manner as in VDSL2.

  9. 75 FR 56051 - Bemidji to Grand Rapids Minnesota 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji, Minnesota and the Boswell Substation near Grand... also proposes to modify the Wilton and Boswell substations and construct a new 115 kV breaker station... substation in the Cass Lake, Minnesota area, depending on the route alternative selected for the Project. The...

  10. 76 FR 4575 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of high voltage transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the... feed Logan Airport. The safety zone will be enforced immediately before, during, and after the start...

  11. Lightning Protection Performance Assessment of Transmission Line Based on ATP model Automatic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hanwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the initial lightning breakdown current by combing ATP and MATLAB simulation software effectively, with the aims to evaluate the lightning protection performance of transmission line. Firstly, the executable ATP simulation model is generated automatically according to the required information such as power source parameters, tower parameters, overhead line parameters, grounding resistance and lightning current parameters, etc. through an interface program coded by MATLAB. Then, the data are extracted from the generated LIS files which can be obtained by executing the ATP simulation model, the occurrence of transmission lie breakdown can be determined by the relative data in LIS file. The lightning current amplitude should be reduced when the breakdown occurs, and vice the verse. Thus the initial lightning breakdown current of a transmission line with given parameters can be determined accurately by continuously changing the lightning current amplitude, which is realized by a loop computing algorithm that is coded by MATLAB software. The method proposed in this paper can generate the ATP simulation program automatically, and facilitates the lightning protection performance assessment of transmission line.

  12. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  13. Evaluation of Transmission Line Model Structures for Silicide-to-Silicon Specific Contact Resistance Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, Natalie; Dal, van Mark J.H.; Lauwers, Anne; Vrancken, Christa; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Wolters, Rob A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to measure silicide-to-silicon specific contact resistance ρc, transmission line model (TLM) structures were proposed as attractive candidates for embedding in CMOS processes. We optimized TLM structures for nickel silicide and platinum silicide and evaluated them for various doping levels

  14. Conversion from constitutive parameters to dispersive transmission line parameters for multi-band metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Yusuf; Egemen Yilmaz, Asim; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we explain an approach including conversion from constitutive parameters to dispersive transmission line parameters using the double-band DNG (double-negative) properties of the circular type fishnet metamaterials. After designing the metamaterial structure, the numerical calculations and the composite right/left-handed (CRLH) modeling of circular-type metamaterials are realized in free space. Detailed dispersion characteristics give us the opportunity to explain the true behavior of the inclusions during the analysis stage. By combining the results coming from the standard retrieval procedure with the conventional CRLH theory, we calculate the actual values of the transmission line parameters for all frequency regimes. The constitutive parameters of an equivalent CRLH transmission line are derived and shown to be negative values. It is shown that the constitutive parameters present the same behavior for all negative refractive index regimes. The double-negative properties and the phase advance/lag behavior of metamaterials are observed based on the dispersive transmission line parameters.

  15. Efficient design of multituned transmission line NMR probes: the electrical engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydel, J A; Krzystyniak, M; Pienkowski, D; Pietrzak, M; de Sousa Amadeu, N; Ratajczyk, T; Idzik, K; Gutmann, T; Tietze, D; Voigt, S; Fenn, A; Limbach, H H; Buntkowsky, G

    2011-01-01

    Transmission line-based multi-channel solid state NMR probes have many advantages regarding the cost of construction, number of RF-channels, and achievable RF-power levels. Nevertheless, these probes are only rarely employed in solid state-NMR-labs, mainly owing to the difficult experimental determination of the necessary RF-parameters. Here, the efficient design of multi-channel solid state MAS-NMR probes employing transmission line theory and modern techniques of electrical engineering is presented. As technical realization a five-channel ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C, (2)H and (15)N) probe for operation at 7 Tesla is described. This very cost efficient design goal is a multi port single coil transmission line probe based on the design developed by Schaefer and McKay. The electrical performance of the probe is determined by measuring of Scattering matrix parameters (S-parameters) in particular input/output ports. These parameters are compared to the calculated parameters of the design employing the S-matrix formalism. It is shown that the S-matrix formalism provides an excellent tool for examination of transmission line probes and thus the tool for a rational design of these probes. On the other hand, the resulting design provides excellent electrical performance. From a point of view of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), calibration spectra of particular ports (channels) are of great importance. The estimation of the π/2 pulses length for all five NMR channels is presented.

  16. Multiwavelet packet entropy and its application in transmission line fault recognition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiaoge

    2014-11-01

    Multiwavelets possess better properties than traditional wavelets. Multiwavelet packet transformation has more high-frequency information. Spectral entropy can be applied as an analysis index to the complexity or uncertainty of a signal. This paper tries to define four multiwavelet packet entropies to extract the features of different transmission line faults, and uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to recognize and classify 10 fault types of power transmission lines. First, the preprocessing and postprocessing problems of multiwavelets are presented. Shannon entropy and Tsallis entropy are introduced, and their difference is discussed. Second, multiwavelet packet energy entropy, time entropy, Shannon singular entropy, and Tsallis singular entropy are defined as the feature extraction methods of transmission line fault signals. Third, the plan of transmission line fault recognition using multiwavelet packet entropies and an RBF neural network is proposed. Finally, the experimental results show that the plan with the four multiwavelet packet energy entropies defined in this paper achieves better performance in fault recognition. The performance with SA4 (symmetric antisymmetric) multiwavelet packet Tsallis singular entropy is the best among the combinations of different multiwavelet packets and the four multiwavelet packet entropies.

  17. Exact Solutions for a Local Fractional DDE Associated with a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, İsmail

    2016-09-01

    Of recent increasing interest in the area of fractional calculus and nonlinear dynamics are fractional differential-difference equations. This study is devoted to a local fractional differential-difference equation which is related to a nonlinear electrical transmission line. Explicit traveling wave solutions (kink/antikink solitons, singular, periodic, rational) are obtained via the discrete tanh method coupled with the fractional complex transform.

  18. Fault Detection and Localization in Transmission Lines with a Static Synchronous Series Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYES-ARCHUNDIA, E.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault detection and localization method for power transmission lines with a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC. The algorithm is based on applying a modal transformation to the current and voltage signals sampled at high frequencies. Then, the wavelet transform is used for calculating the current and voltage traveling waves, avoiding low frequency interference generated by the system and the SSSC. Finally, by using reflectometry principles, straightforward expressions for fault detection and localization in the transmission line are derived. The algorithm performance was tested considering several study cases, where some relevant parameters such as voltage compensation level, fault resistance and fault inception angle are varied. The results indicate that the algorithm can be successfully be used for fault detection and localization in transmission lines compensated with a SSSC. The estimated error in calculating the distance to the fault is smaller than 1% of the transmission line length. The test system is simulated in PSCAD platform and the algorithm is implemented in MATLAB software.

  19. Design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Waveguide Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.; Grunloh, H.; Koliner, J.

    2007-11-01

    The ITER ECH transmission line system is designed to deliver the power, from twenty-four 1 MW 170 GHz gyrotrons and three 1 MW 127.5 GHz gyrotrons, to the equatorial and upper launchers. The performance requirements, initial design of components and layout between the gyrotrons and the launchers is underway. Similar 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguide systems have been built and installed on several fusion experiments; however, none have operated at the high frequency and long-pulse required for ITER. Prototype components are being tested at low power to estimate ohmic and mode conversion losses. In order to develop and qualify the ITER components prior to procurement of the full set of 24 transmission lines, a 170 GHz high power test of a complete prototype transmission line is planned. Testing of the transmission line at 1-2 MW can be performed with a modest power (˜0.5 MW) tube with a low loss (10-20%) resonant ring configuration. A 140 GHz long pulse, 400 kW gyrotron will be used in the initial tests and a 170 GHz gyrotron will be used when it becomes available. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  20. Lumped Approximation of a Transmission Line with an Alternative Geometric Discretization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopezlena, Ricardo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic one-dimensional transmission line represented in a distributed port-Hamiltonian form is lumped into a chain of subsystems which preserve the port-Hamiltonian structure with inputs and outputs in collocated form. The procedure is essentially an adaptation of the procedure for discr

  1. Theoretical limit of repeater spacing in an optical transmission line utilizing Raman amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, T.; Seikai, S.; Nakazawa, M.; Negishi, Y.

    1986-08-01

    The limit of repeater spacing is investigated theoretically for optical transmission lines utilizing stimulated Raman scattering to amplify the signal light. Achievable repeater spacing is numerically estimated on the basis of coupled power equations and measured fiber characteristics for various signal wavelengths and relative index differences. Three types of transmission line configurations are considered, i.e., utilization of forward only, backward only, and bidirectional amplification. In the third case, a transmission distance of more than 400 km is predicted for an input signal light power of 100 microW, a signal wavelength of 1.57 microns, and a pump power of 0.5 W using a fiber with a relative index difference of 1 percent for signal light amplification.

  2. Synchrophasors-Assisted IPII-Based Intelligent Relaying for Transmission Lines Including UPFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Manas Kumar; Samantaray, S. R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a synchrophasors-assisted intelligent relaying scheme for transmission lines compensated by Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The algorithm uses a new relaying signal termed as imaginary part of integrated impedance (IPII). The synchronized phasor measurements at both ends of the transmission line are used to extract voltage and current phasors from instantaneous voltage and current signals. The voltage and current phasors are utilized to derive IPII of each phase. Further, IPII of each phase is used as input to a data-mining model termed as decision tree (DT) which provides the final relaying decision. The proposed algorithm is validated on real-time digital simulator (RTDS) platform, and the results obtained indicate that the proposed scheme is both dependable and secure in protecting transmission system compensated by UPFC.

  3. Advances in fibers and transmission line technology for long haul submarine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, David W.; Kim, Jinkee; Sun, Yi; Lingle, Robert L., Jr.; Levring, Ole

    2007-11-01

    The 7.1-magnitude earthquake on December 26, 2006 in the Strait of Luzon resulted in the failure of several submarine cable systems. Seven of the nine cables that pass through the strait were damaged, disrupting communications to China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Singapore. This recent event highlighted the dependence of international communications on submarine fiber optic transmission systems. This paper will review the evolution of optical fiber transmission line technology that has been deployed in the long haul undersea telecommunications network. It will start with a discussion of the chronological evolution of the optical fiber transmission line architecture in section one, then give more detail regarding the technology that is still being deployed today.

  4. The Effect of R/X Ratio of the Short Transmission Line on Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The exact short transmission line model consists of the resistance and reactance. Most of previous researches study the transient stability of single machine infinite bus with neglecting the resistance of the line. Thus the simulation results may not close to the practical system. With the consideration with the actual short line model, it causes difficulty of deriving the mathematical model. Approach: This study investigates the transient stability of power system with consideration of the exact short transmission line model. The concept of two-port network is applied in this study. The generator, transformer and short transmission line are represented by a two-port. With the combination principles of the series and shunt connection, the mathematical model is achieved in a much simpler way. The proposed method is tested on the sample system and compared on various cases. Results: The first swing of rotor angle curve of the faulted system without the resistance is obviously higher than that of with the resistance whereas the second swing of the faulted system, without the resistance, is slightly less than that of with the resistance. The critical clearing time of the system with the resistance is better than that of with resistance. Conclusion: It was found in this study that the resistance of the transmission line should be included for investigating the transient stability of the power system. The resistance of the line provides the better results of the critical clearing time of the system but it provides the negative effect on damping improvement.

  5. Progress on corrugated waveguide components suitable for ITER ECH&CD transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, R. A.; Callis, R. W.; Cengher, M.; Doane, J. L.; Gorelov, Y. A.; Grunloh, H. J.; Moeller, C. P.; Murphy, C. J.

    2012-09-01

    The 2 MW cw requirement for ITER EC transmission lines has led GA to design a number of new and modified components, namely power monitors and polarizers to meet this requirement. In addition, the ITER transmission lines may require sliding joints or bellows to accommodate the thermal expansion of the lines and/or vessel motion. The ex-vessel sections of the EC launchers require double seal waveguides, miter bends and possibly double seal sliding joints to assure tritium retention in this region. GA has developed designs for many of these components and some of them have already been tested at high power at the JAEA RF Test Stand. Thermal analyses of the standard GA power monitor miter bend show that our standard design is suitable for 1 MW cw operation when the H-field is in the plane of the miter bend. For 2 MW cw operation a modified design, which also requires H-plane orientation, has been developed and a prototype has been fabricated and is ready for testing. For long pulse/cw operation, a 2 MW calorimetric miter bend with thermally isolated mirror has been designed and a prototype has been fabricated. Since the mirror is thermally isolated, calorimetry on the mirror cooling water can provide a measure of absorbed power. Such a miter bend, when made in a double seal version, could be useful for monitoring total power at the end of an EC transmission line just before the in-vessel section of an EC launcher. A mode analyzer using an all metal water-cooled beam splitter is being developed for use in measuring in real time the HE11 and higher order mode content or total power in EC transmission lines. Such a high power diagnostic can be very useful in optimizing the alignment of the MOU output into a transmission line and in monitoring the HE11 mode purity at various locations in a transmission line. Prior to making a 63.5 mm 170 GHz version suitable for use on ITER, several prototype 31.75 mm 110 GHz versions have been fabricated and tested at DIII-D. A 170 GHz

  6. Progress on corrugated waveguide components suitable for ITER ECH&CD transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy C.J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2 MW cw requirement for ITER EC transmission lines has led GA to design a number of new and modified components, namely power monitors and polarizers to meet this requirement. In addition, the ITER transmission lines may require sliding joints or bellows to accommodate the thermal expansion of the lines and/or vessel motion. The ex-vessel sections of the EC launchers require double seal waveguides, miter bends and possibly double seal sliding joints to assure tritium retention in this region. GA has developed designs for many of these components and some of them have already been tested at high power at the JAEA RF Test Stand. Thermal analyses of the standard GA power monitor miter bend show that our standard design is suitable for 1 MW cw operation when the H-field is in the plane of the miter bend. For 2 MW cw operation a modified design, which also requires H-plane orientation, has been developed and a prototype has been fabricated and is ready for testing. For long pulse/cw operation, a 2 MW calorimetric miter bend with thermally isolated mirror has been designed and a prototype has been fabricated. Since the mirror is thermally isolated, calorimetry on the mirror cooling water can provide a measure of absorbed power. Such a miter bend, when made in a double seal version, could be useful for monitoring total power at the end of an EC transmission line just before the in-vessel section of an EC launcher. A mode analyzer using an all metal water-cooled beam splitter is being developed for use in measuring in real time the HE11 and higher order mode content or total power in EC transmission lines. Such a high power diagnostic can be very useful in optimizing the alignment of the MOU output into a transmission line and in monitoring the HE11 mode purity at various locations in a transmission line. Prior to making a 63.5 mm 170 GHz version suitable for use on ITER, several prototype 31.75 mm 110 GHz versions have been fabricated and tested at

  7. Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Power Line Transmission Parameters for Power Line Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, P.; Misurec, J.; Koutny, M.; Fujdiak, R.; Jedlicka, T.

    2015-04-01

    The article describes a way of evaluating the power line channel frequency response and input impedance by means of the linear time-invariant (LTI) power line generator. Two possible methods are introduced for the calculation of primary parameters: the first method depends on the physical realization and physical dimension of the cable, and the second method is derived from the data provided by typical electrical cable manufacturers. Based on these methods, a comparison of transfer functions was made. This is followed by measurement evaluation and numerical verification on a simple topology

  8. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  9. Numerical analysis of ionized fields associated with HVDC transmission lines including effect of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    The effects of corona discharge on the conductor surface of HVDC power transmission lines were studied. Corona discharges generate ion flow and can cause power losses and environmental concerns. Solving the problem of the ion flow field is difficult because of its nonlinearity and the effect of wind. The following two numerical algorithms were presented which address the problem associated with strong wind or bundled lines: (1) the finite element method (FEM) based optimization algorithm, and (2) the upwind FVM based relaxation algorithm. Both were successfully tested on a coaxial cylindrical configuration and on a unipolar line model in the presence of wind.

  10. Broadband Impedance Transformer Based on Asymmetric Coupled Transmission Lines in Nonhomogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new broadband quarter-wavelength impedance transformer based on an asymmetric coupled line section is presented. The bandwidth of the coupled line transformer is extended with the help of an interconnecting transmission line. An analytical model for the transformer is developed. The analysis...... of the structure reveals that a fractional bandwidth of more than 100% at –20 dB reflection level can be achieved with such a structure. An experimental transformer circuit has been designed, fabricated and tested. Theoretical and experimental results are fair agreement and confirm the established theory...

  11. Transmission Line Ampacity Improvements of AltaLink Wind Plant Overhead Tie-Lines Using Weather-Based Dynamic Line Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Gentle, Jake P.; Hill, Porter; McJunkin, Tim; Myers, Kurt S.; Abbound, Alex; Renwick, Rodger; Hengst, David

    2017-07-01

    Abstract—Overhead transmission lines (TLs) are conventionally given seasonal ratings based on conservative environmental assumptions. Such an approach often results in underutilization of the line ampacity as the worst conditions prevail only for a short period over a year/season. We presents dynamic line rating (DLR) as an enabling smart grid technology that adaptively computes ratings of TLs based on local weather conditions to utilize additional headroom of existing lines. In particular, general line ampacity state solver utilizes measured weather data for computing the real-time thermal rating of the TLs. The performance of the presented method is demonstrated from a field study of DLR technology implementation on four TL segments at AltaLink, Canada. The performance is evaluated and quantified by comparing the existing static and proposed dynamic line ratings, and the potential benefits of DLR for enhanced transmission assets utilization. For the given line segments, the proposed DLR results in real-time ratings above the seasonal static ratings for most of the time; up to 95.1% of the time, with a mean increase of 72% over static rating.

  12. Multivariable time series prediction for the icing process on overhead power transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters.

  13. Data-Mining-Based Intelligent Differential Relaying for Transmission Lines Including UPFC and Wind Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Manas Kumar; Samantaray, Subhransu Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-mining-based intelligent differential relaying scheme for transmission lines, including flexible ac transmission system device, such as unified power flow controller (UPFC) and wind farms. Initially, the current and voltage signals are processed through extended Kalman filter phasor measurement unit for phasor estimation, and 21 potential features are computed at both ends of the line. Once the features are extracted at both ends, the corresponding differential features are derived. These differential features are fed to a data-mining model known as decision tree (DT) to provide the final relaying decision. The proposed technique has been extensively tested for single-circuit transmission line, including UPFC and wind farms with in-feed, double-circuit line with UPFC on one line and wind farm as one of the substations with wide variations in operating parameters. The test results obtained from simulation as well as in real-time digital simulator testing indicate that the DT-based intelligent differential relaying scheme is highly reliable and accurate with a response time of 2.25 cycles from the fault inception.

  14. Application of Six-Sequence Fault Components in Fault Location for Joint Parallel Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chunju; CAI Huarong; YU Weiyong

    2005-01-01

    A new fault location method based on six-sequence fault components was developed for parallel lines based on the fault analysis of a joint parallel transmission line. In the six-sequence fault network, the ratio of the root-mean square value of the fault current from two terminals is the function of the line impedance, the system impedance, and the fault distance away from the buses. A fault location equation is given to relate these factors. For extremely long transmission lines, the distributed capacitance is divided by the fault point and allocated to the two terminals of the transmission line in a lumped parameter to eliminate the influence of the distributed capacitance on the location accuracy. There is no limit on fault type and synchronization of the sampling data. Simulation results show that the location accuracy is high with an average error about 2%, and it is not influenced by factors such as the load current, the operating mode of the power system, or the fault resistance.

  15. Theoretical Analysis of the Characteristic Impedance in Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Transmission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Nejati, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    We propose a closed form formulation for the impedance of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) plasmonic transmission lines by solving the Maxwell's equations. We provide approximations for thin and thick insulator layers sandwiched between metallic layers. In the case of very thin dielectric layer, the surface waves on both interfaces are strongly coupled resulting in an almost linear dependence of the impedance of the plasmonic transmission line on the thickness of the insulator layer. On the other hand, for very thick insulator layer, the impedance does not vary with the insulator layer thickness due to the weak-coupling/decoupling of the surface waves on each metal-insulator interface. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed formulation using two test scenarios, namely, almost zero reflection in Tee-junction and reflection from line discontinuity in the design of Bragg reflectors, where we compare our formulation against previously published results.

  16. Effects of Un-transposed UHV Transmission Line on Fault Analysis of Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Anning; CHEN Qing; ZHOU Zhanping

    2008-01-01

    The conventional fault analysis method based on symmetrical components supposes that the three-phase parameters of un-transposed transmission line are symmetrical in case of fault. The errors caused by the method with the symmetrical distributed parameter circuit model as the equivalent circuit of the un-transposed ultra high voltage (UHV) transmission line were studied under both normal operation and fault, and the corresponding problems arising were pointed out. By contrast with electromagnetic transient and power electronics (EMTPE) simulation results with the asymmetrical distributed parameter circuit model of un-transposed line, it is shown that the conventional method cannot show the existence of negative and zero sequences before fault happening and there are many errors on voltage and current after fault happening which are different with fault types. The error ranges of voltage and current are 2.13%-81.13% and -7.82%-86.15%, respectively.

  17. Reduction of radiation loss at small-radius bend using spoof surface plasmon polariton transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen Xuan; Zhang, Hao Chi; Liu, Jun Feng; Xu, Jie; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-01-23

    Spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) has been realized at low frequencies through corrugated metallic structures. As two-dimensional application, the ultrathin SPP transmission lines (TLs) have been proposed with great potentials for microwave compact circuits due to the strong field confinement and enhancement, as well as controllable dispersive properties. In this paper, we examine the radiation loss at small-radius bend, which may cause severe crosstalk in highly-integrated circuits or systems, for the SPP TLs. We theoretically analyze that the SPP TL has essential merit of low radiation loss, and show better performance of SPP TL than the conventional microstrip line through numerical simulations and experiments. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate that the new type of transmission line can efficiently suppress the radiation loss at small-radius bend, and hence reduce the crosstalk in circuits and systems.

  18. Rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-04-28

    A rolled-up transmission line structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC) comprises a multilayer sheet in a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis, where the multilayer sheet comprises a conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer. The conductive pattern layer comprises a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, the first conductive film surrounds the longitudinal axis, and the second conductive film surrounds the first conductive film. The first conductive film serves as a signal line and the second conductive film serves as a conductive shield for the rolled-up transmission line structure.

  19. A Flexible Approach for Smart Management of Transmissions in Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Collotta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Power line communications (PLCs refer to a technology based on the existing electrical wiring to transmit data among the devices connected to the network. The PLC technology is an excellent solution widely studied and analysed by researchers, even in those areas characterized by strict requirements, such as industries. In this paper, a technique based on fuzzy logic, for the dynamic management of the amplitude of the signal emitted by the devices of a power line network, is proposed. The main aim is to manage the amplitude of the transmission signal in order to reduce the noise introduced into the network, and, as a consequence, the power consumption, increasing data transmission quality of network in terms of Quality of Service (QoS. This solution has been implemented into embedded systems based on the ADD1010, a power line System on Chip (SoC, and tested through a real scenario realized in laboratory.

  20. Reduction of radiation loss at small-radius bend using spoof surface plasmon polariton transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen Xuan; Zhang, Hao Chi; Liu, Jun Feng; Xu, Jie; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) has been realized at low frequencies through corrugated metallic structures. As two-dimensional application, the ultrathin SPP transmission lines (TLs) have been proposed with great potentials for microwave compact circuits due to the strong field confinement and enhancement, as well as controllable dispersive properties. In this paper, we examine the radiation loss at small-radius bend, which may cause severe crosstalk in highly-integrated circuits or systems, for the SPP TLs. We theoretically analyze that the SPP TL has essential merit of low radiation loss, and show better performance of SPP TL than the conventional microstrip line through numerical simulations and experiments. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate that the new type of transmission line can efficiently suppress the radiation loss at small-radius bend, and hence reduce the crosstalk in circuits and systems. PMID:28112238

  1. Study on Seismic Control of Power Transmission Tower-Line Coupled System under Multicomponent Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic control of power transmission tower-line coupled system subjected to multicomponent excitations is studied in this paper. The schematic of tuned mass damper is introduced, and equations of motion of a system with tuned mass damper under multi-component excitations are proposed. Three-dimensional finite tower-line system models are created based on practical engineering in studying the response of this system without and with control. The time domain analysis takes into account geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation. The optimal design of the transmission tower-line system with tuned mass damper is obtained according to different mass ratio. The effects of wave travel, coherency loss, and different site conditions on the system without and with control are investigated, respectively.

  2. A General Equation Derived by Field Theory for the Use of Uniform Transmission Line with Mutual Inductance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONGQingquan; WANGJiancheng; CHENShennian

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with 2 independent equations in integral form derived from Maxwell equation, a most general equation is inferred for the use of uniform transmission line where mutual inductance exists between two conductors in all different line segments of unit lengths;and moreover, the formulas of the magnitude of parameters are given for the use of line segments of unit length on uniform transmission line. A method of field theory is thus offered for analyzing distributed parameter circuit.

  3. Simulation of "Tsunami Waves" Propagating along Non-Linear Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares three methods for computer simulation oftransients on transmission lines with losses and nonlinear behavior,namely distributed LC model, FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domainmethod, and a new and very effective Method of Slices. The losses areresponsible for attenuation and shape changes of the waves as functionof time and distance from the source. Special behavior of the line dueto voltage-dependent capacitance of the line is considered in detail.The non-linear nature of the line causes that the higher is the voltagethe higher is the velocity of propagation. Then, the waves tend to tiltover so that their top moves faster than their base. As a result"tsunami waves" are created on the line. Fundamental algorithms arepresented in Matlab language. Several typical situations are solved asan illustration of individual methods.

  4. Applications of high-temperature superconductors in power technology[8470 High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Since the discovery of the first high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in the late 1980s, many materials and families of materials have been discovered that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures well above 20 K. Of these, several families of HTSs have been developed for use in electrical power applications. Demonstration of devices such as motors, generators, transmission lines, transformers, fault-current limiters, and flywheels in which HTSs and bulk HTSs have been used has proceeded to ever larger scales. First-generation wire, made from bismuth-based copper oxides, was used in many demonstrations. The rapid development of second-generation wire, made by depositing thin films of yttrium-based copper oxide on metallic substrates, is expected to further accelerate commercial applications. Bulk HTSs, in which large single-grain crystals are used as basic magnetic components, have also been developed and have potential for electrical power applications.

  5. A Pilot Directional Protection for HVDC Transmission Line Based on Relative Entropy of Wavelet Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing high-voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system and its fault superimposed circuit, the direction of the fault components of the voltage and the current measured at one end of transmission line is certified to be different for internal faults and external faults. As an estimate of the differences between two signals, relative entropy is an effective parameter for recognizing transient signals in HVDC transmission lines. In this paper, the relative entropy of wavelet energy is applied to distinguish internal fault from external fault. For internal faults, the directions of fault components of voltage and current are opposite at the two ends of the transmission line, indicating a huge difference of wavelet energy relative entropy; for external faults, the directions are identical, indicating a small difference. The simulation results based on PSCAD/EMTDC show that the proposed pilot protection system acts accurately for faults under different conditions, and its performance is not affected by fault type, fault location, fault resistance and noise.

  6. Design and fabrication of the high-power RF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed and will be installed at the Gyeong-ju site. For the linac, a total of 11 sets of RF systems are required, and the waveguide layout was fixed to install high-power RF (HPRF) systems. One of the important interfaces with the building construction is the high-power radio-frequency (HPRF) transmission line embedded in the tunnel, which is used to transmit 1-MW RF power to each cavity in the tunnel. The waveguide section penetrating into the linac tunnel was designed with a bending structure for radiation shielding, and the dependence of its voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) on the chamfer length of the bending was calculated. The HPRF transmission line was fabricated into a piece of waveguide to prevent moisture and any foreign debris inside the 2.5-m thick concrete block. Air leakage was checked with a pressure of 0.25 psig of nitrogen gas, and a maximum VSWR of 1.196 was obtained by measuring the vector reflection coefficients with the quarter-wave transmission section. In this paper, the design and the fabrication of the HPRF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel are presented.

  7. Optimal Placement of Unified Power Flow Controllers : An Approach to Maximize the Loadability of Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Jaya Christa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimal location and parameters of Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFCs in electrical power systems, using particle swarm optimization (PSO. The objective is to maximize the transmission system loadability subject to the transmission line capacity limits and specified bus voltage levels. Using the proposed method, the location of UPFCs and their parameters are optimized simultaneously. PSO is used to solve the above non-linear programming problem for better accuracy. The proposed approach is examined and tested on IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system. The results obtained are quite promising for the power system operation environment

  8. Distributed delay-line interferometer based on a Bragg grating in transmission mode

    CERN Document Server

    Preciado, Miguel A; Shu, Xuewen; Sugden, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for a delay line interferometer (DLI) based purely on forward Bragg scattering is proposed. We have numerically and experimentally demonstrated that a Bragg grating can deliver the functionality of a DLI in its transmission mode along a single common interfering optical path, instead of the conventional DLI implementation with two interfering optical paths. As a proof of concept, a fiber Bragg grating has been designed and fabricated, showing the desired functionality in the transmission mode of the Bragg grating. The proposed "Bragg-DLI" approach is applicable to any kind of Bragg grating technology, such as volume Bragg gratings, dielectric mirrors, silicon photonics, and other optical waveguide based Bragg structures.

  9. Negative Group Velocity Pulse Propagation Through a Left-Handed Transmission Line

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Rong; Miao, Jing-Yuan; Liu, Xin-Meng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microwave pulse propagation transferred through a left-handed transmission line using Complementary Omega-Like Structures (COLS) loaded was studied. There was a stop band in transmission from 5.6GHz to 6.1GHz, and the anomalous dispersion was causes in this band. Negative group velocity corresponds to the case in which the peak of the pulse exited before the peak of the incident pulse had entered the sample. The negative group velocity reached (-0.27c~-1.85c).

  10. Experimental research on mechanical properties of high voltage transmission lines after the simulated wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tianzheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine whether the mechanical performance after the fires of high voltage transmission lines meets the requirements of normal use, this article simulates the wildfire, and does the mechanical performance experiment of high voltage transmission lines(HVT lines after the simulated wildfires. The experiment studied the breaking force and elongation of each layer of 500kv HVT lines after the simulated wildfire. Experimental results show that, after fires, each layer of single aluminum wires of 500kv HVT lines have low breaking force which can be decreased obviously to half of that of new lines. For the steel core, decrease of breaking force is not obvious than aluminum wires, and with the increasing degree of wildfires, it increases gradually to a maximum of 35% of new steel lines’ breaking force. After wildfires, aluminum lines’ resistance ability of deformation decreases significantly, and its plastic deformation increases obviously during uniaxial tension. The steel core has little plastic deformation, and layers of aluminum become fluffy after fires. Therefore, the steel core main bearing load after wildfires.

  11. Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song

    2016-02-01

    Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.

  12. Numerical analysis on aeolian vibration of transmission lines with Stockbridge dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; KONG De-yi; LONG Xiao-hong; FANG Qin-han

    2008-01-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and mode superposition method instead of the energy balance method to compute transmission line aeolian vibrations induced by the Karman vortex. Firstly, we obtained the wind power inputs using CFD theory. The result is effective for aeolian vibration analyses compared with the power which were measured in wind tunnel tests. Then a new aeolian excitation was derived using the wind power equivalent principle, and the aeolian vibration distribution along transmission lines and the wind power input obtained by CFD can be account. Secondly, we formulated the motion equation of a conductor-damper system and derived a semi-analytial solution using the mode superposition method. The Stockbridge-type dampers attached were simplified to the forces transmitted by the clamps. Finally, the semi-analytical solution can be solved by iterative methods. Taking a 1 000 kV Ultra High Voltage transmission line as an example, we analyzed the line with and without dampers by the semi-analytical solution. Compared with the results which were computed by the energy balance method, the semi-analytical solution is precise enogh for aeolian vibration analyses. Besides, we also analyzed the influence of damper position and quantity.

  13. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-05-21

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices.

  14. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices.

  15. Power cables and transmission lines. A special issue; Kabels en lijnen. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, B. [Vakgroep Electrische Energiesystemen, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hendriks Boers, M.H.A.J.; Bloemhof, G.A.; Pultrum, E.; Van der Wey, A.H.; Cremers, R. [KEMA Transport en Distributie, Arnhem (Netherlands); Rogier, J. [Dienst Methoden - Technische Assistentie, Departement Netten, Tractebel, Brussels (Belgium); Wiersma, J.A. [Regionale Energiemaatschappij Utrecht REMU, Utrecht (Netherlands); Birkhoelzer, W.A.; Lommen, P.P.C. [MEGA Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Oirsouw, P. [KEMA Procesautomatisering en Informatietechnologie, Arnhem (Netherlands); Emous, K. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    In 8 articles several aspects with regard to cables and lines, applied in the electric power industry, are discussed. In the first article attention is paid to a new detection method for weak spots in cables. In the second article it is discussed that loading cables in a power distribution network more heavily has an impact on the reliability of the power supply. In article three the reliability of systems to protect the network against power failures is dealt with. The concept of a KEMA-developed computer program (PRORANK or Protection Reliability Analysis KEMA) is described and illustrated by two case studies. In article four the activities of CIGRE to realize a standard format for a database to maintaine and manage above-ground transmission lines are outlined. In article five the most important results and conclusions of a CIGRE working group on high-voltage cables and high-voltage lines are summarized. In the sixth article the developments with regard to discharge measurements for the diagnosis of cables are discussed, as well as the option of distributed optical measurement in high-voltage transmission cables. In article seven the so-called Power-Donut{sup TM} system is described by which the conductor temperature in high-voltage transmission lines can be determined. In the last article a KEMA-developed computer program (GAIA) for safety grounding analysis is discussed

  16. 76 FR 19744 - Final Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Forest Service Final Tropic to Hatch 138 kV Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement and Proposed Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Management Plan Amendment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Forest, USDA Forest Service, Tropic to Hatch 138kV Transmission Line Project EIS Project Leader, 1789...

  17. Determination of surface resistance and magnetic penetration depth of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films by microwave power transmission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Newman, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel waveguide power transmission measurement technique was developed to extract the complex conductivity of superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies. The microwave conductivity was taken of two laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 with transition temperatures of approximately 86.3 and 82 K, respectively, in the temperature range 25 to 300 K. From the conductivity values, the penetration depth was found to be approximately 0.54 and 0.43 micron, and the surface resistance (R sub s) to be approximately 24 and 36 micro-Ohms at 36 GHz and 76 K for the two films under consideration. The R sub s values were compared with those obtained from the change in the Q-factor of a 36 GHz Te sub 011-mode (OFHC) copper cavity by replacing one of its end walls with the superconducting sample. This technique allows noninvasive characterization of high transition superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies.

  18. Determination of surface resistance and magnetic penetration depth of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films by microwave power transmission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Newman, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel waveguide power transmission measurement technique was developed to extract the complex conductivity of superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies. The microwave conductivity was taken of two laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 with transition temperatures of approximately 86.3 and 82 K, respectively, in the temperature range 25 to 300 K. From the conductivity values, the penetration depth was found to be approximately 0.54 and 0.43 micron, and the surface resistance (R sub s) to be approximately 24 and 36 micro-Ohms at 36 GHz and 76 K for the two films under consideration. The R sub s values were compared with those obtained from the change in the Q-factor of a 36 GHz Te sub 011-mode (OFHC) copper cavity by replacing one of its end walls with the superconducting sample. This technique allows noninvasive characterization of high transition superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies.

  19. Long-Haul Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over Low-Crosstalk Heterogeneous 32-Core Transmission Line Using Partial Recirculating Loop System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Shibahara, Kohki; Ye, Feihong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present long-haul 32-core dense space division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission over a single-mode multicore transmission line. We developed a low-crosstalk heterogeneous 32-core fiber with a square lattice arrangement, and a novel partial recirculating loop system...

  20. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  1. The Mathematical Model of Power System with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in Long Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is becoming increasingly important to fully utilize the existing transmission system assets due to environmental legislation, rights-of-way issues and costs of construction and deregulation policies that introduced in recent years. The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC has been proposed for the better control power flow and dynamic performance. The exact long transmission line model consists of the resistance and reactance. Most of previous researches studies transient stability performance of the TCSC in SMIB System with neglecting the resistance of the line. Thus the fully capability of the TCSC on transient stability improvement of power system may not be applied. The consideration of the resistance causes in the difficulty of deriving the mathematical model. Approach: This study investigates the effect of the TCSC on transient stability of the power system with consideration the exact long transmission line mode. The concept of two-port network is applied to simplify the mathematical model of the power system. The proposed method is tested on sample system and compared on various cases. Results: The first swing of rotor angle curve of the faulted system without resistance is obviously higher than that of with resistance whereas the second swing of the faulted system without resistance is slightly less than that of with resistance. The system with a TCSC can improve transient stability of power system. Conclusion: It was found from this study that the TCSC and resistance of the line can improve first swing of rotor angle. However, the resistance of the line provides the negative effect on second swing of rotor angle. The simulation results indicate that for practical long line, the resistance is very import parameters for evaluating transient stability of power system.

  2. VOLTAGE STABILITY OF SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE EQUIPPED WITH A THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to fully utilize the existing transmission system assets due to environmental legislation, rights-of-way issues, costs of construction and deregulation policies that introduced in recent years. The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC has been proposed for the better control power flow and dynamic performance. The exact short transmission line model consists of the resistance and reactance. Most of previous researches studies voltage stability performance of the TCSC in SMIB System with neglecting the resistance of the line. Thus the fully capability of the TCSC on voltage stability improvement of power system may not be applied. The consideration of the resistance causes in the difficulty of deriving the mathematical model. This study investigates the effect of the TCSC on voltage stability of the power system with consideration the exact short transmission line mode. The concept of two-port network is applied to simplify the mathematical model of the power system. The proposed method is tested on sample system and compared on various cases. The first swing of rotor angle curve of the faulted system without resistance is obviously higher than that of with resistance whereas the second swing of the faulted system without resistance is slightly less than that of with resistance. The system with a TCSC can improve voltage stability of power system. It was found from this study that the TCSC and resistance of the line can improve first swing of rotor angle. However, the resistance of the line provides the negative effect on second swing of rotor angle. The simulation results indicate that for practical short line, the resistance is very import parameters for evaluating voltage stability of power system.

  3. The Mathematical Model and Simulation of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in Medium Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It is becoming increasingly important to fully utilize the existing transmission system assets due to environmental legislation, rights-of-way issues, costs of construction and deregulation policies that introduced in recent years. The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC has been proposed for the better control power flow and dynamic performance. The exact medium transmission line model consists of the resistance and reactance. Most of previous researches studies transient stability performance of the TCSC in SMIB System with neglecting the resistance of the line. Thus the fully capability of the TCSC on transient stability improvement of power system may not be applied. The consideration of the resistance causes in the difficulty of deriving the mathematical model. Approach: This study investigates the effect of the TCSC on transient stability of the power system with consideration the exact medium transmission line mode. The concept of two-port network is applied to simplify the mathematical model of the power system. The proposed method is tested on sample system and compared on various cases. Results: The first swing of rotor angle curve of the faulted system without resistance is obviously higher than that of with resistance whereas the second swing of the faulted system without resistance is slightly less than that of with resistance. The system with a TCSC can improve transient stability of power system. Conclusion: It was found from this study that the TCSC and resistance of the line can improve first swing of rotor angle. However, the resistance of the line provides the negative effect on second swing of rotor angle. The simulation results indicate that for practical medium line, the resistance is very import parameters for evaluating transient stability of power system.

  4. Optimal design of lattice metal constructions of overhead power transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pustovgar Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new concept of design of power lines which allowed us to develop new unified power transmission supports, efficient and reliable ones. For the first time, a method of optimum design of overhead power lines has been developed which considered the power line as a united structural system, the relief, the atmospheric and climatic conditions, the environment pollution, the efficiency requirements, the technological and operational expenditures. The article describes the changes introduced into the requirements for the dimensions and parameters of grid metal works with the minimum mass. The optimum design, the computer-aided assembly process and the use of advanced technologies guarantee the reduction of the construction period and the increase in the maintenance period of power lines.

  5. Coupling mid-infrared light from a photonic crystal waveguide to metallic transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.blanco@tecnalia.com, E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu [ICT-European Software Institute Division, Tecnalia, Ibaizabal Bidea, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Sarriugarte, Paulo [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Garcia-Adeva, Angel [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, E.T.S. Ingeniería de Bilbao, UPV-EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Zubia, Joseba [Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Hillenbrand, Rainer, E-mail: andrea.blanco@tecnalia.com, E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2014-01-06

    We propose and theoretically study a hybrid structure consisting of a photonic crystal waveguide (PhC-wg) and a two-wire metallic transmission line (TL), engineered for efficient transfer of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light between them. An efficiency of 32% is obtained for the coupling from the transverse magnetic (TM) photonic mode to the symmetric mode of the TL, with a predicted intensity enhancement factor of 53 at the transmission line surface. The strong coupling is explained by the small phase velocity mismatch and sufficient spatial overlapping between the modes. This hybrid structure could find applications in highly integrated mid-IR photonic-plasmonic devices for biological and gas sensing, among others.

  6. Overlap amplitude and localization properties in aperiodic diluted and non-diluted direct electric transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, E.; Castro, C. E.; Cortés-Cortés, F.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we study the relationship existing between the localization properties of the diluted and non-diluted direct electrical transmission lines with the overlap amplitude Cijω = 2 | Iiω Ijω | , where Ijω is the amplitude of the electric current function at jth cell of the transmission line for the state with frequency ω. We distribute two values of inductances LA and LB, according to the generalized aperiodic Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. We find that the behavior of Ci,jω is directly related to the localization properties of the aperiodic sequences measured by the ξ normalized participation number, the Rq Rényi entropies and the μq moments. In addition, we generalize the scaling relationship for the overlap amplitude Ci,jω, i.e., =(2/N) 2 q.

  7. Fault Locating in HVDC Transmission Lines Using Generalized Regression Neural Network and Random Forest Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farshad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method based on machine learning strategies for fault locating in high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission lines. In the proposed fault-location method, only post-fault voltage signals measured at one terminal are used for feature extraction. In this paper, due to high dimension of input feature vectors, two different estimators including the generalized regression neural network (GRNN and the random forest (RF algorithm are examined to find the relation between the features and the fault location. The results of evaluation using training and test patterns obtained by simulating various fault types in a long overhead transmission line with different fault locations, fault resistance and pre-fault current values have indicated the efficiency and the acceptable accuracy of the proposed approach.

  8. Special Problems in Pilot Protections of Transmission Lines Connecting Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    As the penetration of wind power into power grids increases, higher demands are made on the stability and protection of power systems. Unlike traditional synchronous generators, wind turbines are different on the short-circuit and impedance characteristics, thus some problems exist in pilot protections of transmission lines connecting wind farms. When a single-phase fault occurs on a transmission line, the phase selector based on current-difference sudden-change may mistake the single-phase fault for a phase-to-phase fault. This paper studies the impedance characteristics of an asynchronous wind generator, and analyzes the behavior of a fault phase selector under different conditions. Then, the paper explains that inequality between positive and negative branch coefficients is the cause for the mal-operation of the fault phase selector. Finally, some simulations are done in MATLAB to validate analysis results.

  9. Accurate one-end fault location for overhead transmission lines in interconnected power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisa, Amir A.A.; Ramar, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a new one-end fault location method for overhead transmission lines embedded in a general n-bus interconnected power system. High accuracy in fault location is achieved by using both an accurate distributed parameters model for the faulted transmission line, and a two-bus Thevenin equivalent network model for the power system that accurately accounts for its interconnectivity. The method has been tested using transient fault data obtained from PSCAD/EMTDC simulations of an 11-bus interconnected power system. The results obtained indicate that the method is capable of estimating the fault distance with high accuracy for various fault conditions. They also indicate that method is sensitive to errors in the value of the local bus impedance, but is insensitive to errors in the value of the remote bus impedance. (author)

  10. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  11. Rényi entropies of electrical transmission lines with Fibonacci distribution of inductances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, E., E-mail: elazo@uta.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Mellado, F. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Eléctrica-Electrónica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Saavedra, E. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We study classical dual transmission lines with constant capacitances C{sub j}=C{sub 0}, ∀j, when we distribute two inductance values L{sub A} and L{sub B} according to the Fibonacci sequence. Using the electric current function I{sub j}(ω), we study the normalized localization length Λ(ω), the Rényi entropies R{sub m}(ω) and the normalized information length β(ω). We found three kinds of behavior of the I{sub j}(ω) function: localized, extended and intermediate. In addition, it is found that the transmission line with Fibonacci distribution of inductances shows a behavior characteristic of quasi-periodic systems, namely, a self-similar frequency spectrum, where each subband is divided into three subbands, but the number of global subbands is greater than four.

  12. One modified method of characteristics used to analyze the multiconductor transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jiwei; Hou Chaozhen; Dou Lihua

    2006-01-01

    To solve the coupling effect of multiconductor transmission lines excited by external electromagnetic wave, the modified method of characteristics is proposed. The modified method of characteristics which can compute the terminal induced voltages excited by the external electromagnetic wave when the terminal networks or interconnection networks contain the dynamic elements is introduced. The simulation results indicate that the modified method can analyze the terminal induced voltages when the terminal networks or the interconnection networks contain the dynamic elements excited by the external electromagnetic wave. And the results are compared with the results acquired by FDTD method, the two results are completely same. So one effective modified method is implemented to compute the transmission lines.

  13. Minimal inductance for axisymmetric transmission lines with radially dependent anode-cathode gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Waisman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We extend the variational calculus technique for inductance minimization of constant gap axisymmetric transmission lines (TL, introduced by Hurricane [J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4503 (2004JAPIAU0021-897910.1063/1.1687986], to the case in which the anode-cathode gap is a linear function of the midgap radius. The full analytic optimal midgap solution curve z(r yielding minimum inductance is obtained in terms of a single parameter ρ_{0}, determined numerically by imposing that z(r goes through prescribed end points. The radius of curvature ρ(r of the optimal curve is obtained everywhere the function is defined, even outside of the end point range, and it is shown that a convenient choice is ρ_{0}=ρ(0. The value of the transmission line inductance is calculated by 1D numerical quadrature. A simple numerical technique is introduced for TL with nonlinear radial gap dependence.

  14. Transmission line inversion and synthesis from the point of view of transient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    The transmission line inversion problem is applied to the speech communication process. The problem involves acquiring information necessary for synthesis of speech and for making models of the speech production mechanism. Formulation for the problem is derived from an analysis of the human vocal tract functions. It is known that speech sounds are produced by acoustic excitation of the tract by means of quasi-periodic pulses from the vocal cords during vowel sounds and turbulent air flow at various points along the tract during fricative sounds. By assuming plane wave propagation, differential equations are obtained relating the cross sectional area of the tract, the pressure, and the volume velocity. By replacing the pressure factor with a voltage factor and the volume velocity by current, the problem becomes a transmission line problem.

  15. TWO APPROACHES TO CALCULATION OF SPLIT PHASE DANCING OF OVERHEAD ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows two approaches to mathematical modeling of split phase dancing of overhead electrical transmission line. The first approach is based on calculative method when a phase is in the shape of flexible elastic thread connected with rigid rods. The phase is represented with equivalent wire in the second approach. Principle of mechanics relations has been used to set combined boundary problem of split phase dynamics. Two packets of computer programs for calculation of split phase dancing of overhead (electric power line have been set up and tested.

  16. Transmission competency of single-female Xiphinema index lines for Grapevine fanleaf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, Gérard; Komar, Véronique; Van-Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Lemaire, Olivier; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Fuchs, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is vectored specifically from grapevine to grapevine by the ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Limited information is available on the vector competency of X. index populations from diverse geographical origins. We determined the transmissibility of two GFLV strains showing 4.6% amino acid divergence within their coat protein (e.g., strains F13 and GHu) by seven clonal lines of X. index developed from seven distinct populations from the Mediterranean basin (Cyprus, southern France, Israel, Italy, and Spain), northern France, and California. X. index lines derived from single adult females were produced on fig (Ficus carica) plants to obtain genetically homogenous aviruliferous clones. A comparative reproductive rate analysis on Vitis rupestris du Lot and V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon showed significant differences among clones, with the single-female Cyprus line showing the highest rate (30-fold the initial population) and the Spain and California lines showing the lowest rate (10-fold increase), regardless of the grapevine genotype. However, there was no differential vector competency among the seven X. index lines for GFLV strains F13 and GHu. The implications of our findings for the dynamic of GFLV transmission in vineyards and screening of Vitis spp. for resistance to GFLV are discussed.

  17. Dynamic simulation and experimental study of inspection robot for high-voltage transmission-line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xiao-hui; WU Gong-ping; DU E; SHI Tie-lin

    2005-01-01

    A mobile robot developed by Wuhan University for full-path hotline inspection on 220 kV transmission lines was presented. With 4 rotating joints and 2 translational ones, such robot is capable of traveling along non-obstacle straight-line segment and surmounting straight-line segment obstacles as well as transferring between two spans automatically. Lagrange's equations were utilized to derive dynamic equations of all the links, including items of inertia, coupling inertia, Coriolis acceleration, centripetal acceleration and gravity. And a dynamic response experiment on elemental motions of robot prototype's travelling along non-obstacle straight-line segment and surmounting obstacles was performed on 220 kV 1∶1 simulative overhanging transmission-line in laboratory. In addition, dynamic numerical simulation was conducted in the corresponding condition. Comparison and analysis on results of experiment and numerical simulation have validated theoretical model and simulation resolution. Therefore, the dynamic model formed hereunder can be used for the study of robot control.

  18. Deflection Determination of Reinforced Concrete Support Poles for Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains values of torque magnification ratio while shifting vertical loads due to horizontal wind forces affecting on supports of overhead transmission lines of 35 kV and higher. These values pertain to various types of unified reinforced concrete conic and cylindrical supports while changing climatic conditions. The values make it possible to exclude rather complicated calculations in respect of support deflection in the case when there is uncertainty in initial data.

  19. A Comparative Parametric Analysis of the Ground Fault Current Distribution on Overhead Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    VINTAN, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ground fault current distribution in an effectively grounded power network is affected by various factors, such as: tower footing impedances, spans lengths, configuration and parameters of overhead ground wires and power conductors, soil resistivity etc. In this paper, we comparatively analyze, using different models, the ground fault current distribution in a single circuit transmission line with one ground wire. A parametric comparative analysis was done in order to stud...

  20. Estimation of Switching Overvoltages on Transmission Lines Using Neuro-Fuzzy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shariatinasab

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Insulation failure caused by switching overvoltages (SOVs is one of the main sources of transmission lines’ outage, specially, on voltage levels of 345 kV and above. Therefore, the estimation of SOVs is vital in order to control and/or to reduce the switching–related outages. Due to the stochastic behavior of some of the parameters affecting on SOVs, the study of this phenomenon should be carried out based on a statistical study of the switching. Also, in the case of surge arrester installation on the transmission lines, depending on the location of arrester, voltage profile on line is changed and all the simulation should be performed for each new location of arresters, separately. One can conclude that this procedure is complex and time consuming. In this paper, a fuzzy based meta-model is presented which is be able to estimate the switching surge flashover rate (SSFOR, the maximum value of SOVs on the network and the location where the maximum overvoltage takes place. In the proposed meta model, the effect of altitude on SSFOR and the magnitude of SOVs is considered. This meta-model can be used, directly, for planning the insulation level of transmission lines in order to meet a certain number of outages and locating arresters on the region/nodes of the network of weak operation against SOVs. It is also possible to utilize the proposed meta model, indirectly, for assigning the optimal location of any specified set of arresters on the network without simulating of real network by a transient software, e.g. EMTP/ATP draw. The presented meta model can also be used in the operating stage to decide on the sequence of energizing and re-energizing of different transmission lines connected to the substations with the aim of reducing of maximum SOVs.

  1. Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System-Based Pollution Severity Prediction of Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    C. Muniraj; Chandrasekar, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction of pollution severity of the polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests were carried out on 11 kV silicone rubber polymeric insulator under AC voltage at different pollution levels with sodium chloride as a contaminant. Leakage current was measured during the laboratory tests. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of leak...

  2. Electrostatic force on the rectangular shield wall of a strip transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向裕民

    2002-01-01

    For a strip transmission line shielded by rectangular walls,the Green's function is helpful to construct the variation expression of the electrostatic energy.Thomson theorem is employed to determine the charge distribution on the strip.The electrostatic force on each side of the rectangular shield wall is achieved by using the principle of virtual work.The results is easy to be obtained by computerized calculation.

  3. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Attar, Talal

    2017-05-13

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  4. Study of a displacement sensor based on transmission varied-line-space phase grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; OUYANG Min; SHEN Yan; LIU Da-he

    2008-01-01

    A displacement sensor based on transmission varied-line-space (VLS) phase gratings is proposed.The relationship between the properties of the sensor and the parameters of VLS is discussed.Compared with the displacement sensor manufactured by the reflective VLS grating,this type of sensor contains a grating with simpler structure and high diffraction efficiency.It also has good stability with the change of temperature.

  5. Thermal fluctuations in resonant motion of fluxons on a Josephson transmission line: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, E.; Koshelets, V. P.; Monaco, Roberto

    1982-01-01

    The radiation emission from long and narrow Josephson tunnel junctions dc-current biased on zero-field steps has been ascribed to resonant motion of fluxons on the transmission line. Within this dynamic model a theoretical expression for the radiation linewidth is derived from a full statistical ...... treatment of thermal fluctuations in the fluxon velocity. The result appears to be very general and is corroborated by experimental determination of linewidth and frequency of radiation emitted from overlap Nb-I-Pb junctions....

  6. Performance of a superconducting magnet system operated in the Super Omega Muon beam line at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Ikedo, Yutaka; Ogitsu, Toru; Shimomura, Koichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Adachi, Taihei; Kadono, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Strasser, Patric; Koda, Akihiro; Fujimori, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Ohhata, Hirokatsu; Okamura, Takahiro; Okada, Ryutaro [J-PARC, KEK, Shirakata 203-1, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Orikasa, Tomofumi [Keihin Product Operations, Toshiba, Suehiro 2-4, Tsurumi, Yokohama (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    A superconducting magnet system, which is composed of an 8 m long solenoid for transportation and 12 short solenoids for focusing, has been developed for Muon Science Establishment facility of J-PARC. The transport solenoid is composed of a 6 m straight section connected to a 45 degree curved section at each end. Muons of various momenta and of both electric charges are transported through the solenoid inner bore with an effective diameter of 0.3 m, where 2 T magnetic field is induced. There are 12 focusing solenoids with an effective bore diameter of 0.6 m and a length of 0.35 m arranged on a straight line at suitable intervals. The maximum central field of each focusing solenoid is 0.66 T. All solenoid coils are cooled by GM cryocoolers through their own conductions. The magnet system has been installed into the beam line in the summer of 2012, and its performance has been checked. Beam commissioning has been carried out since October 2012. During beam operation, temperature rise over 6 K in the transport solenoid due to a nuclear heating from the muon production target is observed at beam intensity of about 300 kW.

  7. Development of Superconducting Combined Function Magnets for the Proton Transport Line for the J-PARC Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Anerella, Michael; Escallier, John; Fujii, T; Fukui, Yuji; Ganetis, George; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Hashiguchi, E; Higashi, Norio; Ichikawa, Atsuko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Jain, Animesh K; Kanahara, T; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Makida, Yasuhiro; Muratore, Joseph F; Obana, Tetsuhiro; Ogitsu, T; Ohhata, Hirokatsu; Okamura, T; Orikasa, T; Parker, Brett; Sasaki, Ken Ichi; Takasaki, Minoru; Tanaka, Ken Ichi; Terashima, Akio; Tomaru, Takayuki; Wanderer, Peter; Yamamoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A second generation of long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments has been proposed as one of the main projects at J-PARC jointly built by JAERI and KEK. Superconducting combined function magnets, SCFMs, will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the neutrino experiment and an R&D program is in underway at KEK. The magnet is designed to provide a combined function of a dipole field of 2.6 T with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm. A series of 28 magnets in the beam line will be operated DC in supercritical helium cooling below 5 K. A design feature of the SCFM is the left-right asymmetry of the coil cross section: current distributions for superimposed dipole- and quadrupole- fields are combined in a single layer coil. Another design feature is the adoption of glass-fiber reinforced phenolic plastic spacers to replace the conventional metallic collars. To evaluate this unique design, fabrication of full-scale prototype magnets is in progress at KEK and the fi...

  8. ABOUT SOME FEATURES OF TRANSMISSION MODE FOR ACTIVE POWER OF ELECTRICAL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paţiuc V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paperwork examines the problem of maximum power transfer to the load of a long line mode change from idle line (XX to short-circuit ( SC. Load line changes from idle mode (IM to its short-circuit (SC . The line length varies from zero up to a length equal to the physical length of the electromagnetic wave. As a method of research it is used the method of the complex amplitudes (MCA. As independent variables were examined her load line length and that the system per unit change in the band plus minus unit to unit , so . It enteritis that for the active character load of the active power input and power output of the line, so functions , and functions that characterize developments efficiency , power factor at the input line and the load power factor when the variable z. For these points to the notion of critical value of the load . It founds the effect of " recession " critical resistance values and functions şi , which is not found for the other functions considered - efficiency and power factor. Load reactive power compensation can help to increase power output only for lines with length smaller than ¼ wave length electromagnitice wave. In non-distortional lines, such effect is not observed. The paper work represents the general data transmission mode the maximum power lines of different lengths to the load, which varies from idle mode (IM to short-circuit (SC regime. These data can be used for preliminary analysis of the efficiency of the electrical lines at variable load.

  9. Cost and Benefit Analysis of Line Arresters for a 69kV Transmission System in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chan Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematical evaluation experience on the performance and economic studies of line arresters for a 69 kV transmission system in Taiwan. The transient over-voltage phenomenon in high voltage transmission lines under lightning by using the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP package is well modeled and analyzed. The modeling for the simulated system including lightning, transmission line, transmission tower and line arrester are all considered to have more practical results. The cost and benefit evaluation for line arresters installation  is then conducted to provide a reasonable suggestion for lightning protection.  The performance of line arresters is evaluated by considering different installation schemes and lightning currents. Finally, a Taiwan’s experience is illustrated from both of the cost and benefit points of view.

  10. Improved Fault Classification in Series Compensated Transmission Line: Comparative Evaluation of Chebyshev Neural Network Training Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Bhargav Y; Das, Biswarup; Maheshwari, Rudra Prakash

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the Chebyshev neural network (ChNN) as an improved artificial intelligence technique for power system protection studies and examines the performances of two ChNN learning algorithms for fault classification of series compensated transmission line. The training algorithms are least-square Levenberg-Marquardt (LSLM) and recursive least-square algorithm with forgetting factor (RLSFF). The performances of these algorithms are assessed based on their generalization capability in relating the fault current parameters with an event of fault in the transmission line. The proposed algorithm is fast in response as it utilizes postfault samples of three phase currents measured at the relaying end corresponding to half-cycle duration only. After being trained with only a small part of the generated fault data, the algorithms have been tested over a large number of fault cases with wide variation of system and fault parameters. Based on the studies carried out in this paper, it has been found that although the RLSFF algorithm is faster for training the ChNN in the fault classification application for series compensated transmission lines, the LSLM algorithm has the best accuracy in testing. The results prove that the proposed ChNN-based method is accurate, fast, easy to design, and immune to the level of compensations. Thus, it is suitable for digital relaying applications.

  11. Assessment of surge arrester failure rate and application studies in Hellenic high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Fotis, G.P.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    The use of transmission line surge arresters to improve the lightning performance of transmission lines is becoming more common. Especially in areas with high soil resistivity and ground flash density, surge arresters constitute the most effective protection mean. In this paper a methodology for assessing the surge arrester failure rate based on the electrogeometrical model is presented. Critical currents that exceed arresters rated energy stress were estimated by the use of a simulation tool. The methodology is applied on operating Hellenic transmission lines of 150 kV. Several case studies are analyzed by installing surge arresters on different intervals, in relation to the region's tower footing resistance and the ground flash density. The obtained results are compared with real records of outage rate showing the effectiveness of the surge arresters in the reduction of the recorded failure rate. The presented methodology can be proved valuable to the studies of electric power systems designers intending in a more effective lightning protection, reducing the operational costs and providing continuity of service. (author)

  12. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, D V; Bragg, J-W B; Gonsalves, N R; Johnson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2014-05-01

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  13. Detection, location, and classification of downed conductors in series-compensated transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Elanien, A.E.B.; Elshatshat, R.; Salama, M.M.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Malik, N. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    High impedance faults (HIFs) can occur when the broken conductors of high voltage power transmission lines come into contact with trees or other structures. HIFs typically generate low fault currents that are less, or only slightly higher than normal load currents, and cannot be detected by regular over-current relays. Traditional impedance-based methods of locating HIFs can result in inaccuracies because of the nonlinear behaviour of series capacitor protection arrangements as well as the rapidly changing characteristics of circuit impedances during faults. This study presented an algorithm designed to protect transmission lines against HIFs. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) method was used to extract the high frequency transients contained in fault currents in order to detect and classify faults. Fault location was conducted using the travelling waves theory. The DWT was used to record the arrival times of the waves at both ends of the transmission line. Simulations conducted to validate the method confirmed that the algorithm was both accurate and reliable. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  14. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  15. [Study on effects of bioelectric parameters of rats in electromagnetic radiation of HV transmission line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Pang, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With the development of economy and coming of information era, the chance of exposure to electromagnetic fields with various frequencies has been increased for every human. The effects of electromagnetic radiattion on human being's health are versatile. To study the effects of bioelctronic parameters of rats in the electromagnetic radiations of HV transmission line, EEG, ECG and CMAP were measured in rats exposed to simulating high-voltage transmission line electromagnetic radiation for over one year. Brain tissues were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that no significant difference between exposed group and control group in EEG; however the FT-infrared spectra of brain tissues were different; the ECG of the exposed animals was considerably altered. Significant slowing of heart rate was observed in those rates exposed to EMFs; the latent period of CMAP in exposed group were not different compared with those of control group however there was a significant difference in wave amplitude of CMAP between the exposed group and control group. All results indicated that there must be some effects on bioelectric parameters of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation of high-voltage transmission line for a long time.

  16. Accurate characterization and modeling of transmission lines for GaAs MMIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Hugh J.; Jansen, Rolf H.; Jenkins, John A.; Eddison, Ian G.

    1988-06-01

    The authors discuss computer-aided design (CAD) tools together with high-accuracy microwave measurements to realize improved design data for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). In particular, a combined theoretical and experimental approach to the generation of an accurate design database for transmission lines on GaAs MMICs is presented. The theoretical approach is based on an improved transmission-line theory which is part of the spectral-domain hybrid-mode computer program MCLINE. The benefit of this approach in the design of multidielectric-media transmission lines is described. The program was designed to include loss mechanisms in all dielectric layers and to include conductor and surface roughness loss contributions. As an example, using GaAs ring resonator techniques covering 2 to 24 GHz, accuracies in effective dielectric constant and loss of 1 percent and 15 percent respectively, are presented. By combining theoretical and experimental techniques, a generalized MMIC microstrip design database is outlined.

  17. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2017-06-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  18. Application Research on Drag Reduced Conductors for Electric Power Transmission Lines in Strong Wind Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeze vibration duration of conductors is long, the vibration amplitude is strong and the frequency range is wide for electric power transmission lines in strong wind areas, which seriously affects the safe and stable operation of transmission lines. There are two design schemes of conductors which can achieve the purpose of reducing wind-induced disaster. One is enhancing the structural strength of conductors to withstand wind load, but the investment is enormous and the effect is limited. The other is developing drag reduced conductors to reduce wind load by changing conductor structure. This paper started from application feasibility analysis of drag reduced conductors and designed four drag reduced conductors by structure optimization of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced JL/G1A-630/45-45/7, denoted as DFY630/45(45°-R3.5, DFY630/45(60°-R3.5, DFY630/45(45°–R3.2 and DFY630/45(60°-R3.2, respectively. The wind tunnel test was performed and the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of five conductors were compared. Result showed that the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of four drag reduced conductors were obviously lower than that of the conventional conductor. By controlling the manufacturing process, popularization and application of drag reduced conductors for transmission lines in strong wind areas can be realized.

  19. Propagation and localization of quantum dot emission along a gap-plasmonic transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lopez, M; Manjavacas, A; García de Abajo, J; van Hulst, N F

    2015-11-16

    Plasmonic transmission lines have great potential to serve as direct interconnects between nanoscale light spots. The guiding of gap plasmons in the slot between adjacent nanowire pairs provides improved propagation of surface plasmon polaritons while keeping strong light confinement. Yet propagation is fundamentally limited by losses in the metal. Here we show a workaround operation of the gap-plasmon transmission line, exploiting both gap and external modes present in the structure. Interference between these modes allows us to take advantage of the larger propagation distance of the external mode while preserving the high confinement of the gap mode, resulting in nanoscale confinement of the optical field over a longer distance. The performance of the gap-plasmon transmission line is probed experimentally by recording the propagation of quantum dots luminescence over distances of more than 4 μm. We observe a 35% increase in the effective propagation length of this multimode system compared to the theoretical limit for a pure gap mode. The applicability of this simple method to nanofabricated structures is theoretically confirmed and offers a realistic way to combine longer propagation distances with lateral plasmon confinement for far field nanoscale interconnects.

  20. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Fault Detection in Radial and Network Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shadaram

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber optic based sensor capable of fault detection in both radial and network overhead transmission power line systems is investigated. Bragg wavelength shift is used to measure the fault current and detect fault in power systems. Magnetic fields generated by currents in the overhead transmission lines cause a strain in magnetostrictive material which is then detected by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG. The Fiber Bragg interrogator senses the reflected FBG signals, and the Bragg wavelength shift is calculated and the signals are processed. A broadband light source in the control room scans the shift in the reflected signal. Any surge in the magnetic field relates to an increased fault current at a certain location. Also, fault location can be precisely defined with an artificial neural network (ANN algorithm. This algorithm can be easily coordinated with other protective devices. It is shown that the faults in the overhead transmission line cause a detectable wavelength shift on the reflected signal of FBG and can be used to detect and classify different kind of faults. The proposed method has been extensively tested by simulation and results confirm that the proposed scheme is able to detect different kinds of fault in both radial and network system.

  1. Backpropagation Neural Network Modeling for Fault Location in Transmission Line 150 kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azriyenni Narwan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this topic research was provided about the backpropagation neural network to detect fault location in transmission line 150 kV between substation to substation. The distance relay is one of the good protective device and safety devices that often used on transmission line 150 kV. The disturbances in power system are used distance relay protection equipment in the transmission line. However, it needs more increasing large load and network systems are increasing complex. The protection system use the digital control, in order to avoid the error calculation of the distance relay impedance settings and spent time will be more efficient. Then backpropagation neural network is a computational model that uses the training process that can be used to solve the problem of work limitations of distance protection relays. The backpropagation neural network does not have limitations cause of the impedance range setting. If the output gives the wrong result, so the correct of the weights can be minimized and also the response of galat, the backpropagation neural network is expected to be closer to the correct value. In the end, backpropagation neural network modeling is expected to detect the fault location and identify operational output current circuit breaker was tripped it. The tests are performance with interconnected system 150 kV of Riau Region.

  2. Influence of Meteorological Parameters on Electromagnetic Environment of UHVDC Transmission Line Under High Altitude Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; LI Min; LI Ruihai; YU Zhanqing; LIUZhihong; LIU Xiangshi

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the electromagnetic (EM) environment parameters of a transmission line in bad weather conditions (such as rain, wind, etc. ) is difficult for technical staff. In the National Engineering Laboratory for UHV Technology (Kunming), a test line was completed for EM environment tests. An automated EM environment testing system was installed under the line, the rad{o interference (RI), audible noise (AN), resultant electric field strength (E0), and ion current density (Js) at ground level were measured under all weather conditions within a voltage range from ±800 kV to ± 1 000 kV over two years. Based on the measurement results, the influence of meteorological parameters on the EM environment of the transmission line was studied. When the HR increases from 40 % to 80%, the RI, AN, E0, Js would have different degrees of attenuation. The RI on a rainy day is 3 dB lower than that of a sunny day, while the Js gets a sharp increase with the same weather condition change. In addition, AN and E0 are greatly influenced by wind speed: with increasing wind speed, E0 decreases and AN becomes unstable.

  3. Accurate fault location algorithm on power transmission lines with use of two-end unsynchronized measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to fault location on power transmission lines. This approach uses two-end unsynchronised measurements of the line and benefits from the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying, which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is to modify the apparent impedance method using a very simple first-order formula. The new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays is sufficiently small enough to be transmitted easily using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach is tested via digital simulation using MATLand the applied test results corroborate the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  4. Accurate Fault Location Algorithm on Power Transmission Lines With Use of Two-end Unsynchronized Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINE Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach of fault location on power transmission line. This approach uses two-end unsynchronizedmeasurements of the line and uses the advantages of digital technology and numerical relaying which are available today and can easily be applied for off-line analysis. The approach is based on modifying the apparent impedance method using a very simplefirst-order formula. It is shown that the new method is independent of fault resistance, source impedances and pre-fault currents. In addition, the data volume communicated between relays issufficiently small to be easily transmitted using a digital protection channel. The proposed approach was tested via digital simulation using MATLAB. Applied test results corroborate the superiorperformance of the proposed approach.

  5. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The high voltage diodes D5 to D10 are used to protect the HV switch against negative back swing voltage, while D4 diode for reverse current ...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0001 STUDY OF HV DIELECTRICS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION IN LINEAR & NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES & SIMULATION & DEVELOPMENT...AFOSR Final Performance Report Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Simulation

  6. Dynamic Responses of Long-Span Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Broken Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zheng-chun; LI Li; FANG Qin-han; LONG Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    A macroscopic finite element modeling approach was proposed to calculate the vibration of a tower-line system subjected to broken wires with software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. In the finite element model, not only the nonlinearity of wires and suspension insulators are considered, but also the support towers are included. The incremental and iterative approaches are combined by applying the unbalanced loads incrementally during each iteration cycle. The approach was illustrated with an example of a Hanjiang-River long-span transmission line system subjected to a shield wire and a conductor failure, respectively. The analysis results showed that the proposed dynamic simulation approach can demonstrate the kinetic process of the tower-line system subjected to wire ruptures: The frequencies of line components were lower and densely distributed, but the frequencies of tower components were higher and sparsely distributed. Anyhow, the dynamic effects of wire ruptures on tower-line system could not be ignored in analysis of tower-line system subjected wire failures.

  7. Position Measurements with Micro-Channel Plates and Transmission lines using Pico-second Timing and Waveform Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adamsa, Bernhard; Bogdan, Mircea; Byrum, Karen; Genat, Jean-Francois C; Grabas, Herve; Frisch, Henry J; Kim, Heejong; Heintz, Mary K; Natoli, Tyler; Northrop, Richard; Oberla, Eric; Meehan, Samuel; May, Edward N; Stanek, Robert; Tang, Fukun; Varner, Gary; Yurtsev, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    The anodes of Micro-Channel Plate devices are coupled to fast transmission lines in order to reduce the number of electronics readout channels, and can provide two-dimension position measurements using two-ends delay timing. Tests with a laser and digital waveform analysis show that resolutions of a few hundreds of microns along the transmission line can be reached taking advantage of a few pico-second timing estimation. This technique is planned to be used in Micro-channel Plate devices integrating the transmission lines as anodes.

  8. The quantum Kirchhoff equation and quantum current and energy spectrum of a homogeneous mesoscopic dissipation transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of quantization of charge, the loop equations of quantum circuits are investigated by using the Heisenberg motion equation for a mesoscopic dissipation transmission line. On the supposition that the system has a symmetry under translation in charge space, the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum in the mesoscopic transmission line are given by solving their eigenvalue equations. Results show that the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum are not only related to the parameters of the transmission line, but also dependent on the quantized character of the charge obviously.

  9. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniel; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications.

  10. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  11. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  12. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  13. Irreversibility line and magnetic field dependence of the critical current in superconducting MgB sub 2 bulk samples

    CERN Document Server

    Gioacchino, D D; Tripodi, P; Grimaldi, G

    2003-01-01

    The third harmonic components of the ac susceptibility of MgB sub 2 bulk samples have been measured as a function of applied magnetic fields, together with standard magnetization cycles. The irreversibility line (IL) of the magnetic field has been extracted from the onset of the third harmonic components. Using a (1 - t) supalpha glass/liquid best fit where alpha 1.27 IL shows a coherent length xi divergence with exponent nu = 0.63, which indicates a 3D behaviour. Moreover, using the numerical solution of the non-linear magnetic diffusion equation, considering the creep model in a 3D vortex glass, a good description of the vortex dynamics has been obtained. The behaviour of the magnetization amplitude (approx Hz) and the ac susceptibility signals (kHz), at different applied magnetic fields, 3.5 T < H sub d sub c < 4.5 T, and at the reduced temperature 0.86 < t < 0.93 (T = 22 K), shows that the superconducting dynamic response of vortices in the MgB sub 2 samples is not evidently dependent on the f...

  14. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, Locations of Transmission lines for our reference. Engineering accurate data available from Sunflower Electric., Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Prairie Land Electric COOP, Inc..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of...

  15. Component development for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Transmission Line and Matching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Gray, S. L.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Sanabria, R. M.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.

    2013-10-01

    The transmission line and matching network for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System feeds two equatorial launchers, each with 24 phased current straps combined into groups of three, and each designed to couple up to 20 MW into ELMy H-mode plasmas in the frequency range 40-55 MHz, for pulse lengths up to 3600 s. The network includes > 1 km of 50 Ohm 300 mm diameter transmission line carrying up to 6 MW net power per line at VSWR = 1.5. In addition, there are 8 power splitters, 32 hybrid phase shifters incorporating 64 tuning stubs, 32 additional tuning stubs, and 36 vacuum capacitors, which are configured to provide pre-matching in the port cell region adjacent to the antenna, final matching, decoupling of mutual inductances between antenna elements, and passive ELM resilience. The development and design of the various system components will be discussed. High power tests of components have begun, and the latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Mode Conversion Losses in Expansion Units for ITER ECH Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, S. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Hanson, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron heating transmission lines will consist of 63.5-mm-diameter corrugated waveguides, each carrying 1 MW of 170 GHz microwaves. These transmission lines must include expansion units to accommodate expansion and contraction along the path from the gyrotron microwave sources to the tokamak. A numerical mode matching code has been developed to calculate power losses due to mode conversion of the operating mode, HE11, to higher order modes as a result of the radial discontinuities in a sliding joint. Two expansion unit designs were evaluated, a simple gap expansion unit and a more complex tapered expansion unit. The gap expansion unit demonstrated loss that oscillated rapidly with expansion length, due to trapped modes within the unit. The tapered expansion unit has been shown to effectively suppress these trapped modes at the expense of increased fabrication complexity. In a gap expansion unit, for a waveguide step size of 2.5 mm, loss can be kept below 0.1 % to a maximum expansion length of 17 mm. Expansion units without corrugation on interior walls were also evaluated. Expansion units that lack corrugations are found to increase mode trapping within the units, though not beyond useful application. The mode matching code developed in this paper was also used to estimate mode conversion loss in vacuum pumpouts for the ECH lines; the estimated loss was found to be negligibly small.

  17. Regional analysis assessment of landslide hazard and zoning map for transmission line route selection using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Omar, R. C.; Usman, F.; Mejan, M. A.; Abd Halim, M. K.; Zainol, M. A.; Zulkarnain, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    The stability of ground as foundation for infrastructure development is always associated with geology and geomorphology aspects. Failure to carefully analyze these aspects may induce ground instability such subsidence and landslide which eventually can cause catastrophe to the infrastructure i.e. instability of transmission tower. However, in some cases such as the study area this is unavoidable. A GIS system for analysis of route was favoured to perform optimal route predictions based selection by incorporating multiple influence factors into its analysis by incorporating the Landslide Hazard Map (LHM) that was produced on basis of slope map, aspect map, land use map and geological map with the help of ArcGIS using weighted overlay method. Based on LHM it is safe to conclude that the proposed route for Ulu Jelai- Neggiri-Lebir-LILO transmission line has very low risk in term of landslides.

  18. A summary of the results of the CEA transmission line performance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelineau, P. [Canadian Electricity Association, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    In an effort to gather information on forced power outages, the Canadian Electricity Association conducted a survey using its Equipment Reliability Information System (ERIS). The survey covered elements such as transmission equipment reliability in terms of transmission lines, cables, transformer banks, circuit breakers, synchronous compensators, static compensators, shunt reactor banks, shunt capacitor banks, and series capacitor banks. The survey provided details regarding the cause of failure, design information, and an in-depth analysis of statistics regarding the number of outages, frequency, total time, mean duration, median duration, and availability. The survey revealed that the primary causes of outages were defective equipment, adverse weather, adverse environment, system conditions, human error, and foreign interference. tabs., figs.

  19. Gain compensated symmetric loaded transmission line exhibiting bidirectional negative group delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Greg E.; Kandic, Miodrag

    2012-12-01

    A one-dimensional medium capable of bidirectional lossless negative group delay electromagnetic wave propagation is described. The medium is implemented as a microwave circuit comprising two symmetric resonator-loaded transmission lines, with active gain compensation and coupled through power combiners. We experimentally demonstrate the circuit is conditionally stable and is capable of lossless transmission of a finite bandwidth pulse in both directions. A measured group delay of -600 ps with a gain of 1.12 dB in both directions is achieved for a Gaussian pulse with a bandwidth of 14 MHz modulated at a frequency of 280 MHz (NGD-bandwidth-product of 0.0084). This circuit demonstrates the possibility of constructing a one-dimensional spatial void.

  20. A novel approach to computationally efficient algorithms for transmission loss and line flow formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, J.; Lai, L.L.; Ma, J.T.; Rajkumar, N. [City University, London (United Kingdom). Energy Systems Group; Nanda, A. [Joslyn High Voltage Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Prasad, M. [ABB, Neww Delhi (India)

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to powerful, effective and computationally efficient algorithms for formulation and evaluation of transmission loss and line flow through efficient loss coefficients and distribution factors, respectively, which are uniquely suitable for real term application. These loss coefficients and distribution factors are generated extremely elegantly and efficiently from the hidden treasures of an available load flow solution with trivial computational burden. Results on few IEEE Test systems are extremely exciting which reveal that the loss coefficients evaluated at the normal operating conditions are quite robust and for all practical purposes need not be re-evaluated for wide changes in system operating conditions for evaluation of transmission loss or economic load dispatch solution. (author)