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Sample records for superconducting thin-film layer

  1. Influence of Fe Buffer Layer on Co-Doped BaFe2As2 Superconducting Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bonavolontà

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic characterization of Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122 thin films has been carried out. Two samples were available, one grown on CaF2 substrate and the other on MgO with an Fe buffer layer. The goal was to investigate films’ magnetic and superconducting properties, their reciprocal interplay, and the role played by the Fe buffer layer in modifying them. Morphological characterization and Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses on the Fe-buffered sample demonstrate the presence of diffused Fe close to the Co-doped Ba-122 outer surface as well as irregular holes in the overlying superconducting film. These results account for hysteresis loops obtained with magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements and observed at both room and low temperatures. The magnetic pattern was visualized by magneto-optical imaging with an indicator film. Moreover, we investigated the onset of superconductivity through a measure of the superconducting energy gap. The latter is strictly related to the decay time of the excitation produced by an ultrashort laser pulse and has been determined in a pump-probe transient reflectivity experiment. A comparison of results relative to Co-doped Ba-122 thin films with and without Fe buffer layer is finally reported.

  2. Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Gauzzi, A.; James, J. H.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.

    1990-12-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films have been grown in situ on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) buffer layers. Superconducting onset is about 92 K with zero resistance at 60 K. ITO buffer layers usually form Schottky-like barriers on GaAs. The YBCO film and ITO buffer layer, grown by ion beam sputter codeposition, are textured and polycrystalline with a combined room-temperature resistivity of about 1 milliohm cm.

  3. Superconducting YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. thin films on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, B.J.; Gauzzi, A.; James, J.H.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.; Reinhart, F.K. (Institut de Micro et Optoelectronique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (CH))

    1990-12-10

    Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) thin films have been grown {ital in} {ital situ} on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) buffer layers. Superconducting onset is about 92 K with zero resistance at 60 K. ITO buffer layers usually form Schottky-like barriers on GaAs. The YBCO film and ITO buffer layer, grown by ion beam sputter codeposition, are textured and polycrystalline with a combined room-temperature resistivity of about 1 m{Omega} cm.

  4. In situ growth of superconducting YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. thin films on Si with conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, B.J.; James, J.H.; Gauzzi, A.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.; Reinhart, F.K. (Institute of Micro and Optoelectronics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-09-10

    Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) thin films have been grown {ital in} {ital situ} on Si with conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) buffer layers. ITO allows YBCO to be electrically connected to the underlying Si substrate. Both the YBCO film and ITO buffer layer, grown by ion beam sputtering, are textured and polycrystalline with a combined room- temperature resistivity of about 2 m{Omega} cm. Superconducting onsets are 92 K with zero resistance at 68 K.

  5. Amorphous molybdenum silicon superconducting thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bosworth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous superconductors have become attractive candidate materials for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors due to their ease of growth, homogeneity and competitive superconducting properties. To date the majority of devices have been fabricated using WxSi1−x, though other amorphous superconductors such as molybdenum silicide (MoxSi1−x offer increased transition temperature. This study focuses on the properties of MoSi thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. We examine how the composition and growth conditions affect film properties. For 100 nm film thickness, we report that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc reaches a maximum of 7.6 K at a composition of Mo83Si17. The transition temperature and amorphous character can be improved by cooling of the substrate during growth which inhibits formation of a crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of long range order. We observe that for a range of 6 common substrates (silicon, thermally oxidized silicon, R- and C-plane sapphire, x-plane lithium niobate and quartz, there is no variation in superconducting transition temperature, making MoSi an excellent candidate material for SNSPDs.

  6. On Ginzburg-Landau Vortices of Superconducting Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin DING; Qiang DU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the vortex structure of the superconducting thin films placed in a magnetic field. We show that the global minimizer of the functional modelling the superconducting thin films has a bounded number of vortices when the applied magnetic field hex < Hc1 + K log |log ε|where Hc1 is the lower critical field of the film obtained by Ding and Du in SIAM J. Math. Anal.,2002. The locations of the vortices are also given.

  7. New Fast Response Thin Film-Based Superconducting Quench Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; van de Camp, W; Ravaioli, E; Teixeira, A; ten Kate, H H J

    2014-01-01

    Quench detection on superconducting bus bars and other devices with a low normal zone propagation velocity and low voltage build-up is quite difficult with conventional quench detection techniques. Currently, on ATLAS superconducting bus bar sections, superconducting quench detectors (SQD) are mounted to detect quench events. A first version of the SQD essentially consists of an insulated superconducting wire glued to a superconducting bus line or windings, which in the case of a quench rapidly builds up a relatively high resistance that can be easily and quietly detected. We now introduce a new generation of drastically improved SQDs. The new version makes the detection of quenches simpler, more reliable, and much faster. Instead of a superconducting wire, now a superconducting thin film is used. The layout of the sensor shows a meander like pattern that is etched out of a copper coated 25 mu m thick film of Nb-Ti glued in between layers of Kapton. Since the sensor is now much smaller and thinner, it is easi...

  8. Study of superconducting a-axis oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin films deposited on Y 2O 3/YSZ/Si with PrBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosova, Alica; Chromik, Stefan; Benacka, Stefan; Wuyts, Bart

    1995-02-01

    Epitaxial a-axis oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (YBCO) superconducting thin films have been grown by off-axis magnetron sputtering on Y 2O 3/YSZ/Si substrates with PrBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (PBCO) seed layer. The YBCO thin films were deposited immediately after the on-axis magnetron sputtering of PBCO. XRD analyses show that the a-axis volume fraction for 120 nm thick YBCO films varies with substrate temperature during PBCO deposition and its maximum value is higher than 98%. The TEM study shows the clear dependence between the character of the R- T dependence and the microstructure of our YBCO thin films, which varies with the change of the volume ratio of a-axis to c-maxis oriented YBCO.

  9. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  10. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  11. Optimisation of superconducting thin films by TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bals, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Leca, V.; Salluzzo, M.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy is used to study the initial growth of different REBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films. In DyBa2Cu3O7−δ ultra-thin films, deposited on TiO2 terminated SrTiO3, two different types of interface arrangements occur: bulk–SrO–TiO2–BaO–CuO–BaO–CuO2–Dy–CuO2–BaO–bulk and bulk–SrO–TiO2–

  12. Improvement of the critical temperature of superconducting NbTiN and NbN thin films using the AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiino, Tatsuya; Shiba, Shoichi; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamakura, Tetsuya [Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ten-nodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Jiang, Ling [College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, Jiangsu (China); Uzawa, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Maezawa, Hiroyuki, E-mail: shiino@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chigusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Thin superconducting NbTiN and NbN films with a few nm thickness are used in various device applications including in hot electron bolometer mixers. Such thin films have lower critical temperature (T{sub c}) and higher resistivity than corresponding bulk materials. In an effort to improve them, we have investigated an effect of the AlN buffer layer between the film and the substrate (quartz or soda lime glass). The AlN film is deposited by DC magnetron sputtering, and the process condition is optimized so that the x-ray diffraction intensity from the 002 surface of wurtzite AlN becomes the highest. By use of this well-characterized buffer layer, T{sub c} and the resistivity of the NbTiN film with a few nm thickness are remarkably increased and decreased, respectively, in comparison with those without the buffer layer. More importantly, the AlN buffer layer is found to be effective for NbN. With the AlN buffer layer, T{sub c} is increased from 7.3 to 10.5 K for the 8 nm NbN film. The improvement of T{sub c} and the resistivity originates from the good lattice matching between the 002 surface of AlN and the 111 surface of NbTiN or NbN, which results in better crystallization of the NbTiN or NbN film. This is further confirmed by the x-ray diffraction measurement.

  13. Silver buffer layers for YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Center for Technol. Education Holon

    1999-09-01

    A simple economical conventional vacuum system was used for evaporation of YBCO thin films on as-deposited unbuffered Ag layers on MgO substrates. The subsequent heat treatment was carried out in low oxygen partial pressure at a relative low temperature and short dwelling time. The films thus obtained were characterized for electrical properties using dc four probe electrical measurements and inspected for structural properties and chemical composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (orig.)

  14. Studies to Enhance Superconductivity in Thin Film Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benjamin; Brunke, Lyle; Burke, Jack; Vier, David; Steckl, Andrew; Haugan, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    With research in the area of superconductivity growing, it is no surprise that new efforts are being made to induce superconductivity or increase transition temperatures (Tc) in carbon given its many allotropic forms. Promising results have been published for boron doping in diamond films, and phosphorus doping in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) films show hints of superconductivity.. Following these examples in the literature, we have begun studies to explore superconductivity in thin film carbon samples doped with different elements. Carbon thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous SiO2/Si and single-crystal substrates. Doping is achieved by depositing from (C1-xMx) single-targets with M = B4C and BN, and also by ion implantation into pure-carbon films. Previous research had indicated that Boron in HOPG did not elicit superconducting properties, but we aim to explore that also in thin film carbon and see if there needs to be a higher doping in the sample if trends were able to be seen in diamond films. Higher onset temperatures, Tc , and current densities, Jc, are hoped to be achieved with doping of the thin film carbon with different elements.

  15. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  16. Crystalline thin films: The electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) view

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical atomic layer deposition technique is selected as one of the methods to prepare thin films for various applications, including electrocatalytic materials and compound....

  17. A Method for Suppressing Superconductivity of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppula, Tarmo; Pekola, Jukka; Kauppinen, Juha

    2003-03-01

    We have developed a method for suppressing superconductivity of thin films. Thin stripes of cobalt grown by e-gun evaporation and patterned by e-beam lithography were placed in the vicinity of aluminium thin film structures. The cobalt stripes were magnetized at 4.2 K with a superconducting coil and the remanence suppressed superconductivity of the Al stripe at temperatures down to 50 mK at least. The magnetization remained in thermal cycling and in a longer storage at room temperature. Motivation for this work is the Coulomb Blockade Thermometer(CBT)^1 which has to be in a normal state to operate. The CBT sensor contains aluminium which is superconducting at temperatures below 1.4 K. An external magnetic field is not always available or acceptable in cryostats. A small grain of permanent magnet mounted to the sensor is another solution, but suspicious if the sensor is put in strong magnetic fields or if "zero field" environment is required. We have shown that suitably patterned and magnetized Co stripes in the vicinity of tunnel junctions of the CBT can solve this problem. The amount of magnetic material in the sensor, as well as the stray field, is very small. This technique may be useful in other low temperature thin film devices also. 1) Product of Nanoway Ltd.

  18. Interdiffusion studies on high-Tc superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films on Si(111) with a NiSi2/ZrO2 buffer layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarnink, W.A.M.; Blank, D.H.A.; Adelerhof, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Interdiffusion studies on high-T(c) superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with thickness in the range of 2000-3000 angstrom, on a Si(111) substrate with a buffer layer have been performed. The buffer layer consists of a 400 angstrom thick epitaxial NiSi2 layer covered with 1200 angstrom...... x 10(4) A/cm2. With X-ray analysis (XRD), only c-axis orientation has been observed. The interdiffusion studies, using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) show that the ZrO2 buffer layer prevents severe Si diffusion to the YBa2Cu3O7-delta layer, the Si...... substrate and Ni segregation to the surface of the ZrO2 layer may be expected. From the results we may conclude that, when using laser ablation, it is well possible to grow polycrystalline, c-axis-oriented high-T(c) superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films on a Si(111) substrate with a NiSi2/ZrO2 buffer...

  19. Stoichiometry and thickness dependence of superconducting properties of niobium nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Melissa R., E-mail: mrbeebe@email.wm.edu; Beringer, Douglas B.; Burton, Matthew C.; Yang, Kaida; Lukaszew, R. Alejandra [Department of Physics, The College of William & Mary, Small Hall, 300 Ukrop Way, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The current technology used in linear particle accelerators is based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities fabricated from bulk niobium (Nb), which have smaller surface resistance and therefore dissipate less energy than traditional nonsuperconducting copper cavities. Using bulk Nb for the cavities has several advantages, which are discussed elsewhere; however, such SRF cavities have a material-dependent accelerating gradient limit. In order to overcome this fundamental limit, a multilayered coating has been proposed using layers of insulating and superconducting material applied to the interior surface of the cavity. The key to this multilayered model is to use superconducting thin films to exploit the potential field enhancement when these films are thinner than their London penetration depth. Such field enhancement has been demonstrated in MgB{sub 2} thin films; here, the authors consider films of another type-II superconductor, niobium nitride (NbN). The authors present their work correlating stoichiometry and superconducting properties in NbN thin films and discuss the thickness dependence of their superconducting properties, which is important for their potential use in the proposed multilayer structure. While there are some previous studies on the relationship between stoichiometry and critical temperature T{sub C}, the authors are the first to report on the correlation between stoichiometry and the lower critical field H{sub C1}.

  20. Tuning Superconductivity in FeSe Thin Films via Magnesium Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenbin; Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Shahriar Al Hossain, Mohammed; Wang, Xiaolin; Cai, Chuanbing; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-03-01

    In contrast to its bulk crystal, the FeSe thin film or layer exhibits better superconductivity performance, which recently attracted much interest in its fundamental research as well as in potential applications around the world. In the present work, tuning superconductivity in FeSe thin films was achieved by magnesium-doping technique. Tc is significantly enhanced from 10.7 K in pure FeSe films to 13.4 K in optimized Mg-doped ones, which is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of bulk crystals. This is the first time achieving the enhancement of superconducting transition temperature in FeSe thin films with practical thickness (120 nm) via a simple Mg-doping process. Moreover, these Mg-doped FeSe films are quite stable in atmosphere with Hc2 up to 32.7 T and Tc(zero) up to 12 K, respectively, implying their outstanding potential for practical applications in high magnetic fields. It was found that Mg enters the matrix of FeSe lattice, and does not react with FeSe forming any other secondary phase. Actually, Mg first occupies Fe-vacancies, and then substitutes for some Fe in the FeSe crystal lattices when Fe-vacancies are fully filled. Simultaneously, external Mg-doping introduces sufficient electron doping and induces the variation of electron carrier concentration according to Hall coefficient measurements. This is responsible for the evolution of superconducting performance in FeSe thin films. Our results provide a new strategy to improve the superconductivity of 11 type Fe-based superconductors and will help us to understand the intrinsic mechanism of this unconventional superconducting system.

  1. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  2. Thin-film organic photonics molecular layer deposition and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    2011-01-01

    Among the many atomic/molecular assembling techniques used to develop artificial materials, molecular layer deposition (MLD) continues to receive special attention as the next-generation growth technique for organic thin-film materials used in photonics and electronics. Thin-Film Organic Photonics: Molecular Layer Deposition and Applications describes how photonic/electronic properties of thin films can be improved through MLD, which enables precise control of atomic and molecular arrangements to construct a wire network that achieves ""three-dimensional growth"". MLD facilitates dot-by-dot--o

  3. Local imaging of magnetic flux in superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapoval, Tetyana

    2010-01-26

    Local studies of magnetic flux line (vortex) distribution in superconducting thin films and their pinning by natural and artificial defects have been performed using low-temperature magnetic force microscopy (LT-MFM). Taken a 100 nm thin NbN film as an example, the depinning of vortices from natural defects under the influence of the force that the MFM tip exerts on the individual vortex was visualized and the local pinning force was estimated. The good agreement of these results with global transport measurements demonstrates that MFM is a powerful and reliable method to probe the local variation of the pinning landscape. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the presence of an ordered array of 1-{mu}m-sized ferromagnetic permalloy dots being in a magneticvortex state underneath the Nb film significantly influences the natural pinning landscape of the superconductor leading to commensurate pinning effects. This strong pinning exceeds the repulsive interaction between the superconducting vortices and allows vortex clusters to be located at each dot. Additionally, for industrially applicable YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films the main question discussed was the possibility of a direct correlation between vortices and artificial defects as well as vortex imaging on rough as-prepared thin films. Since the surface roughness (droplets, precipitates) causes a severe problem to the scanning MFM tip, a nanoscale wedge polishing technique that allows to overcome this problem was developed. Mounting the sample under a defined small angle results in a smooth surface and a monotonic thickness reduction of the film along the length of the sample. It provides a continuous insight from the film surface down to the substrate with surface sensitive scanning techniques. (orig.)

  4. Growth and superconductivity characteristics of MgB sub 2 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Nie Rui Juan; Yang, T; Xie, F X; Liu, L Y; Wang, S Z; Dai, Y D; Wang, F

    2002-01-01

    We attempt to make MgB sub 2 thin films by using a pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) and a magnetron sputtering method. We have deposited metal magnesium and boron on various substrates under different vacuum conditions. The PLD method has been employed to fabricate layers of magnesium and boron sandwiches under room temperature and the multi-layer system was then annealed in-situ under different temperatures. We also attempted to co-deposit magnesium and boron under high vacuum (5 x 10 sup - sup 5 Pa) on heated substrates with PLD. We have successfully grown superconducting MgB sub 2 thin films on an STO (100) substrate by magnetron sputtering. The onset transition temperature was 37 K and zero resistance temperature was 34 K.

  5. Two approaches for enhancing the hydrogenation properties of palladium: Metal nanoparticle and thin film over layers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manika Khanuja; B R Mehta; S M Shivaprasad

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, two approaches have been used for enhancing the hydrogenation properties of Pd. In the first approach, metal thin film (Cu, Ag) has been deposited over Pd and hydrogenation properties of bimetal layer Cu (thin film)/Pd(thin film) and Ag(thin film)/Pd(thin film) have been studied. In the second approach, Ag metal nanoparticles have been deposited over Pd and hydrogenation properties of Ag (nanoparticle)/Pd (thin film) have been studied and compared with Ag(thin film)/Pd(thin film) bimetal layer system. The observed hydrogen sensing response is stable and reversible over a number of hydrogen loading and deloading cycles in both bimetallic systems. Alloying between Ag and Pd is suppressed in case of Ag(nanoparticle)/Pd(thin film) bimetallic layer on annealing as compared to Ag (thin film)/Pd(thin film).

  6. Buffer layers for high-Tc thin films on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. D.; Foltyn, S. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Pique, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.; Belohoubek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buffer layers of various oxides including CeO2 and yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been deposited on R-plane sapphire. The orientation and crystallinity of the layers were optimized to promote epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films. An ion beam channeling minimum yield of about 3 percent was obtained in the CeO2 layer on sapphire, indicating excellent crystallinity of the buffer layer. Among the buffer materials used, CeO2 was found to be the best one for YBCO thin films on R-plane sapphire. High Tc and Jc were obtained in YBCO thin films on sapphire with buffer layers. Surface resistances of the YBCO films were about 4 mOmega at 77 K and 25 GHz.

  7. Buffer layers for high-Tc thin films on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. D.; Foltyn, S. R.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Pique, A.; Kalokitis, D.; Pendrick, V.; Belohoubek, E.

    1992-01-01

    Buffer layers of various oxides including CeO2 and yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) have been deposited on R-plane sapphire. The orientation and crystallinity of the layers were optimized to promote epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films. An ion beam channeling minimum yield of about 3 percent was obtained in the CeO2 layer on sapphire, indicating excellent crystallinity of the buffer layer. Among the buffer materials used, CeO2 was found to be the best one for YBCO thin films on R-plane sapphire. High Tc and Jc were obtained in YBCO thin films on sapphire with buffer layers. Surface resistances of the YBCO films were about 4 mOmega at 77 K and 25 GHz.

  8. Loss mechanisms in superconducting thin film microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Jan, E-mail: jan.goetz@wmi.badw.de; Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Friedrich; Zollitsch, Christoph W.; Meier, Sebastian; Fischer, Michael; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Menzel, Edwin P. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Deppe, Frank; Eder, Peter; Xie, Edwar; Gross, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.gross@wmi.badw.de [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-07

    We present a systematic analysis of the internal losses of superconducting coplanar waveguide microwave resonators based on niobium thin films on silicon substrates. In particular, we investigate losses introduced by Nb/Al interfaces in the center conductor, which is important for experiments where Al based Josephson junctions are integrated into Nb based circuits. We find that these interfaces can be a strong source for two-level state (TLS) losses, when the interfaces are not positioned at current nodes of the resonator. In addition to TLS losses, for resonators including Al, quasiparticle losses become relevant above 200 mK. Finally, we investigate how losses generated by eddy currents in conductive material on the backside of the substrate can be minimized by using thick enough substrates or metals with high conductivity on the substrate backside.

  9. Superconducting thin films. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, structures, and properties of superconducting thin films used in microelectronics and optoelectronics. References discuss high temperature superconductors, oxide superconductors, superconducting transition temperatures, critical current density, yttrium barium copper oxide thin films, and yttrium stabilized substrates. Superconducting devices, filters, resonators, and circuits are also reviewed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Epitaxy of layered semiconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim Otsmane, L.; Emery, J. Y.; Jouanne, M.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    Epilayers of InSe on InSe(00.1) and GaSe(00.1) have been grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. Raman spectroscopy was used for a characterization of the structure and crystallinity in InSe/InSe(00.1) (homoepitaxy) and InSe/GaSe(00.1) (heteroepitaxy). The Raman spectra of the InSe thin films are identical to those of polytype γ-InSe. An activation of the E(LO) mode at 211 cm -1 is observed in these films here. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is also used to investigate surfaces of these films.

  11. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Weidong, E-mail: wds@bnl.gov, E-mail: qiangli@bnl.gov; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Lijun; Ozaki, Toshinori; Gu, Genda; Li, Qiang, E-mail: wds@bnl.gov, E-mail: qiangli@bnl.gov [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF{sub 2} crystalline substrates, respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  12. Synthesis of novel strontium-based cuprate superconducting thin films, and the relationship between their crystal structures and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Wei

    2000-12-01

    Novel Sr-based cuprate thin films were investigated to explore their potential as next generation superconducting materials. Thin films of infinite-layer compound (Sr,Ca)CuO2 (no blocking layer), cuprate oxycarbonate Sr2CuO2(CO3) (carbonate blocking layer), and Tl(Sr,Ba)2Can-1CunOy (n = 2 and 3) (thin blocking layer) were synthesized using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The structure and defect chemistry of the blocking layers of these cuprate compounds were found to have profound effects on the transport properties both in the normal state and the superconducting state. Phase pure, epitaxial infinite-layer compound (Sr1-xCa x)CuO2 thin films were deposited on SrTiO3(100) substrates. However, these films were always semiconducting with resistivities of the order of 1 ohm- cm and with carrier concentrations of 1017~10 19cm-3, which is two to four orders of magnitude lower than the typical superconducting cuprates. The low carrier concentration was attributed to the absence of blocking layers containing a sufficient concentration of charged defects. Transport was via variable range hopping conduction. By annealing in air, the infinite-layer compound SrCuO2 thin films reacted with the CO2 in air to generate Sr 2CuO2(CO3) thin films. Upon formation of carbonate blocking layers, charger carriers were introduced into the Sr2CuO 2(CO3) thin films through the partial substitution of carbon by copper or boron in the SrCO3 blocking layers. After oxygen annealing or upon boron substitution, the carrier concentration increased up to 10 21 cm-3. A superconducting onset temperature of 34K and a zero resistivity temperature of 20K have been observed for Sr 2CuO2(C1-xBx)O3 thin films. A critical carrier density of 0.10~0.12 holes/Cu was required to render superconductivity. The effect of crystal structure on the critical current density was investigated by measuring the vortex pinning energies of Tl2Ba2CaCu 2Oy (Tl-2212) and Tl(Sr,Ba)2Ca Cu2O y (Tl- (Sr,Ba)1212) thin

  13. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830585; Liu, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831743; de Jong, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325844208; de Wild, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314641378; Schuttauf, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118039; Brinza, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823325; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2009-01-01

    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of nanocry

  14. Spatial atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited at high growth rates (up to ~1 nm/s) by spatial atomic layer deposition technique at atmospheric pressure. Water has been used as oxidant for diethylzinc (DEZ) at deposition temperatures between 75 and 250 °C. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and mo

  15. Highly textured oxypnictide superconducting thin films on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Kazumasa, E-mail: iida@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kurth, Fritz; Grinenko, Vadim; Hänisch, Jens [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Chihara, Masashi; Sumiya, Naoki; Hatano, Takafumi; Ikuta, Hiroshi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Matias, Vladimir [iBeam Materials, Inc., 2778A Agua Fria Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States); Holzapfel, Bernhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Highly textured NdFeAs(O,F) thin films have been grown on ion beam assisted deposition-MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Hastelloy substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The oxypnictide coated conductors showed a superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of 43 K with a self-field critical current density (J{sub c}) of 7.0×10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 K, more than 20 times higher than powder-in-tube processed SmFeAs(O,F) wires. Albeit higher T{sub c} as well as better crystalline quality than Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} coated conductors, in-field J{sub c} of NdFeAs(O,F) was lower than that of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. These results suggest that grain boundaries in oxypnictides reduce J{sub c} significantly compared to that in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and, hence biaxial texture is necessary for high J{sub c.}.

  16. High temperature superconducting thin films for microwave filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xinjie(赵新杰); LI; Lin(李林); LEI; Chong(雷冲); TIAN; Ybngjun(田永军)

    2002-01-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin films for microwave filters were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and the two-step thalliation process. Substrate quality requirements and the relation of thin film morphology, microstructure with microwave surface resistance were discussed.

  17. Magnetic shielding performance of superconducting YBCO thin film in a multilayer device structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, Y., E-mail: uzunyigitcan@gmail.com; Avci, I.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A multilayer structure was fabricated in the form of YBCO/STO/YBCO. • Bottom layer was used as a magnetic shield. • The top layer was patterned as a microbridge. • Magnetic shielding performance of the bottom layer onto the microbridge was tested. • I{sub c} of the microbridge was kept constant under the various magnetic fields. - Abstract: Magnetic shielding performance of superconducting YBaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film on an YBCO microbridge was analyzed in a multilayer structure. A sandwich type multilayer structure was fabricated onto a single crystal (1 0 0) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrate in the form of YBCO/STO/YBCO by depositing a thin STO interlayer in between two YBCO layers. The top YBCO was patterned as 20 μm width meander-type microbridges and the bottom layer YBCO was used as magnetic shield. YBCO and STO thin films were deposited by dc and rf magnetron sputtering respectively, and the patterning was performed by using standard photolithography and wet etching. In order to enhance long-term stability of the final device, an additional STO thin film was deposited onto the device as an encapsulation layer. Electrical and magnetic characterizations of the YBCO thin film layers were carried out by means of ac magnetic susceptibility (χ–T) and resistance vs. temperature (R–T) measurements. The current–voltage (I–V) measurements were performed on the microbridges at 77 K by observing the shielding performance of the bottom YBCO layer under various applied magnetic fields. The results were compared with that of a same-type single layer YBCO device without a shielding layer. The zero field critical current value of the single layer 20 μm wide YBCO device was measured as 30 mA and decreased down to 20 mA as the field increased up to 100 mT. The same measurements on the multilayer device showed that the critical current values remained almost constant around 27 mA as the applied field increased.

  18. Structural and superconducting properties of ion beam sputtered Nb thin films and Nb/Cu bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S. K.; Dhawan, R.; Rai, S.; Lodha, G. S.; Sokhey, K. J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a study of structural and superconducting properties of polycrystalline Nb thin films (200 Å, 300 Å, 400 Å, 700 Å and 1000 Å) and Nb/Cu bilayers (300 Å/300 Å and 400 Å/300 Å) prepared on Si substrates by ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The thicknesses, roughnesses at the surfaces and interfaces were determined by X-ray reflectivity whereas the grain sizes were determined from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies. The superconducting transition temperature ( T C) of Nb thin films are smaller than T C of bulk Nb. The Nb-200 Å sample does not show T C down to 2.3 K. The average size of the grains varies from 42 Å for Nb-200 Å sample to 69 Å for Nb-1000 Å sample. Our results show that the T C in these polycrystalline films is not only limited by its thickness but also by the size of the grains. The Nb films deposited in situ on the Cu layer (Nb/Cu) show a marginal increase in average sizes of the grains as compare to their respective values in Nb films of same thicknesses. As a result a marginal increase in T C of these films is also observed. The maximum decrease in T C due to oxygen intake during deposition should be about 0.5 K from its bulk value (9.28 K). We have attributed the large decrease in T C in our case on the basis of decrease in the Debye temperature and density of states at the Fermi level for Nb thin films as compared to their respective values for bulk Nb.

  19. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Daniel J.; Pridgen, Eric M.; Hammond, Paula T.; Love, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly in the context of thin films and to expose students to the concepts of functional polymeric coatings. Students dip coat…

  20. The spin-wave spectrum of layered magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stapele, R. P.; Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Smits, J. W.

    1985-02-01

    The ferromagnetic resonance spectrum of a layered magnetic thin film is expected to show a number of standing spin-wave resonances with a wavelength that matches the thickness of the film. For the case of perpendicular resonance such spectra were calculated for some typical films in which magnetic layers are alternated with weaker magnetic layers. Some useful approximations are discussed. The results of the calculations are compared with experimental perpendicular spectra measured on films in which fifty Permalloy layers alternate with Ni layers.

  1. High- T_c superconducting thin film/GaAs MESFET hybrid microwave oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飚兵; 康琳; 伍瑞新; 张健羽; 程其恒; 吴培亨; 经东; 焦刚; 邵凯; 蒋明明; 张家宗; 孙敏松; 王蕴仪; 周岳亮; 吕惠宾; 许世发; 何萌; 王小平; 杨秉川; 卢剑; 张其邵

    1997-01-01

    A high- Tc superconducting (HTSC) thin film/GaAs MESFET hybrid microwave oscillator operated at 10 6 GHz has been designed, fabricated and characterized. Microstrip line structures were used throughout the circuit with superconducting thin film YBaiCuiO7 8(YBCO) as the conductor material. The YBCO thin films were deposited on 15 mm×10 mm×0. 5 mm LaAlO3 substrates. The oscillator was common-source, series feedback type using a GaAs-MESFET (NE72084) as the active device and a superconducting microstrip resonator as the frequency stabilizing element. By improving the unloaded quality factor Q0 of the superconducting microstrip resonator and adjusting the coupling coefficient between the resonator and the gate of the MESFET, the phase noise of the oscillator was decreased At 77 K, the phase noise of the oscillator at 10 kHz offset from carrier was - 87 dBc/Hz.

  2. Use of thin films in high-temperature superconducting bearings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.; Cansiz, A.

    1999-09-30

    In a PM/HTS bearing, locating a thin-film HTS above a bulk HTS was expected to maintain the large levitation force provided by the bulk with a lower rotational drag provided by the very high current density of the film. For low drag to be achieved, the thin film must shield the bulk from inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Measurement of rotational drag of a PM/HTS bearing that used a combination of bulk and film HTS showed that the thin film is not effective in reducing the rotational drag. Subsequent experiments, in which an AC coil was placed above the thin-film HTS and the magnetic field on the other side of the film was measured, showed that the thin film provides good shielding when the coil axis is perpendicular to the film surface but poor shielding when the coil axis is parallel to the surface. This is consistent with the lack of reduction in rotational drag being due to a horizontal magnetic moment of the permanent magnet. The poor shielding with the coil axis parallel to the film surface is attributed to the aspect ratio of the film and the three-dimensional nature of the current flow in the film for this coil orientation.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  4. Josephson soliton oscillators in a superconducting thin film resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    . Different modes of half-wave resonances in the thin-film structure impose different magnetic field configurations at the boundaries of the junctions. The DC I-V characteristic shows zero-field steps with a number of resonator-induced steps. These structures are compared to RF-induced steps generated...

  5. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy on Superconducting Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wensheng; Qiu, Ping; Yan, Shaolin; Li, Zengfa; Zhang, Guangyin

    1991-06-01

    We have prepared single-phase superconducting Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 thin film by dc magnetron sputtering process and measured x-ray photoelectron spectra of the film at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. From the relative intensities of the Ba3d, Tl4f. O1s and Cu2p spectra taken at different take-off angles, we have concluded that there is an adventitious contamination (nonsuperconducting phase) surface layer. After excluding contributions from these spurious phases, we have tentatively assigned which core-level shifts should be caused by the superconducting phase transition.

  6. Quench-condensing superconducting thin films using the Fab on a Chip approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Del Corro, Pablo; Stark, Thomas; Lally, Richard; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Bishop, David

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) being manufactured in a macroscopic fab inspires the idea of getting the process further down to fabricate even smaller structures, namely nano-structures, using MEMS. The Fab on a Chip concept was proposed based on such ideas. By implementing the final-step, additive fabrication approach, manufacturing, characterization and experiments of nano-structures are integrated in-situ. Due to the miniature size of MEMS, the thickness precision is significantly improved while the power consumption is significantly depressed, making the quench-condensation of very thin films well controlled and easily achievable. Among various types of nano-structures, quench-condensed superconducting thin films are of great interest for physicists. Here we present such experiments done on superconducting thin films quench-condensed using the Fab on a Chip. We show that we are able to fabricate very thin films with its thickness precisely controlled, and the base temperature kept under ~3K during the process. The resistivity data demonstrates the high purity and uniformity of the film, as well as the annealing effect when cycling to higher temperatures. Based on the tremendous results obtained from the superconducting thin films, more complex nano-circuits can be fabricated and investigated using the Fab on a Chip, enabling a new approach for novel condensed matter physics experiments. This research is funded by the NSF through their CMMI division. This research is funded by the NSF through their CMMI division.

  7. Superconductivity of very thin films: The superconductor–insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Nelson, J.; Goldman, A.M., E-mail: goldman@physics.umn.edu

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • This manuscript reviews work on the superconductor–insulator transitions of investigated in metallic film, cuprates and metallic interfaces. • Superconductor–insulator transitions are examples of quantum phase transitions. • The systems discussed serve as model systems for behaviors found in more complex systems of contemporary interest. • The concept of a quantum phase transition is an important paradigm in condensed matter physics. • The review also includes discussions of open issues. - Abstract: The study of thin superconducting films has been an important component of the science of superconductivity for more than six decades. It played a major role in the development of currently accepted views of the macroscopic and microscopic nature of the superconducting state. In recent years the focus of research in the field has shifted to the study of ultrathin films and surface and interface layers. This has permitted the exploration of one of the important topics of condensed matter physics, the superconductor–insulator transition. This review will discuss this phenomenon as realized in the study of metallic films, cuprates, and metallic interfaces. These are in effect model systems for behaviors that may be found in more complex systems of contemporary interest.

  8. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on superconducting properties of niobium thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pristáš, Gabriel; Gabáni, Slavomír; Gažo, Emil [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Komanický, Vladimír; Orendáč, Matúš [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have studied superconducting properties of niobium thin films under hydrostatic pressures up to 3 GPa. The films with thickness of 100 nm were prepared in the high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system (with critical temperature TC = 8.95 K at ambient pressure). The produced high quality films have been characterized using electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscope imaging. We have observed increase of TC with increasing value of applied pressure (dTC/dp = 73 mK/GPa) up to 3 GPa. This observation is different to pressure effect observed on bulk sample of Nb. In this paper we are discussing the origin of this discrepancy. - Highlights: • We have studied superconducting properties of niobium thin films under pressure. • The 100 nm thick films were prepared in DC magnetron sputtering system. • We have observed different behavior of T{sub C} for thin film and for bulk sample.

  9. Development of Strontium Titanate Thin films on Technical Substrates for Superconducting Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P; Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    SrTiO3 is a widely studied perovskite material due to its advantages as a template for high temperature superconducting tapes. Heteroepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films were deposited on Ni/W tapes using dip-coating in a precursor solution followed by drying and annealing under reducing conditions. Nearl...

  10. Fabricating superconducting interfaces between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of a fully metallic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at the interface between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films has been an exciting challenge. Here we present for the first time the successful realization of a superconducting 2DEG at interfaces between artificially grown LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 thin films. Our results highlight the importance of two factors—the growth temperature and the SrTiO3 termination. We use local friction force microscopy and transport measurements to determine that in normal growth conditions the absence of a robust metallic state at low temperature in the artificially grown LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is due to the nanoscale SrO segregation occurring on the SrTiO3 film surface during the growth and the associated defects in the SrTiO3 film. By adopting an extremely high SrTiO3 growth temperature, we demonstrate a way to realize metallic, down to the lowest temperature, and superconducting 2DEG at interfaces between LaAlO3 layers and artificially grown SrTiO3 thin films. This study paves the way to the realization of functional LaAlO3/SrTiO3 superlattices and/or artificial LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces on other substrates.

  11. MgB{sub 2} superconducting thin films sequentially fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering and thermionic vacuum arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okur, S. [Physics Department, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)], E-mail: salihokur@iyte.edu.tr; Kalkanci, M. [Material Science Program, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ekem, N.; Akan, T. [Physics Department, Osmangazi University (Turkey); Balbag, Z. [Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Osmangazi University (Turkey); Musa, G. [Plasma and Radiation, National Institute for Physics of Laser (Romania); Tanoglu, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)

    2007-11-01

    In this work, we discuss fabrication and characterization of MgB{sub 2} thin films obtained by sequential deposition and annealing of sandwich like Mg/B/Mg thin films on glass substrates. Mg and B films were prepared using DC magnetron sputtering and thermionic vacuum arc techniques, respectively. The MgB{sub 2} thin films showed superconducting critical transition at 33 K after annealing at 650 deg. C.

  12. Investigation of multi-layer thin films for energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    We investigate here the feasibility of increasing the energy density of thin-film capacitors by construction of a multi-layer capacitor device through ablation and redeposition of the capacitor materials using a high-power pulsed ion beam. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The dielectric capacitor filler material was a composition of Lead-Lanthanum-Zirconium-Titanium oxide (PLZT). The energy storage can be increased by using material of intrinsically high dielectric constant, and constructing many thin layers of this material. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, even though the attempt at device manufacture was unsuccessful. The conclusion that 900 C temperatures are necessary to reconstitute the deposited PLZT has implications for future manufacturing capability.

  13. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E. P.; Sharma, Neha; Harimohan, V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Mani, Awadhesh

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples.

  14. Effect of pirfenidone delivered using layer-by-layer thin film on excisional wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Labala, Suman; Bojja, Jagadeesh; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new anti-fibrotic agent, pirfenidone (PFD), delivered using polyelectrolyte multilayer films on excisional wound healing. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) sequential adsorption of chitosan and sodium alginate. The UV-spectrophotometer, FTIR and differential scanning calorimeter were used to characterize the LbL thin films. The PFD was entrapped within the LbL thin films and its effect on excisional wound healing was studied in C57BL/6. The total protein, collagen content and TGF-β expression within the wound tissue were determined after application of PFD using LbL thin films, chitosan hydrogel and polyethylene glycol hydrogel. UV-spectrophotometer and FTIR studies showed a sequential adsorption of chitosan and alginate polymer layers to form LbL thin films. The thickness of LbL thin films with 15 bilayers was found to be 15 ± 2 μm. HPLC analysis showed a PFD loading efficiency of 1.0 ± 0.1mg in 1cm(2) area of LbL thin film. In vivo wound healing studies in C57BL/6 mice showed an accelerated (healing.

  15. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  16. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenghua; Yan, Chang; Sun, Kaiwen; Han, Zili; Liu, Fangyang; Liu, Jin; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2012-07-01

    Earth-abundant Cu2ZnSnS4 is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu2ZnSnS4 and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 1018 cm-3 and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  17. Electric field-induced superconducting transition of insulating FeSe thin film at 35 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Kota; Sato, Hikaru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-04-12

    It is thought that strong electron correlation in an insulating parent phase would enhance a critical temperature (Tc) of superconductivity in a doped phase via enhancement of the binding energy of a Cooper pair as known in high-Tc cuprates. To induce a superconductor transition in an insulating phase, injection of a high density of carriers is needed (e.g., by impurity doping). An electric double-layer transistor (EDLT) with an ionic liquid gate insulator enables such a field-induced transition to be investigated and is expected to result in a high Tc because it is free from deterioration in structure and carrier transport that are in general caused by conventional carrier doping (e.g., chemical substitution). Here, for insulating epitaxial thin films (∼10 nm thick) of FeSe, we report a high Tc of 35 K, which is 4× higher than that of bulk FeSe, using an EDLT under application of a gate bias of +5.5 V. Hall effect measurements under the gate bias suggest that highly accumulated electron carrier in the channel, whose area density is estimated to be 1.4 × 10(15) cm(-2) (the average volume density of 1.7 × 10(21) cm(-3)), is the origin of the high-Tc superconductivity. This result demonstrates that EDLTs are useful tools to explore the ultimate Tc for insulating parent materials.

  18. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  19. Morphology of superconducting FeSe thin films grown by MBE and RF-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Alexander; Venzmer, Eike; Haaf, Sebastian ten; Jourdan, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Maletz, Janek [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Tunneling spectroscopy on planar junctions is the most direct approach for the investigation of superconducting coupling mechanisms. However, it requires smooth interfaces at the tunneling barrier. The morphology of superconducting thin films of FeSe grown by MBE and co-sputtering (RF) from an iron and a selenium target are compared. MBE deposited films show an extreme sensitivity to stoichiometry, deposition temperature and choice of substrate. These films exhibit macroscopic crevices and a pronounced roughness, rendering the preparation of tunneling junctions impossible. However, sputter deposited epitaxial FeSe thin films clearly show a more favorable morphology. Optical microscopy, AFM and SEM demonstrate a smooth surface with segregations which are eliminated by proper choice of the deposition parameters.

  20. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  1. High quality YBCO superconductive thin films fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High quality YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) superconductive thin films have been fabricated on the SrTiO3(100) substrate using laser molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE).The active oxygen source was used,which made the necessary ambient oxygen pressure be 2-3 orders lower than that in pulsed laser deposition (PLD).Tc0 is 85-87 K,and Jc~1.0×106 A/cm2.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that no obvious particulates can be observed and the root mean square roughness is 7.8 nm.High stability DC superconducting quantum interference devices (DC-SQUID) was fabricated using this YBCO thin film.

  2. Direct detection of the Josephson radiation emitted from superconducting thin-film microbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper;

    1976-01-01

    We report direct measurements of the Josephson radiation emitted in X band from a superconducting thin-film microbridge coupled to a resonance cavity. Power is emitted if one of the harmonics of the Josephson frequency is in the bandwidth of the receiver. The maximum power emitted during our expe...... experiment was 10−13 W. The Josephson radiation could easily be detected at frequencies off resonance. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  3. Growth of YBCO superconducting thin films on CaF sub 2 buffered silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, S S; Patil, J M; Shirodkar, V S

    2000-01-01

    CaF sub 2 films were grown on silicon using the neutral cluster beam deposition technique. These films were highly crystalline and c-axis oriented. Superconducting YBCO thin films were grown on the Ca F sub 2 buffered silicon using the laser ablation technique. These films showed T sub c (onset) at 90 K and Tc(zero) at 86 K. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the YBCO films were also oriented along the c-axis.

  4. Vortex pinning in superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous alumina templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinckx, W.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization and transport properties of superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous aluminium oxide templates. Periodic oscillations in the critical temperature vs. field, matching effects in fields up to 700 mT and strongly enhanced critical currents were observ...... centers, which enhances vortex pinning in broad field and temperature ranges. © EDP Sciences/Società Italiana di Fisica/Springer-Verlag 2006....

  5. Microstructural properties of multi-nano-layered YSZ thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezaga-Madrid, P.; Antunez-Flores, W.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Saenz-Hernandez, J.; Campos-Venegas, K.; Solis-Canto, O.; Ornelas-Gutierrez, C.; Vega-Becerra, O.; Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih, CP. 31109 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.m [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih, CP. 31109 (Mexico)

    2010-04-16

    We report the fabrication of submicron, multi-nano-layered, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films by aerosol assisted CVD. The film consisted of a periodic stack of several layers, a few nanometers thick, of the same composition but different density; formation of voids during synthesis originate the low-density layer. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images were employed to analyze the microstructure of the films. GIXRD pattern showed characteristic peaks of cubic zirconia. Peak broadening in the pattern comes from a microstructure composed of nanocrystals, but principally due to the multilayered structure, that cause satellite peaks around the Bragg reflections. Lattice fringes measurement in HRTEM and HAADF images was consistent with the interplanar distance of the YSZ cubic phase. Additionally, lattice parameter obtained from selected area electron diffraction and GIXRD patterns was around 0.513 nm, in agreement to values reported in the literature for YSZ.

  6. Symmetrical periods used as matching layers in multilayer thin film design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Zhengxiu Fan; Jianbing Huang; Jun Bi; Yingjian Wang

    2006-01-01

    Properties of symmetrical layers as matching layers in multilayer thin film design were analyzed. Acalculation method was presented to derive parameters of desired equivalent refractive index. A harmonicbeam splitter was designed and fabricated to test this matching method.

  7. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis o...

  8. Modeling the influence of the seeding layer on the transition behavior of a ferroelectric thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oubelkacem, A.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Unite Associee au CNRST, URAC: 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Unite Associee au CNRST, URAC: 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Complexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses (LPMD) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070, Metz (France); INFM-Dip. Fisica. Univ. Padova, via Marzolo 8, 54124 Padova (Italy); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Unite Associee au CNRST, URAC: 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Complexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses (LPMD) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070, Metz (France)

    2011-10-31

    The transition properties of a ferroelectric thin film with seeding layers were studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions. The effect of interaction parameters for the seeding layer on the phase diagram was also examined. We calculated the critical temperature and the polarization of the ferroelectric thin film for different seeding layer structures. We found that the seeding layer can greatly increase the Curie temperature and the polarization.

  9. Selective epitaxial growth for YBCO thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, C.A.J.; Smilde, H.-J.H.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rogalla, H.

    1998-01-01

    A novel selective epitaxial growth (SEG) technique for (YBCO) thin films is presented. The method involves the deposition of a thin (about 10 nm) metal layer, in the desired pattern, on a substrate before the deposition of the superconducting thin film. During growth the metal reacts with the YBCO,

  10. Superconducting thin films of BiSrCaCuO made by sequential electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, J.; Anderson, A.C.; Tsauer, B.Y.; Strauss, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting thin films of Bi/sub 2/Sr/sub 2/Ca/sub 1/Cu/sub 2/O/sub x/ have been made by sequential electron-beam evaporation of multiple layers of Bi and Cu metals and (Sr,Ca)F/sub 2/ on MgO substrates. The films were annealed at high temperature, first in wet O/sub 2/ and then in dry O/sub 2/, and cooled to room temperature in dry O/sub 2/. The resulting films which are -- 1 ..mu..m thick, have transition temperatures of -- 85 K. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are preferentially oriented with their c-axis perpendicular to the MgO substrate. The authors' best film has a zero-resistance temperature of 90 K and critical current densities of 8 x 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 77 K and 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K.

  11. Analysis of the proximity function in electron-beam lithography on high-? superconducting thin-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Vutova, K. G.; Mladenov, G. M.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper we approximate by the combination of double Gaussian and exponential functions the radial distributions of the absorbed electron energy density in a 125 nm PMMA resist layer on 0953-2048/9/7/009/img2 thin-film/substrate targets obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulation for a zero-width 0953-2048/9/7/009/img3-function and the following variables (i) the substrate material (0953-2048/9/7/009/img4 and MgO), (ii) the electron beam energy 0953-2048/9/7/009/img5 (25, 50 and 75 keV) and (iii) the 0953-2048/9/7/009/img2 film thickness d (0, 100, 200 and 300 nm). The values of the parameters of the analytical function are calculated using an original Monte Carlo technique. These values are presented in the form of 3D diagrams which show their dependences on beam energy and on high-temperature superconducting film thickness and can also be used for approximate determination of the parameters at different initial conditions.

  12. High temperature superconducting thin films and quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for gradiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Graf zu Eulenburg, A

    1999-01-01

    the best balance and gradient sensitivity at 1kHz were 3x10 sup - sup 3 and 222fT/(cm sq root Hz))) respectively. The measured spatial response to a current carrying wire was in good agreement with a theoretical model. A significant performance improvement was obtained with the development of a single layer gradiometer with 13mm baseline, fabricated on 30x10mm sup 2 bicrystals. For such a device, the gradient sensitivity at 1kHz was 50fT/(cm sq root Hz)) and the gradiometer was used successfully for unshielded magnetocardiography. A parasitic effective area compensation scheme was employed with two neighbouring SQUIDs coupled in an opposite sense to the same gradiometer loop. This improved the balance from the intrinsic value of 10 sup - sup 3 to 3x10 sup - sup 5. This thesis describes several aspects of the development of gradiometers using high temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID). The pulsed laser deposition of thin films of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO) on Sr...

  13. Atomic layer deposition of copper sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Nathanaelle, E-mail: n.schneider@chimie-paristech.fr; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) thin films from Cu(acac){sub 2} (acac = acetylacetonate = 2,4-pentanedionate) and H{sub 2}S as Cu and S precursors is reported. Typical self-saturated reactions (“ALD window”) are obtained in the temperature range T{sub dep} = 130–200 °C for an average growth per cycle (GR) = 0.25 Å/cycle. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition, electrical properties and optical band gap of thin films were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction under Grazing Incidence conditions (GI-XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Hall effect measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The obtained copper sulfide films are heavily p-doped (charge carrier concentration ~ 10{sup 21} –10{sup 22} cm{sup −3}) with optical band gaps in the range of 2.2–2.5 eV for direct and 1.6–1.8 eV for indirect band gaps. Depending on the number of ALD cycles, multiphase compounds (made of digenite Cu{sub 1.8}S, chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S, djurleite Cu{sub 31}S{sub 16} and covellite CuS) or single-phase digenite Cu{sub 1.8}S films are obtained via a growth mechanism that involves in-situ copper reduction and loss of sulfur by evaporation. - Highlights: • Cu{sub x}S films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition from Cu(acac){sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. • Self-saturated reactions at T{sub dep} = 130–200 °C for growth = 0.25 Å/cycle • Multi- or single- phase films are obtained depending on the number of cycles. • Growth mechanism involves copper reduction and loss of sulfur by evaporation.

  14. Thin-film superconducting resonator tunable to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of $^{87}$Rb

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Z; Hoffman, J E; Grover, J A; Voigt, K D; Cooper, B K; Ballard, C J; Palmer, B S; Hafezi, M; Taylor, J M; Anderson, J R; Dragt, A J; Lobb, C J; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L; Wellstood, F C

    2011-01-01

    We describe a thin-film superconducting Nb microwave resonator, tunable to within 0.3 ppm of the hyperfine splitting of $^{87}$Rb at $f_{Rb}=6.834683$ GHz. We coarsely tuned the resonator using electron-beam lithography, decreasing the resonance frequency from 6.8637 GHz to 6.8278 GHz. For \\emph{in situ} fine tuning at 15 mK, the resonator inductance was varied using a piezoelectric stage to move a superconducting pin above the resonator. We found a maximum frequency shift of about 8.7 kHz per 60-nm piezoelectric step and a tuning range of 18 MHz.

  15. Dopant rearrangement and superconductivity in Bi(2)Sr(2-x)La(x)CuO(6) thin films under annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellieri, C; Lin, P H; Ariosa, D; Pavuna, D

    2007-06-20

    By combining x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and AC susceptibility measurements we investigate the evolution of structural and superconducting properties of La-doped Bi-2201 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under different annealing conditions. We find that the main effect of oxygen annealing is to improve the crystal coherence by enabling La cation migration to the Sr sites. This activates the desired hole doping. Short-time Ar annealing removes the interstitial oxygen between the BiO layers, fine adjusting the effective hole doping. The superconducting critical temperature is consequently enhanced. However, longer annealings result in phase separation and segregation of the homologous compound Bi-1201. We attribute this effect to the loss of Bi during the annealing.

  16. Dopant rearrangement and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuO6 thin films under annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellieri, C.; Lin, P. H.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.

    2007-06-01

    By combining x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and AC susceptibility measurements we investigate the evolution of structural and superconducting properties of La-doped Bi-2201 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under different annealing conditions. We find that the main effect of oxygen annealing is to improve the crystal coherence by enabling La cation migration to the Sr sites. This activates the desired hole doping. Short-time Ar annealing removes the interstitial oxygen between the BiO layers, fine adjusting the effective hole doping. The superconducting critical temperature is consequently enhanced. However, longer annealings result in phase separation and segregation of the homologous compound Bi-1201. We attribute this effect to the loss of Bi during the annealing.

  17. Superconducting fluctuations: paraconductivity, excess Hall effect and magnetoconductivity in 2223-BiSrCaCuO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, W. (Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Wien (Austria) Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Univ. Wien (Austria)); Kula, W. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Lab. for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland)); Sobolewski, R. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Lab. for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland))

    1994-02-01

    We report a detailed study of the influence of thermodynamic fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter on various normal-state transport properties in 2223-(Bi,Pb)SrCaCuO thin films at temperatures near the superconducting transition. Measurements of the electrical resistivity, the magnetoresistance and the Hall effect were analyzed with regard to fluctuation contributions, using theories for 2-dimensional, layered superconductors. We obtained a consistent set of parameters, which fit all magneto-transport measurements above 118 K, but observed a remarkable enhancement of both excess Hall effect and negative magnetoconductivity closer to T[sub c], whereas the zero-field fluctuation conductivity follows the theoretical predictions down to 110 K. No significant contributions from the indirect (Maki-Thompson) fluctuations process were found. (orig.)

  18. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  19. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  20. Fault Current Limitation with Superconducting YBCO Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of YBCO/metal bilayers under transport currents was explored in the framework of fault current limitation (FCL). Properties of the superconducting-normal transition were first studied phenomenologically during sweep current experiments. For current rates higher than 500 A/s, the transition into the normal state was based on non-thermal phenomena and was characterized by a flux creep regime ended by a jump into the normal state. At lower sweep rates, a total diversion of the current in the metallic shunt was observed for temperatures higher than 85 K. In this regime, a partial recovery of the superconducting state took place due to a finite thermal resistance between the superconductingand the metallic films. These two properties of partial diversion into the shunt and of fast switching for a quick rise of the current during a default were exploited for current limitation at 77 K. FCL experiments at 50 Hz show that YBCO/Au bilayers limit the current in about 1 ms at a valueof 2.5Ic by developing electrical fields as high as 3 kV/m. Moreover, a recovery of the zero resistance state could occur under rated mode. A straightforward application of this property would be the transformer connection. Finally, results on DC current limitation and recovery under nominal mode were presented for the first time.

  1. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  2. Superconducting MgB2 Thin Films with Tc ≈ 39 K Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 戴守愚; 周岳亮; 陈正豪; 崔大复; 许佳迪; 何萌; 吕惠宾; 杨国桢

    2001-01-01

    Superconducting MgB2 thin films were fabricated on Al2 O3 (0001) substrates under ex situ processing conditions.Boron thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition followed by a post-annealing process. Resistance measurements of the deposited MgB2 films show Tc of ~39 K, while scanning electron microscopy and x-ray vdiffraction analysis indicate that the films consist of well-crystallized grains with a highly c-axis-oriented structure.

  3. atomic layer deposition of amorphous niobium carbide-based thin film superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prolier, T.; Klug, J. A.; Elam, J. W.; Claus, H.; Becker, N. G.; Pellin, M. J. (Materials Science Division)

    2011-01-01

    Niobium carbide thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum (TMA), NbF{sub 5}, and NbCl{sub 5} precursors. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed at 200 and 290 C revealed controlled, linear deposition with a high growth rate of 5.7 and 4.5 {angstrom}/cycle, respectively. The chemical composition, growth rate, structure, and electronic properties of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 125-350 C. Varying amounts of impurities, including amorphous carbon (a-C), AlF{sub 3}, NbF{sub x}, and NbCl{sub x}, were found in all samples. A strong growth temperature dependence of film composition, growth rate, and room temperature DC resistivity was observed. Increasing film density, decreasing total impurity concentration, and decreasing resistivity were observed as a function of increasing deposition temperature for films grown with either NbF{sub 5} or NbCl{sub 5}. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements down to 1.2 K revealed a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 1.8 K in a 75 nm thick film grown at 350 C with TMA and NbF{sub 5}. The superconducting critical temperature could be increased up to 3.8 K with additional use of NH{sub 3} during ALD film growth.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of amorphous niobium carbide-based thin film superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, J. A.; Prolier, T.; Elam, J. W.; Becker, N. G.; Pellin, M. J. (Energy Systems); ( HEP); ( MSD); (Illinois Inst. Tech.)

    2011-01-01

    Niobium carbide thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum (TMA), NbF{sub 5}, and NbCl{sub 5} precursors. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed at 200 and 290 C revealed controlled, linear deposition with a high growth rate of 5.7 and 4.5 {angstrom}/cycle, respectively. The chemical composition, growth rate, structure, and electronic properties of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 125-350 C. Varying amounts of impurities, including amorphous carbon (a-C), AlF{sub 3}, NbF{sub x}, and NbCl{sub x}, were found in all samples. A strong growth temperature dependence of film composition, growth rate, and room temperature DC resistivity was observed. Increasing film density, decreasing total impurity concentration, and decreasing resistivity were observed as a function of increasing deposition temperature for films grown with either NbF{sub 5} or NbCl{sub 5}. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements down to 1.2 K revealed a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 1.8 K in a 75 nm thick film grown at 350 C with TMA and NbF{sub 5}. The superconducting critical temperature could be increased up to 3.8 K with additional use of NH{sub 3} during ALD film growth.

  5. Enhancement of high-TC superconducting thin film devices by nanoscale polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, P.; Shapoval, T.; Meier, D.; Katzer, C.; Schmidl, F.; Schultz, L.; Seidel, P.

    2012-11-01

    The effects of mechanical nanoscale polishing on the superconducting parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thin films and bi-crystal grain boundary Josephson junctions have been investigated. We prepared samples with additional gold nanocrystallites in the YBCO film. As they are distributed throughout the whole YBCO film, they provide a low-resistance ohmic contact even if parts of the film are removed. Polishing was performed either before or after the patterning and did not change the properties of the grain boundary. However, nanopolishing reduces the film roughness in a significant way, which makes it an indispensable tool for the preparation of integrated superconducting circuits. We also succeeded in tuning the IC and RN of the Josephson junctions of direct current superconducting quantum interference devices (dc-SQUIDs) by systematically reducing the film thickness, which opens up new possibilities in the application of magnetic field sensors.

  6. Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation

  7. Aspects of passive magnetic levitation based on high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhuber, P.; Moon, F. C.

    1995-04-01

    Passive magnetic levitation systems reported in the past were mostly confined to bulk superconducting materials. Here we present fundamental studies on magnetic levitation employing cylindrical permanent magnets floating above high-T(sub c) superconducting YBCO thin films (thickness about 0.3 mu m). Experiments included free floating rotating magnets as well as well-established flexible beam methods. By means of the latter, we investigated levitation and drag force hysteresis as well as magnetic stiffness properties of the superconductor-magnet arrangement. In the case of vertical motion of the magnet, characteristic high symmetry of repulsive (approaching) and attractive (withdrawing) branches of the pronounced force-displacement hysteresis could be detected. Achievable force levels were low as expected but sufficient for levitation of permanent magnets. With regard to magnetic stiffness, thin films proved to show stiffness-force ratios about one order of magnitude higher than bulk materials. Phenomenological models support the measurements. Regarding the magnetic hysteresis of the superconductor, the Irie-Yamafuji model was used for solving the equation of force balance in cylindrical coordinates allowing for a macroscopic description of the superconductor magnetization. This procedure provided good agreement with experimental levitation force and stiffness data during vertical motion. For the case of (lateral) drag force basic qualitative characteristics could be recovered, too. It is shown that models, based on simple asymmetric magnetization of the superconductor, describe well asymptotic transition of drag forces after the change of the magnet motion direction. Virgin curves (starting from equilibrium, i.e. symmetric magnetization) are approximated by a linear approach already reported in literature only. This paper shows that basic properties of superconducting thin films allow for their application to magnetic levitation or - without need of levitation

  8. Construction of sputtering system and preparation of high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Kaynak, E

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of high T sub c superconducting thin film is important both for the understanding of fundamental behaviours of these materials and for the investigations on the usefulness of technological applications. High quality thin films can be prepared by various kinds of techniques being used today. Among these, sputtering is the most preferred one. The primary aim of this work is the construction of a r. f. and c. magnetron sputtering system. For this goal, a magnetron sputtering system was designed and constructed having powers up to 500W (r.f.) and 1KW (d.c.) that enables to deposit thin films of various kinds of materials: metals, ceramics and magnetic materials. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of the films was investigated by using four-point probe method. The zero resistance and the transition with of the films were measured as 80-85 K, and 2-9 K, respectively. The A.C. susceptibility experiments were done by utilising the system that was designed and constructed. The appl...

  9. Research on Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yuan; Yang Senzu; Ji Zhengming; Sun Zhijian; Jing Dong; Wu Peiheng; Zhang Shiyan; Wang Hao; Zhou Ningsheng; Fan Depei; and others

    1988-12-01

    The Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films on several kinds of substrates of single crystal ZrO/sub 2/, YSZ and polycrystalline SrTiO/sub 3/ have been successfully prepared by mean of /ital rf/ reactive magnetron sputtering. The zero resistance temperature obtained is 81 K. The thickness of the films is about 1--2 ..mu..m. In this paper the composition of the films, the substrates, /ital R/-/ital T/ curves, X-ray diffraction patterns and the heat treatment process of the films are described.

  10. A novel electron beam evaporation technique for the deposition of superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M. G.; Muralidhar, G. K.; Rao, K. N.; Rao, G. M.; Mohan, S.

    1991-05-01

    Superconducting thin films of BiSrCaCuO have been deposited using a novel electron beam evaporation technique. In this technique the crucible has a groove around its circumference and rotates continuously during deposition. The source material is loaded in the form of pellets of the composite. Both oxides as well as flourides have been used in the starting material and a comparison of the film properties has been made. The best film was obtained on a MgO(100) substrate with a Tc onset at 85 K and Tc zero at 77 K using calcium flouride in the source material.

  11. Growth of α-sexithiophene nanostructures on C60 thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Madsen, Morten; Balzer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Organic molecular beam grown -sexithiophene (-6T) forms nanostructured thin films on buckminsterfullerene (C60) thin film layers. At substrate temperatures of 300K during growth a rough continuous film is observed, which develop to larger elongated islands and dendritic- as well as needle like ...... fluorescence polarimetry measurements the in-plane orientation of the crystalline sites within the needle like structures is determined. The polarimetry investigations strongly indicate that the needle like structures consist of lying molecules....

  12. Preferential orientation growth of ITO thin film on quartz substrate with ZnO buffer layer by magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenhan; Yang, Jingjing; Xiong, Chao; Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Xifang

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the photoelectric transformation efficiency of thin-film solar cells, one plausible method was to improve the transparent conductive oxides (TCO) material property. In-doped tin oxide (ITO) was an important TCO material which was used as a front contact layer in thin-film solar cell. Using magnetron sputtering deposition technique, we prepared preferential orientation ITO thin films on quartz substrate. XRD and SEM measurements were used to characterize the crystalline structure and morphology of ITO thin films. The key step was adding a ZnO thin film buffer layer before ITO deposition. ZnO thin film buffer layer increases the nucleation center numbers and results in the (222) preferential orientation growth of ITO thin films.

  13. Investigation of crystallization behavior of CIG-Se bi-layer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Sun; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2012-04-01

    Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGSe) thin film was fabricated via a thermal treatment of GIG-Se bi-layer thin films. A CIG layer was prepared first, by a chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. The Se layer was deposited separately on the CIG layer by evaporation. The GIG-Se bi-layer then underwent a thermal treatment to cause a reaction between the two layers. In order to investigate the mechanism of CIG-Se bi-layer crystallization, the thermal treatment temperature was varied. The properties of the prepared CIGSe2 thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  14. Influence of preparation conditions on superconducting properties of Bi-2223 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N T Mua; A Sundaresan; N K Man; D D Dung

    2014-02-01

    We report electrical transport properties of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+ (Bi-2223) superconducting thin films fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition on SrTiO3 substrate. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of preparation conditions such as deposition temperature (S), annealing time (A) and deposition rate (). A critical temperature (c) as high as 110 K and critical current density (c) of 6.2 × 106 A/cm2 at 20 K were obtained for S = 760° C, A = 4h and = 1.5 Å/s. We also investigated the effect of Li doping on Bi-2223 thin films. Li intercalation results in high resistive onset transition temperature and the resistivity shows broadening in magnetic field that increases with field. The large broadening of resistivity curve in magnetic field suggests that this phenomenon is directly related to the intrinsic superconducting properties of the copper oxide superconductors. The sudden drop in c at relatively low magnetic field ( < 0.5 tesla) is due to the effect of Josephson weak-links at the grain boundaries.

  15. Granular superconductivity in metallic and insulating nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, B L; Zhang, G; Vanacken, J; Moshchalkov, V V [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200-D, 3000-Leuven (Belgium); Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Wagner, P, E-mail: bramleo@hotmail.co [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    The low-temperature electrical transport properties of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (b-NCD) thin films have been found to be strongly affected by the system's granularity. The important differences between the high and low-temperature behaviour are caused by the inhomogeneous nucleation of superconductivity in the samples. In this paper we will discuss the experimental data obtained on several b-NCD thin films, which were studied by either varying their thickness or boron concentration. It will be shown that the low-temperature properties are influenced by the b-NCD grain boundaries as well as by the appearance of an intrinsic granularity inside these granules. Moreover, superconducting effects have been found to be present even in insulating b-NCD films and are responsible for the negative magnetoresistance regime observed at low temperatures. On the other hand, the low-temperature electrical transport properties of b-NCD films show important similarities with those observed for granular superconductors.

  16. Synthesis of as-grown superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy in UHV conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Y.; Uduka, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yoshimoto, N.; Yoshizawa, M

    2004-10-01

    As-grown superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films have been grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1), MgO(0 0 1), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0 0 0 1) substrates by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method with novel co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate in ultra-high vacuum. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by RHEED, XRD, electrical resistivity measurements, and SQUID magnetometer. The RHEED patterns indicate three-dimensional growth for MgB{sub 2}. The highest T{sub c} determined by resistivity measurement was about 36 K in these samples. And a clear Meissner effect below T{sub c} was observed using magnetic susceptibility measurement. We will discuss the influence of B buffer layer on the structural and physical properties.

  17. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the GaN layer. The use of MgO as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality ZnO thin film growth.

  18. In situ epitaxial MgB2 thin films for superconducting electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianghui; Pogrebnyakov, Alexej V; Kotcharov, Armen; Jones, James E; Xi, X X; Lysczek, Eric M; Redwing, Joan M; Xu, Shengyong; Li, Qi; Lettieri, James; Schlom, Darrell G; Tian, Wei; Pan, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2002-09-01

    The newly discovered 39-K superconductor MgB2 holds great promise for superconducting electronics. Like the conventional superconductor Nb, MgB2 is a phonon-mediated superconductor, with a relatively long coherence length. These properties make the prospect of fabricating reproducible uniform Josephson junctions, the fundamental element of superconducting circuits, much more favourable for MgB2 than for high-temperature superconductors. The higher transition temperature and larger energy gap of MgB2 promise higher operating temperatures and potentially higher speeds than Nb-based integrated circuits. However, success in MgB2 Josephson junctions has been limited because of the lack of an adequate thin-film technology. Because a superconducting integrated circuit uses a multilayer of superconducting, insulating and resistive films, an in situ process in which MgB2 is formed directly on the substrate is desirable. Here we show that this can be achieved by hybrid physical-chemical vapour deposition. The epitaxially grown MgB2 films show a high transition temperature and low resistivity, comparable to the best bulk samples, and their surfaces are smooth. This advance removes a major barrier for superconducting electronics using MgB2.

  19. Numerical simulation on the flux avalanche behaviors of microstructured superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ze; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2017-01-01

    Controlling and suppressing the propagation of magnetic flux avalanches is an important issue for the application of type-II superconductors. The effects of engineered pinning centers (antidots) on the guidance of flux avalanche propagation paths in type-II superconducting thin films are numerically investigated by solving the coupled nonlinear Maxwell's equations and the thermal diffusion equations. The field dependence of critical current density is considered in the simulation in this paper. Dynamic propagations of the thermomagnetic avalanches within the superconducting films patterned with different arrangements of antidots (like random, periodic square, and conformal mapping arrays) are presented. We reveal that presence of the antidots significantly modifies the propagation paths of the avalanches. The flux avalanche patterns of the superconducting films change with the variation of the arrangements of antidots. The patterned antidots in the form of conformal mapping arrays within the superconducting film exhibit strong guidance to the thermomagnetic avalanches. In addition, introducing the antidots in the form of conformal mapping arrays into the superconducting film can effectively lower the magnetic flux jump sizes.

  20. Flexible superconducting Nb transmission lines on thin film polyimide for quantum computing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, David B.; Hamilton, Michael C.; Reilly, David J.; Bai, Rujun; Hernandez, George A.; Hornibrook, John M.; Sellers, John A.; Ellis, Charles D.

    2016-08-01

    We describe progress and initial results achieved towards the goal of developing integrated multi-conductor arrays of shielded controlled-impedance flexible superconducting transmission lines with ultra-miniature cross sections and wide bandwidths (dc to >10 GHz) over meter-scale lengths. Intended primarily for use in future scaled-up quantum computing systems, such flexible thin-film niobium/polyimide ribbon cables could provide a physically compact and ultra-low thermal conductance alternative to the rapidly increasing number of discrete coaxial cables that are currently used by quantum computing experimentalists to transmit signals between the several low-temperature stages (from ˜4 K down to ˜20 mK) of a dilution refrigerator. We have concluded that these structures are technically feasible to fabricate, and so far they have exhibited acceptable thermo-mechanical reliability. S-parameter results are presented for individual 2-metal layer Nb microstrip structures having 50 Ω characteristic impedance; lengths ranging from 50 to 550 mm were successfully fabricated. Solderable pads at the end terminations allowed testing using conventional rf connectors. Weakly coupled open-circuit microstrip resonators provided a sensitive measure of the overall transmission line loss as a function of frequency, temperature, and power. Two common microelectronic-grade polyimide dielectrics, one conventional and the other photo-definable (PI-2611 and HD-4100, respectively) were compared. Our most striking result, not previously reported to our knowledge, was that the dielectric loss tangents of both polyimides, over frequencies from 1 to 20 GHz, are remarkably low at deep cryogenic temperatures, typically 100× smaller than corresponding room temperature values. This enables fairly long-distance (meter-scale) transmission of microwave signals without excessive attenuation, and also permits usefully high rf power levels to be transmitted without creating excessive dielectric

  1. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L.; Moghaddam, Saeed; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2014-08-01

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO2 thin films approximately 10 nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO2 thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  2. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu, E-mail: nishida@ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Takmeel, Qanit; Moghaddam, Saeed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27696-7907 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films approximately 10 nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO{sub 2} thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  3. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.

  4. High critical current density and enhanced irreversibility field in superconducting MgB2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, C B; Lee, M K; Choi, J H; Belenky, L J; Song, X; Cooley, L D; Naus, M T; Patnaik, S; Jiang, J; Rikel, M; Polyanskii, A; Gurevich, A; Cai, X Y; Bu, S D; Babcock, S E; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C; Rogado, N; Regan, K A; Hayward, M A; He, T; Slusky, J S; Inumaru, K; Haas, M K; Cava, R J

    2001-05-31

    The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in magnesium diboride offers the possibility of a new class of low-cost, high-performance superconducting materials for magnets and electronic applications. This compound has twice the transition temperature of Nb3Sn and four times that of Nb-Ti alloy, and the vital prerequisite of strongly linked current flow has already been demonstrated. One possible drawback, however, is that the magnetic field at which superconductivity is destroyed is modest. Furthermore, the field which limits the range of practical applications-the irreversibility field H*(T)-is approximately 7 T at liquid helium temperature (4.2 K), significantly lower than about 10 T for Nb-Ti (ref. 6) and approximately 20 T for Nb3Sn (ref. 7). Here we show that MgB2 thin films that are alloyed with oxygen can exhibit a much steeper temperature dependence of H*(T) than is observed in bulk materials, yielding an H* value at 4.2 K greater than 14 T. In addition, very high critical current densities at 4.2 K are achieved: 1 MA cm-2 at 1 T and 105 A cm-2 at 10 T. These results demonstrate that MgB2 has potential for high-field superconducting applications.

  5. Superconducting energy scales and anomalous dissipative conductivity in thin films of molybdenum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmendinger, Julian; Pracht, Uwe S.; Daschke, Lena; Proslier, Thomas; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-08-01

    We report investigations of molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films with different thickness and disorder and with superconducting transition temperature 9.89 K ≥Tc≥2.78 K . Using terahertz frequency-domain spectroscopy we explore the normal and superconducting charge carrier dynamics for frequencies covering the range from 3 to 38 cm-1 (0.1 to 1.1 THz). The superconducting energy scales, i.e., the critical temperature Tc, the pairing energy Δ , and the superfluid stiffness J , and the superfluid density ns can be well described within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory for conventional superconductors. At the same time, we find an anomalously large dissipative conductivity, which cannot be explained by thermally excited quasiparticles, but rather by a temperature-dependent normal-conducting fraction, persisting deep into the superconducting state. Our results on this disordered system constrain the regime, where discernible effects stemming from the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition possibly become relevant, to MoN films with a transition temperature lower than at least 2.78 K.

  6. Broadband microwave response of superconducting NbN and TaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felger, M. Maximilian; Pracht, Uwe S.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70669 Stuttgart (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Ultrathin NbN and TaN films with their peculiar superconducting behavior are of interest both for fundamental physics (e.g. concerning the superconductor-insulator transition) and novel applications (e.g. for single-photon detectors). Here microwave spectroscopy is a powerful tool to characterize essential superconducting properties and to investigate the charge dynamics (Cooper pairs and quasiparticles). We have prepared by sputtering thin films of NbN (thickness between 3 nm and 20 nm; T{sub c} between 5 K and 13 K) and TaN (thickness 5 nm; T{sub c} between 8.5 K and 9.5 K) on sapphire substrates. We performed broadband microwave spectroscopy on these samples using a Corbino spectrometer at temperatures down to 1.1 K and at frequencies up to 50 GHz. From these data we determine the superconducting penetration depth and we evaluate the frequency-dependent conductivity. While many of the observed features can be described within expectations of conventional BCS theory, we also find deviations that are caused by fluctuations near the superconducting transition.

  7. Interplay of spin-orbit coupling and superconducting correlations in germanium telluride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Vijay; Nguyen, Thuy-Anh; Mansell, Rhodri; Ritchie, David [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Mussler, Gregor [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    There is much current interest in combining superconductivity and spin-orbit coupling in order to induce the topological superconductor phase and associated Majorana-like quasiparticles which hold great promise towards fault-tolerant quantum computing. Experimentally these effects have been combined by the proximity-coupling of super-conducting leads and high spin-orbit materials such as InSb and InAs, or by controlled Cu-doping of topological insu-lators such as Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. However, for practical purposes, a single-phase material which intrinsically displays both these effects is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate coexisting superconducting correlations and spin-orbit coupling in molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown thin films of GeTe. The former is evidenced by a precipitous low-temperature drop in the electrical resistivity which is quelled by a magnetic field, and the latter manifests as a weak antilocalisation (WAL) cusp in the magnetotransport. Our studies reveal several other intriguing features such as the presence of two-dimensional rather than bulk transport channels below 2 K, possible signatures of topological superconductivity, and unexpected hysteresis in the magnetotransport. Our work demonstrates GeTe to be a potential host of topological SC and Majorana-like excitations, and to be a versatile platform to develop quantum information device architectures. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi RRL published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. l/f Noise in the Superconducting Transition of a MgB2 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Stevenson, T.; Cao, N.

    2010-01-01

    The noise voltage spectral density in the superconducting transition of a MgB2 thin film on a SiN-coated Si thick substrate was measured over the frequency range 1 Hz-to-1 KHz. Using established bolometer noise theory the theoretical noise components due to Johnson, 1/f(excess) and phonon noise are modeled to the measured data. It is shown that for the case of a MgB2 thin film in the vicinity of the mid-point of transition, coupled to a heat sink via a fairly high thermal conductance (approximately equal to 10(sup -1) W/K)) that the measured noise voltage spectrum is 1/f limited and exhibits lit dependence with a varying between 0.3 and 0.5 in the measured frequency range. At a video frame rate frequency of 30 Hz the measured noise voltage density in the film is approximately equal to 61 nV /the square root of HZ, using this value an upper limit of electrical NEP approximately equal to 0.67pW / the square root of Hz is implied for a practical MgB2 bolometer operating at 36.1 K.

  9. High-J{sub c} superconducting YBCO thin films for SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsaros, A.; Savvides, N.; Foley, C. [CSIRO, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    Full text: High critical current density, J{sub c}, and reproducibility of film quality are major issues in high-T{sub c} superconducting device technology. Because many factors such as substrate quality, deposition parameters and film stoichiometry impact on film quality the growth of high-J{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films suitable for devices is a demanding task. For optimum device performance c-axis epitaxial films are required with smooth surfaces, controlled microstructure and crystalline orientation, high T{sub c} (> 87 K) and high J{sub c} (> 1x10{sup 6} A cm{sup -2}). Consequently a stable platform in film quality is critical in developing and maintaining world class device technology. In previous Wagga meetings and elsewhere we presented details of our thin film deposition system, results of film growth studies, techniques of film characterisation and SQUID performance. In this paper we present transport properties and lattice parameters for a large number of films deposited over a period of ten months using a single target and under similar sputtering conditions. The data serve to illustrate the level of reproducibility of our deposition technology while closer examination of the data reveal some interesting `correlations` among properties. We have used these correlations to assist us to control both the deposition of films and subsequent processing into test structures and SQUIDs 5 refs.

  10. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  11. High quality YBCO superconductive thin films fabricated by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Fan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Hirata,K.,Yamamoto,K.,Iijinma,J.et al.,Tunneling measurements on superconductor/insulator/superconductor junctions using single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1990,56(7):683-685.[2]Kingston,J.J.,Wellstood,F.C.,Lerch,P.et al.,Multilayer YBa2Cu3Ox-SrTiO3-YBa2Cu3Ox films for insulating crossovers,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1990,56(2):189-191.[3]Grundler,D.,Krumme,J.P.,David,B.et al.,YBa2Cu3O7 ramp-type junctions and superconducting quantum interference devices with an ultra thin barrier of NdGaO3,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1994,65(14):1841-1843.[4]Yang Guozhen,Lu Huibin,Chen Zhenghao et al.,Laser molecular beam epitaxy system and its key technologies,Science in China (in Chinese),Ser.A,1998,28(3):260-265.[5]Wang Ning,Lu Huibin,Chen,W.Z.et al.,Morphology and microstructure of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices grown on SrTiO3 by laser molecular-beam epitaxy,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1999,75(22):3464-3466.[6]Chen Li-Chyng,Particulates generated by pulsed laser ablation,in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (eds.Chrisey,D.B.,Hulber,G.K.),New York:John Wiley & Sons,Inc.,1994,167-198.[7]Wang,H.S.,Dietsche,W.,Eissler,D.et al.,Molecular beam epitaxial growth and structure properties of DyBa2Cu3O7-y,J.Crys.Growth,1993,126:565-577.[8]Kita,R.,Hase,T.,Itti,R.et al.,Synthesis of CuO films using mass-separated,low-energy O+ ion beams,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1992,60(21):2684-2685.[9]Lu Huibin,Zhou Yueliang,Yang Guozhen et al.,Active gas source for thin film preparation,Chinese Patent (in Chinese),1996,No.ZL 96219046.2.[10]Wang Jing,Chen Fan,Zhao Tong et al.,Fabrication of high stable DC-SQUIDS with L-MBE YBCO thin films,Chinese Journal of Low Temperature Physics (in Chinese),1999,21(1):13-16.

  12. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2017-06-27

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves electrochemically exchanging a mediating element on a substrate with a noble metal film by alternatingly sweeping potential in forward and reverse directions for a predetermined number of times in an electrochemical cell. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis.

  13. Anisotropy of superconductivity of as-grown MgB$_2$ thin films by molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Y.; Udsuka, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of magnesium diboride (MgB$_2$) were prepared on MgO (001) substrate by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method with the co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate in ultra-high vacuum. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by RHEED, XRD, XPS, resistivity and magnetization measurements.All films demonstrated superconductivity without use of any post-annealing process.The highest {\\it T}$_{c,onset}$ determined by resistivity measurement...

  14. Prediction of IV curves for a superconducting thin film using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, M.; Haider, S. A.; Akram, T.; Naqvi, S. R.; He, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a framework using artificial neural networks that predicts the IV characteristics of a superconducting thin film with square array of nano-engineered periodic antidots, called holes. We adopt the conventionally used commercial physical properties measurement system to obtain a dataset comprising transport measurements, and use this dataset to train our artificial neural network. Once trained, the model is capable of predicting the curve for varying temperature and magnetic flux values, which are cross validated by the physical properties measurement system. Consistent with the works in literature, our framework suggests Josephson Junctions like behavior near transition temperature and at stronger magnetic fields. Our study is important since repeated measurements using the conventional method are time consuming and costly; we demonstrate that the proposed method may be effectively used to classify the IV characteristics over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values.

  15. Strain and High Temperature Superconductivity: Unexpected Results from Direct Electronic Structure Measurements in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Cloetta, D.; Mitrovic, S.; Onellion, M.; Xi, X.; Margaritondo, G.; Pavuna, D.

    2003-07-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals very surprising strain-induced effects on the electronic band dispersion of epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4-δ thin films. In strained films we measure a band that crosses the Fermi level (EF) well before the Brillouin zone boundary. This is in contrast to the flat band reported in unstrained single crystals and in our unstrained films, as well as in contrast to the band flattening predicted by band structure calculations for in-plane compressive strain. In spite of the density of states reduction near EF, the critical temperature increases in strained films with respect to unstrained samples. These results require a radical departure from commonly accepted notions about strain effects on high temperature superconductors, with possible general repercussions on superconductivity theory.

  16. Levitation force from high-Tc superconducting thin-film disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riise, Anjali B.; Johansen, T. H.; Bratsberg, H.; Koblischka, M. R.; Shen, Y. Q.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental studies and theoretical modeling of the levitation force between a permanent magnet and superconducting thin film are reported. Measurements of the force Fz and magnetic stiffness κz=\\|δFz/δz\\| as functions of the magnet-superconductor separation z, show several features contrasting all previous levitation force data for bulk superconductors. In particular, the Fz(z) curves measured for decreasing and increasing separation form hysteresis loops of nearly symmetrical shape, also displaying a peak in the repulsive force branch. Recent theories for flux penetration in thin type-II superconductors in transverse magnetic fields are invoked to explain the results, which were obtained using a cylindrical Nd-Fe-B magnet and a YBa2Cu3O7-δ circular disk made by laser ablation. We derive explicit formulas for both Fz and κz, reproducing quantitatively all the features seen experimentally.

  17. Fabrication of (110)-one-axis-oriented perovskite-type oxide thin films and their application to buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ichinose, Daichi; Kimura, Junichi; Inoue, Takaaki; Mimura, Takanori; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Kiyoshi

    2016-10-01

    BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BCYO) and SrZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (SZYO) thin films of perovskite-type oxides were deposited on (111)Pt/TiO x /SiO2/(100)Si substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the (110)-oriented BCYO and SZYO thin films were grown on (111)Pt/Si substrates directly without using any buffer layers. Thin films of SrRuO3 (SRO), a conductive perovskite-type oxide, were also deposited on those films and highly (110)-oriented SRO thin films were obtained. We believe that this (110)-oriented SRO works as a buffer layer to deposit (110)-oriented perovskite-type ferroelectric oxide thin films as well as a bottom electrode and can modify the ferroelectric properties of the oxide thin films by controlling their crystallographic orientations.

  18. Imaging of current distributions in superconducting thin film structures; Abbildung von Stromverteilungen in supraleitenden Duennfilmstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doenitz, D.

    2006-10-31

    Local analysis plays an important role in many fields of scientific research. However, imaging methods are not very common in the investigation of superconductors. For more than 20 years, Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM) has been successfully used at the University of Tuebingen for studying of condensed matter phenomena, especially of superconductivity. In this thesis LTSEM was used for imaging current distributions in different superconducting thin film structures: - Imaging of current distributions in Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer, also known as SIFS junctions, showed inhomogeneous current transport over the junctions which directly led to an improvement in the fabrication process. An investigation of improved samples showed a very homogeneous current distribution without any trace of magnetic domains. Either such domains were not present or too small for imaging with the LTSEM. - An investigation of Nb/YBCO zigzag Josephson junctions yielded important information on signal formation in the LTSEM both for Josephson junctions in the short and in the long limit. Using a reference junction our signal formation model could be verified, thus confirming earlier results on short zigzag junctions. These results, which could be reproduced in this work, support the theory of d-wave symmetry in the superconducting order parameter of YBCO. Furthermore, investigations of the quasiparticle tunneling in the zigzag junctions showed the existence of Andreev bound states, which is another indication of the d-wave symmetry in YBCO. - The LTSEM study of Hot Electron Bolometers (HEB) allowed the first successful imaging of a stable 'Hot Spot', a self-heating region in HEB structures. Moreover, the electron beam was used to induce an - otherwise unstable - hot spot. Both investigations yielded information on the homogeneity of the samples. - An entirely new method of imaging the current distribution in superconducting interference

  19. Crystallization study of amorphous sputtered NiTi bi-layer thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam, E-mail: mmohri@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The crystallization of Ni-rich/NiTiCu bi-layer thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering from two separate alloy targets was investigated. To achieve the shape memory effect, the NiTi thin films deposited at room temperature with amorphous structure were annealed at 773 K for 15, 30, and 60 min for crystallization. Characterization of the films was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry to indicate the crystallization temperature, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction to identify the phase structures, atomic force microscopy to evaluate surface morphology, scanning transmission electron microscopy to study the cross section of the thin films. The results show that the structure of the annealed thin films strongly depends on the temperature and time of the annealing. Crystalline grains nucleated first at the surface and then grew inward to form columnar grains. Furthermore, the crystallization behavior was markedly affected by composition variations. - Highlights: • A developed bi-layer Ni45TiCu5/Ni50.8Ti was deposited on Si substrate and crystallized. • During crystallization, The Ni{sub 45}TiCu{sub 5} layer is thermally less stable than the Ni-rich layer. • The activation energy is 302 and 464 kJ/mol for Cu-rich and Ni-rich layer in bi-layer, respectively.

  20. Characterization of 3-dimensional superconductive thin film components for gravitational experiments in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechler, S.; Nawrodt, R.; Nietzsche, S.; Vodel, W.; Seidel, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [ZARM, Univ. Bremen (Germany); Loeffler, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are used for high precise gravitational experiments. One of the most impressive experiments is the satellite test of the equivalence principle (STEP) of NASA/ESA. The STEP mission aims to prove a possible violation of Einstein's equivalence principle at an extreme level of accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 18} in space. In this contribution we present an automatically working measurement equipment to characterize 3-dimensional superconducting thin film components like i.e. pick-up coils and test masses for STEP. The characterization is done by measurements of the transition temperature between the normal and the superconducting state using a special built anti-cryostat. Above all the setup was designed for use in normal LHe transport Dewars. The sample chamber has a volume of 150 cm{sup 3} and can be fully temperature controlled over a range from 4.2 K to 300 K with a resolution of better then 100 mK. (orig.)

  1. Quasiparticle state density on the surface of superconducting thin films of MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobba, F [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Roditchev, D [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Lamy, R [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Choi, E-M [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H-J [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, W N [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Ferrando, V [Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Ferdeghini, C [Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Giubileo, F [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Sacks, W [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Lee, S-I [NCRICS, Department of Physics, Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Klein, J [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR75-88 au CNRS, Universities Paris 6 et 7, Paris (France); Cucolo, A M [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    High-speed scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) was used at low temperature to study the quasiparticle excitation spectrum on the surface of c-axis-oriented superconducting thin films of MgB{sub 2}. The tunnelling spectra measured on as-grown films were compared with those acquired on chemically etched samples. In most cases the STS reveals only one small superconducting gap to be present in the tunnelling spectra, consistent with c-axis tunnelling and the particular electronic band structure of MgB{sub 2}. We found that the etching leads to the enhancement of the gap energy by 25% from 2.2 {+-} 0.3 meV to 2.8 {+-} 0.3 meV, and to the modification of the temperature dependence of the superconducting gap which, in both cases, has clearly a non-BCS shape. We argue that the modification of the electronic structure at the surface of the material due to the etching is responsible for these changes and discuss the possible origins of the effect.

  2. Superconducting properties of very high quality NbN thin films grown by high temperature chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, D.; Tsavdaris, N.; Jebari, S.; Grimm, A.; Blanchet, F.; Mercier, F.; Blanquet, E.; Chapelier, C.; Hofheinz, M.

    2016-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) is widely used in high-frequency superconducting electronics circuits because it has one of the highest superconducting transition temperatures ({T}{{c}}˜ 16.5 {{K}}) and largest gap among conventional superconductors. In its thin-film form, the T c of NbN is very sensitive to growth conditions and it still remains a challenge to grow NbN thin films (below 50 nm) with high T c. Here, we report on the superconducting properties of NbN thin films grown by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD). Transport measurements reveal significantly lower disorder than previously reported, characterized by a Ioffe-Regel parameter ({k}{{F}}{\\ell }) ˜ 12. Accordingly we observe {T}{{c}}˜ 17.06 {{K}} (point of 50% of normal state resistance), the highest value reported so far for films of thickness 50 nm or less, indicating that HTCVD could be particularly useful for growing high quality NbN thin films.

  3. Fullerenes as adhesive layers for mechanical peeling of metallic, molecular and polymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Maria B; Slater, Anna G; Mangham, Barry; Champness, Neil R; Beton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    We show that thin films of C60 with a thickness ranging from 10 to 100 nm can promote adhesion between a Au thin film deposited on mica and a solution-deposited layer of the elastomer polymethyldisolaxane (PDMS). This molecular adhesion facilitates the removal of the gold film from the mica support by peeling and provides a new approach to template stripping which avoids the use of conventional adhesive layers. The fullerene adhesion layers may also be used to remove organic monolayers and thin films as well as two-dimensional polymers which are pre-formed on the gold surface and have monolayer thickness. Following the removal from the mica support the monolayers may be isolated and transferred to a dielectric surface by etching of the gold thin film, mechanical transfer and removal of the fullerene layer by annealing/dissolution. The use of this molecular adhesive layer provides a new route to transfer polymeric films from metal substrates to other surfaces as we demonstrate for an assembly of covalently-coupled porphyrins.

  4. Ion beams as a means of deposition and in-situ characterization of thin films and thin film layered structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Gruen, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lin, Y.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Schultz, J.A. [Ionwerks, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Schmidt, H. [Schmidt Instruments, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Liu, Y.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Auciello, O. [Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Barr, T. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Chang, R.P.H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1992-08-01

    Ion beam-surface interactions produce many effects in thin film deposition which are similar to those encountered in plasma deposition processes. However, because of the lower pressures and higher directionality associated with the ion beam process, it is easier to avoid some sources of film contamination and to provide better control of ion energies and fluxes. Additional effects occur in the ion beam process because of the relatively small degree of thermalization resulting from gas phase collisions with both the ion beam and atoms sputtered from the target. These effects may be either beneficial or detrimental to the film properties, depending on the material and deposition conditions. Ion beam deposition is particularly suited to the deposition of multi-component films and layered structures, and can in principle be extended to a complete device fabrication process. However, complex phenomena occur in the deposition of many materials of high technical interest which make it desirable to monitor the film growth at the monolayer level. It is possible to make use of ion-surface interactions to provide a full suite of surface analytical capabilities in one instrument, and this data may be obtained at ambient pressures which are far too high for conventional surface analysis techniques. Such an instrument is under development and its current performance characteristics and anticipated capabilities are described.

  5. Polymer Thin Films and Interfaces; a Layer-by-Layer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In this talk we discuss new ways to model polymer films and interfaces, including properties such as density and concentration gradients, interfacial tension, and surface enrichment. We build on recent work where we developed a very simple equation of state approach for polymer thin films, and successfully applied it to determine thermodynamic properties and even to make predictions for the thickness-dependent depression of the thin film glass transition temperature. In that very simplified mean field model, the film properties across the entire interface region were treated as a ``whole sample'' average. Here, we take the next step, and develop a layer-by-layer equation of state model wherein details of the interface region are captured by allowing properties to vary from one discretized layer (within which properties are uniform) to the next. The model can be solved by imposing hydrostatic equilibrium in each layer, which then leads to predictions for the corresponding density gradient and other key interface properties. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  6. ZnSe/ITO thin films: candidate for CdTe solar cell window layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, A. A.; Imran, M.; Khan, Nawazish A.; Nasir Mehmood, M.

    2017-09-01

    The crystal structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnSe thin films deposited on an In2O3:Sn (ITO) substrate are evaluated for their suitability as the window layer of CdTe thin film solar cells. ZnSe thin films of 80, 90, and 100 nm thickness were deposited by a physical vapor deposition method on Indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. The lattice parameters are increased to 5.834 Å when the film thickness was 100 nm, which is close to that of CdS. The crystallite size is decreased with the increase of film thickness. The optical transmission analysis shows that the energy gap for the sample with the highest thickness has also increased and is very close to 2.7 eV. The photo decay is also studied as a function of ZnSe film thickness.

  7. Excitation of Love waves in a thin film layer by a line source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Ponamgi, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    The excitation of a Love surface wave guided by a thin film layer deposited on a semiinfinite substrate is studied in this paper. Both the thin film and the substrate are considered to be elastically isotropic. Amplitudes of the surface wave in the thin film region and the substrate are found in terms of the strength of a line source vibrating in a direction transverse to the propagating wave. In addition to the surface wave, the bulk shear wave excited by the source is also studied. Analytical expressions for the bulk wave amplitude as a function of the direction of propagation, the acoustic powers transported by the surface and bulk waves, and the efficiency of surface wave excitation are obtained. A numerical example is given to show how the bulk wave radiation pattern depends upon the source frequency, the film thickness and other important parameters of the problem. The efficiency of surface wave excitation is also calculated for various parameter values.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of a shape memory Ni-Ti bi-layer thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ivanisenko, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schwaiger, Ruth [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hahn, Horst; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Nanotechnology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-29

    Two different single-layers and a bi-layer Ni-Ti thin films with chemical compositions of Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5}, Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} and Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2}/Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} (numbers indicate at.%) determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were deposited on Si (111) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The structures, surface morphology and transformation temperatures of annealed thin films at 500 °C for 15 min and 1 h were studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties. The DSC and X-ray diffraction results indicated the austenitic structure of the Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} and martensitic structure of the Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} thin films while the bi-layer was composed of austenitic and martensitic thin films. TEM study revealed that copper encourages crystallization in the bi-layer such that crystal structure containing nano-precipitates in the Ni{sub 45}Ti{sub 50}Cu{sub 5} layer was detected after 15 min annealing while the Ni{sub 50.8}Ti{sub 49.2} layer crystallized after 60 min at 500 °C. Furthermore, after annealing at 500 °C for 15 min, a precipitate free zone and thin layer amorphous were observed closely to the interface in the top layer. The bi-layer was completely crystallized at 500 °C for 1 h and the orientation of the Ni-rich precipitates indicated a stress gradient in the bi-layer. The bi-layer thin film showed different transformation temperatures and mechanical behavior from the single-layers. The developed bi-layer has different phase transformation temperatures, the higher temperatures of shape memory effect and lower temperature of pseudo-elastic behavior compared to the single-layers. Also, the bi-layer thin film exhibited a combined pseudo-elastic behavior and shape memory effect with a reduced

  9. Superconducting fluctuations in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox thin films: Paraconductivity, excess Hall effect, and magnetoconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W.; Heine, G.; Kula, W.; Sobolewski, Roman

    1995-04-01

    A detailed study of normal-state magnetotransport properties in (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox thin films with a zero-resistance critical temperature Tc0=105 K prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates is reported. Measurements of the electrical resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall effect are analyzed with regard to contributions of the superconducting order-parameter thermodynamic fluctuations, using theories for two-dimensional, layered superconductors. We have obtained a consistent set of parameters, i.e., the in-plane coherence length ξab(0)=1.6 nm, the out-of-plane coherence length ξc(0)=0.14 nm, and the electron-hole asymmetry parameter β=-0.38. At temperatures below 118 K, we observe a remarkable enhancement (above theoretical predictions) of both the excess Hall effect and magnetoconductivity, whereas no such effect is detected for the zero-field paraconductivity. The above anomalies are attributed to a nonuniform critical temperature distribution inside our samples and can be well explained assuming a Gaussian distribution of Tc's with a standard deviation δTc=2.3 K. The excess Hall effect caused by superconducting fluctuations is negative in the entire accessible temperature range, which indicates, together with the paraconductivity and magnetoconductivity results that the indirect (Maki-Thompson) fluctuation process for (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox is vanishingly small at temperatures from Tc to 130 K.

  10. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  11. Proximity effect of iron-based superconductor in conventional s-wave superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nick; Proslier, Thomas; Koshelev, Alex; Stantev, Valentin; Chung, Duck-Young

    2012-02-01

    The proximity effect has been proposed as a mechanism to unambiguously identify the possible s±-state in iron-based superconductors.ootnotetextA. E. Koshelev, V. Stanev, Europhysics Letters, Vol. 96, 27014 (2011) With a thin s-wave superconductor atop a s±-superconductor it is suggested that the s-wave order parameter will couple to the s±-gaps differently, inducing a correction to the s-wave density of states that can be probed using electron tunneling spectroscopy. In this talk, we will present recent results of the superconducting proximity effect in s-wave MoGe thin films sputtered on top of bulk superconducting Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Tc=35K) pnictide. Electron tunneling spectroscopy measurements were performed for several MoGe film thicknesses using a homemade point contact setup. Finally, results will also be presented for similar measurements using two conventional s-wave superconductors.

  12. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  13. Spray Layer-by-Layer Assembled Clay Composite Thin Films as Selective Layers in Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jason R; Liu, Chaoyang; Hammond, Paula T

    2015-06-24

    Spray layer-by-layer assembled thin films containing laponite (LAP) clay exhibit effective salt barrier and water permeability properties when applied as selective layers in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Negatively charged LAP platelets were layered with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDAC), poly(allylamine) (PAH), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in bilayer and tetralayer film architectures to generate uniform films on the order of 100 nm thick that bridge a porous poly(ether sulfone) support to form novel RO membranes. Nanostructures were formed of clay layers intercalated in a polymeric matrix that introduced size-exclusion transport mechanisms into the selective layer. Thermal cross-linking of the polymeric matrix was used to increase the mechanical stability of the films and improve salt rejection by constraining swelling during operation. Maximum salt rejection of 89% was observed for the tetralayer film architecture, with an order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to commercially available TFC-HR membranes. These clay composite thin films could serve as a high-flux alternative to current polymeric RO membranes for wastewater and brackish water treatment as well as potentially for forward osmosis applications. In general, we illustrate that by investigating the composite systems accessed using alternating layer-by-layer assembly in conjunction with complementary covalent cross-linking, it is possible to design thin film membranes with tunable transport properties for water purification applications.

  14. Effect of Al2O3 Buffer Layers on the Properties of Sputtered VO2 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dainan; Wen, Tianlong; Xiong, Ying; Qiu, Donghong; Wen, Qiye

    2017-07-01

    VO2 thin films were grown on silicon substrates using Al2O3 thin films as the buffer layers. Compared with direct deposition on silicon, VO2 thin films deposited on Al2O3 buffer layers experience a significant improvement in their microstructures and physical properties. By optimizing the growth conditions, the resistance of VO2 thin films can change by four orders of magnitude with a reduced thermal hysteresis of 4 °C at the phase transition temperature. The electrically driven phase transformation was measured in Pt/Si/Al2O3/VO2/Au heterostructures. The introduction of a buffer layer reduces the leakage current and Joule heating during electrically driven phase transitions. The C- V measurement result indicates that the phase transformation of VO2 thin films can be induced by an electrical field.

  15. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  16. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Vlad, A., E-mail: angela.vlad@gmail.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest 030018 (Romania); Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M.C. [National R.& D. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • PLD and MAPLE was successfully used to produce organo-layered double hydroxides. • The organic anions (dodecyl sulfate-DS) were intercalated in co-precipitation step. • Zn2.5Al-LDH (Zn/Al = 2.5) and Zn2.5Al-DS thin films obtained in this work could be suitable for further applications as hydrophobic surfaces. - Abstract: We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  17. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Pathan; C D Lokhande

    2004-04-01

    During last three decades, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, has emerged as one of the solution methods to deposit a variety of compound materials in thin film form. The SILAR method is inexpensive, simple and convenient for large area deposition. A variety of substrates such as insulators, semiconductors, metals and temperature sensitive substrates (like polyester) can be used since the deposition is carried out at or near to room temperature. As a low temperature process, it also avoids oxidation and corrosion of the substrate. The prime requisite for obtaining good quality thin film is the optimization of preparative provisos viz. concentration of the precursors, nature of complexing agent, pH of the precursor solutions and adsorption, reaction and rinsing time durations etc. In the present review article, we have described in detail, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method of metal chalcogenide thin films. An extensive survey of thin film materials prepared during past years is made to demonstrate the versatility of SILAR method. Their preparative parameters and structural, optical, electrical properties etc are described. Theoretical background necessary for the SILAR method is also discussed.

  18. Properties of nanostructured undoped ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolytes by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for thin film solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak; Lee, Yoon Ho; Cha, Suk Won, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Sanghoon [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon Wook; Koo, Bongjun; Kim, Young-Beom, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); An, Jihwan [Manufacturing Systems and Design Engineering Programme, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Nanostructured ZrO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The effects of the deposition conditions of temperature, reactant, plasma power, and duration upon the physical and chemical properties of ZrO{sub 2} films were investigated. The ZrO{sub 2} films by PEALD were polycrystalline and had low contamination, rough surfaces, and relatively large grains. Increasing the plasma power and duration led to a clear polycrystalline structure with relatively large grains due to the additional energy imparted by the plasma. After characterization, the films were incorporated as electrolytes in thin film solid oxide fuel cells, and the performance was measured at 500 °C. Despite similar structure and cathode morphology of the cells studied, the thin film solid oxide fuel cell with the ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolyte by the thermal ALD at 250 °C exhibited the highest power density (38 mW/cm{sup 2}) because of the lowest average grain size at cathode/electrolyte interface.

  19. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials as Active Layer Components in Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Tejas Attreya

    Thin-film photovoltaics offer the promise of cost-effective and scalable solar energy conversion, particularly for applications of semi-transparent solar cells where the poor absorption of commercially-available silicon is inadequate. Applications ranging from roof coatings that capture solar energy to semi-transparent windows that harvest the immense amount of incident sunlight on buildings could be realized with efficient and stable thin-film solar cells. However, the lifetime and efficiency of thin-film solar cells continue to trail their inorganic silicon counterparts. Low-dimensional nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides, have recently been explored as materials in thin-film solar cells due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties, solution-processability, and chemical inertness. Thus far, issues with the processing of these materials has held back their implementation in efficient photovoltaics. This dissertation reports processing advances that enable demonstrations of low-dimensional nanomaterials in thin-film solar cells. These low-dimensional photovoltaics show enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and environmental stability in comparison to previous devices, with a focus on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as an active layer component. The introduction summarizes recent advances in the processing of carbon nanotubes and their implementation through the thin-film photovoltaic architecture, as well as the use of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides in photovoltaic applications and potential future directions for all-nanomaterial solar cells. The following chapter reports a study of the interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants that enables them to be sorted by electronic type via density gradient ultracentrifugation. These insights are utilized to construct of a broad distribution of carbon nanotubes that absorb throughout the solar spectrum. This polychiral distribution is then shown

  20. Observation of Double-Dome Superconductivity in Potassium-Doped FeSe Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Can-Li; Zhang, Hui-Min; Zhong, Yong; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-04-15

    We report on the emergence of two disconnected superconducting domes in alkali-metal potassium- (K-)doped FeSe ultrathin films grown on graphitized SiC(0001). The superconductivity exhibits hypersensitivity to K dosage in the lower-T_{c} dome, whereas in the heavily electron-doped higher-T_{c} dome it becomes spatially homogeneous and robust against disorder, supportive of a conventional Cooper-pairing mechanism. Furthermore, the heavily K-doped multilayer FeSe films all reveal a large superconducting gap of ∼14  meV, irrespective of film thickness, verifying the higher-T_{c} superconductivity only in the topmost FeSe layer. The unusual finding of a double-dome superconducting phase is a step towards the mechanistic understanding of superconductivity in FeSe-derived superconductors.

  1. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  2. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  3. Tandem organic light-emitting diode with a molybdenum tri-oxide thin film interconnector layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fei-Ping; Wang Qian; Zhou Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A 10-nm-thick molybdenum tri-oxide (MoO3) thin film was used as the interconnector layer in tandem organic lightemitting devices (OLEDs).The tandem OLEDs with two identical emissive units consisting of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) / tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) exhibited current efficiency-current density characteristics superior to the conventional single-unit devices.At 20 mA/cm2,the current efficiency of the tandem OLEDs using the interconnector layers of MoO3 thin film was about 4.0 cd/A,which is about twice that of the corresponding conventional single-unit device (1.8 cd/A).The tandem OLED showed a higher power efficiency than the conventional single-unit device for luminance over 1200 cd/m2.The experimental results demonstrated that a MoO3 thin film with a proper thickness can be used as an effective interconnector layer in tandem OLEDs.Such an interconnector layer can be easily fabricated by simple thermal evaporation,greatly simplifying the device processing and fabrication processes required by previously reported interconnector layers.A possible explanation was proposed for the carrier generation of the MoO3 interconnector layer.

  4. Experimental evidence of tunable space-charge-layer-induced electrical properties of nanocrystalline ceria thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Ryul; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Han-Ill

    2013-10-07

    Fully dense nanocrystalline ceria films were successfully deposited on a MgO single crystal by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline thin film was 20 times higher than that of the bulk sample. The activation energy of bulk ceria was 2.3 eV, whereas the activation energy of the nanocrystalline sample was only 1.2 eV. After post-annealing at 1273 K in which the grain size of the nanocrystalline thin film increased to ~400 nm, the electrical conductivity and activation energy of the film were changed similar to those of bulk. These unique electrical properties of the nano-crystalline thin-film can be attributed to the grain size effect, or more specifically, to the space charge layer (SCL) effect. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline thin film became similar to that of the bulk in an extremely reducing atmosphere because of the unusual dependence of the SCL effect on the oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Subharmonic energy gap structure in the Josephson radiation at 35 GHz from a superconducting thin-film microbridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Levinsen, M. T.; Lindelof, Poul Erik;

    1979-01-01

    Nonresonant detection of the Josephson radiation 35 GHz from a superconducting thin-film microbridge is reported. The high frequency and the accuracy of these measurements lead to a new important observation: subharmonic energy gap structure in the detected integral power. The maximum integral po...... power measured was as large as 8×10−11 W. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  6. In-situ deposition of YBCO high-Tc superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P. E.; Kear, B.; Gallois, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T(sub c) greater than 90 K and J(sub c) of approximately 10(exp 4) A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  7. In Situ deposition of YBCO high-T(sub c) superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P.; Gallois, B.; Kear, B.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T( sub c) greater than 90 K and Jc approx. 10 to the 4th power A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  8. Wear resistant PTFE thin film enabled by a polydopamine adhesive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckford, Samuel [Microelectronics-Photonics Graduate Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Zou, Min, E-mail: mzou@uark.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, 863 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The influence of a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive layer on the friction and wear resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films coated on stainless steel was investigated. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a ball on flat configuration under a normal load of 50 g, sliding speed of 2.5 mm/s, and stroke length of 15 mm. It is found that the PDA/PTFE film is able to withstand approximately 500 times more rubbing cycles than the PTFE film alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious layer of PTFE remains adhered to the PDA layer, which enables the durability of the PDA/PTFE film. Because of the relatively low thickness of the film, PDA/PTFE shows great potential for use in applications where durable, thin films are desirable.

  9. Characterization and modeling tools for light management in heterogeneous thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzo, J.; Duché, D.; Ruiz, C. M.; Thierry, F.; Carlberg, M.; Berginc, G.; Pasquinelli, M.; Simon, J.-J.; Escoubas, L.; Flory, F.

    2016-09-01

    The extraordinary progresses in the design and realization of structures in inorganic or organic thin films, whether or not including nanoparticles, make it possible to develop devices with very specific properties. Mastering the links between the macroscopic optical properties and the opto-geometrical parameters of these heterogeneous layers is thus a crucial issue. We propose to present the tools used to characterize and to model thin film layers, from an optical point of view, highlighting the interest of coupling both experimental and simulation studies for improving our knowledge on the optical response of the structure. Different examples of studies are presented on CIGS, Perovskite, P3HT:ZnO, PC70BM, organic layer containing metallic nanoparticles and colored solar cells.

  10. Growth and optical characteristics of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk In Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality, smooth, and flat ZnO thin films on graphene layers and their photoluminescence (PL characteristics. For the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers, ZnO nanowalls were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on oxygen-plasma treated graphene layers as an intermediate layer. PL measurements were conducted at low temperatures to examine strong near-band-edge emission peaks. The full-width-at-half-maximum value of the dominant PL emission peak was as narrow as 4 meV at T = 11 K, comparable to that of the best-quality films reported previously. Furthermore, the stimulated emission of ZnO thin films on the graphene layers was observed at the low excitation energy of 180 kW/cm2 at room temperature. Their structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and PL spectroscopy.

  11. Optical behavior of silver nanoparticles embedded in polymer thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M.; Pourcin, F.; Margeat, O.; Le Rouzo, J.; Berginc, G.; Sauvage, R.-M.; Ackermann, J.; Escoubas, L.

    2016-09-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is challenging for the control of the light matter interaction phenomena. In this context, our work is focused on optical characterization and modeling of polymer thin films layers with inclusions of previously chemically synthesized NPs. Through the presence of metallic NPs in polymer thin films, the optical properties are assumed to become tunable. Thin film layers with inclusions of differently shaped and sized silver NPs, such as nanospheres and nanoprisms, are optically characterized to get the scattering, the reflection and the absorption of the layers. One step and two step seed based methods of silver ions reduction are used for the chemical synthesis of nanospheres and nanoprisms. The plasmonic resonance peaks of these colloidal solutions range from 360 to 1300 nm. A poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer matrix is chosen for its light non-absorbing and NP-stabilizing properties. Knowledge on the shape and size of the NPs embedded in the spin coated layers is obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. The optical properties include spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements to get the reflectance, the transmittance, the absorptance and the optical indices n and k of the heterogeneous layers. A redshift in absorption is measured between deposited nanospheres and other shaped NPs. FDTD simulations allow calculation of far and near field properties. The visualization of the NP interactions and the electric field enhancement, on and around the NPs, are studied to improve the understanding of the far field properties.

  12. Peeling process of thin-film solar cells using graphene layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryousuke; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Konagai, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    A novel peeling process for thin-film solar cells using graphene layers was demonstrated. We fabricated amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells as substitutes for the undeveloped nanostructured silicon solar cells on graphene layers in order to investigate the solar cell performance after peeling for the first time. The graphene layers functioned as transparent electrodes after the peeling process, even though the series resistance increased after the peeling. Next, we fabricated a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array on graphene layers by a combination of chemical etching and thermal crystallization. Finally, we successfully peeled a SiNW array using graphene layers.

  13. Continued improvment of large area, in situ sputter deposition of superconducting YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, J. K.; White, W. R.; Ballentine, P. H.; Mallory, D. S.; Kadin, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x onto substrates of up to 3-in diameter by an integrated off-axis sputtering is reported. The substrate is located above the center of an 8-in-diameter YBCO planar target, and, in conjunction with a negative ion shield, negative ion effects are avoided. A large radiant heater provides backside, noncontact heating of the bare substrates. YBCO films have been grown on polished 1-cm2 MgO and LaAlO3 substrates with Tc = 90 K or greater, Jc = 2.5 x 10 exp 6 A/sq cm or greater at 77 K, and microwave surface resistance Rs less than 0.4 micro-ohm at 77 K and 10 GHz. The films have a very smooth surface morphology. Uniformity data for LaAlO3 substrates are less than +/-5 percent in Rs. Thickness uniformity results for 3-in substrates indicate less than 10 percent variation. The growth of epitaxial insulating films for use with YBCO films and application of the YBCO films in microwave devices are briefly discussed.

  14. Reactive magnetron sputter deposition of superconducting niobium titanium nitride thin films with different target sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, B G C; Haalebos, E A F; Gimbel, P M L; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A; Endo, A

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting critical temperature (Tc>15 K) of niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) thin films allows for low-loss circuits up to 1.1 THz, enabling on-chip spectroscopy and multi-pixel imaging with advanced detectors. The drive for large scale detector microchips is demanding NbTiN films with uniform properties over an increasingly larger area. This article provides an experimental comparison between two reactive d.c. sputter systems with different target sizes: a small target (100 mm diameter) system and a large target (127 mm x 444.5 mm) one, with the aim of improving the film uniformity using the large target system. We focus on the Tc of the films and I-V characteristics of the sputter plasma, and we find that both systems are capable of depositing films with Tc>15 K. We find that these films are deposited within the transition from metallic to compound sputtering, at the point where target nitridation most strongly depends on nitrogen flow. Key in the deposition optimization is to increase the system'...

  15. Cation disorder and gas phase equilibrium in an YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconducting thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Chan; Ki Park, Yong; Park, Jong-Chul; Kang, Suk-Joong L.; Yong Yoon, Duk

    1997-02-01

    YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x superconducting thin films have been grown by in situ off-axis rf sputtering with varying oxygen pressure, Ba/Y ratio in a target, and deposition temperature. With decreasing oxygen pressure, increasing Ba/Y ratio, increasing deposition temperature, the critical temperature of the thin films decreased and the c-axis length increased. The property change of films with the variation of deposition variables has been explained by a gas phase equilibrium of the oxidation reaction of Ba and Y. Applying Le Chatelier's principle to the oxidation reaction, we were able to predict the relation of deposition variables and the resultant properties of thin films; the prediction was in good agreement with the experimental results. From the relation between the three deposition variables and gas phase equilibrium, a 3-dimensional processing diagram was introduced. This diagram has shown that the optimum deposition condition of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x thin films is not a fixed point but can be varied. The gas phase equilibrium can also be applied to the explanation of previous results that good quality films were obtained at low deposition temperature using active species, such as O, O 3, and O 2+.

  16. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells by a layer-transfer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christian S; Kowalczewski, Piotr; Martins, Emiliano R; Patrini, Maddalena; Scullion, Mark G; Liscidini, Marco; Lewis, Liam; Reardon, Christopher; Andreani, Lucio C; Krauss, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from the enhanced light trapping offered by photonic nanostructures. The thin film is typically patterned on one side only due to technological constraints. The ability to independently pattern both sides of the thin film increases the degrees of freedom available to the designer, as different functions can be combined, such as the reduction of surface reflection and the excitation of quasiguided modes for enhanced light absorption. Here, we demonstrate a technique based on simple layer transfer that allows us to independently pattern both sides of the thin film leading to enhanced light trapping. We used a 400 nm thin film of amorphous hydrogenated silicon and two simple 2D gratings for this proof-of-principle demonstration. Since the technique imposes no restrictions on the design parameters, any type of structure can be made.

  17. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Mao, Bao-Hua; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O2/air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O2/air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O2/air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results.

  18. Fabrication of organic thin-film transistors using layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Jeffery T; Gudmundsdóttir, Anna D; Smith, Adam P; Taylor, Barney E; Durstock, Michael F

    2007-06-14

    Layer-by-layer assembly is presented as a deposition technique for the incorporation of ultrathin gate dielectric layers into thin-film transistors utilizing a highly doped organic active layer. This deposition technique enables the fabrication of device structures with a controllable gate dielectric thickness. In particular, devices with a dielectric layer comprised of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) bilayer films were fabricated to examine the properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the transistor active layer. The transistor Ion/off ratio and switching speed are shown to be controlled by the gate bias, which is dependent upon the voltage applied and the number of bilayers deposited for the gate dielectric. The devices operate in the depletion mode as a result of dedoping of the active layer with the application of a positive gate bias. The depletion and recovery rate are highly dependent on the level of hydration in the film and the environment under which the device is operated. These observations are consistent with an electrochemical dedoping of the conducting polymer during operation.

  19. TWO-LAYER MODEL DESCRIPTION OF POLYMER THIN FILM DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong Peng; Ran-xing Nancy Li; Chi-hang Lam; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in the past two decades have shown that the glass transition temperature of polymer films can become noticeably different from that of the bulk when the film thickness is decreased below ca.100 nm.It is broadly believed that these observations are caused by a nanometer interfacial layer with dynamics faster or slower than that of the bulk.In this paper,we examine how this idea may be realized by using a two-layer model assuming a hydrodynamic coupling between the interfacial layer and the remaining,bulk-like layer in the film.Illustrative examples will be given showing how the two-layer model is applied to the viscosity measurements of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate films supported by silicon oxide,where divergent thickness dependences are observed.

  20. Suppression of conductivity deterioration of copper thin films by coating with atomic-layer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Nguyen Thanh; Okada, Susumu

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical calculations are performed to explore the electronic structures and electron conducting properties of copper (Cu) thin films coated with graphene or h-boron-nitride (h-BN) layers. The Shockley surface states of Cu surfaces are preserved by the graphene and h-BN coatings which prevent the surface oxidation of Cu because of the weak interaction between the Cu surface and graphene or the h-BN layers. Furthermore, the Shockley surface states in Cu thin films possess quasi-two dimensional free-electron characteristics and exhibit a high conductivity of 1.62 × 107 (Ωm)-1 at room temperature. These hybrid structures may be suitable as interconnects in memory devices that can stably store data for long periods.

  1. Influence of electric double layer on thin film lubrication and elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, the influence of electric double layer (EDL) on thin film lubricationand elastohydrodynamic lubrication is studied. With modified Reynolds equation for electric doublelayer, the effect of zeta-potential on the film thickness and pressure is numerically calculated. Theresults show that the influence of electric double layer on the lubrication film thickness is significantonly for thin film. The minimum film thickness will increase greatly if the influence of EDL is con-sidered. As the initial film thickness increases, the effect will greatly decrease. The existence ofEDL will decrease the friction coefficient of the lubrication film. Furthermore, the above tendency isstill applicable even if the materials of the friction pair are different.

  2. Performance improvement in pentacene organic thin film transistors by inserting a C60 ultrathin layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qin-Jun; Xu Zheng; Zhao Su-Ling; Zhang Fu-Jun; Gao Li-Yan

    2011-01-01

    The contact effect on the performances of organic thin film transistors is studied here. A C60 ultrathin layer is inserted between Al source-drain electrode and pentacene to reduce the contact resistance. By a 3 nm C60 modification,the injection harrier is lowered and the contact resistance is reduced. Thus, the field-effect mobility increases from 0.12to 0.52 cm2/(V.s). It means that inserting a C60 ultra thin layer is a good method to improve the organic thin film transistor (OTFT) performance. The output curve is simulated by using a charge drift model. Considering the contact of OTFTs should be carried out.

  3. Magnetic domain observation of FeCo thin films fabricated by alternate monoatomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, T., E-mail: ohtsuki@spring8.or.jp; Kotsugi, M.; Ohkochi, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kojima, T.; Mizuguchi, M.; Takanashi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-28

    FeCo thin films are fabricated by alternate monoatomic layer deposition method on a Cu{sub 3}Au buffer layer, which in-plane lattice constant is very close to the predicted value to obtain a large magnetic anisotropy constant. The variation of the in-plane lattice constant during the deposition process is investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The magnetic domain images are also observed by a photoelectron emission microscope in order to microscopically understand the magnetic structure. As a result, element-specific magnetic domain images show that Fe and Co magnetic moments align parallel. A series of images obtained with various azimuth reveal that the FeCo thin films show fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy along 〈110〉 direction, and that the magnetic domain structure is composed only of 90∘ wall.

  4. Quantum and superconducting fluctuations effects in disordered Nb 1- xTa x thin films above Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouri, M.; Papastaikoudis, C.

    1999-05-01

    Disordered Nb 1- xTa x thin films are prepared with e-gun coevaporation. The influence of the β-phase of tantalum in the critical temperature Tc is observed as a function of the substrate temperature. The measurements of transverse magnetoresistance at various isothermals are interpreted in terms of weak-localization and superconducting fluctuations. From the fitting procedure, the phase breaking rate τφ-1 and the Larkin parameter βL are estimated as a function of temperature. Conclusions about the dominant inelastic scattering mechanisms at various temperature regions as well as for the dominant mechanism of superconducting fluctuations near the transition temperature are extracted.

  5. Growth of Cu thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, S.; Ruuskanen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M

    2004-07-22

    Copper thin films were grown on reduced indium tin oxide, molybdenum and polymer substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Copper films were grown sequentially in a controlled way using simple copper salt and basic solution of formaldehyde as precursors. The copper films were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation as characterised by X-ray diffraction. On all substrates, the growth was clearly island growth in the beginning but after the whole surface was covered, the growth was more homogeneous.

  6. Multilayered gold-nanoparticle/polyimide composite thin film through layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengxiang; Srinivasan, M P

    2007-09-25

    A novel type of composite thin film consisting of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polymide (PI) was fabricated through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. To fabricate such films, bare AuNPs and a poly (amic acid) bearing pendant amine groups, namely, amino poly (amic acid) or APAA, were synthesized and assembled in an LBL fashion. Without any organic encapsulation layer on their surface, AuNPs were bound directly to APAA chains at the amine sites; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study suggested that the binding was based on a combined effect of metal-ligand coordination and electrostatic interaction, with the former dominating over the latter. An approximately linear growth of the film started from the second layer of AuNP as revealed by the UV-vis spectroscopy, and the degree of particle aggregation was higher in the first AuNP layer than in the subsequent layers due to the differences in the density of binding sites. The resultant assembly was heated to imidize the APAA, thereby creating a robust composite structure.

  7. Structural, morphology and electrical properties of layered copper selenide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Chyi Liew, J.; Talib, Zainal; Mahmood, W.; Yunus, M.; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Halim, Shaari; Moksin, Mohd; Yusoff, Wan; Pah Lim, K.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of copper selenide (CuSe) were physically deposited layer-by-layer up to 5 layers using thermal evaporation technique onto a glass substrate. Various film properties, including the thickness, structure, morphology, surface roughness, average grain size and electrical conductivity are studied and discussed. These properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometer and 4 point probe at room temperature. The dependence of electrical conductivity, surface roughness, and average grain size on number of layers deposited is discussed.

  8. Large-Area Growth of Uniform Single-Layer MoS2 Thin Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Hyun; Choi, Yura; Choi, Woong

    2015-12-01

    We report the largest-size thin films of uniform single-layer MoS2 on sapphire substrates grown by chemical vapor deposition based on the reaction of gaseous MoO3 and S evaporated from solid sources. The as-grown thin films of single-layer MoS2 were continuous and uniform in thickness for more than 4 cm without the existence of triangular-shaped MoS2 clusters. Compared to mechanically exfoliated crystals, the as-grown single-layer MoS2 thin films possessed consistent chemical valence states and crystal structure along with strong photoluminescence emission and optical absorbance at high energy. These results demonstrate that it is possible to scale up the growth of uniform single-layer MoS2 thin films, providing potentially important implications on realizing high-performance MoS2 devices.

  9. Monolithic growth of partly cured polydimethylsiloxane thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monolithic structures in many applications has increased to enable more reliable and optimized performances such as for dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs). For the layers of the elements to grow efficiently together, it is first of all required that the layers adhere together...... as thermal stabilities of the bilayer elastomer films are observed to change with the curing time of the monolayers before lamination. The objective of this work is to create adhesion of two layers without destroying the original viscoelastic properties of the PDMS films, and hence enable, for example......, adhesion of two microstructured films which is currently a crucial step in the large-scale production of DEAPs. © 2014 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved....

  10. Multi-layer boron thin-film detectors for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic efficiencies of the multilayer boron detectors have been examined both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that due to the charge loss in the boron layers, the practical efficiencies of most multi-layer {sup 10}B detectors are limited up to about 42%, much less than 77% of the 2 bar 2-inch diameter {sup 3}He detectors. It is suggested that the same charge loss mechanism will prevent essentially all substrate-based boron detectors from ever reaching the efficiencies of high-pressure {sup 3}He tubes, independent of the substrate geometry and material composition (including silicon). Meanwhile, the experimental data indicate that the multi-layer approach can increase the efficiencies up to the theoretical limit. Good n/{gamma} discrimination has also achieved using the ionization charnber technique.

  11. Layered TiO2: PVK nano-composite thin films for photovoltaic applications. TiO2: PVK nano-composite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, G; Wang, W; Metwalli, E; Ruderer, M; Rossner, R; Roth, S V; Müller-Buschbaum, P

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the solvent used for spin-coating on the homogeneity of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) films is investigated. Homogenous films are obtained only by the use of toluene, solution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and chloroform results in radially oriented inhomogeneities and films prepared by use of N-methylpyrrolidone and dimethylacetamide show particle formation during spin-coating. Layered nano-composite thin films are prepared by spin-coating a PVK film on top of a nano-structured titanium dioxide ( TiO2) layer. The TiO2 thin films are prepared by a sol-gel process using an amphiphilic copolymer as structure-directing agent. Structural characterisation of the TiO2 :PVK nano-composite films is done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS). Bare TiO2 films are probed for comparison. Light is basically only absorbed in the ultraviolet regime and absorption slightly increases upon addition of PVK, which makes the layered TiO2 :PVK nano-composite thin films good candidates for UV photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, absorption remains stable over a period of several days.

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in FeSe0.3Te0.7 thin films and electric-field modulation of superconducting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhu; Mei, Chenguang; Wei, Linlin; Sun, Zhangao; Wu, Shilong; Huang, Haoliang; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Chang; Feng, Yang; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yalin; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-09-18

    We report the structural and superconducting properties of FeSe0.3Te0.7 (FST) thin films with different thicknesses grown on ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 substrates. It was shown that the FST films undergo biaxial tensile strains which are fully relaxed for films with thicknesses above 200 nm. Electrical transport measurements reveal that the ultrathin films exhibit an insulating behavior and superconductivity appears for thicker films with Tc saturated above 200 nm. The current-voltage curves around the superconducting transition follow the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition behavior and the resistance-temperature curves can be described by the Halperin-Nelson relation, revealing quasi-two-dimensional phase fluctuation in FST thin films. The Ginzburg number decreases with increasing film thickness indicating the decrease of the strength of thermal fluctuations. Upon applying electric field to the heterostructure, Tc of FST thin film increases due to the reduction of the tensile strain in FST. This work sheds light on the superconductivity, strain effect as well as electric-field modulation of superconductivity in FST films.

  13. Zinc oxide-based thin film functional layers for chemiresistive sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James B.; Ashok, Tejasvi; Lee, Sojung; Broitman, Esteban

    2012-08-31

    Sol-gel wet-chemical techniques were used to prepare ZnO, Al-ZnO (Al:Zn = 1:10 mol/mol) and Cu-ZnO (Cu:Zn = 1:10 mol/mol) thin films for characterization as functional layers for chemiresistive oxygen sensors. Cu and Al minor components influence the ZnO films' topography and their thermally induced chemical and structural evolution. As prepared (room temperature) films have the structure of layered basic zinc acetate, a lamellar ZnO precursor. Upon annealing at temperatures through 973 K, the films display similar chemical evolution patterns-temperatures above 773 K are needed to completely desorb solvents and decompose precursors. Cu facilitates c-axis orientation of the film as its structure matures, while Al slows its crystallization. Chemiresistive sensors, fabricated by coating thin film functional layers onto interdigitated electrode (IDE) transducers, were evaluated for their responses to oxygen at operating temperatures through 873 K. A ZnO/IDE sensor displays high sensitivity for O{sub 2} at an intermediate temperature, 673 K, reflecting an optimal balance between surface O{sub 2} coverage and carrier availability. At 1:10 mol/mol Cu:Zn and Al:Zn, the developing ZnO structure cannot accommodate all minor component atoms. Surplus atoms accumulate in independent phases at grain boundaries, contributing to both high base resistances (in N{sub 2}) and low sensitivity to oxygen. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu modification of a ZnO thin film improves c-axis alignment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al modification of ZnO thin film delays crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1:10 mol/mol Zn, the ZnO structure cannot accommodate all Cu or Al atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess modifier causes high film resistance and low sensitivity as O{sub 2} sensors.

  14. Superconducting YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 thin films grown in-situ by ion beam CO-deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, B.K.; James, J.H.; Gauzzi, A.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D. (Inst. of Micro and Optoelectronics, Dept. of Physics, Federal Inst. of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1989-12-01

    Superconducting YBCO thin films have been grown in-situ by three ion beam co-deposition sputtering. Both metal and oxide targets of Cu and Y and BaF{sub 2} and BaCO{sub 3} targets have been investigated. Film composition was determined by RBS and AES analysis. Films grown using BaF{sub 2} show fluorine contamination, whereas the carbon concentration in films grown using BaCO{sub 3} is beneath the Auger detection limit. Superconducting films have been grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (T{sub co}=78K) and on Si with SiO{sub 2} or Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers (T{sub co}=35K). (orig.).

  15. Dopant rearrangement and superconductivity in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6} thin films under annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancellieri, C [EPFL, Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, LPRX, Lausanne (Switzerland); Lin, P H [EPFL, Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, LPRX, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ariosa, D [EPFL, Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, LPRX, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pavuna, D [EPFL, Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, LPRX, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-20

    By combining x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and AC susceptibility measurements we investigate the evolution of structural and superconducting properties of La-doped Bi-2201 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under different annealing conditions. We find that the main effect of oxygen annealing is to improve the crystal coherence by enabling La cation migration to the Sr sites. This activates the desired hole doping. Short-time Ar annealing removes the interstitial oxygen between the BiO layers, fine adjusting the effective hole doping. The superconducting critical temperature is consequently enhanced. However, longer annealings result in phase separation and segregation of the homologous compound Bi-1201. We attribute this effect to the loss of Bi during the annealing.

  16. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-01-09

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  17. Spotting 2D atomic layers on aluminum nitride thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Bharadwaj B, Krishna; Vaidyuala, Kranthi Kumar; Suran, Swathi; Bhat, Navakanta; Varma, Manoj; Srinivasan Raghavan

    2015-10-23

    Substrates for 2D materials are important for tailoring their fundamental properties and realizing device applications. Aluminum nitride (AIN) films on silicon are promising large-area substrates for such devices in view of their high surface phonon energies and reasonably large dielectric constants. In this paper epitaxial layers of AlN on 2″ Si wafers have been investigated as a necessary first step to realize devices from exfoliated or transferred atomic layers. Significant thickness dependent contrast enhancements are both predicted and observed for monolayers of graphene and MoS2 on AlN films as compared to the conventional SiO2 films on silicon, with calculated contrast values approaching 100% for graphene on AlN as compared to 8% for SiO2 at normal incidences. Quantitative estimates of experimentally measured contrast using reflectance spectroscopy show very good agreement with calculated values. Transistors of monolayer graphene on AlN films are demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of complete device fabrication on the identified layers.

  18. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seungyeol; Lee, D. H.; Ryu, S. O.; Chang, Chih-hung

    2010-05-20

    In this article, we reported a spin successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for the first time. ZnS thin films were deposited by spin SILAR using ZnCl2 and Na2S aqueous precursor solutions at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The optical, structural, and morphological characterizations of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV/visible spectroscopy. Smooth (average roughness <3 nm), uniform, and highly transparent ZnS (transmittance of over 90% in the visible band) thin films could be successfully deposited using this technique with shorter cycle time and much less solvent usage.

  19. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  20. Solution-processed In2S3 buffer layer for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Lin, Xianzhong; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Wolf, Christian; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Klenk, Reiner

    2016-02-01

    We report a route to deposit In2S3 thin films from air-stable, low-cost molecular precursor inks for Cd-free buffer layers in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Different precursor compositions and processing conditions were studied to define a reproducible and robust process. By adjusting the ink properties, this method can be applied in different printing and coating techniques. Here we report on two techniques, namely spin-coating and inkjet printing. Active area efficiencies of 12.8% and 12.2% have been achieved for In2S3-buffered solar cells respectively, matching the performance of CdS-buffered cells prepared with the same batch of absorbers.

  1. Automatic identification of single- and/or few-layer thin-film material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    One or more digital representations of single- (101) and/or few-layer (102) thin- film material are automatically identified robustly and reliably in a digital image (100), the digital image (100) having a predetermined number of colour components, by - determining (304) a background colour...... component of the digital image (100) for each colour component, and - determining or estimating (306) a colour component of thin-film material to be identified in the digital image (100) for each colour component by obtaining a pre-determined contrast value (C R; C G; C B) for each colour component...... and multiplying the respective bacground colour component with a numerical difference between the pre-determined contrast value (C R; C G; C B) for a given colour component and about 1, - identifying points or parts of the image with all colour components being within a predetermined range of the determined...

  2. Characterization of chemical bath deposited buffer layers for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.; Efstathiadis, H.; Haldar, P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - State University of New York, 257 Fuller Rd., Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Sun, R. [Angstrom Sun Technologies Inc., 33 Nagog Park, Acton, MA 01720 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS), indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) for buffer layer applications in Cu-chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis transmission, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results indicate CdS can be deposited with low oxygen content and high light transmission over 245-1700 nm. CBD-ZnS and CBD-InS both exhibit 5-10% less light transmission than CdS in the same thickness range. In terms of light transmission and degree of impurities CdS appears to be a better buffer material than CBD-ZnS or CBD-InS. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Hee Kim, So; Gu Yun, Myeong; Koun Cho, Hyung

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a "step-composition gradient channel." We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (-3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift ( Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm2/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the "step-composition gradient channel" in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design.

  4. Optical properties of PZT thin films deposited on a ZnO buffer layer

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, T.; Leduc, D; Cardin, J.; LUPI, C; Barreau, N; Gundel, H.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films deposited on ZnO were studied by m-lines spectroscopy. In order to retrieve the refractive index and the thickness of both layers from the m-lines spectra, we develop a numerical algorithm for the case of a two-layer system and show its robustness in the presence of noise. The sensitivity of the algorithm of the two-layer model allows us to relate the observed changes in the PZT refractive index to the ...

  5. Optical properties of PZT thin films deposited on a ZnO buffer layer

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, T.; Leduc, D; Cardin, J.; LUPI, C; Barreau, N; Gundel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films deposited on ZnO were studied by m-lines spectroscopy. In order to retrieve the refractive index and the thickness of both layers from the m-lines spectra, we develop a numerical algorithm for the case of a two-layer system and show its robustness in the presence of noise. The sensitivity of the algorithm of the two-layer model allows us to relate the observed changes in the PZT refractive index to the PZT structural change du...

  6. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films as Platforms for Atomic Layer Deposition of Cobalt Ions To Enable Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chung-Wei; Mondloch, Joseph E; Wang, Timothy C; Bury, Wojciech; Hoffeditz, William; Klahr, Benjamin M; Klet, Rachel C; Pellin, Michael J; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-12-30

    Thin films of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 were grown on conducting glass substrates. The films uniformly cover the conducting glass substrates and are composed of free-standing sub-micrometer rods. Subsequently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized to deposit Co(2+) ions throughout the entire MOF film via self-limiting surface-mediated reaction chemistry. The Co ions bind at aqua and hydroxo sites lining the channels of NU-1000, resulting in three-dimensional arrays of separated Co ions in the MOF thin film. The Co-modified MOF thin films demonstrate promising electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation.

  7. Optical layer development for thin films thermal conductivity measurement by pulsed photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martan, J., E-mail: jmartan@ntc.zcu.cz [New Technologies Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 8, 306 14 Plzeň (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-15

    Measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of optically transparent thin films presents a challenge for optical-based measurement methods like pulsed photothermal radiometry. We present two approaches: (i) addition of an opaque optical layer to the surface and (ii) approximate correction of the mathematical model to incorporate semitransparency of the film. Different single layer and multilayer additive optical layers were tested. The materials of the optical layers were chosen according to analysis and measurement of their optical properties: emissivity and absorption coefficient. Presented are thermal properties’ measurement results for 6 different thin films with wide range of thermal conductivity in three configurations of surface: as deposited, added Ti layer, and added Ti/TiAlSiN layer. Measurements were done in dependence on temperature from room temperature to 500 °C. The obtained thermal effusivity evolution in time after the laser pulse shows different effects of the surface layers: apparent effusivity change and time delay. Suitability of different measurement configurations is discussed and results of high temperature testing of different optical layers are presented.

  8. ZnS nanostructured thin-films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Jariwala, Akshay; Agarwal, Anubha; Patel, Chetna; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    ZnS thin films were grown on glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 and Na2S were used as precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption measurements were applied to study the structural, surface morphology and optical properties of as-deposited ZnS thin films. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that ZnS thin films consist of crystalline grains with cubic phase. Spherical nano grains of random size and well covered on the glass substrate were observed from FESEM. The average grain size were found to be 77 nm, 100 nm and 124 nm for 20 cycles, 40 cycles and 60 cycles samples respectively. For 60 cycle sample, Raman spectra show two prominent peaks at 554 cm-1 and 1094 cm-1. The optical band gap values were found to be 3.76 eV, 3.72 eV and 3.67 eV for 20 cycle, 40 cycle and 60 cycle samples respectively.

  9. Photoelectric and passivation properties of atomic layer deposited gradient AZO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Tang, Li-dan; Wang, Bing; Jia, Yi; Feng, Jia-heng

    2017-02-01

    Gradient Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited at 150 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with different Al concentration gradient, and their photoelectric and passivation properties were investigated. With increasing Al concentration gradient from 0.09 to 1.21%/nm, Hall-effect showed that the resistivity of gradient AZO thin films deteriorates. The minimal resistivity (2.81 × 10-3 Ω cm), the maximum mobility (9.03 cm2/Vs) and the maximum carrier concentration (2.46 × 1020 cm-3) were obtained at 0.09%/nm Al concentration gradient. The average transmittance of all the gradient AZO films can be more than 85% in the visible region. In addition, gradient AZO thin films demonstrated excellent passivation properties. The maximum minority carrier lifetime (120.6 μs) and the minimal surface recombination velocity (≤208.3 cm/s) were obtained at 0.71%/nm Al concentration gradient.

  10. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn2+/Al3+ ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition has been used to fabricate thin films of aluminum-doped ZnO by depositing interspersed layers of ZnO and Al 2O3 on borosilicate glass substrates. The growth characteristics of the films have been investigated through x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflection, and x-ray fluorescence measurements, and the efficacy of the Al doping has been evaluated through optical reflectivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The Al doping is found to affect the carrier density of ZnO up...

  12. Plasma processing of niobium for the production of thin-film superconducting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugwell, A.J.; Hutson, D.; Pegrum, C.M.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Josephson junctions, which are regions of weak electrical connection between two superconductors, are the active elements of very sensitive thin-film magnetometers. Junctions are fabricated by growing barriers of native oxide on thin Nb films and depositing a layer of PbIn alloy on top. High sensitivity magnetometers require junctions of small area, and to achieve this, edge junctions are fabricated in which one dimension is defined by the thickness of the Nb and the other is set by the limit of optical lithography. An edge with a suitable angle is produced by reactive ion etching using 5 vol % O/sub 2/ in CF/sub 4/ in a parallel plate rf plasma etcher. Details of etch rates and edge profiles are given. The barrier is formed by a cleaning and oxidation process in an rf plasma at a pressure of 10/sup -6/ bar. Details of the design of a purpose built rf cathode and the run-to-run reproducibility of junction characteristics are given. Different oxidation times and bias voltages are necessary to produce a given oxide thickness on a sloping edge of Nb, as compared to a planar surface, and an explanation for this is proposed. Examples are described of magnetometers made using the above processes.

  13. Layer-by-Layer Thin Films for Co-Delivery of TGF-β siRNA and Epidermal Growth Factor to Improve Excisional Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapalli, Praveen Kumar; Labala, Suman; Jose, Anup; Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Janupally, Renuka; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2016-06-27

    The major challenge with treatment of dermal wounds is accelerating healing process, while preventing the scar formation. Herein, we have fabricated layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TGF-β siRNA to improve excisional wound healing and decrease scar formation. The chitosan and sodium alginate LbL thin films showed 13.0 MPa tensile strength and 2.22 N/cm(2) skin adhesion strength. The LbL thin films were found to be cytocompatible, where A431 epidermal keratinocytes adhered to the film and showed 86.2 ± 0.8% cell growth compared with cells cultured in the absence of LbL thin film. In contrast, LbL thin film did not promote the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial colony formation. In a C57BL/6 mouse excisional wound model, application of LbL thin films containing TGF-β siRNA significantly (p thin films containing EGF showed improved wound contraction (thin films resulted in accelerated wound healing and decreased collagen deposition. Furthermore, the LbL thin films with TGF-β siRNA and EGF combination showed greater reepithelialization. Taken together, we have successfully demonstrated the co-delivery of TGF-β siRNA and EGF peptide using LbL thin films to promote wound healing and decrease scar formation.

  14. n +-Microcrystalline-Silicon Tunnel Layer in Tandem Si-Based Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Hao

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the p-SiC/ i-Si/ n-Si cell and the p-SiC/ i-SiGe/ n-Si cell deposited using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were cascaded for forming the tandem Si-based thin film solar cells to absorb the wide solar spectrum. To further improve the performances of the tandem Si-based thin film solar cells, a 5-nm-thick n +-microcrystalline-Si ( n +-μc-Si) tunnel layer deposited using the laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was inserted between the p-SiC/ i-Si/ n-Si cell and the p-SiC/ i-SiGe/ n-Si cell. Since both the plasma and the CO2 laser were simultaneously utilized to efficiently decompose the reactant and doping gases, the carrier concentration and the carrier mobility of the n +-μc-Si tunnel layer were significantly improved. The ohmic contact formed between the p-SiC layer and the n +-μc-Si tunnel layer with low resistance was beneficial to the generated current transportation and the carrier recombination rate. Therefore, the conversion efficiency of the tandem solar cells was promoted from 8.57% and 8.82% to 9.91% compared to that without tunnel layer and with 5-nm-thick n +-amorphous-Si tunnel layer.

  15. Influence of Surface Transition Layers on Phase Transformation and Pyroelectric Properties of Ferroelectric Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Pu-Nan; L(U) Tian-Quan; CHEN Hui; CAO Wen-Wu

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account surface transition layers (STLs), we study the phase transformation and pyroelectric properties of ferroelectric thin films by employing the transverse Ising model (TIM) in the framework of the mean field approximation. The distribution functions representing the intra-layer and inter-layer couplings between the two nearest neighbour pseudo-spins are introduced to characterize STLs. Compared with the results obtained by the traditional treatments for the thin films using only the single surface transition layer (SSL), it is shown that the STL model reflects a more realistic and comprehensive situation of films. The effects of various parameters on the phase transformation properties have shown that STL can make the Curie temperature of the film higher or lower than that of the corresponding bulk material, and the thickness of STL is a key factor influencing the film properties. For a film with definite thickness, there exists a critical STL thickness at which ferroelectricity will disappear when the intra-layer and inter-layer interactions are weak.

  16. Superconducting NbTiN Thin Films with Highly Uniform Properties over a 100 mm diameter Wafer

    CERN Document Server

    Thoen, D J; Haalebos, E A F; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A; Endo, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniformity in thickness and electronic properties of superconducting niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) thin films is a critical issue for upscaling superconducting electronics, such as microwave kinetic inductance detectors for submillimeter wave astronomy. In this article we make an experimental comparison between the uniformity of NbTiN thin films produced by two DC magnetron sputtering systems with vastly different target sizes: the Nordiko 2000 equipped with a circular 100mm diameter target, and the Evatec LLS801 with a rectangular target of 127 mm x 444.5 mm. In addition to the films deposited staticly in both systems, we have also deposited films in the LLS801 while shuttling the substrate in front of the target, with the aim of further enhancing the uniformity. Among these three setups, the LLS801 system with substrate shuttling has yielded the highest uniformity in film thickness (+/-2%), effective resistivity (decreasing by 5% from center to edge), and superconducting critical temperature (T_c = 15.0 ...

  17. High-temperature superconductivity in potassium-coated multilayer FeSe thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Y; Nakayama, K; Sugawara, K; Sato, T; Takahashi, T

    2015-08-01

    The recent discovery of possible high-temperature (T(c)) superconductivity over 65 K in a monolayer FeSe film on SrTiO3 (refs 1-6) triggered a fierce debate on how superconductivity evolves from bulk to film, because bulk FeSe crystal exhibits a T(c) of no higher than 10 K (ref. 7). However, the difficulty in controlling the carrier density and the number of FeSe layers has hindered elucidation of this problem. Here, we demonstrate that deposition of potassium onto FeSe films markedly expands the accessible doping range towards the heavily electron-doped region. Intriguingly, we have succeeded in converting non-superconducting films with various thicknesses into superconductors with T(c) as high as 48 K. We also found a marked increase in the magnitude of the superconducting gap on decreasing the FeSe film thickness, indicating that the interface plays a crucial role in realizing the high-temperature superconductivity. The results presented provide a new strategy to enhance and optimize T(c) in ultrathin films of iron-based superconductors.

  18. Synthesis of as-grown superconducting MgB_2 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy in UHV conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Y.; Udsuka, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    As-grown superconducting MgB_2 thin films have been grown on SrTiO_3(001), MgO(001), and Al_2O_3(0001) substrates by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method with novel co-evaporation conditions of low deposition rate in ultra-high vacuum. The structural and physical properties of the films were studied by RHEED, XRD, electrical resistivity measurements, and SQUID magnetometer. The RHEED patterns indicate three-dimensional growth for MgB_2. The highest T_c determined by resistivity measurement w...

  19. Properties of Superconducting Mo, Mo2n and Trilayer Mo2n-Mo-Mo2n Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrentine, E. M.; Stevenson, T. R.; Brown, A. D.; Lowitz, A. E.; Noroozian, O.; U-Yen, K.; Eshan, N.; Hsieh, W. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the properties of thin film superconducting Mo, Mo2N and Mo2N/Mo/Mo2N trilayers of interest for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) applications. Using microwave resonator devices, we investigate the transition temperature, energy gaps, kinetic inductance, and internal quality factors of these materials. We present an Usadel-based interpretation of the trilayer transition temperature as a function of trilayer thicknesses, and a 2-gap interpretation to understand the change in kinetic inductance and internal resonance quality factor (Q) as a function of temperature.

  20. Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers in multilayered MgB{sub 2}/Ni and MgB{sub 2}/B superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosiati, H., E-mail: hsosiati@gmail.com [Nanomaterials Research Group, Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Hata, S. [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Doi, T. [Graduate School of Energy of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsumoto, A.; Kitaguchi, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Nakashima, H. [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers (APCs). ► Relationship between nanostructure and J{sub c} property. ► Enhanced J{sub c} in parallel field by parallel APCs within the MgB{sub 2} film. -- Abstract: Research on the MgB{sub 2}/Ni and MgB{sub 2}/B multilayer films fabricated by an electron beam (EB) evaporation technique have been extensively carried out. The critical current density, J{sub c} of MgB{sub 2}/Ni and MgB{sub 2}/B multilayer films in parallel fields has been suggested to be higher than that of monolayer MgB{sub 2} film due to introducing the artificial pinning centers of nano-sized Ni and B layers. Nanostructure characterization of the artificial pinning centers in the multilayer films were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS))–EDS to understand the mechanism of flux pinning. The growth of columnar MgB{sub 2} grains along the film-thickness direction was recognized in the MgB{sub 2}/Ni multilayer film, but not in the MgB{sub 2}/B multilayer film. Nano-sized Ni layers were present as crystalline epitaxial layers which is interpreted that Ni atoms might be incorporated into the MgB{sub 2} lattice to form (Mg,Ni)B{sub 2} phase. On the other hand, nano-sized B layers were amorphous layers. Crystalline (Mg,Ni)B{sub 2} layers worked more effectively than amorphous B-layers, providing higher flux-pinning force that resulted in higher J{sub c} of the MgB{sub 2}/Ni multilayer film than the MgB{sub 2}/B multilayer film.

  1. Preparation and characterization of polymeric thin films containing gold nanoshells via electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Jamison, Andrew C.; Hoffman, David M., E-mail: hoffman@uh.edu; Jacobson, Allan J., E-mail: ajjacob@uh.edu; Lee, T. Randall, E-mail: trlee@uh.edu

    2014-05-02

    As an initial step in the development of surfaces for collecting thermal energy, gold shell/silica core particles (∼ 200 nm in diameter with shells ∼ 25 nm thick) were synthesized and incorporated into organic polymeric thin films. The morphologies of these nanoshells were characterized with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Powder X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the gold layers were highly crystalline. Thin films containing the gold nanoshells and polyethyleneimine were generated using dip-coating techniques based on electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly methods. Scanning electron microscopy was used to image the resultant composite films, which contained uniformly distributed gold nanoshells with limited aggregation. The optical properties were analyzed by absorption spectroscopy, revealing broad extinctions ranging from the visible to the near-IR spectral regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra were also obtained to determine the elements present and the oxidation states of these elements. - Highlights: • Prepared gold nanoshells with broad light absorption from visible to near IR. • Added the gold nanoshells to polyethyleneimine films via layer-by-layer assembly. • The resulting layered thin films exhibited minimal gold nanoshell aggregation.

  2. The development of chloride ion selective polypyrrole thin film on a layer-by-layer carbon nanotube working electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lynch, Jerome

    2011-04-01

    A chloride ion selective thin film sensor is proposed for measuring chloride ion concentration, which is an environmental parameter correlated to corrosion. In this work, electrochemical polymerization of Polypyrrole (PPy) doped with chloride ions was achieved on the top of a carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The underlying CNT layer conjugated with doped PPy thin film can form a multifunctional "selfsensing" material platform for chloride ion detection in a concrete environment. The paper presents the first type of work using CNT and PPy as hybrid materials for chloride ion sensing. Electrochemical polymerization of PPy results in oxidation that yields an average of one positive charge distributed over four pyrrole units. This positive charge is compensated by negatively-charged chloride ions in the supporting electrolyte. In effect, the chloride ion-doped PPy has become molecularly imprinted with chloride ions thereby providing it with some degree of perm-selectivity for chloride ions. The detection limit of the fabricated chloride ion-doped PPy thin film can reach 10-8 M and selectivity coefficients are comparable to those in the literature. The reported work aims to lay a strong foundation for detecting chloride ion concentrations in the concrete environment.

  3. A two-layer structured PbI2 thin film for efficient planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chao; Shi, Chengwu; Wu, Ni; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Mao

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a two-layer structured PbI2 thin film was constructed by the spin-coating procedure using a 0.80 M PbI2 solution in DMF and subsequent close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using PbI2 powder as a source. The bottom PbI2 thin film was compact with a sheet-like appearance, parallel to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a compact perovskite thin film to suppress the charge recombination of the electrons of the TiO2 conduction band and the holes of the spiro-OMeTAD valence band. The top PbI2 thin film was porous with nano-sheet arrays, perpendicular to the FTO substrate, and can be easily converted to a porous perovskite thin film to improve the hole migration from the perovskite to spiro-OMeTAD and the charge separation at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface. The planar perovskite solar cells based on the two-layer structured PbI2 thin film exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 11.64%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 19.29 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 0.67.

  4. Theoretical analysis and experimental study on the influence of electric double layer on thin film lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-jie; BAI Shao-xian; HUANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    A new mathematical model for thin film lubrication is established by taking into account the effect of an electric double layer.In the present paper,experiments are carried out on a self-made tester.With a composite block and a rotating disk,influence of electric double layer on thin film lubrication is studied.Two different methods are used to reconstruct the field of electric double layer so as to change its effect.One is to change the ionic concentration of lubricants by adding additives,and the other is to apply an external electric field on friction pairs.According theoretical analysis,both the methods will apparently change the electro-viscosity of the lubricant film so as to change the lubrication performances.After theoretical calculation of electro-viscosity is amended according to the experimental results,the equations of electro-viscosity are presented.The results show that the equivalent viscosity of fluid induced by the effect of electric double layer apparently increases with the decrease of thickness of the film while the lubrication film is thin enough.The effect of electro-viscosity is weakened as the thickness of the film increases.Moreover,the effect of electro-viscosity increases with the increase of external electric field at first.When the voltage reaches a certain value,the electro-viscosity begins to decrease.

  5. Organic and inorganic–organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Sundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to deposit purely organic and hybrid inorganic–organic materials in a way parallel to the state-of-the-art gas-phase deposition method of inorganic thin films, i.e., atomic layer deposition (ALD, is currently experiencing a strongly growing interest. Like ALD in case of the inorganics, the emerging molecular layer deposition (MLD technique for organic constituents can be employed to fabricate high-quality thin films and coatings with thickness and composition control on the molecular scale, even on complex three-dimensional structures. Moreover, by combining the two techniques, ALD and MLD, fundamentally new types of inorganic–organic hybrid materials can be produced. In this review article, we first describe the basic concepts regarding the MLD and ALD/MLD processes, followed by a comprehensive review of the various precursors and precursor pairs so far employed in these processes. Finally, we discuss the first proof-of-concept experiments in which the newly developed MLD and ALD/MLD processes are exploited to fabricate novel multilayer and nanostructure architectures by combining different inorganic, organic and hybrid material layers into on-demand designed mixtures, superlattices and nanolaminates, and employing new innovative nanotemplates or post-deposition treatments to, e.g., selectively decompose parts of the structure. Such layer-engineered and/or nanostructured hybrid materials with exciting combinations of functional properties hold great promise for high-end technological applications.

  6. Superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ thin film grown on metallic film evaporated on MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Lapsker, I.

    2001-03-01

    At present it is commonly accepted that thin film formation of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) on conducting substrate is one of the keys to further development of advanced devices in the microelectronic and other applications. We have grown YBCO thin films by resistive evaporation technique on MgO coated with metallic layers (Ni or Ag). A simple inexpensive vacuum system equipped with resistively heated boats for metal and precursor mixture of yttrium, copper and barium fluoride powders was used. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for texture, morphology and surface analyses respectively. Electrical and magnetical properties were determined by a standard dc four-probe method. The way of heating process is shown to be critical parameter in the film quality. The physical and electrical properties of the YBCO films are discussed in light of the fact that XRD measurements done on the metallic buffer layers have revealed a multicrystalline structure.

  7. Ruthenium disulfide thin films prepared by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoxin; JIN Zhengguo; ZHAO Juan; BU Shaojing

    2004-01-01

    RuS2 thin films were prepared by the cost-effective chemical method-successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The structural, optical, and electrical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance, and electrical resistivity methods. The results indicate that the films are homogeneous and dense; the structure of the as-deposited fdms is amorphous and they crystallize after annealed at 500°C for 30 min. The band gap of the as-deposited films is found to be 1.85 eV, and the electrical resistivity of them is in the order of 105 Ω.cm.

  8. UV optical properties of thin film oxide layers deposited by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicori, Samuel F; Martinez, Carol L

    2011-10-01

    UV optical properties of thin film layers of compound and mixed oxide materials deposited by different processes are presented. Japan Electron Optics Laboratory plasma ion assisted deposition (JEOL PIAD), electron beam with and without IAD, and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering were used. Comparisons are made with published deposition process data. Refractive indices and absorption values to as short as 145 nm were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Electronic interband defect states are detected that are deposition-process dependent. SE might be effective in identifying UV optical film quality, especially in defining processes and material composition beneficial for high-energy excimer laser applications and environments requiring stable optical properties.

  9. Growth by atomic layer epitaxy and characterization of thin films of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopalko, K.; Lusakowska, E.; Paszkowicz, W.; Domagala, J.Z.; Szczerbakow, A.; Swiatek, K.; Dybko, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Acad. of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wojcik, A.; Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Acad. of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Dep. of Mathem. and Natural Sci. College of Science, Cardinal S. Wyszynski Univ., Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, M.M. [Dept. of Physiology, Biochem., Pharmacology and Toxicology, Fac. of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agriculture University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) was applied to grow thin films of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ZnO. Monocrystalline films were obtained only for GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates, whereas use of sapphire, silicon or soda lime glass resulted in either 3D growth mode or in polycrystalline films showing preferential orientation along the c axis. Successful Mn doping of ZnO films is reported, when using organic Mn precursors. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Resistive evaporation of superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films from a single source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J.; Goldschmidt, D.

    1989-06-12

    A new evaporation method of high-temperature superconducting films, the /ital resistive vaporation/ /ital from/ /ital single/ /ital source/, isreported here for the first time. The source material, inserted into a tungstenboat in a conventional vacuum system, consisted of a pulverized mixture of Cu,YF/sub 3/, and BaF/sub 2/. The handling of the source material required only grindingand mixing of the raw materials. Its deposition onto SrTiO/sub 3/ substratesyielding superconducting films with properties very similar to those obtained ina layer-by-layer resistive evaporation of these materials. In particular, aresistive transition onset at 75 K and zero resistance at /similar to/40 K, and criticalcurrents of 2000 A/cm/sup 2/ at approx.10 K have been measured. The broad transition maybe attributed to a copper concentration gradient, as measured by Auger depthprofiling, or to a residual fluorine-rich phase.

  11. Optical bandgap of single- and multi-layered amorphous germanium ultra-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei; Zaslavsky, Alexander [Department of Physics and School of Engineering, Brown University, 182-184 Hope St., Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Longo, Paolo [Gatan, Inc., 5794 W Las Positas Blvd., Pleasanton, California 94588 (United States); Pacifici, Domenico, E-mail: Domenico-Pacifici@brown.edu [School of Engineering, Brown University, 184 Hope St., Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Accurate optical methods are required to determine the energy bandgap of amorphous semiconductors and elucidate the role of quantum confinement in nanometer-scale, ultra-thin absorbing layers. Here, we provide a critical comparison between well-established methods that are generally employed to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors, starting from normal-incidence reflectance and transmittance measurements. First, we demonstrate that a more accurate estimate of the optical bandgap can be achieved by using a multiple-reflection interference model. We show that this model generates more reliable results compared to the widely accepted single-pass absorption method. Second, we compare two most representative methods (Tauc and Cody plots) that are extensively used to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors starting from the extracted absorption coefficient. Analysis of the experimental absorption data acquired for ultra-thin amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers demonstrates that the Cody model is able to provide a less ambiguous energy bandgap value. Finally, we apply our proposed method to experimentally determine the optical bandgap of a-Ge/SiO{sub 2} superlattices with single and multiple a-Ge layers down to 2 nm thickness.

  12. Optical bandgap of single- and multi-layered amorphous germanium ultra-thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Longo, Paolo; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Accurate optical methods are required to determine the energy bandgap of amorphous semiconductors and elucidate the role of quantum confinement in nanometer-scale, ultra-thin absorbing layers. Here, we provide a critical comparison between well-established methods that are generally employed to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors, starting from normal-incidence reflectance and transmittance measurements. First, we demonstrate that a more accurate estimate of the optical bandgap can be achieved by using a multiple-reflection interference model. We show that this model generates more reliable results compared to the widely accepted single-pass absorption method. Second, we compare two most representative methods (Tauc and Cody plots) that are extensively used to determine the optical bandgap of thin-film amorphous semiconductors starting from the extracted absorption coefficient. Analysis of the experimental absorption data acquired for ultra-thin amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers demonstrates that the Cody model is able to provide a less ambiguous energy bandgap value. Finally, we apply our proposed method to experimentally determine the optical bandgap of a-Ge/SiO2 superlattices with single and multiple a-Ge layers down to 2 nm thickness.

  13. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07

    R-Fe-O (R = rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850 °C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  14. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovan, R.; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G.; Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y.; Fanciulli, M.

    2014-05-01

    R-Fe-O (R = rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er2O3 and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO3 and ErFe2O4 phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850 °C in air and N2. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  15. Guest-Induced Two-Way Structural Transformation in a Layered Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Tomoyuki; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sakata, Osami; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-28

    Fabrication of thin films made of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been intensively pursued for practical applications that use the structural response of MOFs. However, to date, only physisorption-induced structural response has been studied in these films. Chemisorption can be expected to provide a remarkable structural response because of the formation of bonds between guest molecules and reactive metal sites in host MOFs. Here, we report that chemisorption-induced two-way structural transformation in a nanometer-sized MOF thin film. We prepared a two-dimensional layered-type MOF Fe[Pt(CN)4] thin film using a step-by-step approach. Although the as-synthesized film showed poor crystallinity, the dehydrated form of this thin film had a highly oriented crystalline nature (Film-D) as confirmed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surprisingly, under water and pyridine vapors, Film-D showed chemisorption-induced dynamic structural transformations to Fe(L)2[Pt(CN)4] thin films [L = H2O (Film-H), pyridine (Film-P)], where water and pyridine coordinated to the open Fe(2+) site. Dynamic structural transformations were also confirmed by in situ XRD, sorption measurement, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. This is the first report of chemisorption-induced dynamic structural response in a MOF thin film, and it provides useful insights, which would lead to future practical applications of MOFs utilizing chemisorption-induced structural responses.

  16. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  17. Analysis of the p+/p window layer of thin film solar cells by simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林爱国; 丁建宁; 袁宁一; 王书博; 程广贵; 卢超

    2012-01-01

    The application of a p+/p configuration in the window layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells is simulated and analyzed utilizing an AMPS-1D program.The differences between p+-p-i-n configuration solar cells and p-i-n configuration solar cells are pointed out.The effects of dopant concentration,thickness of p+-layer,contact barrier height and defect density on solar cells are analyzed.Our results indicate that solar cells with a p+-p-i-n configuration have a better performance.The open circuit voltage and short circuit current were improved by increasing the dopant concentration of the p+ layer and lowering the front contact barrier height.The defect density at the p/i interface which exceeds two orders of magnitude in the intrinsic layer will deteriorate the cell property.

  18. Anti-fogging and anti-frosting behaviors of layer-by-layer assembled cellulose derivative thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibraen, Mahmoud H. M. A.; Yagoub, Hajo; Zhang, Xuejian; Xu, Jian; Yang, Shuguang

    2016-05-01

    Two cellulose derivatives, quaternized cellulose (QC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled to prepare a thin film. QC was also LbL assembled with two synthetic polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), separately. The anti-fogging and anti-frosting properties of the assembled films were studied. QC/CMC thin film exhibits anti-fogging and anti-frosting behaviors, whereas QC/PAA and QC/PSS films do not have capacity for anti-fogging and anti-frosting. The anti-fogging and anti-frosting properties of QC/CMC film are attributed to that water molecules can be quickly adsorbed into the matrix of the film. The water adsorption of QC/CMC film was illustrated by the optical thickness increment.

  19. Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) thin film dc SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference device)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racah, Daniel

    1991-03-01

    Direct current superconducting quantum interferometers (SQUIDs) based on HTSC thin films have been measured and characterized. The thin films used were of different quality: (1) Granular films on Sapphire substrates, prepared either by e-gun evaporation, by laser ablation or by MOCVD (metal oxide chemical vapor deposition), (2) Epitaxial films on MgO substrates. Modulations of the voltage on the SQUIDs as a function of the applied flux have been observed in a wide range of temperatures. The nature of the modulation was found to be strongly dependent on the morphology of the film and on its critical current. The SQUIDs based on granular films were relatively noisy, hysteretic and with a complicated V-phi shape. Those devices based on low quality (lowIc) granular films could be measured only at low temperatures (much lower than 77 K). While those of higher quality (granular films with high Ic) could be measured near to the superconductive transition. The SQUID based on high quality epitaxial film was measured near Tc and showed an anomalous, time dependent behavior.

  20. Superconductivity in FeSe Thin Films Driven by the Interplay between Nematic Fluctuations and Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Fernandes, Rafael M.

    2016-11-01

    The origin of the high-temperature superconducting state observed in FeSe thin films, whose phase diagram displays no sign of magnetic order, remains a hotly debated topic. Here we investigate whether fluctuations arising due to the proximity to a nematic phase, which is observed in the phase diagram of this material, can promote superconductivity. We find that nematic fluctuations alone promote a highly degenerate pairing state, in which both s -wave and d -wave symmetries are equally favored, and Tc is consequently suppressed. However, the presence of a sizable spin-orbit coupling or inversion symmetry breaking at the film interface lifts this harmful degeneracy and selects the s -wave state, in agreement with recent experimental proposals. The resulting gap function displays a weak anisotropy, which agrees with experiments in monolayer FeSe and intercalated Li1 -x(OH )xFeSe .

  1. Corrosion inhibition in sputter-deposited thin-film systems using an intermediary layer of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.J.

    1979-03-01

    Accelerated and long term corrosion data are presented for the Ti--Ag and Cr--Au thin film metallization systems deposited by sputter deposition. The Ti--Ag conductor system is used as an electrode for high intensity silicon solar cells, and it has been found that an intermediate layer of 1500 A of palladium greatly improves the environmental stability of the metallization. The Cr--Au system has been used as an electrical circuit pattern, and thin films of palladium (100--300 A) have been incorporated to improve storage, processing, and service stability. A 100 A palladium intermediary did not affect the etch patterning of the Cr--Au metallization. It is observed that the introduction of palladium modifies the anodic potential of the active metal producing a passive oxide when exposed to an electrolytic environment. It is proposed that this modified oxide, at exposed pinhole sites, is responsible for the increased corrosion resistance when palladium is present as an intermediate layer for either the Ti--Ag or Cr--Au metallization systems.

  2. Chemical Stability of Titania and Alumina Thin Films Formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Gabriela C; Bao, Bo; Strandwitz, Nicholas C

    2015-07-15

    Thin films formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are being examined for a variety of chemical protection and diffusion barrier applications, yet their stability in various fluid environments is not well characterized. The chemical stability of titania and alumina thin films in air, 18 MΩ water, 1 M KCl, 1 M HNO3, 1 M H2SO4, 1 M HCl, 1 M KOH, and mercury was studied. Films were deposited at 150 °C using trimethylaluminum-H2O and tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium-H2O chemistries for alumina and titania, respectively. A subset of samples were heated to 450 and 900 °C in inert atmosphere. Films were examined using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Notably, alumina samples were found to be unstable in pure water, acid, and basic environments in the as-synthesized state and after 450 °C thermal treatment. In pure water, a dissolution-precipitation mechanism is hypothesized to cause surface roughening. The stability of alumina films was greatly enhanced after annealing at 900 °C in acidic and basic solutions. Titania films were found to be stable in acid after annealing at or above 450 °C. All films showed a composition-independent increase in measured thickness when immersed in mercury. These results provide stability-processing relationships that are important for controlled etching and protective barrier layers.

  3. Double-layer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Bao-Chen; Zhang Xiao-Dan; Wei Chang-Chun; Sun Jian; Ni Jian; Zhao Ying

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on corning eagle 2000 glass substrate. 1 and 2 at.% indium doped single-layer ZnO:In thin films with different amounts of acetic acid added in the initial solution were fabricated. The 1 at.% indium doped single-layers have triangle grains. The 2 at.% indium doped single-layer with 0.18 acetic acid adding has the resistivity of 6.82 × 10-3 Ω· cm and particle grains. The double-layers structure is designed to fabricate the ZnO:In thin film with low resistivity (2.58×10-3 Ω· cm) and good surface morphology. It is found that the surface morphology of the double-layer ZnO:In film strongly depends on the substrate-layer, and the second-layer plays a large part in the resistivity of the double-layer ZnO:In thin film. Both total and direct transmittances of the double-layer ZnO:In film are above 80% in the visible light region. Single junction a-Si:H solar cell based on the double-layer ZnO:In as front electrode is also investigated.

  4. Significant Improvement of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Mobility Utilizing an Organic Heterojunction Buffer Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Feng; QIAN Xian-Rui; HUANG Li-Zhen; WANG Hai-Bo; YAN Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc)/5,5″′-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2″′-quaterthiophene (F2-P4T) thin-film transistors are demonstrated by employing a copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16 CuPc)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) heterojunction unit,which are fabricated at different substrate temperatures,as a buffer layer. The highest mobility of 4.08cm2/Vs is achieved using a F16CuPc/CuPc organic heterojunction buffer layer fabricated at high substrate temperature.Compared with the random small grain-like morphology of the room-temperature buffer layer,the high-temperature organic heterojunction presents a large-sized fiber-like film morphology,resulting in an enhanced conductivity.Thus the contact resistance of the transistor is significantly reduced and an obvious improvement in device mobility is obtained.

  5. Characterization of Al2O3 Thin Films on GaAs Substrate Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong-Liang; LI Yan-Bo; XU Min; DING Shi-Jin; SUN Liang; ZHANG Wei; WANG Li-Kang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Al2O3 thin films are grown by atomic layer deposition on GaAs substrates at 300℃. The structural properties of the Al2O3 thin film and the Al2O3/GaAs interface are characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD results show that the as-deposited Al2O3 film is amorphous. For 30 atomic layer deposition growth cycles, the thicknesses of the Al2O3 thin film and the interface layer from the HRTEM are 3.3nm and 0.5nm, respectively.XPS analyses reveal that the Al2O3/GaAs interface is almost free from As2O3.

  6. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  7. Reduced growth temperature of Bi6FeCoTi3O18 thin films by conductive bottom layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yu; Huang, Haoliang; Meng, Dechao; Cui, Zhangzhang; Wang, Jianlin; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2016-11-01

    The Aurivillius layered oxide homologous series attract wide interests due to their room temperature multiferroic properties. Unfortunately, the synthesis of such layered oxide epitaxial thin films has been a major challenge owing to the occurrence of growth defects and narrow growth temperature window. To obtain high quality epitaxial Bi6FeCoTi3O18 (BFCTO) thin films, the effects of insulating and conductive bottom layers were studied by laser molecular beam epitaxy. We found that the optimal deposition temperature for growth on conductive bottom layers is more than 90 °C lower than that on insulating bottom layers, which indicates the interface between BFCTO and conductive bottom layers has smaller interfacial energy than the interface between BFCTO and insulating bottom layers. The magnetic and ferroelectric properties of the optimized BFCTO thin films on insulating substrate and conductive bottom layers were studied. This study is important to control the growth of complex layered oxide thin films and exploit the applications for future room temperature multiferroic devices.

  8. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  9. Growth of bismuth telluride thin film on Pt by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen; YANG Jun-you; GAO Xian-hui; HOU Jie; ZHANG Tong-jun; CUI Kun

    2005-01-01

    An automated thin-layer flow cell electrodeposition system was developed for growing Bi2 Te3 thin film by ECALE. The dependence of the Bi and Te deposition potentials on Pt electrode was studied. In the first attempt,this reductive Te underpotential deposition (UPD)/reductive Bi UPD cycle was performed to 100 layers. A better linearity of the stripping charge with the number of cycles has been shown and confirmed a layer-by-layer growth mode, which is consistent with an epitaxial growth. The 4: 3 stoichiometric ratio of Bi to Te suggests that the incomplete charge transfer in HTeO2+ reduction excludes the possibility of Bi2 Te3 formation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also reveals that the incomplete charge transfer in HTeO2+ occurs in Te direct deposition. The effective way of depositing Bi2 Te3 on Pt consists in oxidative Te UPD and reductive Bi UPD. The thin film deposited by this procedure was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). A polycrystalline characteristic was confirmed by XRD. The 2 : 3 stoichiometric ratio was confirmed by XPS. The SEM image indicates that the deposit looks like a series of buttons about 0.3 - 0.4 μm in diameter, which is corresponding with calculated thickness of the epitaxial film. This suggests that the particle growth appears to be linear with the number of cycles, as it is consistent with a layer by layer growth mode.

  10. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Thin Film, Near-Surface and Multi-Layer Investigations by Low-Energy {mu}{sup +}SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokscha, T., E-mail: thomas.prokscha@psi.ch; Morenzoni, E.; Suter, A.; Khasanov, R.; Luetkens, H.; Eshchenko, D.; Garifianov, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI (Switzerland); Forgan, E. M. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Keller, H. [Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Litterst, J. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Niedermayer, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI (Switzerland); Nieuwenhuys, G. [Leiden University (Netherlands)

    2004-12-15

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) the beam of low-energy positive polarised muons (LE-{mu}{sup +}) with tunable energy between 0.5 and 30 keV allows the extension of the muon-spin-rotation technique ({mu}SR) to studies on thin films and multi-layers (LE-{mu}{sup +}SR). The range of these muons in solids covers the near-surface region up to implantation depths of about 300 nm. As a sensitive local magnetic probe with a complementary observational time window to other techniques LE-{mu}{sup +}SR offers the unique possibility to gain new insights in these nano-scale objects. After outlining the current status of the LE-{mu}{sup +} beam line we demonstrate the potential of this new technique by presenting the results of recent experiments: i) the direct observation of non-local effects in a superconducting Pb film, ii) the oxygen isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, and iii) the first observation of the conduction electron spin polarisation in the Ag spacer of a Fe/Ag/Fe tri-layer.

  12. Doped nanocrystalline silicon oxide for use as (intermediate) reflecting layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In summary, this thesis shows the development and nanostructure analysis of doped silicon oxide layers. These layers are applied in thin-film silicon single and double junction solar cells. Concepts of intermediate reflectors (IR), consisting of silicon and/or zinc oxide, are applied in tandem cells

  13. Superconducting spin valves based on epitaxial Fe/V-hybrid thin film heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Gregor

    2010-12-10

    This study presents a systematic investigation of the SSV effect in FM/SC/FM and FM/N/FM/SC heterostructures. Before investigating the actual SSV effect, we first pre-analyzed structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of the Fe/V system. In these preliminary studies we demonstrated, that epitaxial Fe/V heterostructures of superior crystalline quality can be grown by DC sputter deposition. With a Fe/V interface thickness of only one monolayer, the chemical separation of the Fe and V layers is extremely sharp. Moreover, the magnetic investigation showed that from thicknesses of two Fe(001) monolayers on the Fe layers in the superlattice possess a magnetic moment. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interlayer exchange coupling as oscillatory function of the V interlayer thickness. The investigations of the superconducting parameters of the Fe/V system revealed a non-monotonic T{sub S} vs. d{sub Fe} dependence in sample series (1). This observation proves the presence of the FM/SC proximity effect. The studies of various heterostructures of the design AFM/FM/SC/FM revealed a strong counteracting influence on the SSV effect, the stray field effect. The sample containing Fe{sub 25}V{sub 75} alloy layers, has the highest ratio of Cooper pair coherence length and superconductor thickness (ξ{sub S})/(d{sub S}), and its superconducting transition temperature is comparable to the sample with Fe{sub 35}V{sub 65} alloy layers. Nevertheless, the SSV effect in sample Fe{sub 25}V{sub 75} with alloy layers is much smaller than in sample with Fe{sub 35}V{sub 65} alloy layers. For a high-performance superconducting spin valve based on a FM1/SC/FM2 heterostructure at least four parameters have to be optimized simultaneously. 1. The magnetic domain size in FM1 and FM2 has to be as large as possible in order to reduce the stray field effect resulting from magnetization components in the FM domain walls perpendicular to the SC layer. 2. When using ferromagnetic alloys as

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Thin Films in Magnetized Radio Frequency Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Wang, Zhenduo

    Self-limiting deposition of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films were accomplished by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and O2 as precursor and oxidant, respectively, where argon was kept flowing in whole deposition process as discharge and purge gas. In here we present a novel plasma source for the atomic layer deposition technology, magnetized radio frequency (RF) plasma. Difference from the commercial RF source, magnetic coils were amounted above the RF electrode, and the influence of the magnetic field strength on the deposition rate and morphology are investigated in detail. It concludes that a more than 3 Å/ purging cycle deposition rate and the good quality of ALD Al2O3 were achieved in this plasma source even without extra heating. The ultra-thin films were characterized by including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The high deposition rates obtained at ambient temperatures were analyzed after in-situ the diagnostic of plasmas by Langmuir probe.

  15. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing of CIGS Thin Film as an Absorber Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ray

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rapid post-deposition thermal annealing (500 °C for 2 minutes on the CIGS thin films of different thicknesses (0.4 to 1.0 m has been investigated. The deposition of CIGS is carried out using the flash evaporation at the substrate temperature of 250 °C. The as-grown and annealed CIGS is characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, optical transmission, reflection, and electrical measurements. Lowering the thickness of CIGS absorber shows the remarkable influence on crystal structure, surface morphology, and composition of the overall film. Further improvement was observed by the rapid annealing process. Cu-rich composition was observed for annealed CIGS thin film having a thickness below 0.6 μm, while for 1.0 m thickness the composition is slightly Cu-poor and the compactly packed faceted grains observed. Optical band gap near to 1.05 eV and the electrical resistivity in the order of 104 Ωcm shows its future use as an absorber layer for CIGS solar cell. Furthermore, an attempt of making CIGS / CdS hetero-structure shows ideal behavior of the Schottky hetero-structure with the ideality factor of 1.5.

  16. Phase change properties of Ti-Sb-Te thin films deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sannian; Shen, Lanlan; Song, Zhitang; Yao, Dongning; Guo, Tianqi; Li, Le; Liu, Bo; Wu, Liangcai; Cheng, Yan; Ding, Yuqiang; Feng, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCM) appears to be the strongest candidate for next-generation high density nonvolatile memory. The fabrication of ultrahigh density PCM depends heavily on the thin film growth technique for the phase changing chalcogenide material. In this study, TiSb2Te4 (TST) thin films were deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using TiCl4, SbCl3, (Et3Si)2Te as precursors. The threshold voltage for the cell based on thermal ALD-deposited TST is about 2.0 V, which is much lower than that (3.5 V) of the device based on PVD-deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) with the identical cell architecture. Tests of TST-based PCM cells have demonstrated a fast switching rate of 100 ns. Furthermore, because of the lower melting point and thermal conductivities of TST materials, TST-based PCM cells exhibit 19% reduction of pulse voltages for Reset operation compared with GST-based PCM cells. These results show that thermal ALD is an attractive method for the preparation of phase change materials.

  17. Photodiode Based on CdO Thin Films as Electron Transport Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, M.; Kader, H. S.

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The films were analyzed by means of XRD, AFM, and UV/Vis spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the films are formed from CdO with cubic crystal structure and consist of nano-particles. The energy gap of the prepared film was found to be 2.29 eV. The current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of the CdO/ p-Si heterojunction were examined in the dark and under different illumination intensities. The heterojunction showed high rectifying behavior and a strong photoresponse. Main electrical parameters of the photodiode such as series and shunt resistances ( R s and R sh), saturation current I 0, and photocurrent I ph, were extracted considering a single diode equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell. Results indicate that the application of CdO thin films as an electron transport layer on p-Si acts as a photodetector in the field of the UV/visible.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) grown thin films for ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Härkönen, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, CMS Upgrade Project, Helsinki (Finland); Ott, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, CMS Upgrade Project, Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory of Radio Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland); Mäkelä, M. [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland); Arsenovich, T.; Gädda, A.; Peltola, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, CMS Upgrade Project, Helsinki (Finland); Tuovinen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, CMS Upgrade Project, Helsinki (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystem and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, CMS Upgrade Project, Helsinki (Finland); Junkes, A. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Niinistö, J.; Ritala, M. [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-09-21

    In this report we cover two special applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) thin films to solve these challenges of the very small size pixel detectors. First, we propose to passivate the p-type pixel detector with ALD grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} field insulator with a negative oxide charge instead of using the commonly adopted p-stop or p-spray technologies with SiO{sub 2}, and second, to use plasma-enhanced ALD grown titanium nitride (TiN) bias resistors instead of the punch through biasing structures. Surface passivation properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} field insulator was studied by Photoconductive Decay (PCD) method and our results indicate that after appropriate annealing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides equally low effective surface recombination velocity as thermally oxidized Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Furthermore, with properly designed annealing steps, the TiN thin film resistors can be tuned to have up to several MΩ resistances with a few µm of physical size required in ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors.

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) grown thin films for ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, J.; Ott, J.; Mäkelä, M.; Arsenovich, T.; Gädda, A.; Peltola, T.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Junkes, A.; Niinistö, J.; Ritala, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report we cover two special applications of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) thin films to solve these challenges of the very small size pixel detectors. First, we propose to passivate the p-type pixel detector with ALD grown Al2O3 field insulator with a negative oxide charge instead of using the commonly adopted p-stop or p-spray technologies with SiO2, and second, to use plasma-enhanced ALD grown titanium nitride (TiN) bias resistors instead of the punch through biasing structures. Surface passivation properties of Al2O3 field insulator was studied by Photoconductive Decay (PCD) method and our results indicate that after appropriate annealing Al2O3 provides equally low effective surface recombination velocity as thermally oxidized Si/SiO2 interface. Furthermore, with properly designed annealing steps, the TiN thin film resistors can be tuned to have up to several MΩ resistances with a few μm of physical size required in ultra-fine pitch pixel detectors.

  20. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct thin-films as buffer layer by alternate immersion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Jo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct thin-films consisting of C60 and 1,2-diaminoethane were easily fabricated on an electrode by an alternate immersion process. Formation of the C60-diamine adduct films were confirmed using transmission absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. An inverted-type organic solar cells were fabricated by using the C60-diamine adduct film as the electron transport layer. The resultant photoelectric conversation performance of the solar cells suggested that photocurrent is generated via the photoexcitation of polythiophene. The result suggests that the present insoluble fullerene-diamine adduct films worked as buffer layer for organic thin-film solar cells.

  1. All-Solution-Processed InGaO3(ZnO)m Thin Films with Layered Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Woon Cho; Jun Hyeon Kim; Sangwoo Shin; Hyung Hee Cho; Hyung Koun Cho

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated the crystallized InGaZnO thin films by sol-gel process and high-temperature annealing at 900°C. Prior to the deposition of the InGaZnO, ZnO buffer layers were also coated by sol-gel process, which was followed by thermal annealing. After the synthesis and annealing of the InGaZnO, the InGaZnO thin film on the ZnO buffer layer with preferred orientation showed periodic diffraction patterns in the X-ray diffraction, resulting in a superlattice structure. This film consisted of nan...

  2. Superconductivity and x-ray photoemission study of MgB2 thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芳; 周岳亮; 朱亚彬; 张芹; 谢侃; 陈正豪; 吕惠宾; 杨国桢

    2002-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented MgB2 thin films with Tconset of 39.6K were fabricated by magnesium diffusing into pulsed-laser-deposited boron precursors. The estimation of critical current density Jc, using hysteresis loops and the Bean model, has given the value of 107A/cm2 (15K, 0T), which is one of the highest values ever reported. The x-ray photoemission study of the MgB2 thin films has revealed that the binding energies of Mg 2p and B 1s are at 49.4eV and 186.9eV, which are close to those of metallic Mg and transition-metal diborides, respectively.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition has been used to fabricate thin films of aluminum-doped ZnO by depositing interspersed layers of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on borosilicate glass substrates. The growth characteristics of the films have been investigated through x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflection, and x-ray fluorescence measurements, and the efficacy of the Al doping has been evaluated through optical reflectivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The Al doping is found to affect the carrier density of ZnO up to a nominal Al dopant content of 5 at. %. At nominal Al doping levels of 10 at. % and higher, the structure of the films is found to be strongly affected by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase and no further carrier doping of ZnO is observed.

  4. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  5. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  6. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of MgO thin films on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelista, S.; Mantovan, R.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G.; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B.; Spiga, S.; Fanciulli, M.

    2013-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition in the wide deposition temperature window of 80-350 °C by using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium and H2O precursors. MgO thin films are deposited on both HF-last Si(1 0 0) and SiO2/Si substrates at a constant growth rate of ˜0.12 nm cycle-1. The structural, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized MgO thin films are investigated by x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy measurements. MgO layers are characterized by sharp interface with the substrate and limited surface roughness, besides good chemical uniformity and polycrystalline structure for thickness above 7 nm. C-V measurements performed on Al/MgO/Si MOS capacitors, with MgO in the 4.6-11 nm thickness range, allow determining a dielectric constant (κ) ˜ 11. Co layers are grown by chemical vapour deposition in direct contact with MgO without vacuum-break (base pressure 10-5-10-6 Pa). The as-grown Co/MgO stacks show sharp interfaces and no elements interdiffusion among layers. C-V and I-V measurements have been conducted on Co/MgO/Si MOS capacitors. The dielectric properties of MgO are not influenced by the further process of Co deposition.

  7. Successful implementation of the stepwise layer-by-layer growth of MOF thin films on confined surfaces: Mesoporous silica foam as a first case study

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the successful growth of highly crystalline homogeneous MOF thin films of HKUST-1 and ZIF-8 on mesoporous silica foam, by employing a layer-by-layer (LBL) method. The ability to control and direct the growth of MOF thin films on confined surfaces, using the stepwise LBL method, paves the way for new prospective applications of such hybrid systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Protection of high temperature superconducting thin-films in a semiconductor processing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yizi; Fiske, R.; Sanders, S.C.; Ekin, J.W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Annealing studies have been carried out for high temperature superconductor YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} in a reducing ambient, in order to identify insulator layer(s) that will effectively protect the superconducting film in the hostile environment. While a layer of magnesium oxide (MgO) sputter deposited directly on YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} film provides some degree of protection, the authors found that a composite structure of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/MgO, where the SrTiO{sub 3} was grown by laser ablation immediately following YBCO deposition (in-situ process), was much more effective. They also address the need for a buffer layer between YBCO and aluminum (Al) during annealing. Al is most commenly used for semiconductor metalization, but is known to react readily with YBCO at elevated temperatures. The authors found that the most effective buffer layers are platinum (Pt) and gold/platinum (Au/Pt).

  9. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance at High Discharge Rates of Tin Dioxide Thin Films Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, M. Yu.; Novikov, P. A.; Nazarov, D. V.; Rymyantsev, A. M.; Silin, A. O.; Zhang, Y.; Popovich, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, thin films of tin dioxide have been synthesized on substrates of silicon and stainless steel by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with tetraethyl tin and by inductively coupled remote oxygen plasma as precursors. Studies of the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy show a strong dependence on synthesis temperature. According to the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the samples contain tin in the oxidation state +4. The thickness of the thin films for electrochemical performance was approximately 80 nm. Electrochemical cycling in the voltage range of 0.01-0.8 V have shown that tin oxide has a stable discharge capacity of approximately 650 mAh/g during 400 charge/discharge cycles with an efficiency of approximately 99.5%. The decrease in capacity after 400 charge/discharge cycles was around 5-7%. Synthesized SnO2 thin films have fast kinetics of lithium ions intercalation and excellent discharge efficiency at high C-rates, up to 40C, with a small decrease in capacity of less than 20%. Specific capacity and cyclic stability of thin films of SnO2 synthesized by ALD exceed the values mentioned in the literature for pure tin dioxide thin films.

  10. Thin film solar cells with Si nanocrystallites embedded in amorphous intrinsic layers by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungil; Parida, Bhaskar; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the thin film growths of hydrogenated silicon by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition with different flow rates of SiH4 and H2 mixture ambient and fabricated thin film solar cells by implementing the intrinsic layers to SiC/Si heterojunction p-i-n structures. The film samples showed the different infrared absorption spectra of 2,000 and 2,100 cm(-1), which are corresponding to the chemical bonds of SiH and SiH2, respectively. The a-Si:H sample with the relatively high silane concentration provides the absorption peak of SiH bond, but the microc-Si:H sample with the relatively low silane concentration provides the absorption peak of SiH2 bond as well as SiH bond. Furthermore, the microc-Si:H sample showed the Raman spectral shift of 520 cm(-1) for crystalline phase Si bonds as well as the 480 cm(-1) for the amorphous phase Si bonds. These bonding structures are very consistent with the further analysis of the long-wavelength photoconduction tail and the formation of nanocrystalline Si structures. The microc-Si:H thin film solar cell has the photovoltaic behavior of open circuit voltage similar to crystalline silicon thin film solar cell, indicating that microc-Si:H thin film with the mixed phase of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures show the carrier transportation through the channel of nanocrystallites.

  11. Building a Better Capacitor with Thin-Film Atomic Layer Deposition Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Christopher [North Seattle College, WA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The goal of this research is to determine procedures for creating ultra-high capacity supercapacitors by using nanofabrication techniques and high k-value dielectrics. One way to potentially solve the problem of climate change is to switch the source of energy to a source that doesn’t release many tons of greenhouse gases, gases which cause global warming, into the Earth’s atmosphere. These trap in more heat from the Sun’s solar energy and cause global temperatures to rise. Atomic layer deposition will be used to create a uniform thin-film of dielectric to greatly enhance the abilities of our capacitors and will build them on the nanoscale.

  12. Investigation of Ultraviolet Light Curable Polysilsesquioxane Gate Dielectric Layers for Pentacene Thin Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibao, Hideto; Nakahara, Yoshio; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) comprising 3-methacryloxypropyl groups was investigated as an ultraviolet (UV)-light curable gate dielectric-material for pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs). The surface of UV-light cured PSQ films was smoother than that of thermally cured ones, and the pentacene layers deposited on the UV-Iight cured PSQ films consisted of larger grains. However, carrier mobility of the TFTs using the UV-light cured PSQ films was lower than that of the TFTs using the thermally cured ones. It was shown that the cross-linker molecules, which were only added to the UV-light cured PSQ films, worked as a major mobility-limiting factor for the TFTs.

  13. Transparent ferrimagnetic semiconducting CuCr2O4 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Yadav, C. S.; Karppinen, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the magnetic and optical properties of CuCr2O4 thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Cu(thd)2, Cr(acac)3, and ozone; we deposit 200 nm thick films and anneal them at 700 °C in oxygen atmosphere to crystallize the spinel phase. A ferrimagnetic transition at 140 K and a direct bandgap of 1.36 eV are determined for the films from magnetic and UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. Electrical transport measurements confirm the p-type semiconducting behavior of the films. As the ALD technique allows the deposition of conformal pin-hole-free coatings on complex 3D surfaces, our CuCr2O4 films are interesting material candidates for various frontier applications.

  14. Layered conductive polymer on nylon membrane templates for high performance, thin-film supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian Harvey; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible Thin-film Electrochemical Capacitors (ECs) are emerging technology that plays an important role as energy supply for various electronics system for both present era and the future. Intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) are promising pseudo-capacitive materials as they feature both good electrical conductivity and high specific capacitance. This study focuses on the construction and characterization of ultra-high surface area porous electrodes based on coating of nano-sized conductive polymer materials on nylon membrane templates. Herein, a novel nano-engineered electrode material based on nylon membranes was presented, which allows the creation of super-capacitor devices that is capable of delivering competitive performance, while maintaining desirable mechanical characteristics. With the formation of a highly conductive network with the polyaniline nano-layer, the electrical conductivity was also increased dramatically to facilitate the charge transfer process. Cyclic voltammetry and specific capacitance results showed promising application of this type of composite materials for future smart textile applications.

  15. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) trend for nanocrystalline mercury sulfide thin films growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.S. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Lokhande, C.D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Mane, R.S. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, H.M. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Oh-Shim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2006-04-15

    Mercury sulfide (HgS) nanocrystalline thin films have been grown onto amorphous glass substrate by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) trend at room temperature (27 deg. C). The optimized preparative parameters including ion concentration, number of immersion cycles, and pH of the solution are used for fine nanocrystalline film growth. A further study has been made for the structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical absorption and dc two point probe method. The as-deposited grown HgS nanocrystalline films exhibited cubic phase, with optical band gap (E {sub g}) of 2.0 eV and electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup 3} {omega} cm. SEM and TEM images confirmed films of smooth surface morphology and nanocrystaline in nature with fine crystallites of 20-30 nm diameter, respectively.

  16. Preparation of bismuth telluride thin film by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy(ECALE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen; YANG Junyou; GAO Xianhui; HOU Jie; BAO Siqian; FAN Xian

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer electrochemical studies of the underpotential deposition(UPD)of Bi and Te on cold rolled silver substrate have been performed.The voltammetric analysis of underpotential shift demonstrates that the initial Te UPD on Bi-covered Ag and Bi UPD on Te-covered Ag fitted UPD dynamics mechanism.A thin film of bismuth telluride was formed by alternately depositing Te and Bi via an automated flow deposition system.X-ray diffraction indicated the deposits of Bi2Te3.Energy Dispersive X-ray Detector quantitative analysis gave a 2:3 stoichiornetric ratio of Bi to Te,which was consistent with X-ray Diffraction results.Electron probe microanalysis of the deposits showed a network structure that results from the surface defects of the cold rolled Ag substrate and the lattice mismatch between substrate and deposit.

  17. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of copper(II) oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iivonen, Tomi, E-mail: tomi.iivonen@helsinki.fi; Hämäläinen, Jani; Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Leskelä, Markku [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marchand, Benoît; Mizohata, Kenichiro [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kim, Jiyeon; Fischer, Roland A. [Chair of Inorganic Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Copper(II) oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis-(dimethylamino-2-propoxide)copper [Cu(dmap){sub 2}] and ozone in a temperature window of 80–140 °C. A thorough characterization of the films was performed using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The process was found to produce polycrystalline copper(II) oxide films with a growth rate of 0.2–0.3 Å per cycle. Impurity content in the films was relatively small for a low temperature ALD process.

  18. Spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition of InxGayZnzO for thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiberi, A; Cobb, B; Sharma, A; Grehl, T; Brongersma, H; Roozeboom, F; Gelinck, G; Poodt, P

    2015-02-18

    We have investigated the nucleation and growth of InGaZnO thin films by spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition. Diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl indium (TMIn), triethyl gallium (TEGa), and water were used as Zn, In, Ga and oxygen precursors, respectively. The vaporized metal precursors have been coinjected in the reactor. The metal composition of InGaZnO has been controlled by varying the TMIn or TEGa flow to the reactor, for a given DEZ flow and exposure time. The morphology of the films changes from polycrystalline, for ZnO and In-doped ZnO, to amorphous for In-rich IZO and InGaZnO. The use of these films as the active channel in TFTs has been demonstrated and the influence of In and Ga cations on the electrical characteristics of the TFTs has been studied.

  19. Transparent ferrimagnetic semiconducting CuCr2O4 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic and optical properties of CuCr2O4 thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD from Cu(thd2, Cr(acac3, and ozone; we deposit 200 nm thick films and anneal them at 700 °C in oxygen atmosphere to crystallize the spinel phase. A ferrimagnetic transition at 140 K and a direct bandgap of 1.36 eV are determined for the films from magnetic and UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. Electrical transport measurements confirm the p-type semiconducting behavior of the films. As the ALD technique allows the deposition of conformal pin-hole-free coatings on complex 3D surfaces, our CuCr2O4 films are interesting material candidates for various frontier applications.

  20. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoye, Robert L. Z., E-mail: rlzh2@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L., E-mail: rlzh2@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Muñoz-Rojas, David [LMGP, University Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS, F-3800 Grenoble (France); Nelson, Shelby F. [Kodak Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York 14650 (United States); Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul [Holst Centre/TNO Thin Film Technology, Eindhoven, 5656 AE (Netherlands); Roozeboom, Fred [Holst Centre/TNO Thin Film Technology, Eindhoven, 5656 AE (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven, 5600 MB (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) has recently emerged as an appealing technique for rapidly producing high quality oxides. Here, we focus on the use of AP-SALD to deposit functional ZnO thin films, particularly on the reactors used, the film properties, and the dopants that have been studied. We highlight how these films are advantageous for the performance of solar cells, organometal halide perovskite light emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors. Future AP-SALD technology will enable the commercial processing of thin films over large areas on a sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll basis, with new reactor designs emerging for flexible plastic and paper electronics.

  1. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Z. Hoye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD has recently emerged as an appealing technique for rapidly producing high quality oxides. Here, we focus on the use of AP-SALD to deposit functional ZnO thin films, particularly on the reactors used, the film properties, and the dopants that have been studied. We highlight how these films are advantageous for the performance of solar cells, organometal halide perovskite light emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors. Future AP-SALD technology will enable the commercial processing of thin films over large areas on a sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll basis, with new reactor designs emerging for flexible plastic and paper electronics.

  2. Fabrication of SnS thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-12-01

    Tin sulfide films of 0.20 µm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using SnSO4 and Na2S solution. The as-grown films were well covered and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films and provided information on the crystallite size and residual strain of the thin films. FESEM revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component. High absorption in the visible region was evident from UV-Vis transmission spectra. PL studies were carried out with 550 nm photon excitation. To the best of our knowledge, however, no attempt has been made to fabricate a SnS thin film using the SILAR technique.

  3. High-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors fabricated from MoSi thin-films

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, V B; Bussières, F; Horansky, R D; Dyer, S D; Lita, A E; Vayshenker, I; Marsili, F; Shaw, M D; Zbinden, H; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from MoSi thin-films. We measure a maximum system detection efficiency (SDE) of 87 +- 0.5 % at 1542 nm at a temperature of 0.7 K, with a jitter of 76 ps, maximum count rate approaching 10 MHz, and polarization dependence as low as 3.4 +- 0.7 % The SDE curves show saturation of the internal efficiency similar to WSi-based SNSPDs at temperatures as high as 2.3 K. We show that at similar cryogenic temperatures, MoSi SNSPDs achieve efficiencies comparable to WSi-based SNSPDs with nearly a factor of two reduction in jitter.

  4. Microwave Response of MgB2/Al2O3 Superconducting Thin Films by Microstrip Resonator Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-Bin; ZHENG Yan; REN Jun-Yuan; LI Ming-Biao; ZHANG Feng-Yun; LI Bo-Xin; DONG Hai-Kuan

    2007-01-01

    Double-sided superconducting MgB2 thin films are deposited onto c-Al2O3 substrates by the hybrid physical chemical vapour deposition method. The microwave response of MgBz/Al2O3 is investigated by microstrip resonator technique. A grain-size model is introduced to the theory of microstrip resonators to analyse microwave properties of the films. We obtain effective penetration depth of the films at 0K (λe0 = 463 nm) and surface resistance (R3 = 1.52mΩ at 11 K and 8.73 GHz) by analysing the resonant frequency and unload quality factor of the microstrip resonator, which suggests that the impurities and disorders of grain boundaries of MgB2/Al2O3 result in increasing penetration depth and surface resistance of the films.

  5. Interpretation of transmission through type II superconducting thin film on dielectric substrate as observed by laser thermal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindler, M.; Tesař, R.; Koláček, J.; Skrbek, L.

    2012-12-01

    We provide a thorough analysis of THz properties of BCS-like superconducting thin films. Temperature and frequency dependence of complex conductivity in zero magnetic field is discussed by utilizing the Zimmerman et al. explicit BCS based formula [Physica C 183 (1991) 99]. We extend this approach by employing the effective medium theory and develop a phenomenological model capable of accounting for the influence of external magnetic field. Using Yeh powerful formalism [Surface Sci. 96 (1980) 41] we calculate optical transmission of linearly polarized laser beam normally incident to a multilayered sample consisting of a thin NbN film grown on birefringent sapphire substrate, entirely covering ranges of interest in temperature and frequency. A proposal to exploit linear polarization of the incident beam parallel with principal axes of conductivity tensor is explained and theoretical predictions for a realistic NbN sample are computed and discussed.

  6. Effects of α-particle beam irradiation on superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Duong, Pham van; Ha, Dong Hyup; Oh, Young Hoon; Kang, Won Nam; Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkunkwan Univeversity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young [Kore Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors irradiated with 45 MeV α-particle beam were studied. After the irradiation, enhancement of the critical current density and pinning force was observed, scaling close to strong pinning formula. Double logarithmic plots of the maximum pinning force density with irreversible magnetic field show a power law behavior close to carbon-doped MgB2 film or polycrystals. Variation of normalized pinning force density in the reduced magnetic field suggests scaling formulas for strong pinning mechanism like planar defects. We also observed a rapid decay of critical current density as the vortex lattice constant decreases, due to the strong interaction between vortices and increasing magnetic field.

  7. Photoluminescence of atomic layer deposited ZrO{sub 2}:Dy{sup 3+} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, Valter, E-mail: valter.kiisk@ut.ee; Tamm, Aile; Utt, Kathriin; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Mändar, Hugo; Puust, Laurits; Aarik, Jaan; Sildos, Ilmo

    2015-05-29

    Atomic layer deposition based on alternate cycling of ZrCl{sub 4}, Dy(thd){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O as precursors was applied for preparation of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}:Dy thin films. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of Dy{sup 3+} in the ZrO{sub 2} films were studied at several laser excitations. Substantial activation of Dy{sup 3+} PL required thermal treatment at 900 °C. As a result of annealing, thinner (~ 80 nm) films with higher Dy content retained relatively high amount of tetragonal phase and remained crack-free. In thicker (~ 140 nm) films, considerable amount of monoclinic phase was formed and a peculiar microscale cracking pattern was developed along with phase segregation. It is demonstrated that the crystal structure of ZrO{sub 2} significantly influences the Dy{sup 3+} emission spectrum and, at least for ZrO{sub 2}-type matrices, Dy{sup 3+} is an excellent luminescent microprobe in comparison with micro-Raman scattering. A Förster-like PL decay profile allowed a conclusion that the self-quenching due to cross-relaxation between Dy{sup 3+} ions had a marked impact on emission intensity. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of luminescent Dy-doped ZrO{sub 2} thin films was demonstrated. • Dy{sup 3+} luminescence was significantly activated only after high-temperature annealing. • Correlation between luminescent and structural properties was obtained. • Dy{sup 3+} luminescent probe showed superior performance compared to Raman-scattering. • Presence of several quenching processes was deduced from luminescence behavior.

  8. Effects of different wetting layers on the growth of smooth ultra-thin silver thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chuan; Shah, Piyush; Sarangan, Andrew M.

    2014-09-01

    Ultrathin silver films (thickness below 10 nm) are of great interest as optical coatings on windows and plasmonic devices. However, producing these films has been a continuing challenge because of their tendency to form clusters or islands rather than smooth contiguous thin films. In this work we have studied the effect of Cu, Ge and ZnS as wetting layers (1.0 nm) to achieve ultrasmooth thin silver films. The silver films (5 nm) were grown by RF sputter deposition on silicon and glass substrates using a few monolayers of the different wetting materials. SEM imaging was used to characterize the surface properties such as island formation and roughness. Also the optical properties were measured to identify the optical impact of the different wetting layers. Finally, a multi-layer silver based structure is designed and fabricated, and its performance is evaluated. The comparison between the samples with different wetting layers show that the designs with wetting layers which have similar optical properties to silver produce the best overall performance. In the absence of a wetting layer, the measured optical spectra show a significant departure from the model predictions, which we attribute primarily to the formation of clusters.

  9. Characterization Of Superconducting Samples With SIC System For Thin Film Developments: Status And Recent Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, H. Lawrence [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Xiao, Binping [Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY (United States); Eremeev, Grigory V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Within any thin film development program directed towards SRF accelerating structures, there is a need for an RF characterization device that can provide information about RF properties of small samples. The current installation of the RF characterization device at Jefferson Lab is Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system. The data acquisition environment for the system has recently been improved to allow for automated measurement, and the system has been routinely used for characterization of bulk Nb, films of Nb on Cu, MgB{sub 2}, NbTiN, Nb{sub 3}Sn films, etc. We present some of the recent results that illustrate present capabilities and limitations of the system.

  10. Analysis of layer-by-layer thin-film oxide growth using RHEED and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eli; Sullivan, M. C.; Gutierrez-Llorente, Araceli; Joress, H.; Woll, A.; Brock, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is commonly used as an in situ analysis tool for layer-by-layer thin-film growth. Atomic force microscopy is an equally common ex situ tool for analysis of the film surface, providing visual evidence of the surface morphology. During growth, the RHEED intensity oscillates as the film surface changes in roughness. It is often assumed that the maxima of the RHEED oscillations signify a complete layer, however, the oscillations in oxide systems can be misleading. Thus, using only the RHEED maxima is insufficient. X-ray reflectivity can also be used to analyze growth, as the intensity oscillates in phase with the smoothness of the surface. Using x-ray reflectivity to determine the thin film layer deposition, we grew three films where the x-ray and RHEED oscillations were nearly exactly out of phase and halted deposition at different points in the growth. Pre-growth and post-growth AFM images emphasize the fact that the maxima in RHEED are not a justification for determining layer completion. Work conducted at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) supported by NSF Awards DMR-1332208 and DMR-0936384 and the Cornell Center for Materials Research Shared Facilities are supported through DMR-1120296.

  11. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  12. Alternative buffer layer development in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Peipei

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells are considered to be one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar devices have the potential advantage of low-cost, fast fabrication by using semiconductor layers of only a few micrometers thick and high efficiency photovoltaics have been reported at both the cell and the module levels. CdS via chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been the most widely used buffer option to form the critical junction in CIGS-based thin film photovoltaic devices. However, the disadvantages of CdS can’t be ignored - regulations on cadmium usage are getting stricter primarily due to its toxicity and environmental impacts, and the proper handling of the large amount of toxic chemical bath waste is a massive and expensive task. This dissertation is devoted to the development of Cd-free alternative buffer layers in CIGS-based thin film solar cells. Based on the considerations of buffer layer selection criteria and extensive literature review, Zn-compound buffer materials are chosen as the primary investigation candidates. Radio frequency magnetron sputtering is the preferred buffer deposition approach since it’s a clean and more controllable technique compared to CBD, and is readily scaled to large area manufacturing. First, a comprehensive study of the ZnSe1-xOx compound prepared by reactive sputtering was completed. As the oxygen content in the reactive sputtering gas increased, ZnSe1-xOx crystallinity and bandgap decreased. It’s observed that oxygen miscibility in ZnSe was low and a secondary phase formed when the O2 / (O2 + Ar) ratio in the sputtering gas exceeded 2%. Two approaches were proposed to optimize the band alignment between the CIGS and buffer layer. One method focused on the bandgap engineering of the absorber, the other focused on the band structure modification of the buffer. As a result, improved current of the solar cell was achieved although a carrier transport barrier at the junction

  13. High mobility indium zinc oxide thin film field-effect transistors by semiconductor layer engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel E; Major, Marton; Yazdi, Mehrdad Baghaie; Klyszcz, Andreas; Haeming, Marc; Bonrad, Klaus; Melzer, Christian; Donner, Wolfgang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    Indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors are fabricated via a precursor in solution route on silicon substrates with silicon dioxide gate dielectric. It is found that the extracted mobility rises, peaks, and then decreases with increasing precursor concentration instead of rising and saturating. Investigation with scanning probe techniques reveals full thickness variations within the film which are assumed to adversely affect charge transport. Additional layers are coated, and the extracted mobility is observed to increase up to 19.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The reasons for this are examined in detail by direct imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy and extracting electron density profiles from X-ray reflection measurements. It is found that the optimal concentration for single layer films is suboptimal when coating multiple layers and in fact using many layers of very low concentrations of precursor in the solution, leading to a dense, defect and void free film, affording the highest mobilities. A consistent qualitative model of layer formation is developed explaining how the morphology of the film develops as the concentration of precursor in the initial solution is varied.

  14. Growth and superconducting properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} {sub +} {sub δ} thin films incorporated with iridate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vero, Jeffrey C.; Hwang, Inwoong; Shin, Hyeonseop; Song, Jong Hyun [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Santiago, Alvin Carl; Sarmago, Roland V. [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1101 (Philippines); Lee, Doopyo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jungwon [Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Sejong Campus, Sejong, 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Science and Standards, Daejeon, 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinhee [Korea Research Institute of Science and Standards, Daejeon, 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Iridate nanoparticle AIrO{sub 3} (A = Sr, Ba) incorporated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} {sub +} {sub δ} (Bi-2212) thin films were successfully grown using pulsed laser deposition with post-growth ex situ heat treatment. Nanosized particles of SrIrO{sub 3} (Sr-iridate) and BaIrO{sub 3} (Ba-iridate) were deposited on top of MgO (100) substrate, followed by Bi-2212 layers to investigate their effects on the physical and superconducting properties of Bi-2212 thin films. The number of laser pulses was changed from 450 to 1800 to control the density of iridates in the Bi-2212 matrix. The composite film is then partial-melted at 890 C for 15 min and annealed at 850 C for 5 h in ambient air. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the surfaces of thin films with iridates are more compact with minimal voids and porosity than those of pure Bi-2212 thin films. Both types of iridate incorporation suppress T{sub c-zero} of Bi-2212 thin films. Incorporating Sr-iridate in the Bi-2212 strongly affects T{sub c-zero} than those with Ba-iridate at low density. However, both iridate incorporations result in the expansion of the c-axis lattice constant and variation of Bi/Sr ratio of Bi-2212 films. On the other hand, we observed improvement of the activation energy, U{sub 0}, as well as the self-field critical current density, J{sub c}(0), of Bi-2212 films with incorporated iridates even with suppressed T{sub c-zero}. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Bi-layer Channel AZO/ZnO Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Liu, Liqiao; Dong, Junchen; Cui, Guodong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    This letter demonstrates bi-layer channel Al-doped ZnO/ZnO thin film transistors (AZO/ZnO TFTs) via atomic layer deposition process at a relatively low temperature. The effects of annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures have also been investigated. The ALD bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFTs annealed in dry O2 at 300 °C exhibit a low leakage current of 2.5 × 10(-13)A, I on/I off ratio of 1.4 × 10(7), subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.23 V/decade, and high transmittance. The enhanced performance obtained from the bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFT devices is explained by the inserted AZO front channel layer playing the role of the mobility booster.

  16. Bi-layer Channel AZO/ZnO Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Liu, Liqiao; Dong, Junchen; Cui, Guodong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    This letter demonstrates bi-layer channel Al-doped ZnO/ZnO thin film transistors (AZO/ZnO TFTs) via atomic layer deposition process at a relatively low temperature. The effects of annealing in oxygen atmosphere at different temperatures have also been investigated. The ALD bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFTs annealed in dry O2 at 300 °C exhibit a low leakage current of 2.5 × 10-13A, I on/ I off ratio of 1.4 × 107, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.23 V/decade, and high transmittance. The enhanced performance obtained from the bi-layer channel AZO/ZnO TFT devices is explained by the inserted AZO front channel layer playing the role of the mobility booster.

  17. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  18. Effect of an organic buffer layer on the stability of zinc oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H W; Hyung, G W; Koo, J R; Cho, E S; Kwon, S J; Park, J H; Kim, Y K

    2014-07-01

    Compared with other materials, zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits stability in air, high-electron mobility, transparency and low light sensitivity. We investigated these properties in ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) containing a cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (C-PVA) (1:3) buffer layer stacked between the semiconductor and gate dielectric. We measured the impact of this C-PVA layer on gate bias stress. We measured the transfer characteristics of the saturation region to determine the threshold voltage and the field-effect mobility of the transistors. We recorded a threshold voltage of 11.53 V in the ZnO TFTs with the C-PVA buffer layer, the field-effect mobility was 0.2 cm2/Vs. There was a positive shift in the threshold voltage of deltaV(TH) approximately 10 V in response to the application of a gate bias stress of 20 V. The positive shift in the threshold voltage was lower than that in pristine ZnO TFTs. This finding suggests that the shift in threshold voltage was due to reduced charge trapping at the semiconductor-gate dielectric interface. Our report indicates that the organic buffer layer enhanced the stability of ZnO TFTs.

  19. Relationship Between Absorber Layer Properties and Device Operation Modes For High Efficiency Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ram; Kokenyesi, Robert; Wager, John; Keszler, Douglas; CenterInverse Design Team

    2014-03-01

    A thin film solar cell (TFSC) can be differentiated into two distinct operation modes based on the transport mechanism. Current TFSCs predominantly exploit diffusion to extract photogenerated minority carriers. For efficient extraction, the absorber layer requires high carrier mobilities and long minority carrier lifetimes. Materials exhibiting a strong optical absorption onset near the fundamental band gap allows reduction of the absorber layer thickness to significantly less than 1 μm. In such a TFSC, a strong intrinsic electric field drives minority carrier extraction, resulting in drift-based transport. The basic device configuration utilized in this simulation study is a heterojunction TFSC with a p-type absorber layer. The diffusion/drift device operation modes are simulated by varying the thickness and carrier concentration of the absorber layer, and device performance between the two modes is compared. In addition, the relationship between device operation mode and transport properties, including carrier mobility and minority carrier lifetime are explored. Finally, candidate absorber materials that enable the advantages of a drift-based TFSC developed within the Center for Inverse Design are presented. School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

  20. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, Peter W. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Nelson, Andrew R.J. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia); Williams, David E. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand); McGillivray, Duncan J., E-mail: d.mcgillivray@auckland.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Kinge, Sachin [Advanced Technology, Materials and Research, Research and Development, Hoge Wei 33- Toyota Technical Centre, B-1930 Zaventem (Belgium)

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  2. Suppression of Cross Contamination in Multi-Layer Thin Film Prepared by Using Rotating Hexagonal Sputtering Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Yeon; Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, single- and multi-layered thin films were prepared on a glass substrate using a newly developed rotating hexagonal sputtering cathode in a single chamber. The rotatinghexagonal sputtering cathode can install up to six different sputtering targets or six single targets in a cathode. Using the rotating hexagonal cathode, we prepared a single-layered AZO film and a multi-layer film to evaluate the performance of hexagonal gun. Cross-contamination, which is often observed in multi-layer thin film preparation, was suppressed to nearly zero by controlling process parameters and revising hardware. Energy-saving effects of five-layered glass were also verified by measuring the temperature.

  3. Temperature and layer thickness dependent in situ investigations on epindolidione organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Striedinger, B; Jones, A O F; Scherwitzl, B; Fian, A; Głowacl, E D; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2016-08-01

    We report on in situ performance evaluations as a function of layer thickness and substrate temperature for bottom-gate, bottom-gold contact epindolidione organic thin-film transistors on various gate dielectrics. Experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions, enabling quasi-simultaneous electrical and surface analysis. Auger electron spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) were applied to characterize the quality of the substrate surface and the thermal stability of the organic films. Ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to gain additional information on the layer formation and surface morphology of the hydrogen-bonded organic pigment. The examined gate dielectrics included SiO2, in its untreated and sputtered forms, as well as the spin-coated organic capping layers poly(vinyl-cinnamate) (PVCi) and poly((±)endo,exo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, diphenylester) (PNDPE, from the class of polynorbornenes). TDS and AFM revealed Volmer-Weber island growth dominated film formation with no evidence of a subjacent wetting layer. This growth mode is responsible for the comparably high coverage required for transistor behavior at 90-95% of a monolayer composed of standing molecules. Surface sputtering and an increased sample temperature during epindolidione deposition augmented the surface diffusion of adsorbing molecules and therefore led to a lower number of better-ordered islands. Consequently, while the onset of charge transport was delayed, higher saturation mobility was obtained. The highest, bottom-contact configuration, mobilities of approximately 2.5 × 10(-3)cm(2)/Vs were found for high coverages (50 nm) on sputtered samples. The coverage dependence of the mobility showed very different characteristics for the different gate dielectrics, while the change of the threshold voltage with coverage was approximately the same for all systems. An apparent decrease of the mobility with increasing coverage on the

  4. Pinning effects on the vortex critical velocity in type-II superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, A., E-mail: antoleo@sa.infn.i [CNR-SPIN-Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Grimaldi, G.; Nigro, A.; Pace, S. [CNR-SPIN-Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Verellen, N.; Silhanek, A.V.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V.V. [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Metlushko, V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Ilic, B. [Cornell Nanofabrication Facility, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We study the influence of artificial pinning centers on the vortex critical velocity in Al thin films deposited on top of a periodic array of Permalloy (FeNi) square rings. We demonstrate that the field dependence of the flux flow velocity strongly depends on the particular magnetic state of the rings. In particular, we find that, even when the rings are in a flux closure state, i.e. with little stray field, the vortex critical velocity shows a non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. This behaviour is in sharp contrast with the results obtained in a reference plain film, with no rings underneath. A comparison with the intrinsic strong pinning Nb films previously studied, suggests an interpretation in terms of a channel-like motion of vortices, here induced by the artificial pinning structure.

  5. Interface properties of Cd-free buffer layers on on CIGSe thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, J.P.; Erfurth, F.; Weinhardt, L. [University of Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimental Physics VII; Duarte, R.; Baer, M. [Helmholtz Institut, Berlin (Germany); Niesen, T.; Palm, J. [Avancis GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Barreau, N.; Couzinie-Devy, F.; Kessler, J. [Institut des Materiaux, Nantes (France); Reinert, F. [University of Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimental Physics VII; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Nanoanalytik

    2010-07-01

    In order to replace the toxic Cadmium, the substitution of the CdS buffer layer in thin film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) is of great interest. Alternative buffer layers like (In,Al){sub 2}S{sub 3}, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, or (Zn{sub 1-x},Mg{sub x})O deposited by conventional sputter and chemical bath deposition techniques, have shown efficiencies close to or comparable to those of CdS containing solar cells. To understand the chemical and electronic properties of these buffer layers and its influence on the absorber, we studied the buffer-absorber interface using photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES). The combination of these non-destructive techniques provides detailed information about the chemical properties of the studied surface, as well as can be used for a direct determination of the conduction and valence band alignment at the heterojunction. Band-gap values at the surface as derived by UPS and IPES are also verified by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results are discussed in conjunction with the respective cell parameters.

  6. Sol–gel derived scattering layers as substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegmann, Jan [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Technologie der Materialsynthese, Universität Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Mandl, Magdalena [Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany); Löbmann, Peer, E-mail: peer.loebmann@isc.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Agglomerated silica particles were coated on glass by dip-coating; the resulting films exhibited optical scattering. With constant optical transmittances > 80% their haze could be modified by the withdrawal rate applied for the respective deposition procedure. Film thickness, surface topography and coverage of the substrate were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. For the use in radiation management in thin-film silicon solar cells in a first step the scattering layers were coated with aluminum-doped zinc oxide by sputtering; the optical performance of the resulting bilayer was characterized by haze measurements and angle resolved scattering spectroscopy. Quantum efficiencies of complete solar cells could be determined after the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous Si/hydrogenated microcrystalline Si tandem absorber and application of metallic back contacts. It turned out that the external quantum efficiency of the resulting cells is not directly related to the light scattering performance of the scattering layer used. - Highlights: • Characterization of sol–gel scattering layers • Combination of different coating-technologies to prepare stacks with optical functionality • Comprehensive material preparation and characterization for complex multilayer.

  7. Nitrogen-doped amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistors with double-stacked channel layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiting; Wu, Qi; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Guochao; Dong, Chengyuan

    2016-11-01

    The amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin film transistors (TFTs) with the double-stacked channel layers (DSCL) combing the amorphous InZnO (a-IZO) films and the nitrogen-doped amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO:N) films were proposed and fabricated, which showed the excellent performance with the field-effect mobility of 49.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the subthreshold swing of 0.5 V/dec. More interestingly, very stable properties were observed in the bias stress and light illumination tests for these a-IZO/a-IGZO:N TFTs, as seemed to be the evident improvements over the prior arts. The improved performance and stability might be mainly due to the hetero-junctions in the channel layers and less interface/bulk trap density from the in situ nitrogen doping process in the a-IGZO layers. In addition, the passivation effect of the a-IGZO:N films also made some contributions to the stable properties exhibited in these novel DSCL TFTs.

  8. Thin film solar cells based on layered chalcogenides: Fundamentals and perspectives of van der Waals epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegermann, W.; Pettenkofer, C.; Lang, O.; Schlaf, R.; Tiefenbacher, S.; Tomm, Y. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The preparation of thin films of layered chalcogenide semiconductors as MX and MX{sub 2} (X = S, Se) based on the concept of van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE) is presented for different substrate/overlayer combinations as GaSe, InSe, SnSe{sub 2}, WS{sub 2} on WSe{sub 2}, GaSe, MoTe{sub 2}, graphite and mica. In all cases stoichiometric films are formed either as epitaxial layers or strongly textured films with the c-axis aligned in spite of strong lattice mismatch. The interfaces are non-reactive and atomically abrupt. The electronic properties of the interfaces are mostly ideal showing band offsets according to the electron affinity rule and no operative interface states. However, doping of the films is still a problem which limits the band bending and the attainable surface photovoltage. The perspectives and preconditions for the further development of layered semiconductor VDWE films for solar cells will be critically discussed.

  9. High field transport properties of MBE processed Fe-based superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Kazumasa [Nagoya University (Japan); IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that Fe-based superconductors show high upper critical fields with low anisotropies at low temperatures. Hence these materials may offer a unique possibility for high field magnet applications. However, only a few reports on high-field transport properties of Co-doped Ba-122 and Fe(Se,Te) have been published and the only one for SmFeAs(O,F) thin films to date. In order to use this material class for applications, the knowledge of in-field and its orientation dependence of transport properties in a wide range of external fields need to be clarified. In this talk, I will report on high-field (up to dc 45 T) transport properties of P-doped Ba-122, SmFeAs(O,F) and NdFeAs(O,F) thin films prepared by MBE. Although P-doped Ba-122 has the lowest T{sub c}, self-field J{sub c} of over 6 MA/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K is recorded, which is the highest value ever reported in Fe-based superconductors. Additionally, in-field performance of P-doped Ba-122 shows comparable to those of NdFeAs(O,F) and SmFeAs(O,F) for Hc. On the other hand, both NdFeAs(O,F) and SmFeAs(O,F) exhibited higher J{sub c} for H parallel ab due to the intrinsic pinning. These results indicate that P-doped Ba-122 is the most promising candidates for high-field magnet applications.

  10. Thin-film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells based on a seed layer approach with 11% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I.; Qiu, Y.; Van Gestel, D.; Poortmans, J.

    2010-09-01

    Solar modules made from thin-film crystalline-silicon layers of high quality on glass substrates could lower the price of photovoltaic electricity substantially. Almost half of the price of wafer-based silicon solar modules is currently due to the cost of the silicon wafers themselves. Using crystalline-silicon thin-film as the active material would substantially reduce the silicon consumption while still ensuring a high cell-efficiency potential and a stable cell performance. One way to create a crystalline-silicon thin film on glass is by using a seed layer approach in which a thin crystalline-silicon layer is first created on a non-silicon substrate, followed by epitaxial thickening of this layer. In this paper, we present new solar cell results obtained on 10-micron thick monocrystalline-silicon layers, made by epitaxial thickening of thin seed layers on transparent glass-ceramic substrates. We used thin (001)-oriented silicon single-crystal seed layers on glass-ceramic substrates provided by Corning Inc. that are made by a process based on anodic bonding and implant-induced separation. Epitaxial thickening of these seed layers was realized in an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Simple solar cell structures in substrate configuration were made from the epitaxial mono-silicon layers. The Si surface was plasma-textured to reduce the front-side reflection. No other light trapping features were incorporated. Efficiencies of up to 11% were reached with Voc values above 600 mV indicating the good electronic quality of the material. We believe that by further optimizing the material quality and by integrating an efficient light trapping scheme, the efficiency potential of these single-crystal silicon thin films on glass-ceramics should be higher than 15%.

  11. Thin film growth and phase competition of layered ferroelectrics and related perovskite phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaipatti, Balasubramaniam R.

    "Geometric ferroelectrics" form an interesting, albeit not well-studied, subset of ferroelectric materials. The term "geometric ferroelectrics" is used for compounds that exhibit ferroelectricity owing to a simple relaxation of frustrations in the unit cell geometry, and not as a result of either a second-order Jahn-Teller distortion (SOJT) or a cooperative lone pair displacive mechanism. The structure-property relationships in such materials has not been investigated in depth owing to the limited number of known materials that adopt the "geometric ferroelectric" structures. This thesis is concerned with the development of a synthesis method that will allow one to realize materials in these structures over wider composition spaces. Thin film synthesis of two classes of oxide geometric ferroelectric materials---ABO 3 compounds adopting the layered hexagonal LuMnO3 structure (h-REMnO3) and A4B4O 14 (Sr2Nb2O7) compounds adopting the [110]-layered perovskite structure, which both compete in stability with the close-packed perovskite (p-REMnO3 or SrNbO3) structure---is the focus of this thesis. Materials in both the classes were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on various substrates and under various process conditions (temperature, energy, process gas type/pressure...) and characterized mainly by X-ray diffraction. The temperature, pressure, and nature of the ambient gas are the primary influence on the phase (and orientation) selected during the thin film growth of materials in the SrNbOy family. In N2 ambients, when the partial pressure of O2 is very low, reduction of the Nb cation to the 4+ state resulted in the perovskite SrNbO3 formation on SrTiO3(100) and (110), as well as MgO(100) and (111). On SrTiO 3, cube-on-cube epitaxy was observed, while on MgO, polycrystalline films were obtained. On the other hand, O2 ambients favored the Nb cation in its fully oxidized pentavalent state, resulting in formation of (110)-layered perovskite Sr2Nb2O7. On SrTiO3

  12. Experimental evidence of non-linear behaviour in YBCO superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palenque, E.R.; Appleyard, N.J.; Jackson, T.J.; Palmer, S.B. [Dept. of Phys., Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Preliminary measurements of the non-linear dynamics of a thin (two dimensional) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} superconducting film in a small AC magnetic field are presented, a peak in third harmonic generation which may provide evidence of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition is found just below the superconducting transition temperature. (author)

  13. Enhanced superconductivity, Kondo behavior, and negative-curvature resistivity of oxygen-irradiated thin films of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnecker, E. H. C. P.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; ElMassalami, M.

    2017-02-01

    We followed the evolution of the normal and superconducting properties of Al thin films after each session of various successive oxygen irradiations at ambient temperature. Such irradiated films, similar to the granular ones, exhibit enhanced superconductivity, Kondo behavior, and negative-curvature resistivity. Two distinct roles of oxygen are identified: as a damage-causing projectile and as an implanted oxidizing agent. The former gives rise to the processes involved in the conventional recovery stages. The latter, considered within the context of the Cabrera-Mott model, gives rise to a multistep process which involves charges transfer and creation of stabilized vacancies and charged defects. Based on the outcome of this multistep process, we consider (i) the negative-curvature resistivity as a manifestation of a thermally assisted liberation of trapped electric charges, (ii) the Kondo contribution as a spin-flip scattering from paramagnetic, color-center-type defects, and (iii) the enhancement of Tc as being due to a lattice softening facilitated by the stabilized defects and vacancies. The similarity in the phase diagrams of granular and irradiated films as well as the aging effects are discussed along the same line of reasoning.

  14. Epitaxial Growth of MOF Thin Film for Modifying the Dielectric Layer in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shan-Ci; Fu, Wen-Qiang; Zheng, Qingdong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films are important in the application of sensors and devices. However, the application of MOF thin films in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is still a challenge to date. Here, we first use the MOF thin film prepared by a liquid-phase epitaxial (LPE) approach (also called SURMOFs) to modify the SiO2 dielectric layer in the OFETs. After the semiconductive polymer of PTB7-Th (poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]) was coated on MOF/SiO2 and two electrodes on the semiconducting film were deposited sequentially, MOF-based OFETs were fabricated successfully. By controlling the LPE cycles of SURMOF HKUST-1 (also named Cu3(BTC)2, BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), the performance of the HKUST-1/SiO2-based OFETs showed high charge mobility and low threshold voltage. This first report on the application of MOF thin film in OFETs will offer an effective approach for designing a new kind of materials for the OFET application.

  15. Thickness-dependent structure and properties of SnS2 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wondeok; Shin, Seokyoon; Ham, Giyul; Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Seungjin; Choi, Hyeongsu; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2017-03-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films were deposited by a thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method at low temperatures. The physical, chemical, and electrical characteristics of SnS2 were investigated as a function of the film thickness. SnS2 exhibited a (001) hexagonal plane peak at 14.9° in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results and an A1g peak at 311 cm‑1 in the Raman spectra. These results demonstrate that SnS2 thin films grown at 150 °C showed a crystalline phase at film thicknesses above 11.2 nm. The crystallinity of the SnS2 thin films was evaluated by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that SnS2 consisted of Sn4+ and S2‑ valence states. Both the optical band gap and the transmittance of SnS2 decreased as the film thickness increased. The band gap of SnS2 decreased from 3.0 to 2.4 eV and the transmittance decreased from 85 to 32% at a wavelength of 400 nm. In addition, the resistivity of the thin film SnS2 decreased from 1011 to 106 Ω·cm as the film thickness increased.

  16. Chemical resistance of thin film materials based on metal oxides grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammelselg, Väino, E-mail: vaino.sammelselg@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Netšipailo, Ivan; Aidla, Aleks; Tarre, Aivar; Aarik, Lauri; Asari, Jelena; Ritslaid, Peeter; Aarik, Jaan [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2013-09-02

    Etching rate of technologically important metal oxide thin films in hot sulphuric acid was investigated. The films of Al-, Ti-, Cr-, and Ta-oxides studied were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method on silicon substrates from different precursors in large ranges of growth temperatures (80–900 °C) in order to reveal process parameters that allow deposition of coatings with higher chemical resistance. The results obtained demonstrate that application of processes that yield films with lower concentration of residual impurities as well as crystallization of films in thermal ALD processes leads to significant decrease of etching rate. Crystalline films of materials studied showed etching rates down to values of < 5 pm/s. - Highlights: • Etching of atomic layer deposited thin metal oxide films in hot H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was studied. • Smallest etching rates of < 5 pm/s for TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were reached. • Highest etching rate of 2.8 nm/s for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was occurred. • Remarkable differences in etching of non- and crystalline films were observed.

  17. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability.

  18. Radio-frequency-transparent, electrically conductive graphene nanoribbon thin films as deicing heating layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, Vladimir; Zhu, Yu; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Genorio, Bostjan; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Changsheng; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2014-01-08

    Deicing heating layers are frequently used in covers of large radio-frequency (RF) equipment, such as radar, to remove ice that could damage the structures or make them unstable. Typically, the deicers are made using a metal framework and inorganic insulator; commercial resistive heating materials are often nontransparent to RF waves. The preparation of a sub-skin-depth thin film, whose thickness is very small relative to the RF skin (or penetration) depth, is the key to minimizing the RF absorption. The skin depth of typical metals is on the order of a micrometer at the gigahertz frequency range. As a result, it is very difficult for conventional conductive materials (such as metals) to form large-area sub-skin-depth films. In this report, we disclose a new deicing heating layer composite made using graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We demonstrate that the GNR film is thin enough to permit RF transmission. This metal-free, ultralight, robust, and scalable graphene-based RF-transparent conductive coating could significantly reduce the size and cost of deicing coatings for RF equipment covers. This is important in many aviation and marine applications. This is a demonstration of the efficacy and applicability of GNRs to afford performances unattainable by conventional materials.

  19. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Amorphous Ferromagnetic CoSiB/Pd Thin-Film Layered Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sol; Yim, Haein

    2015-10-01

    Spin transfer torque (STT) induced switching of magnetization has led to intriguing and practical possibilities for magnetic random access memory (MRAM). This form of memory, called STT-MRAM, is a strong candidate for future memory applications. This application usually requires a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), large coercivity, and low saturation magnetization. Therefore, we propose an amorphous ferromagnetic CoSiB alloy and investigate CoSiB/Pd multilayer thin films, which have a large PMA, large coercivity, and low saturation magnetization. In this research, we propose a remarkable layered structure that could be a candidate for future applications and try to address a few factors that might affect the variation of PMA, coercivity, and saturation magnetization in the CoSiB/Pd multilayers. We investigate the magnetic properties of the CoSiB/Pd multilayers with various thicknesses of the CoSiB layer. The coercivity was obtained with a maximum of 228 Oe and a minimum value of 91 Oe in the [CoSiB 7 Å/Pd 14 Å], and [CoSiB 9 Å/Pd 14 Å], multilayers, respectively. The PMA arises from tCoSiB = 3 Å to tCoSiB = 9 Å and disappears after tCoSiB = 9 Å.

  20. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  1. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide thin films using non-halogenated precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Alex B. F.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2015-05-26

    A method for preparing a metal sulfide thin film using ALD and structures incorporating the metal sulfide thin film. The method includes providing an ALD reactor, a substrate, a first precursor comprising a metal and a second precursor comprising a sulfur compound. The first and the second precursors are reacted in the ALD precursor to form a metal sulfide thin film on the substrate. In a particular embodiment, the metal compound comprises Bis(N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinato)dicopper(I) and the sulfur compound comprises hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2S) to prepare a Cu.sub.2S film. The resulting metal sulfide thin film may be used in among other devices, photovoltaic devices, including interdigitated photovoltaic devices that may use relatively abundant materials for electrical energy production.

  2. Breakup of a transient wetting layer in polymer blend thin films: unification with 1D phase equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Sam; Clarke, Nigel

    2013-09-20

    We show that lateral phase separation in polymer blend thin films can proceed via the formation of a transient wetting layer which breaks up to give a laterally segregated film. We show that the growth of lateral inhomogeneities at the walls in turn causes the distortion of the interface in the transient wetting layer. By addressing the 1D phase equilibria of a polymer blend thin film confined between selectively attracting walls, we show that the breakup of a transient wetting layer is due to wall-blend interactions; there are multiple values of the volume fraction at the walls which solve equilibrium boundary conditions. This mechanism of lateral phase separation should be general.

  3. Effect on thickness of Al layer in poly-crystalline Si thin films using aluminum(Al) induced crystallization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Na, Hyeon Sik; Lee, Suk Ho

    2011-02-01

    The polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films were prepared by aluminum induced crystallization. Aluminum (Al) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers were deposited using DC sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, respectively. For the whole process Al properties of bi-layers can be one of the important factors. In this paper we investigated the structural and electrical properties of poly-crystalline Si thin films with a variation of Al thickness through simple annealing process. All samples showed the polycrystalline phase corresponding to (111), (311) and (400) orientation. Process time, defined as the time required to reach 95% of crystalline fraction, was within 60 min and Al(200 nm)/a-Si(400 nm) structure of bi-layer showed the fast response for the poly-Si films. The conditions with a variation of Al thickness were executed in preparing the continuous poly-Si films for solar cell application.

  4. Heat-resistant thin film photoelectric converter with diffusion blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Jun; Yamaguchi, Minori; Tawada, Yoshihisa.

    1990-06-26

    The photoelectric converter of this invention comprises a semiconductor, an electrode, and a diffusion-blocking layer provided between the semiconductor and at least one electrode. An object of this invention is to provide a thin film photoelectric converter which has good heat resistance, in order to avoid the reduction in quality owing to the diffusion of metal or metallic compound from the electrode to the semiconductor layer, on the condition that the ohmic loss in the backing electrode and the reflection loss of light at the backing electrode are not increased. The component of the diffusion-blocking layer is selected from among such materials as metal silicides, silicide-forming metals, and metals from Groups IVA and VA of the periodic table. A preferable thickness of the diffusion-blocking layer is 5 to 500 angstroms. The semiconductor can be of the p-i-n, p-n, or Schottky type, and can be 0.02 to 100 {mu}m thick. For a semiconductor which comes into contact with the diffusion-blocking layer, n-type is preferable because it offers great improvements in the characteristics of the photoelectric converter. The electrode on the light-incident side is transparent and made of a metallic compound such as In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SnO{sub 2}, Cd{sub x}SnO{sub y} (x=0.5 to 2, y=2 to 4) or the like. The backing electrode material is selected to have a suitable conductivity and reflectivity; such materials include Ag, Au, Al or Cu. The invention also discloses a method of preparing the thick film photoelectric converter, and examples are provided to illustrate the preparation of various embodiments of the invention. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Absorption enhancement in thin film a-Si solar cells with double-sided SiO2 particle layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐; 王庆康; 沈向前; 陈文; 黄堃; 刘代明

    2015-01-01

    Light absorption enhancement is very important for improving the power conversion efficiency of a thin film a-Si solar cell. In this paper, a thin-film a-Si solar cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers is designed, and then the underlying mechanism of absorption enhancement is investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation;finally the feasible experimental scheme for preparing the SiO2 particle layer is discussed. It is found that the top and bottom SiO2 particle layers play an important role in anti-reflection and light trapping, respectively. The light absorption of the cell with double-sided SiO2 layers greatly increases in a wavelength range of 300 nm–800 nm, and the ultimate efficiency increases more than 22%compared with that of the flat device. The cell model with double-sided SiO2 particle layers reported here can be used in varieties of thin film solar cells to further improve their performances.

  6. Optical Properties of Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Thin Film Encapsulation Layers for Flexible Top-Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jae Seok; Jang, Ha Jun; Park, Cheol Young; Youn, Hongseok; Lee, Jong Ho; Heo, Gi-Seok; Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Choong Hun

    2015-10-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid thin film encapsulation layers consist of a thin Al2O3 layer together with polymer material. We have investigated optical properties of thin film encapsulation layers for top-emission flexible organic light-emitting diodes. The transmittance of hybrid thin film encapsulation layers and the electroluminescent spectrum of organic light-emitting diodes that were passivated by hybrid organic/inorganic thin film encapsulation layers were also examined as a function of the thickness of inorganic Al203 and monomer layers. The number of interference peaks, their intensity, and their positions in the visible range can be controlled by varying the thickness of inorganic Al2O3 layer. On the other hand, changing the thickness of monomer layer had a negligible effect on the optical properties. We also verified that there is a trade-off between transparency in the visible range and the permeation of water vapor in hybrid thin film encapsulation layers. As the number of dyads decreased, optical transparency improved while the water vapor permeation barrier was degraded. Our study suggests that, in top-emission organic light-emitting diodes, the thickness of each thin film encapsulation layer, in particular that of the inorganic layer, and the number of dyads should be controlled for highly efficient top-emission flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

  7. Preparation of 3 Inch Double-Sided YBa2Cu3O7-X High Temperature Superconducting Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Bo-wan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Owing to its excellent electrical property,YBCO thin film is much better than metal in the application for microwave devices. It makes the devices smaller, lighter, and with higher quality factor and lower insertion loss. YBCO thin film has attracted attentions for many years. Aiming at the uniformity and property of 3-inch double-sided YBCO thin film, the following aspects is considered in this dissertation:

  8. Low-temperature roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition of Al₂O₃ thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-12-02

    The Al2O3 thin films deposition through conventional ALD systems is a well-established process. The process under low temperatures has been studied by few research groups. In this paper, we report on the detailed study of low-temperature Al2O3 thin films deposited via a unique in-house built system of roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-AALD) using a multiple-slit gas source head. Al2O3 thin films have been grown on polyethylene terephthalate substrates under a very low-temperature zone of room temperature to 50 °C and working pressure of 750 Torr, which is very near to atmospheric pressure (760 Torr). Al2O3 thin films with superior properties were achieved in the temperature range of the ALD window. An appreciable growth rate of 0.97 Å/cycle was observed for the films deposited at 40 °C. The films have good morphological features with a very low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 0.90 nm. The films also showed good chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. It was observed that the film characteristics improve with the increase in deposition temperature to the range of the ALD window. The fabrication of Al2O3 films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis with the appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74, 119, and 531 eV, respectively. The chemical composition was also supported by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fabricated Al2O3 films demonstrate good insulating properties and optical transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region. The results state that Al2O3 thin films can be effectively fabricated through the R2R-AALD system at temperatures as low as 40 °C.

  9. The development of Tl-2212 based superconducting thin films for microwave applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hyland, D M C

    2001-01-01

    This thesis attempts to develop the understanding of the two-stage ex-situ processing of Tl sub 2 Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O (Tl-2212) thin films on LaAlO sub 3 substrates. Initially a thallium-free precursor film is deposited by sputtering, this is then annealed in a sealed crucible containing a thallium source to produce the final crystalline film. An investigation into the correlation of physical characteristics of the films with their microwave properties is presented. High reproducibility of processing was achieved for 1cm sup 2 size films with measured R sub s < 0.5m OMEGA. Strong dependence of the microwave properties was found with film thickness and growth morphology of the crystalline film. A good correlation of R sub s was seen with defect density, greater numbers of defects giving higher R sub s values. Problems were encountered in scaling up the process to fabricate 2-inch diameter films, initially limited by the increased defect density associated with a larger surface area. Additionally when usin...

  10. The relationship between open volume defects and deposition conditions of superconducting thin-film YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, X Y; Jiang, H; Bauer-Kugelmann, W; Duffy, J A; Koegel, G; Triftshaeuser, W

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the open volume defects and the deposition conditions of superconducting thin-film YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x was studied by the position lifetime technique. Using a low-energy pulsed positron system, positron lifetime as a function of implantation energy was measured on epitaxial superconducting thin-film YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x deposited on yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia substrates (YSZ) with pulsed laser deposition in a partial pressure of air under different conditions. The results show that the type of open volume defect is independent of deposition conditions such as the substrate temperature, T sub s , and the air pressure, P sub a. The defect concentration increases with decreasing T sub s and increasing P sub a. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  11. The magnetisation profiles and ac magnetisation losses in a single layer YBCO thin film caused by travelling magnetic field waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Coombs, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    This paper studies the magnetisation and ac magnetisation losses caused by a travelling magnetic wave on a single-layer YBCO thin film. This work provides thorough investigations on how the critical magnetic field gradient has been changed by the application of a travelling wave. Several conditions were studied such as zero-field cooling (ZFC), field cooling (FC) and a delta-shaped trapped field. It was found that the travelling wave tends to attenuate the existing critical magnetic field gradients in all these conditions. This interesting magnetic behaviour can be well predicted by the finite element (FEM) software with the E-J power law and Maxwell’s equations. The numerical simulations show that the existing critical current density has been compromised after applying the travelling wave. The magnetisation profile caused by the travelling wave is very different from the standing wave, while the magnetisation based on the standing wave can be interpreted by the Bean model and constant current density assumption. Based on the numerical method, which has reliability that has been solidly proven in the study, we have extended the study to the ac magnetisation losses. Comparisons were made between the travelling wave and the standing wave for this specific YBCO sample. It was found that by applying the magnetic wave of the same amplitude, the ac magnetisation loss caused by the travelling wave is about 1/3 of that caused by the standing wave. These results are helpful in understanding the general magnetism problems and ac magnetisation loss in the travelling magnetic wave conditions such as inside a high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machine, etc.

  12. Electrical characterization of graphene oxide and organic dielectric layers based on thin film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karteri, İbrahim, E-mail: ibrahimkarteri@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science And Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş 4610 (Turkey); Karataş, Şükrü [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaraş 4610 (Turkey); Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin [Department of Physics, Fırat University, Elazıg 2310 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets and electrical characterization of graphene oxide based thin film transistor. • Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. • We used insulator layers which are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl phenol (PVP) for graphene oxide based thin flim transistor. - Abstract: We have studied the electrical characteristics of graphene oxide based thin flim transistor with the polymer insulators such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP). Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. The structural properties of GO nanosheets were characterized with Ultraviolet Visible (UV–vis), FT-IR spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction (XRD). Graphene oxide based thin flim transistor (GO-TFT) was prepared by a spin-coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of GO-TFT was analyzed by output and transfer characteristics by using Keithley-4200 semiconductor characterization system (SCS). The graphene oxide based thin flim transistor devices show p-type semiconducting behavior. The mobility, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing value and I{sub on}/I{sub off} of GO-TFT were found to be 0.105 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, −8.7 V, 4.03 V/decade and 10, respectively.

  13. Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  15. Growth process optimization of ZnO thin film using atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Binbin; Wang, Jingyu; Larson, Preston; Liu, Yingtao

    2016-12-01

    The work reports experimental studies of ZnO thin films grown on Si(100) wafers using a customized thermal atomic layer deposition. The impact of growth parameters including H2O/DiethylZinc (DEZn) dose ratio, background pressure, and temperature are investigated. The imaging results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal that the dose ratio is critical to the surface morphology. To achieve high uniformity, the H2O dose amount needs to be at least twice that of DEZn per each cycle. If the background pressure drops below 400 mTorr, a large amount of nanoflower-like ZnO grains would emerge and increase surface roughness significantly. In addition, the growth temperature range between 200 °C and 250 °C is found to be the optimal growth window. And the crystal structures and orientations are also strongly correlated to the temperature as proved by electron back-scattering diffraction and x-ray diffraction results.

  16. Thermal characteristics of double-layer thin film target ablated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xun; Song Xiao-Wei; Lin Jing-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of tightly-contacted copper-gold double-layer thin film target under ablation of femtosecond laser pulses are investigated by using a two-temperature theoretical model. Numerical simulation shows that electron heat flux varies significantly on the boundary of copper-gold film with different maximal electron temperature of 1.15 × 103 K at 5 ps after ablating laser pulse in gold and copper films, which can reach a balance around 12.6 ps and 8.2 ps for a single and double pulse ablation, respectively, and in the meantime, the lattice temperature difference crossing the gold-copper interface is only about 0.04 × 103 K at the same time scale. It is also found that electron-lattice heat relaxation time increases linearly with laser fluence in both single and double pulse ablation, and a sudden change of the relaxation time appears after the laser energy density exceeds the ablation threshold.

  17. Photochemical functionalization of gallium nitride thin films with molecular and biomolecular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesuk; Colavita, Paula E; Metz, Kevin M; Nichols, Beth M; Sun, Bin; Uhlrich, John; Wang, Xiaoyu; Kuech, Thomas F; Hamers, Robert J

    2006-09-12

    We demonstrate that photochemical functionalization can be used to functionalize and photopattern the surface of gallium nitride crystalline thin films with well-defined molecular and biomolecular layers. GaN(0001) surfaces exposed to a hydrogen plasma will react with organic molecules bearing an alkene (C=C) group when illuminated with 254 nm light. Using a bifunctional molecule with an alkene group at one end and a protected amine group at the other, this process can be used to link the alkene group to the surface, leaving the protected amine exposed. Using a simple contact mask, we demonstrate the ability to directly pattern the spatial distribution of these protected amine groups on the surface with a lateral resolution of <12 mum. After deprotection of the amines, single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides were linked to the surface using a bifunctional cross-linker. Measurements using fluorescently labeled complementary and noncomplementary sequences show that the DNA-modified GaN surfaces exhibit excellent selectivity, while repeated cycles of hybridization and denaturation in urea show good stability. These results demonstrate that photochemical functionalization can be used as an attractive starting point for interfacing molecular and biomolecular systems with GaN and other compound semiconductors.

  18. Periodic oxidation for fabricating titanium oxynitride thin films via atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, Shinya, E-mail: shinya.iwashita@tel.com; Aoyama, Shintaro; Nasu, Masayuki; Shimomura, Kouji; Noro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Toshio; Akasaka, Yasushi [SPE Core Technology Development Department, Tokyo Electron Yamanashi Ltd., 50 Mitsuzawa, Hosaka-cho, 407-0192 Nirasaki (Japan); Miyashita, Kohei [Leading Edge Process Development Center, Tokyo Electron Ltd., 650 Mitsuzawa, Hosaka-cho, 407-0192 Nirasaki (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    This paper demonstrates thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) combined with periodic oxidation for synthesizing titanium oxynitride (TiON) thin films. The process used a typical ALD reactor for the synthesis of titanium nitride (TiN) films wherein oxygen was supplied periodically between the ALD-TiN cycles. The great advantage of the process proposed here was that it allowed the TiN films to be oxidized efficiently. Also, a uniform depth profile of the oxygen concentration in the films could be obtained by tuning the oxidation conditions, allowing the process to produce a wide variety of TiON films. The resistivity measurement is a convenient method to confirm the reproducibility of metal film fabrication but may not be applicable for TiON films depending upon the oxidation condition because the films can easily turn into insulators when subjected to periodic oxidation. Therefore, an alternative reproducibility confirmation method was required. In this study, spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to monitor the variation of TiON films and was able to detect changes in film structures such as conductor–insulator transitions in the TiON films.

  19. Ultraviolet optical properties of aluminum fluoride thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, John, E-mail: john.j.hennessy@jpl.nasa.gov; Jewell, April D.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Nikzad, Shouleh [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Aluminum fluoride (AlF{sub 3}) is a low refractive index material with promising optical applications for ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. An atomic layer deposition process using trimethylaluminum and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride has been developed for the deposition of AlF{sub 3} at substrate temperatures between 100 and 200 °C. This low temperature process has resulted in thin films with UV-optical properties that have been characterized by ellipsometric and reflection/transmission measurements at wavelengths down to 200 nm. The optical loss for 93 nm thick films deposited at 100 °C was measured to be less than 0.2% from visible wavelengths down to 200 nm, and additional microstructural characterization demonstrates that the films are amorphous with moderate tensile stress of 42–105 MPa as deposited on silicon substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows no signature of residual aluminum oxide components making these films good candidates for a variety of applications at even shorter UV wavelengths.

  20. Hybrid functional IrO2-TiO2 thin film resistor prepared by atomic layer deposition for thermal inkjet printheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won-Sub KWACK; Hyoung-Seok MOON; Seong-Jun JEONG; Qi-min WANG; Se-Hun KWON

    2011-01-01

    IrO2-TiO2 thin films were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Ir(EtCp)(COD) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP).in the IrO2-TiO2 thin films. The low temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR) values can be obtained by adopting IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films. Moreover, the change in the resistivity of lrO2-TiO2 thin films was below 10% even after O2 annealing process at 600 ℃. The step stress test results show that IrO2-TiO2 films have better characteristics than conventional TaN08 heater resistor.Therefore, IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films can be used as a heater resistor material in thermal inkjet printhead.

  1. Electrochemical cell for in situ electrodeposition of magnetic thin films in a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovec, Stefan; Krenn, Heinz; Würschum, Roland

    2015-06-01

    An electrochemical cell is designed and applied for in situ electrodeposition of magnetic thin films in a commercial SQUID magnetometer system. The cell is constructed in such a way that any parasitic contribution of the cell and of the substrate for electrodeposition to the magnetic moment of the deposited film is reduced to a minimum. A remanent minor contribution is readily taken into account by a proper analysis of the detected signal. Thus, a precise determination of the absolute magnetic moment of the electrodeposited magnetic film during its growth and dissolution is achieved. The feasibility of the cell design is demonstrated by performing Co electrodeposition using cyclic voltammetry. For an average Co film thickness of (35.6 ± 3.0) atomic layers, a magnetic moment per Co atom of (1.75 ± 0.11) μ(B) was estimated, in good agreement with the literature bulk value.

  2. Exploring Cd-Zn-O-S alloys for optimal buffer layers in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, J.; He, X.; Mackie, N.; Rockett, A.; Lordi, V.

    2015-03-01

    The development of thin-film photovoltaics has largely focused on alternative absorber materials, while the choices for other layers in the solar cell stack have remained somewhat limited. In particular, cadmium sulfide (CdS) is widely used as the buffer layer in typical record devices utilizing absorbers like Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) or Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) despite leading to a loss of solar photocurrent due to its band gap of 2.4 eV. While different buffers such as Zn(S,O,OH) are beginning to become competitive with CdS, the identification of additional wider-band gap alternatives with electrical properties comparable to or better than CdS is highly desirable. Here we use hybrid functional calculations to characterize CdxZn1-xOyS1-y candidate buffer layers in the quaternary phase space composed by Cd, Zn, O, and S. We focus on the band gaps and band offsets of the alloys to assess strategies for improving absorption losses from conventional CdS buffers while maintaining similar conduction band offsets known to facilitate good device performance. We also consider additional criteria such as lattice matching to identify regions in the composition space that may provide improved epitaxy to CIGSe and CZTS absorbers. Lastly, we incorporate our calculated alloy properties into simulations of typical CIGSe devices to identify the CdxZn1-xOyS1-y buffer compositions that lead to the best performance. This work performed under the auspices of the USDoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the DoE EERE through the SunShot BRIDGE program.

  3. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Michael, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru{sup 0}) and its oxide (RuO{sub 2}) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru{sup 0} and RuO{sub 2} films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO{sub 2} and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.{sup 0} An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO{sub 2}/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  4. Scaling Laws for Thin Films near the Superconducting-to-Insulating Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    We propose a Lagrangian function, which combines Landau-Ginzburg term and Chern-Simons term, for describing the competition between disorder and superconductivity. To describe the normal-to-superconducting transition in the thin superconducting films, we apply Wilson’s renormalization group methods into this Lagrangian function. Finally, we obtain a scaling law between critical temperature (Tc), film thickness (d), sheet resistance of the film at the normal state (Rs), and number density of the electrons at the normal state (N). Such a scaling law is in agreement with recent experimental investigations [Ivry, Y. et al., Physical Review B 90, 214515 (2014)]. Our finding may have potential benefits for improving transition temperature Tc.

  5. Growth and characterization of superconducting spinel oxide LiTiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Wong, Franklin J.; Takamura, Yayoi; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Epitaxial films of LiTiO on single crystalline substrates of MgAlO, MgO, and SrTiO provide model systems to systematically explore the effects of lattice strain and microstructural disorder on the superconducting state. Lattice strain that affects bandwidth gives rise to variations in the superconducting and normal state properties. Microstructural disorder, such as antiphase boundaries that give rise to Ti network disorder, reduces the critical temperature, and Ti network disorder combined with Mg interdiffusion lead to a much more dramatic effect on the superconducting state. Surface sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopy has identified Ti to retain site symmetry and average valence of the bulk material regardless of film thickness.

  6. Microscratch testing method for systematic evaluation of the adhesion of atomic layer deposited thin films on silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpi, Lauri; Ylivaara, Oili M.E.; Vaajoki, Antti; Malm, Jari; Sintonen, Sakari; Tuominen, Marko; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Ronkainen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The scratch test method is widely used for adhesion evaluation of thin films and coatings. Usual critical load criteria designed for scratch testing of coatings were not applicable to thin atomic layer deposition (ALD) films on silicon wafers. Thus, the bases for critical load evaluation were established and the critical loads suitable for ALD coating adhesion evaluation on silicon wafers were determined in this paper as LCSi1, LCSi2, LCALD1, and LCALD2, representing the failure p...

  7. Determination of surface resistance and magnetic penetration depth of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films by microwave power transmission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Newman, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel waveguide power transmission measurement technique was developed to extract the complex conductivity of superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies. The microwave conductivity was taken of two laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 with transition temperatures of approximately 86.3 and 82 K, respectively, in the temperature range 25 to 300 K. From the conductivity values, the penetration depth was found to be approximately 0.54 and 0.43 micron, and the surface resistance (R sub s) to be approximately 24 and 36 micro-Ohms at 36 GHz and 76 K for the two films under consideration. The R sub s values were compared with those obtained from the change in the Q-factor of a 36 GHz Te sub 011-mode (OFHC) copper cavity by replacing one of its end walls with the superconducting sample. This technique allows noninvasive characterization of high transition superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies.

  8. Determination of surface resistance and magnetic penetration depth of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films by microwave power transmission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Newman, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel waveguide power transmission measurement technique was developed to extract the complex conductivity of superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies. The microwave conductivity was taken of two laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 with transition temperatures of approximately 86.3 and 82 K, respectively, in the temperature range 25 to 300 K. From the conductivity values, the penetration depth was found to be approximately 0.54 and 0.43 micron, and the surface resistance (R sub s) to be approximately 24 and 36 micro-Ohms at 36 GHz and 76 K for the two films under consideration. The R sub s values were compared with those obtained from the change in the Q-factor of a 36 GHz Te sub 011-mode (OFHC) copper cavity by replacing one of its end walls with the superconducting sample. This technique allows noninvasive characterization of high transition superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies.

  9. High-flux Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Ultrafiltration Membranes Containing Cellulose Barrier Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H.; Yoon, K; Rong, L; Mao, Y; Mo, Z; Fang, D; Hollander, Z; Gaiteri, J; Hsiao , B; Chu, B

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membrane consisting of a cellulose barrier layer, a nanofibrous mid-layer scaffold, and a melt-blown non-woven substrate was successfully fabricated and tested as an ultrafiltration (UF) filter to separate an emulsified oil and water mixture, a model bilge water for on-board ship bilge water purification. Two ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, were chosen as the solvent to dissolve cellulose under mild conditions. The regenerated cellulose barrier layer exhibited less crystallinity (determined by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, WAXD) than the original cotton linter pulps, but good thermal stability (determined by thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA). The morphology, water permeation, and mechanical stability of the chosen TFNCmembranes were thoroughly investigated. The results indicated that the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous scaffold was partially imbedded in the cellulose barrier layer, which enhanced the mechanical strength of the top barrier layer. The permeation flux of the cellulose-based TFNCmembrane was significantly higher (e.g. 10x) than comparable commercial UFmembranes (PAN10 and PAN400, Sepro) with similar rejection ratios for separation of oil/water emulsions. The molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of TFNC membranes with cellulose barrier layer was evaluated using dextran feed solutions. The rejection was found to be higher than 90% with a dextran molecular weight of 2000 KDa, implying that the nominal pore size of the membrane was less than 50 nm. High permeation flux was also observed in the filtration of an emulsified oil/water mixture as well as of a sodium alginate aqueous solution, while high rejection ratio (above 99.5%) was maintained after prolonged operation. A variation of the barrier layer thickness could dramatically affect the permeation flux and the rejection ratio of the TFNCmembranes, while different sources of cellulose

  10. Electronic properties of high-temperature superconducting thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, Daniel; Cloetta, D.; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Pavuna, Davor

    2002-11-01

    We use a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup to grow ultra-thin films of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and transfer them in-situ into a photoemission chamber. Photoemission measurements on such films allow us to study non-cleavable materials, but can also give insights into aspects never measured before, like the influence of strain on the low energy electronic structure. Systematic studies of many different materials grown as films showed that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x, Bi2Sr2Cu1O6+x, Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x and La2-xSrxCuO4 films exhibit a conductor-like Fermi edge, but materials containing chains (such as YBa2Cu3O7-x) are prone to very rapid surface degradation, possibly related to critical oxygen loss at the surface. Among HTSC materials, La2-xSrxCuO4 is extremely interesting because of its rather simple structure and the fact that its critical temperature Tc can be enhanced by epitaxial strain. Here we present our first high resolution angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results on 8 unit-cell thin La2-xSrxCuO4 films on SrLaAlO4 [001] substrates. Due to the lattice mismatch, such films are compressed in the copper oxygen planes and expanded in the c-axis direction. Results show a surprisingly modified Fermi surface compared to the one of non-strained samples.

  11. Effect of native oxide layers on copper thin-film tensile properties: A reactive molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarlinski, Michael D., E-mail: michael.skarlinski@rochester.edu [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Quesnel, David J. [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Metal-oxide layers are likely to be present on metallic nano-structures due to either environmental exposure during use, or high temperature processing techniques such as annealing. It is well known that nano-structured metals have vastly different mechanical properties from bulk metals; however, difficulties in modeling the transition between metallic and ionic bonding have prevented the computational investigation of the effects of oxide surface layers. Newly developed charge-optimized many body [Liang et al., Mater. Sci. Eng., R 74, 255 (2013)] potentials are used to perform fully reactive molecular dynamics simulations which elucidate the effects that metal-oxide layers have on the mechanical properties of a copper thin-film. Simulated tensile tests are performed on thin-films while using different strain-rates, temperatures, and oxide thicknesses to evaluate changes in yield stress, modulus, and failure mechanisms. Findings indicate that copper-thin film mechanical properties are strongly affected by native oxide layers. The formed oxide layers have an amorphous structure with lower Cu-O bond-densities than bulk CuO, and a mixture of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO charge character. It is found that oxidation will cause modifications to the strain response of the elastic modulii, producing a stiffened modulii at low temperatures (<75 K) and low strain values (<5%), and a softened modulii at higher temperatures. While under strain, structural reorganization within the oxide layers facilitates brittle yielding through nucleation of defects across the oxide/metal interface. The oxide-free copper thin-film yielding mechanism is found to be a tensile-axis reorientation and grain creation. The oxide layers change the observed yielding mechanism, allowing for the inner copper thin-film to sustain an FCC-to-BCC transition during yielding. The mechanical properties are fit to a thermodynamic model based on classical nucleation theory. The fit implies that the oxidation of the

  12. Influence of SiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the crystalline quality and photoluminescence of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L H; Chen, Y L; Xu, F [College of Math and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China); Li, X Y [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Hua, S, E-mail: congyu3256@sina.com [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Photoelectric Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In this work, a SiO{sub 2} buffer layer was first grown on Si substrate by thermal oxidation, and then ZnO thin films were deposited on SiO{sub 2} buffer layer and Si substrate by electron beam evaporation and sol-gel method. The influence of SiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the crystalline quality and photoluminescence of the films was investigated. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that all the ZnO thin films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and were preferentially oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The SiO{sub 2} buffer layer improved the crystalline quality and decreased the stress in ZnO thin films. The surface morphology analyses of the samples indicated that ZnO thin films deposited on SiO{sub 2} buffer layers had densely packed grains which obviously increased compared with those grown on bare Si substrate. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples showed that the ZnO thin films deposited on SiO{sub 2} buffer layers had stronger ultraviolet emission performance. The results suggest that SiO{sub 2} buffer layer can improve the crystalline quality and ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin films.

  13. Thin-film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells made by a seed layer approach on glass-ceramic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I.; Beaucarne, G.; Poortmans, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vallon, S. [Corning European Technology Center, 7bis avenue de Valvins, 77210 Avon (France); Mayolet, A. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR02-12, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Solar modules made from thin-film crystalline-silicon layers of high quality on glass substrates could lower the price of photovoltaic electricity substantially. One way to create crystalline-silicon thin films on non-silicon substrates is to use the so-called ''seed layer approach'', in which a thin crystalline-silicon seed layer is first created, followed by epitaxial thickening of this seed layer. In this paper, we present the first solar cell results obtained on 10-{mu}m-thick monocrystalline-silicon (mono-Si) layers obtained by a seed layer approach on transparent glass-ceramic substrates. The seed layers were made using implant-induced separation and anodic bonding. These layers were then epitaxially thickened by thermal CVD. Simple solar cell structures without integrated light trapping features showed efficiencies of up to 7.5%. Compared to polycrystalline-silicon layers made by aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon and thermal CVD, the mono-Si layers have a much higher bulk diffusion lifetime. (author)

  14. Preparation and characterization of double layer thin films ZnO/ZnO:Ag for methylene blue photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, Singgih, E-mail: singgih@st.fisika.undip.ac.id; Sutanto, Heri, E-mail: herisutanto@undip.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Double layer (DL) thin films of zinc oxide and silver-doped zinc oxide (ZnO/ZnO:Ag) were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique. The prepared thin films were subjected for optical and photocatalytic studies. UV-visible transmission spectra shows that the subtitution of Ag in ZnO leads to band gap reduction. The influence of Ag doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO for the degradation of methylene blue dye was studied under solar radiation. The light absorption over an extended visible region by Ag ion doping in ZnO film contributed equally to improve the photocatalytic activity up to 98.29%.

  15. Preparation and characterization of double layer thin films ZnO/ZnO:Ag for methylene blue photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Singgih; Sutanto, Heri

    2016-02-01

    Double layer (DL) thin films of zinc oxide and silver-doped zinc oxide (ZnO/ZnO:Ag) were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spray coating technique. The prepared thin films were subjected for optical and photocatalytic studies. UV-visible transmission spectra shows that the subtitution of Ag in ZnO leads to band gap reduction. The influence of Ag doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO for the degradation of methylene blue dye was studied under solar radiation. The light absorption over an extended visible region by Ag ion doping in ZnO film contributed equally to improve the photocatalytic activity up to 98.29%.

  16. Characteristics and properties of metal aluminum thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Yu-Qing; Li Xing-Cun; Chen Qiang; Lei Wen-Wen; Zhao Qiao; Sang Li-Jun; Liu Zhong-Wei; Wang Zheng-Duo; Yang Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Metal aluminum (Al) thin films are prepared by 2450 MHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition on glass and p-Si substrates using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and hydrogen as the reductive gas.We focus our attention on the plasma source for the thin-film preparation and annealing of the as-deposited films relative to the surface square resistivity.The square resistivity of as-deposited Al films is greatly reduced after annealing and almost reaches the value of bulk metal.Through chemical and structural analysis,we conclude that the square resistivity is determined by neither the contaminant concentration nor the surface morphology,but by both the crystallinity and crystal size in this process.

  17. Far-infrared conductivity measurements of pair breaking in superconducting Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N thin films induced by an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoxiang; Hwang, J; Martin, C; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L

    2010-12-17

    We report the complex optical conductivity of a superconducting thin film of Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N in an external magnetic field. The field was applied parallel to the film surface and the conductivity extracted from far-infrared transmission and reflection measurements. The real part shows the superconducting gap, which we observe to be suppressed by the applied magnetic field. We compare our results with the pair-breaking theory of Abrikosov and Gor'kov and confirm directly the theory's validity for the optical conductivity.

  18. Co-Rich ZnCoO Nanoparticles Embedded in Wurtzite Zn1-xCoxO Thin Films: Possible Origin of Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Jia; Gauquelin, Nicolas; Li, Dan-Ying; Ruan, Shuang-Chen; He, Hai-Ping; Egoavil, Ricardo; Ye, Zhi-Zhen; Verbeeck, Johan; Hadermann, Joke; Van Bael, Margriet J; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2015-10-14

    Co-rich ZnCoO nanoparticles embedded in wurtzite Zn0.7Co0.3O thin films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on a Si substrate. Local superconductivity with an onset Tc at 5.9 K is demonstrated in the hybrid system. The unexpected superconductivity probably results from Co3+ in the Co-rich ZnCoO nanoparticles or from the interface between the Co-rich nanoparticles and the Zn0.7Co0.3O matrix.

  19. Characterization of Nanocrystalline SiGe Thin Film Solar Cell with Double Graded-Dead Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium (nc-SiGe thin films were deposited by high-frequency (27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD. The films were used in a silicon-based thin film solar cell with graded-dead absorption layer. The characterization of the nc-SiGe films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of SiGe alloy can be adjusted between 0.8 and 1.7 eV by varying the gas ratio. For thin film solar cell application, using double graded-dead i-SiGe layers mainly leads to an increase in short-circuit current and therefore cell conversion efficiency. An initial conversion efficiency of 5.06% and the stabilized efficiency of 4.63% for an nc-SiGe solar cell were achieved.

  20. Formation of the 110-K superconducting phase in Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R.; Gorecka, J.; Lewandowski, S.J. (Instytut Fizyki, Polska Akademia Nauk, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warszawa (Poland))

    1991-09-15

    Investigation of the 110-K Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital x}} phase formation in superconducting thin films of Bi-based cuprates is reported. The films were dc magnetron sputtered from single Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O targets of various stoichiometries, and subsequently annealed in air at high temperatures. The influence of the initial Pb content, annealing conditions, as well as the substrate material on the growth of the 110-K phase was investigated. We found that the films, fully superconducting above 100 K could be reproducibly fabricated on various dielectric substrates from Pb-rich targets by optimizing annealing conditions for each initial Pb/Bi ratio. Heavy Pb doping considerably accelerated formation of the 110-K phase, reducing the film annealing time to less than 1 h. Films containing, according to the x-ray measurement, more than 90% of the 110-K phase were obtained on MgO substrates, after sputtering from the Bi{sub 2}Pb{sub 2.5}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2.15}Cu{sub 3.3}O{sub {ital x}} target and annealing in air for 1 h at 870 {degree}C. The films were {ital c}-axis oriented, with 4.5-K-wide superconducting transition, and zero resistivity at 106 K. Their critical current density was 2 {times} 10{sup 2} A/cm{sup 2} at 90 K, and above 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} below 60 K. The growth of the 110-K phase on epitaxial substrates, such as CaNdAlO{sub 4} and SrTiO{sub 3}, was considerably deteriorated, and the presence of the 80- and 10-K phases was detected. Nevertheless, the best films deposited on these substrates were fully superconducting at 104 K and exhibited critical current densities above 2 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} below 60 K{minus}one order of magnitude greater than the films deposited on MgO.

  1. Full spin switch effect for the superconducting current in a superconductor/ferromagnet thin film heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksin, P. V.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Garifullin, I. A.; Schumann, J.; Vinzelberg, H.; Kataev, V.; Klingeler, R.; Schmidt, O. G.; Büchner, B.

    2010-09-01

    Using the spin switch design F1/F2/S theoretically proposed by Oh et al., [Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2376 (1997)], that comprises a ferromagnetic bilayer as a ferromagnetic component, and an ordinary superconductor as the second interface component, we have realized a full spin switch effect for the superconducting current. An experimental realization of this spin switch construction was achieved for the CoOx/Fe1/Cu/Fe2/In multilayer.

  2. Superconductivity in CVD Diamond Thin Film Well-Above Liquid Helium Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Y.; Nagao, M.; Kobayashi, K; Umezawa, H.; Sakaguchi, I.; Tachiki, M.; Hatano, T.; Kawarada, H.

    2004-01-01

    Diamond has always been adored as a jewel. Even more fascinating is its outstanding physical properties; it is the hardest material known in the world with the highest thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, when we turn to its electrical properties, diamond is a rather featureless electrical insulator. However, with boron doping, it becomes a p-type semiconductor, with boron acting as a charge acceptor. Therefore the recent news of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond synthesized by hig...

  3. Effect of Channel Layer Thickness on Characteristics and Stability of Amorphous Hafnium-Indium-Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Young-Wook; Lee, Woo-Geun; Yoon, Kap-Soo; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Han, Min-Koo

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the channel layer thickness dependence of the characteristics and stability in amorphous hafnium indium zinc-oxide (HIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). HIZO TFTs were prepared with various channel thicknesses from 400 to 700 Å. In HIZO TFTs, carrier concentration is considerably high, which leads to channel layer thickness dependence. The threshold voltages of TFTs negatively shifted as the channel thickness increased. The threshold voltage shift at a high temperature is more severe in TFTs with thicker channel layers. The channel thickness dependence of the bias stability of HIZO TFTs is closely related to the back interface, rather than the bulk state.

  4. Ion beam treatment of functional layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wendi

    2013-10-01

    In silicon thin-film solar cells, transparent conductive layers have to fulfill the following requirements: high conductivity as effective contact, high transparency to transmit the light into the cell, and a textured surface which provides light scattering. Magnetron sputtered and wet-chemically textured aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films are widely used as the transparent conductor. The technological goal of this dissertation is to develop an alternative to the wet etching process for light trapping in the thin silicon absorber layers through modification of the glass/ZnO:Al or ZnO:Al/Si interfaces by ion beam treatment. The study focuses on the textured growth of ZnO:Al films on ion beam pretreated glass substrates, and the preparation and application of textured glass for light trapping. The technological aspects such as the etch rates of the glass substrate and ZnO:Al films with different ion beam configurations were studied. The experimental etch rates are compared with simulated and theoretically predicted values. With regard to the ion beam treatment of glass substrate, the influence of the ion pretreated glass on the growth of ZnO:Al films was investigated. The ZnO:Al films grown on ion beam pretreated glass substrates exhibit self-textured morphology with surface roughness of 40 nm while remaining highly conductive. Silicon thin-film solar cells prepared on the as-grown rough ZnO:Al films show that this front contact can provide excellent light trapping effect. The highest initial efficiencies for amorphous single junction solar cells on as-grown rough ZnO:Al films was 9.4%. The as-grown rough morphology was attributed to large conical ZnO:Al grains initiated from the ion pretreated glass surface. It was found that the roughness of the as-grown rough ZnO:Al film is proportional to the number of O dangling bonds created by ion beam treatment on the glass substrate. A growth model was proposed to explain the growth mechanism of ZnO:Al films on Zn- and

  5. Protection effect of ZrO2 coating layer on LiCoO2 thin film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jung-Pil; Jung, Ki-Taek; Jang, Min-Sun; Kwon, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Bare and ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 thin films were fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering method on STS304 substrates. Deposited both films have a well-crystallized structure with (003) preferred orientation after annealing at 600 degrees C. The ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 thin film provide significantly improved cycling stability compared to bare LiCoO2 thin film at high cut-off potential (3.0-4.5 V). The improvement in electrochemical stability is attributed to the structural stability by ZrO2 coating layer.

  6. Optical behavior of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV thin films stretched in bi-layer dwetting by an unstable layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Tsun; Yang, Arnold C.-M.

    2012-02-01

    Molecular packing and chain conformation play important roles in the optoelectronic performance of conjugated polymer thin films. It has been shown that by virtue of stretching via dewetting, the photoluminescence (PL) efficiencies of rarefied MEH-PPV thin films may be dramatically enhanced. To result similar effects in the stable non-diluted pristine MEH-PPV thin films, bi-layer dewetting was attempted in samples of MEH-PPV thin films (˜7nm) covered by one layer of polystyrene (PS) (˜40nm) that dewetted in toluene vapor to form droplets (height ˜300 nm) and ultrathin residual layer (˜3nm) on the substrate. The instability was initiated from the PS layer in which small pinholes first emerged upon the intake of the solvent vapor. The pinholes then expanded and deepened into the underlying MEH-PPV, forcing the conjugated film to dewet. As a result of the stretching induced by the dewetting, the PL peak blue-shifted 20 nm to 540 nm and the intensity was enhanced around 10 times. Revealed by the position-sensitive confocal PL data, the huge enhancement came from both the droplet and residual layer, caused by molecular separation and stretching. Electroluminescence devices are being made based on these stretched MEH-PPV films.

  7. Semiconductor thin film transfer by wafer bonding and advanced ion implantation layer splitting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Hsi

    advanced ion implantation layer splitting technique was developed to significantly decrease the splitting (annealing) temperature. It successfully solved the debonding and cracking problems because of thermal stress. Low vacuum bonding and storage process also was investigated in the dissertation because its enhanced bonding effect can render a way to increase sufficient high bonding energy at low annealing (splitting) temperature condition that can notably reduce thermal stress to successfully transfer a thin film onto substrate during splitting process.

  8. Thin-film superconducting rings in the critical state: the mixed boundary value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Roberto; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the critical state of a thin superconducting ring (and of a perfectly conducting ring as a limiting case) as a mixed boundary value problem. The disc is characterized by a three-part boundary division of the positive real axis, so this work is an extension of the procedure used in a previous work of ours for describing superconducting discs and strips, which are characterized by a two-part boundary division of the real axis. Here, we present the mathematical tools to solve this kind of problems—the Erdélyi-Kober operators—in a frame that can be immediately used. Contrary to the two-part problems considered in our previous work, three-part problems do not generally have analytical solutions and the numerical work takes on a significant heaviness. Nevertheless, this work is remunerated by three clear advantages: firstly, all the cases are afforded in the same way, without the necessity of any brilliant invention or ability; secondly, in the case of superconducting rings, the penetration of the magnetic field in the internal/external rims is a result of the method itself and does not have to be imposed, as it is commonly done with other methods presented in the literature; thirdly, the method can be extended to investigate even more complex cases (four-part problems). In this paper, we consider the cases of rings in uniform field and with transport current, with or without flux trapping in the hole and the case without net current, corresponding to a cut ring (washer), as used in some SQUID applications.

  9. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...

  10. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...

  11. Effects of a Pretreatment on Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ju; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Hwang, Dae-Kue

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrical, structural, and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films approximately 50 nm thick grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on glass substrates at 200 °C. An H2O pretreatment was conducted for all AZO samples. The electrical properties of the AZO thin film were improved after the pretreatment process. The Al doping concentrations were controlled by inserting an Al2O3 cycle after every "n" ZnO cycles while varying n from 99 to 16. As the doping concentration increases, the resistivity decreases and the optical band gap increases. When the Al2O3 cycle ratio is 5%, the electrical resistivity showed the lowest value of 4.66 x 10(-3) Ω cm. A carrier concentration of 1.10 x 10(20) cm(-3), and the optical transmittance exceeding 90% were obtained in the visible and near-infrared region. The thin film was strongly textured along the (100) direction in the X-ray diffraction patterns.

  12. Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of CuSbS2 for Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Shannon C; Koegel, Alexandra A; Emery, Jonathan D; Pellin, Michael J; Martinson, Alex B F

    2017-02-08

    Copper antimony sulfide (CuSbS2) has been gaining traction as an earth-abundant absorber for thin-film photovoltaics given its near ideal band gap for solar energy conversion (∼1.5 eV), large absorption coefficient (>10(4) cm(-1)), and elemental abundance. Through careful in situ analysis of the deposition conditions, a low-temperature route to CuSbS2 thin films via atomic layer deposition has been developed. After a short (15 min) postprocess anneal at 225 °C, the ALD-grown CuSbS2 films were crystalline with micron-sized grains, exhibited a band gap of 1.6 eV and an absorption coefficient >10(4) cm(-1), as well as a hole concentration of 10(15) cm(-3). Finally, the ALD-grown CuSbS2 films were paired with ALD-grown TiO2 to form a photovoltaic device. This photovoltaic device architecture represents one of a very limited number of Cd-free CuSbS2 PV device stacks reported to date, and it is the first to demonstrate an open-circuit voltage on par with CuSbS2/CdS heterojunction PV devices. While far from optimized, this work demonstrates the potential for ALD-grown CuSbS2 thin films in environmentally benign photovoltaics.

  13. Thermodynamics and kinetic behaviors of thickness-dependent crystallization in high-k thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049, People' s Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition is adopted to prepare HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-k thin films. The HfO{sub 2} thin films are amorphous at the initial growth stage, but become crystallized when the film thickness (h) exceeds a critical value (h{sub critical}{sup *}). This phase transition from amorphous to crystalline is enhanced at higher temperatures and is discussed, taking into account the effect of kinetic energy. At lower temperatures, the amorphous state can be maintained even when h>h{sub critical}{sup *} owing to the small number of activated atoms. However, the number of activated atoms increases with the temperature, allowing crystallization to occur even in films with smaller thickness. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films, on the other hand, maintain their amorphous state independent of the film thickness and temperature owing to the limited number of activated atoms. A thermodynamic model is proposed to describe the thickness-dependent phase transition.

  14. Investigation of the ablation of zinc oxide thin films on copper-indium-selenide layers by ps laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Gerhard; Dickmann, Marcel; Domke, Matthias; Heiss, Andreas; Kuznicki, Thomas; Palm, Jörg; Richter, Isabel; Vogt, Helmut; Huber, Heinz P.

    2011-07-01

    The selective laser structuring of zinc oxide thin films, which serve as the transparent negative electrodes of copper-indium-selenide (CIS) thin film solar cells, is of great common interest as it can replace the mechanical scribing of the so-called pattern 3 (P3) process step for the monolithic serial interconnection of these cells. We present an investigation of the single-pulse ablation behavior of zinc oxide thin films on glass substrates and on CIS layers and of trench scribing with 10-ps laser pulses at 1064 nm and at 532 nm. We show that the ablation behavior strongly depends on the properties of the underling substrate and that the energy required to ablate a specific volume using induced laser processes (often referred to as `lift off') is considerably reduced compared to the direct ablation of zinc oxide. With laser powers below 2 W at a wavelength of 1064 nm process speeds of 6 m/s for the P3 process have been achieved.

  15. A novel self-cleaning and anti-reflective multi-layer for thin-film solar PV module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.L.; Shiue, J.D. [Kun-Shan Univ., Yung-Kung City, Taiwan (China). Clean Energy Center; Li, M.; Huang, M.C. [NanoWinTechnology Co., Ltd., Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.S.; Wei, S.S. [National Univ. of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) acts as a photocatalyst, and can accelerate the decomposition of organic particulates and airborne pollutants that gather on solar arrays. In this study, a TiO{sub 2} film was coated on the outside surface of sodium glass in order to increase the self-cleaning ability of solar cells. DC magnetic sputtering was used to coat multi-layer thin films of silicon nitrides in order to increase their antireflective capabilities. The TiO{sub 2} thin film was fabricated using the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the microstructure and composition of the films were characterized using UV-V spectroscopy. Results showed that the best anti-reflection spectrum of the TiO{sub 2} was between 700 and 800 nm. Average transmission rates were 3.54 per cent higher than those observed in slide glass samples. It was concluded that overlapped titanium dioxide/silicon nitride thin films can achieve a very good anti-reflective effect as well as self-cleaning ability in the range of 400-800 nm. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A U Ubale; R J Dhokne; P S Chikhlikar; V S Sangawar; D K Kulkarni

    2006-04-01

    Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposition method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium acetate was used as cationic and sodium tellurite as anionic precursor in aqueous medium. In this process hydrazine hydrate is used as reducing agent and NH4OH as the catalytic for the decomposition of hydrazine. By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was done. In this paper the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdTe film are reported. The XRD pattern shows that films are nanocrystalline in nature. The resistivity is found to be of the order of 4.11 × 103 -cm at 523 K temperature with an activation energy of ∼ 0.2 eV. The optical absorption studies show that films have direct band gap (1.41 eV).

  17. High quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsili, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, NL-5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gaggero, Alessandro; Leoni, Roberto [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, I-00156 Roma (Italy); Li, Lianhe H; Surrente, Alessandro [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPEQ), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Levy, Francis, E-mail: francesco.marsili@epfl.c [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    A very promising way to increase the detection efficiency of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) consists in integrating them with advanced optical structures such as distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and optical waveguides. This requires transferring the challenging SSPD technology from the usual substrates, i.e. sapphire and MgO, to an optical substrate like GaAs, on which DBRs and waveguides can be easily obtained. Therefore, we optimized the deposition process of few-nm thick superconducting NbN films on GaAs and AlAs/GaAs-based DBRs at low temperatures (substrate temperature T{sub S} = 400 {sup 0}C), in order to prevent As evaporation. NbN films ranging from 150 to 3 nm in thickness were then deposited on single-crystal MgO, GaAs, MgO-buffered GaAs and DBRs by current-controlled DC magnetron sputtering (planar, circular, balanced configuration) of Nb in an Ar+N{sub 2} plasma. 5.5 nm thick NbN films on GaAs exhibit T{sub C} = 10.7 K, {Delta}T{sub C} = 1.1 K and RRR = 0.7. The growth of such high quality thin NbN films on GaAs and DBRs has never been reported before.

  18. Kinetic Inductance Photodetectors Based on Nonequilibrium Response in Superconducting Thin-Film Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A. V.; Karasik, B. S.; Gogidze, I. G.; Mitin, V. V.

    2001-01-01

    While experimental studies of kinetic-inductance sensors have been limited so far by the temperature range near the superconducting transition, these detectors can be very sensitivity at temperatures well below the transition, where the number of equilibrium quasiparticles is exponentially small. In this regime, a shift of the quasiparticle chemical potential under radiation results in the change of the kinetic inductance, which can be measured by a sensitive SQUID readout. We modeled the kinetic inductance response of detectors made from disordered superconducting Nb, NbC, and MoRe films. Low phonon transparency of the interface between the superconductor and the substrate causes substantial re-trapping of phonons providing high quantum efficiency and the operating time of approximately 1 ms at 1 K. Due to the small number of quasiparticles, the noise equivalent power of the detector determined by the quasiparticle generation-recombination noise can be as small as approximately 10(exp -19) W/Hz(exp 1/2) at He4 temperatures.

  19. Superconducting YBCO thin film on multicrystalline Ag film evaporated on MgO substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Jacob; Verdyan, Armen; Lapsker, Igor

    Superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ films were grown by resistive evaporation on multicrystalline silver film which was evaporated on MgO substrate. A simple inexpensive vacuum system equipped with resistively heated boat was used for the whole process. Silver film was first evaporated on MgO substrate kept at 400°C during the evaporation after which with no further annealing a precursor mixture of yttrium small grains and Cu and BaF2 in powder form weighed in the atomic proportion to yield stoichiometric YBa 2Cu 3O 7 was evaporated. The films thus obtained were annealed at 740°C under low oxygen partial pressure of about 1Pa for 30 minutes to form the superconducting phase. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for texture and surface analysis. Electrical properties were determined using a standard dc four-probe for electrical measurements. The physical and electrical properties of the YBCO films are discussed in light of the fact that X-ray diffraction measurements done on the silver film have revealed a multicrystalline structure

  20. Microwave properties of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) high-transition-temperature superconducting thin films measured by the power transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, F. A.; Gordon, W. L.; Bhasin, K. B.; Heinen, V. O.; Warner, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The microwave response of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting thin films deposited on LaAlO3, MgO, YSZ, and LaGaO3 substrates are studied. It is found that the microwave transmission properties are very weakly dependent on temperature in the normal state but change drastically upon transition to the superconducting state. In particular, the transmission decreases and there is a negative phase shift with respect to the phase at room temperature when the sample is cooled through its transition temperature. The magnetic penetration depth for all the films was determined from the surface reactance of the films. The microwave complex conductivity is determined in both the normal and the superconducting state. It is observed that both sigma1 and sigma2 increase in transition to the superconducting state. The surface resistivity is calculated for all the films.

  1. Characterization of Sulfur Bonding in CdS:O Buffer Layers for CdTe-based Thin-Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas A; Kephart, Jason M; Horsley, Kimberly; Blum, Monika; Mezher, Michelle; Weinhardt, Lothar; Häming, Marc; Wilks, Regan G; Hofmann, Timo; Yang, Wanli; Bär, Marcus; Sampath, Walajabad S; Heske, Clemens

    2015-08-05

    On the basis of a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray emission spectroscopy, we present a detailed characterization of the chemical structure of CdS:O thin films that can be employed as a substitute for CdS layers in thin-film solar cells. It is possible to analyze the local chemical environment of the probed elements, in particular sulfur, hence allowing insights into the species-specific composition of the films and their surfaces. A detailed quantification of the observed sulfur environments (i.e., sulfide, sulfate, and an intermediate oxide) as a function of oxygen content is presented, allowing a deliberate optimization of CdS:O thin films for their use as alternative buffer layers in thin-film photovoltaic devices.

  2. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  3. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2014-11-11

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films as the lower layer we built a matrix of bottom-gate Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors of different thickness. We found that the thickness of the Cu2O layer is of major importance in oxidation of the SnO layer underneath. The thicker the Cu2O layer, the more the underlying SnO layer is oxidized, and, hence, the more transistor mobility is enhanced at a specific temperature. Both device performance and the annealing temperature required could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of each layer of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors.

  4. Thin film complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device using a single-step deposition of the channel layer

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2014-04-14

    We report, for the first time, the use of a single step deposition of semiconductor channel layer to simultaneously achieve both n-and p-type transport in transparent oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). This effect is achieved by controlling the concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH-groups) in the underlying gate dielectrics. The semiconducting tin oxide layer was deposited at room temperature, and the maximum device fabrication temperature was 350C. Both n and p-type TFTs showed fairly comparable performance. A functional CMOS inverter was fabricated using this novel scheme, indicating the potential use of our approach for various practical applications.

  5. Note: Accurate determination of thickness of multiple layers of thin film deposited on a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Modern day piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances for thin film deposition control are based on Z-match equation, which is mathematically valid for deposition of a single material on a given quartz crystal. When multiple layers are deposited, thickness and deposition rate errors accumulate due to mismatch of acoustic impedance of different materials. Here we present a novel method, based on the acoustic transfer matrix formalism, for accurate determination of thickness of an arbitrary number of layers of dissimilar materials deposited on a quartz crystal. Laboratory data show excellent accuracy of the method compared to conventional Z-match equation.

  6. THz investigations of the Higgs amplitude mode in superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressel, Martin; Pracht, Uwe S. [1. Phys. Inst., Universtaet Stuttgart (Germany); Sherman, Daniel; Frydman, Aviad [Phys. Dept., Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Gorshunov, Boris [1. Phys. Inst., Universtaet Stuttgart (Germany); General Physics Inst, RUS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Inst. Phys. and Techn., Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Raychaudhuri, Pratap [Tata Inst. Fund. Res., Mumbai (India); Trivedi, Nandini [Phys. Dept., Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Auerbach, Assa [Phys. Dept., Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-07-01

    We have measured thin superconducting films of various degrees of disorder by THz spectroscopy in order to investigate the optical conductivity at low temperatures. While the properties of weakly disordered superconductors, such as NbN or InO, can be well described by the BCS theory, significant deviations are observed as disorder increases towards the superconductor-insulator transition. On both sides of the transition, tunneling spectroscopy determines a finite pairing gap 2Δ. In contrast, the threshold frequency for the dynamical conductivity, which in BCS theory is associated with the gap, vanishes critically toward the superconductor insulator transition. Here we can identify an excess optical spectral weight below 2Δ as the first unambiguous evidence of a well-defined Higgs amplitude mode observed in a superconductor.

  7. An AFM study of the morphology and local mechanical properties of superconducting YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soifer, Ya.M.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Kazakevich, M.; Rabkin, E

    2004-02-01

    The morphology of thin superconducting YBCO films deposited on sapphire and on SrTiO{sub 3} was studied with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The intrinsic mechanical properties in the flat, particles-free and chemically homogeneous regions of the films were determined with the aid of nanoindenting atomic force microscope. Also the microscopy studies revealed the difference in topography of the films, the nanohardness and Young's modulus of two films were very close to each other. For the indents shallower than 0.2 of the film thickness the Young's modulus and hardness of the films on two different substrates converged to the values of 210 and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The possible deformation mechanisms determining the localized deformation of intrinsically brittle ceramic films are discussed.

  8. An AFM study of the morphology and local mechanical properties of superconducting YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, Ya. M.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Kazakevich, M.; Rabkin, E.

    2004-02-01

    The morphology of thin superconducting YBCO films deposited on sapphire and on SrTiO 3 was studied with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The intrinsic mechanical properties in the flat, particles-free and chemically homogeneous regions of the films were determined with the aid of nanoindenting atomic force microscope. Also the microscopy studies revealed the difference in topography of the films, the nanohardness and Young’s modulus of two films were very close to each other. For the indents shallower than 0.2 of the film thickness the Young’s modulus and hardness of the films on two different substrates converged to the values of 210 and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The possible deformation mechanisms determining the localized deformation of intrinsically brittle ceramic films are discussed.

  9. Surface nanopatterning of Al/Ti multilayer thin films and Al single layer by a low-fluence UV femtosecond laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovačević, Aleksander G., E-mail: Aleksander.Kovacevic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Beograd (Serbia); Petrović, Suzana [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinča”, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bokić, Bojana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Beograd (Serbia); Gaković, Biljana [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinča”, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bokorov, Miloš T. [Center for Electron Microscopy, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Beograd (Serbia); Trtica, Milan [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinča”, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jelenković, Branislav M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Beograd (Serbia)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser beam was applied to multilayer Al/Ti and single layer Al thin film. • The evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures and its causes is explained. • The structures remained stable after great number of pulses. • The different outcomes of the two cases (single and multilayer) have been explained in the light of the presence of the Ti underlayer. - Abstract: The effects of UV femtosecond laser beam with 76 MHz repetition rate on two types of thin films on Si substrate – the Al single layer thin film, and the multilayered thin film consisted of five Al/Ti bilayers (total thickness 130 nm) – were studied. The surface modification of the target was done by low fluences and different irradiation times, not exceeding ∼300 s. Nanopatterns in the form of femtosecond-laser induced periodic surface structures (fs-LIPSS) with periodicity of <315 nm and height of ∼45 nm were registered upon irradiation of the thin films. It was shown that: (i) the fs-LIPSS evolve from ruffles similar to high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) into a low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) if a certain threshold of the fluence is met, (ii) the number of LSFL increases with the exposition time and (iii) the LSFL remain stable even after long exposure times. We achieved high-quality highly-controllable fabrication of periodic structures on the surface of nanosized multilayer films with high-repetition-rate low-fluence femtosecond laser pulses. Compared to the Al single layer, the presence of the Ti underlayer in the Al/Ti multilayer thin film enabled more efficient heat transmittance through the Al/Ti interface away from the interaction zone which caused the reduction of the ablation effects leading to the formation of more regular LIPSS. The different outcomes of interactions with multi and single layer thin films lead to the conclusion that the behavior of the LIPSS is due to thin film structure.

  10. Processing and performance of organic insulators as a gate layer in organic thin film transistors fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen Mandal; Monica Katiyar

    2013-08-01

    Fabrication of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) on flexible substrates is a challenge, because of its low softening temperature, high roughness and flexible nature. Although several organic dielectrics have been used as gate insulator, it is difficult to choose one in absence of a comparative study covering processing of dielectric layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), characterization of dielectric property, pentacene film morphology and OTFT characterization. Here, we present the processing and performance of three organic dielectrics, poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), as a gate layer in pentacene-based organic thin film transistor on PET substrate. We have used thermogravimetric analysis of organic dielectric solution to determine annealing temperature for spin-coated films of these dielectrics. Comparison of the leakage currents for the three dielectrics shows PVA exhibiting lowest leakage (in the voltage range of −30 to +30 V). This is partly because solvent is completely eliminated in the case of PVA as observed by differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTGA). We propose that DTGA can be a useful tool to optimize processing of dielectric layers. From organic thin film transistor point of view, crystal structure, morphology and surface roughness of pentacene film on all the dielectric layers were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).We observe pyramidal pentacene on PVPh whereas commonly observed dendritic pentacene on PMMA and PVA surface. Pentacene morphology development is discussed in terms of surface roughness, surface energy and molecular nature of the dielectric layer.

  11. Surface nanopatterning of Al/Ti multilayer thin films and Al single layer by a low-fluence UV femtosecond laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Aleksander G.; Petrović, Suzana; Bokić, Bojana; Gaković, Biljana; Bokorov, Miloš T.; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Trtica, Milan; Jelenković, Branislav M.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of UV femtosecond laser beam with 76 MHz repetition rate on two types of thin films on Si substrate - the Al single layer thin film, and the multilayered thin film consisted of five Al/Ti bilayers (total thickness 130 nm) - were studied. The surface modification of the target was done by low fluences and different irradiation times, not exceeding ∼300 s. Nanopatterns in the form of femtosecond-laser induced periodic surface structures (fs-LIPSS) with periodicity of LIPSS evolve from ruffles similar to high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) into a low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) if a certain threshold of the fluence is met, (ii) the number of LSFL increases with the exposition time and (iii) the LSFL remain stable even after long exposure times. We achieved high-quality highly-controllable fabrication of periodic structures on the surface of nanosized multilayer films with high-repetition-rate low-fluence femtosecond laser pulses. Compared to the Al single layer, the presence of the Ti underlayer in the Al/Ti multilayer thin film enabled more efficient heat transmittance through the Al/Ti interface away from the interaction zone which caused the reduction of the ablation effects leading to the formation of more regular LIPSS. The different outcomes of interactions with multi and single layer thin films lead to the conclusion that the behavior of the LIPSS is due to thin film structure.

  12. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R

    2000-01-01

    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  13. Organic thin film transistors with a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulator layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiang; Liu Hui

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer structured gate dielectric for an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the SiO2 gate insulator.The SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering.Compared with the same thickness of a SiO2 insulation layer device,the SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer is an effective method of fabricating OTFT with improved electric characteristics and decreased leakage current.Electrical parameters such as carrier mobility by field effect measurement have been calculated.The performances of different insulating layer devices have been studied,and the results demonstrate that when the insulation layer thickness increases,the off-state current decreases.

  14. Localization and pair breaking parameter in superconducting molybdenum nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Takuya; Makise, Kazumasa; Maeda, Sho; Shinozaki, Bunju; Ichikawa, Fusao

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the superconductor-insulator transition in molybdenum nitride films prepared by deposition onto MgO substrates. It is indicated that the T c depression from ≈ 6.6 \\text{K} for thick films with increase of the normal state sheet resistance R\\text{sq}\\text{N} was well explained by the Finkel’stein formula from the localization theory. Present analysis suggests that the superconducting-insulator transition occurs at a critical sheet resistance {{R}\\text{c}}≈ 2 \\text{k} Ω . It is found that the {{R}\\text{sq}}(T) above {{R}\\text{c}} shows different characteristics of {{R}\\text{sq}}(T)={{R}\\text{sq,0}}-A\\ln T and {{R}\\text{sq}}(T)\\propto \\exp ≤ft[{≤ft({{T}0}/T\\right)}1/2}\\right] in the regions {{R}\\text{c}}\\text{sq}\\text{N}{{R}\\text{Q}} , respectively, where {{R}\\text{sq,0}} is the classical residual resistance and A is a constant. The excess conductance {{σ\\prime}{}(T) due to thermal fluctuation has been analyzed by the sum of the Aslamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson correction terms with use of the pair breaking parameter δ in the latter term. The sum agrees well with the data, although the experimental results of the R\\text{sq}\\text{N} dependence of δ , that is, δ \\propto {{≤ft(R\\text{sq}\\text{N}\\right)}≈ 1.7} shows the disagreement with a linear relation δ \\propto ≤ft(R\\text{sq}\\text{N}\\right) derived from the localization theory.

  15. Layer-by-Layer assembled hybrid multilayer thin film electrodes based on transparent cellulose nanofibers paper for flexible supercapacitors applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xue; Wang, Feijun

    2014-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) paper with low thermal expansion and electrolyte absorption properties is considered to be a good potential substrate for supercapacitors. Unlike traditional substrates, such as glass or plastic, CNFs paper saves surfaces pretreatment when Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly method is used. In this study, negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrene sulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) nanoparticles are deposited onto CNFs paper with positively charged polyaniline (PANI) nanowires as agents to prepare multilayer thin film electrodes, respectively. Due to the different nanostructures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and PEDOT:PSS, the microstructures of the electrodes are distinguishing. Our work demonstrate that CNFs paper/PANI/RGO electrode provides a more effective pathway for ion transport facilitation compared with CNFs paper/PANI/PEDOT:PSS electrode. The supercapacitor fabricated by CNFs/[PANI-RGO]8 (S-PG-8) exhibits an excellent areal capacitance of 5.86 mF cm-2 at a current density of 0.0043 mA cm-2, and at the same current density the areal capacitance of the supercapacitor fabricated by CNFs/[PANI-PEDOT:PSS]8 (S-PP-8) is 4.22 mF cm-2. S-PG-8 also exhibits good cyclic stability. This study provides a novel method using CNFs as substrate to prepare hybrid electrodes with diverse microstructures that are promising for future flexible supercapacitors.

  16. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films by selenization of stacked metallic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hou-Ying; Liu, Shang-En

    2013-12-01

    A Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film fabricated by selenization of stacked pure metal precursors through e-beam evaporation on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates worked as thin film solar cell absorber. The selenization was carried out under element Se vapor circumstance at 570 °C for 20 min. The absorber went through chemical bath CdS deposition, sputtered ZnO, ITO and Al electrodes to become a solar cell. Unlike previous works, only simple three-layer metal precursors without any compound were used as evaporation sources. The synthesized CZTSe absorber layer phase was identified by X-ray diffraction. The solar cells were measured by AAA class solar simulator. The absorber layer thickness was measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was also used for checking metal ratios in the absorber layer. The best efficiency was 4.2%. In this work, we found that there were voids in absorber film bottom. The Cu-top precursors will lead to larger grains, flatter surfaces and larger voids than Sn-top precursors. The Cu-top precursor may also contribute to better selenization which may help prevent Zn loss but cause Sn loss. Finally, this work also showed Cu-poor and Zn-rich will improve conversion efficiency.

  17. Optical properties and defect levels in a surface layer found on CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulfotuh, F.; Wangensteen, T.; Ahrenkiel, R.; Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors have used photoluminescence (PL) and wavelength scanning ellipsometry (WSE) to clarify the relationship among the electro-optical properties of copper indium diselenide (CIS) thin films, the type and origin of dominant defect states, and device performance. The PL study has revealed several shallow acceptor and donor levels dominating the semiconductor. PL emission from points at different depths from the surface of the CIS sample has been obtained by changing the angle of incidence of the excitation laser beam. The resulting data were used to determine the dominant defect states as a function of composition gradient at the surface of the chalcopyrite compound. The significance of this type of measurement is that it allowed the detection of a very thin layer with a larger bandgap (1.15--1.26 eV) than the CIS present on the surface of the CIS thin films. The presence of this layer has been correlated by several groups to improve the CIS cell performance. An important need that results from detecting this layer on the surface of the CIS semiconductor is the determination of its thickness and optical constants (n, k) as a function of wavelength. The thickness of this surface layer is about 500 {angstrom}.

  18. Optical properties and defect levels in a surface layer found on CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulfotuh, F.; Wangensteen, T.; Ahrenkiel, R.; Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the authors have used photoluminescence (PL) and wavelength scanning ellipsometry (WSE) to clarify the relationship among the electro-optical properties of copper indium diselenide (CIS) thin films, the type and origin of dominant defect states, and device performance. The PL study has revealed several shallow acceptor and donor levels dominating the semiconductor. PL emission from points at different depths from the surface of the CIS sample has been obtained by changing the angle of incidence of the excitation laser beam. The resulting data were used to determine the dominant defect states as a function of composition gradient at the surface of the chalcopyrite compound. The significance of this type of measurement is that it allowed the detection of a very thin layer with a larger bandgap (1.15-1.26 eV) than the CIS present on the surface of the CIS thin films. The presence of this layer has been correlated by several groups to improvement of the CIS cell performance. An important need that results from detecting this layer on the surface of the CIS semiconductor is the determination of its thickness and optical constants (n, k) as a function of wavelength. The thickness of this surface layer is about 500 {Angstrom}.

  19. Use of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for amorphous titanium dioxide thin films growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, S. S.; Mane, R. S.; Chung, Hoeil; Yoon, Moon-Young; Lokhande, C. D.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-11-01

    Use of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was preferred for the growth of amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin films at ambient temperature. Further, these films were annealed at 673 K for 2 h in air for structural improvement and characterized for structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. An amorphous structure of TiO 2 was retained even after annealing as confirmed from XRD studies. The spherical grains of relatively large size were compressed after annealing. A red shift in band gap energy and decrease in electrical resistivity were observed due to annealing treatment.

  20. Crystalline MoOx Thin-Films as Hole Transport Layers in DBP/C70 Based Organic Solar Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadpour, Mehrad; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto

    Transition Metal Oxides such as Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) have been intensively used as hole transport layers in different organic, inorganic and hybrid technologies, demonstrating also important improvements on the power conversion efficiency as well as on the stability of different types of solar...... cells. Among several different deposition methods available for fabrication of MoOx thin-films, reactive sputtering arises as an interesting alternative due to its full control over the deposition parameters such as the deposition power, reactive gas partial pressure and the deposition rate....

  1. Suppressed grain-boundary scattering in atomic layer deposited Nb:TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shigematsu, Kei [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sano, Masahito [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-11-09

    We have fabricated high-quality thin films of the transparent conducting anatase Nb:TiO{sub 2} on glass substrates through atomic layer deposition, and a subsequent reductive heat treatment of the as-deposited amorphous films. Hall-effect measurements and Drude-fitting of the Vis-NIR spectra indicate that for lightly doped films deposited at temperatures around 170 °C, grain boundary scattering becomes negligible and the mobility is predominately limited by phonon-electron scattering inherent to the anatase lattice and by impurities. Simultaneously, such lighter doping leads to reduced plasma absorption, thereby improving material's performance as a transparent conductor.

  2. Improved Performance of Organic Thin Film Transistor with an Inorganic Oxide/Polymer Double-Layer Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-Hua; DONG Gui-Fang; WANG Li-Duo; QIU Yong

    2007-01-01

    We employ the Ta2O5/PVP (poly-4-vinylphenol) double-layer gate insulator to improve the performance of pentacene thin-film transistors. It is found that the double-layer insulator has low leakage current, smooth surface and considerably high capacitance. Compared to Ta2O5 insulator layers, the device with the Ta2O5/PVP double-layer insulator exhibits an enhancement of the Reid-effect mobility from 0.21 to 0.54 cm2 /Vs, and the decreasing threshold voltage from 4.38V to -2.5 V. The results suggest that the Ta2O5/PVP double-layer insulator is a potential gate insulator for fabricating OTFTs with good electrical performance.

  3. Layer-by-layer epitaxial thin films of the pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Laura; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2017-02-01

    Layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of the pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 on the isostructural substrate Y2Ti2O7 results in high-quality single crystal films of up to 60 nm thickness. Substrate-induced strain is shown to act as a strong and controlled perturbation to the exotic magnetism of Tb2Ti2O7, opening up the general prospect of strain-engineering the diverse magnetic and electrical properties of pyrochlore oxides.

  4. Inflight resistance measurement on high-T(sub c) superconducting thin films exposed to orbital atomic oxygen on CONCAP-2 (STS-46)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Raiker, G. N.; Bijvoet, J. A.; Nerren, P. D.; Sutherland, W. T.; Mogro-Camperso, A.; Turner, L. G.; Kwok, Hoi; Raistrick, I. D.; Cross, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, UAH (University of Alabama in Huntsville) conducted a unique experiment on STS-46 in which YBa2Cu3O7 (commonly known as '1-2-3' superconductor) high-T(c) superconducting thin film samples prepared at three different laboratories were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit on the ambient and 320 C hot plate during the first flight of the CONCAP-2 (Complex Autonomous Payload) experiment carrier. The resistance of the thin films was measured in flight during the atomic oxygen exposure and heating cycle. Superconducting properties were measured in the laboratory before and after the flight by the individual experimenters. Films with good superconducting properties, and which were exposed to the oxygen flux, survived the flight including those heated to 320 C (600 K) with properties essentially unchanged, while other samples which were heated but not exposed to oxygen were degraded. The properties of other flight controls held at ambient temperature appear unchanged and indistinguishable from those of ground controls, whether exposed to oxygen or not.

  5. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at ˜150°C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a

  6. Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Film with Improved Work Function as a Buffer Layer in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Hyeongsik; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Bong, Sungjae; Dao, Vinh Ai; Balaji, Nagarajan; Yi, Junsin

    2015-03-01

    We investigated thin film silicon solar cells with boron doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon/ hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide [p-type nc-Si:H/a-SiOx:H] layer. First, we researched the bandgap engineering of diborane (B2H6) doped wide bandgap hydrogenated nanocryslline silicon (p-type nc-Si:H) films, which have excellent electrical properties of high dark conductivity, and low activation energy. The films prepared with lower doping ratio and higher hydrogen dilution ratio had higher optical gap (Eg), with higher dark conductivity (σ(d)), and lower activation energy (Ea). We controlled Eg from 2.10 eV to 1.75 eV, with σ(d) from 1.1 S/cm to 7.59 x 10(-3) S/cm, and Ea from 0.040 eV to 0.128 eV. Next, we focused on the fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells. By inserting p-type nc-Si:H film into the thin film silicon solar cells, we achieved a remarkable increase in the built-in potential from 0.803 eV to 0.901 eV. By forming p-type nc-Si:H film between SnO2:F/ZnO:Al (30 nm) and p-type a-SiOx:H layer, the solar cell properties of open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), and efficiency (η) were improved by 3.7%, 9.2%, and 9.8%, respectively.

  7. Atomic layer deposition grown MO{sub x} thin films for solar water splitting: Prospects and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Trilok; Lehnen, Thomas; Leuning, Tessa; Mathur, Sanjay, E-mail: sanjay.mathur@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstrasse 6, D-50939 Cologne (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The magnitude of energy challenge not only calls for efficient devices but also for abundant, inexpensive, and stable photoactive materials that can enable efficient light harvesting, charge separation and collection, as well as chemical transformations. Photoelectrochemical systems based on semiconductor materials have the possibility to transform solar energy directly into chemical energy the so-called “solar hydrogen.” The current challenge lies in the harvesting of a larger fraction of electromagnetic spectrum by enhancing the absorbance of electrode materials. In this context, atomically precise thin films of metal oxide semiconductors and their multilayered junctions are promising candidates to integrate high surface areas with well-defined electrode–substrate interface. Given its self-limited growth mechanism, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique offers a wide range of capabilities to deposit and modify materials at the nanoscale. In addition, it opens new frontiers for developing precursor chemistry that is inevitable to design new processes. Herein, the authors review the properties and potential of metal oxide thin films deposited by ALD for their application in photoelectrochemical water splitting application. The first part of the review covers the basics of ALD processes followed by a brief discussion on the electrochemistry of water splitting reaction. The second part focuses on different MO{sub x} films deposited by atomic layer deposition for water splitting applications; in this section, The authors discuss the most explored MO{sub x} semiconductors, namely, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}, and ZnO, as active materials and refer to their application as protective coatings, conductive scaffolds, or in heterojunctions. The third part deals with the current challenges and future prospects of ALD processed MO{sub x} thin films for water splitting reactions.

  8. Mixing ALD/MLD-grown ZnO and Zn-4-aminophenol layers into various thin-film structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Pia; Sood, Anjali; Liu, Xuwen; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-11-14

    Building 2D inorganic-organic hybrids by combining inorganic and organic constituents with molecular-layer precision is an attractive approach to fabricate novel materials with a tailored combination of properties from both entities. Here we demonstrate the potential of the combined atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique for the state-of-the-art synthesis of such materials and to fabricate both homogeneous thin-film mixtures and nanolaminates of ZnO and the Zn-4-aminophenol inorganic-organic hybrid. The thin films are deposited by varying the number of precursor cycles during the depositions. Diethyl zinc and 4-aminophenol (AP) are used as precursors for the Zn-AP hybrid depositions, and diethyl zinc and water for the ZnO depositions. The characterization of the mixed Zn-AP and ZnO films reveals that crystallinity, density, surface roughness, chemical stability, hardness and contact modulus are sensitively altered by even a minor insertion of Zn-AP hybrid into the ZnO structure. Fabrication of Zn-AP + ZnO nanolaminates with different thicknesses of the Zn-AP and ZnO layers provides us with an even better way to control the hardness and contact modulus, and also to enhance the chemical stability of the films.

  9. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  10. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  11. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lare, Y. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Godoy, A. [Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Diego Portales, Ejercito 141, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Cattin, L. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, IMN, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France); Jondo, K. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Abachi, T. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Kouba, Alger (Algeria); Diaz, F.R. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France); Napo, K. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); del Valle, M.A. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Bernede, J.C., E-mail: jean-christian.bernede@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France)

    2009-04-15

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 deg. C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and (N,N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

  12. Layer-by-layer TiO(2)/WO(3) thin films as efficient photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio, Antonio Otavio T; Paula, Leonardo F; Paniago, Roberto M; Freitag, Janna; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2014-10-08

    New TiO2/WO3 films were produced by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique and successfully applied as self-cleaning photocatalytic surfaces. The films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from the respective metal oxide nanoparticles obtained by the sol-gel method. Thirty alternative immersions in pH = 2 TiO2 and pH = 10 WO3 sols resulted in ca. 400 nm thick films that exhibited a W(VI)/Ti(IV) molar ratio of 0.5, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy, along with atomic force images, showed that the resulting layers are constituted by aggregates of very small nanoparticles (films were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometry and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The films behave as nanoscale heterojunctions, and the presence of WO3 nanoparticles caused a decrease in the optical band gap of the bilayers compared to that of pure LbL TiO2 films. The TiO2/WO3 thin films exhibited high hydrophilicity, which is enhanced after exposition to UV light, and they can efficiently oxidize gaseous acetaldehyde under UV(A) irradiation. Photonic efficiencies of ξ = 1.5% were determined for films constituted by 30 TiO2/WO3 bilayers in the presence of 1 ppm of acetaldehyde, which are ∼2 times higher than those observed for pure LbL TiO2 films. Therefore, these films can act as efficient and cost-effective layers for self-cleaning, antifogging applications.

  13. Growth and characterization of ternary Ni, Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Vlad, A., E-mail: angela.vlad@gmail.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Matei, A.; Ion, V.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Zavoianu, R. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a class of layered materials consisting of positively charged brucite-like layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. Layered double hydroxides containing a transition metal which undergoes a reversible redox reaction in the useful potential range have been proposed as electrode coating materials due to their properties of charge transport and redox catalysts in basic solutions. Ni–Al,(Ni,Mg)–Al and, as reference, non-electronically conductive Mg–Al double hydroxides thin films were obtained via pulsed laser deposition technique. The thin films were deposited on different substrates (Si, glass) by using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) working at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, Impedance Analyzer and ellipsometry were the techniques used for the as deposited thin films investigation. The optical properties of Ni based LDH thin films and the effect of the Ni amount on the structural, morphological and optical response are evidenced. The optical band gap values, covering a domain between 3.84 eV and 4.38 eV, respond to the Ni overall concentration: the higher Ni amount the lower the band gap value. - Highlights: • Ternary Ni, Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides thin films were deposited. • The effect of the nickel is evidenced. • The possibility to tailor the materials accompanied by an optical response is shown.

  14. Interface control by homoepitaxial growth in pulsed laser deposited iron chalcogenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molatta, Sebastian; Haindl, Silvia; Trommler, Sascha; Schulze, Michael; Wurmehl, Sabine; Hühne, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Thin film growth of iron chalcogenides by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is still a delicate issue in terms of simultaneous control of stoichiometry, texture, substrate/film interface properties, and superconducting properties. The high volatility of the constituents sharply limits optimal deposition temperatures to a narrow window and mainly challenges reproducibility for vacuum based methods. In this work we demonstrate the beneficial introduction of a semiconducting FeSe1-xTex seed layer for subsequent homoepitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1-xTex thin film on MgO substrates. MgO is one of the most favorable substrates used in superconducting thin film applications, but the controlled growth of iron chalcogenide thin films on MgO has not yet been optimized and is the least understood. The large mismatch between the lattice constants of MgO and FeSe1-xTex of about 11% results in thin films with a mixed texture, that prevents further accurate investigations of a correlation between structural and electrical properties of FeSe1-xTex. Here we present an effective way to significantly improve epitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1-xTex thin films with reproducible high critical temperatures (≥17 K) at reduced deposition temperatures (200 °C-320 °C) on MgO using PLD. This offers a broad scope of various applications.

  15. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin films containing exfoliated pristine graphene nanosheets and polyethyleneimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Alison Y W; Notley, Shannon M

    2014-03-11

    A method for the modification of surface properties through the deposition of stabilized graphene nanosheets is described. Here, the thickness of the film is controlled through the use of the layer-by-layer technique, where the sequential adsorption of the cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) is followed by the adsorption of anionic graphene sheets modified with layers of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) surfactants. The graphene particles were prepared using the surfactant-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation technique, with the low residual negative charge arising from edge defects. The buildup of the multilayer assembly through electrostatic interactions was strongly influenced by the solution conditions, including pH, ionic strength, and ionic species. Thereby, not only could the thickness of the film be tailored through the choice of the number of bilayers deposited but the viscoelastic properties of the film could also be modified by changing solution conditions at which the different species were deposited. The quartz crystal microbalance was used to measure the mass of graphene and polyelectrolyte immobilized at the interface as well as to probe the energy dissipated in the adsorbed layer.

  16. Atomic layer deposition for fabrication of HfO2/Al2O3 thin films with high laser-induced damage thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yaowei; Pan, Feng; Zhang, Qinghua; Ma, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the laser damage resistance of thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is rare. In this work, the ALD process for thin film generation was investigated using different process parameters such as various precursor types and pulse duration. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) was measured as a key property for thin films used as laser system components. Reasons for film damaged were also investigated. The LIDTs for thin films deposited by improved process parameters reached a higher level than previously measured. Specifically, the LIDT of the Al2O3 thin film reached 40 J/cm(2). The LIDT of the HfO2/Al2O3 anti-reflector film reached 18 J/cm(2), the highest value reported for ALD single and anti-reflect films. In addition, it was shown that the LIDT could be improved by further altering the process parameters. All results show that ALD is an effective film deposition technique for fabrication of thin film components for high-power laser systems.

  17. Bio-Nanofabrication: Structuring Polymer Thin Films via Bacterial S-layer Proteins for Subsequent Use with Subtractive Nanofabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Mandy B.; Amponsah, Ebenezer K.; Bergkvist, Magnus

    2007-03-01

    Bio-molecule assisted lithography is a novel approach to create ordered patterns on the micro and nanometer size scale on thin films. The technique bears the potential to utilize self assembling properties of bio-molecules and to be integrated with conventional nanofabrication techniques. In the past, bacterial cell wall proteins (S-layers proteins) have been utilized to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. The work presented here employs S-layer proteins to shape UV-curable resist via an S-layer imprinted parylene template. Using this technique we can replicate S-layer patterns in resist thereby rendering the shape more resistant to subtractive nanofabrication techniques. The technique also demonstrates the adequacy of Nano Imprint Lithography to produce complex patterns not achievable with conventional lithography.

  18. A theoretical modeling of photocurrent generation and decay in layered MoS2 thin-film transistor photosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Park, Junghak; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-02-01

    A model that universally describes the characteristics of photocurrent in molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) thin-film transistor (TFT) photosensors in both ‘light on’ and ‘light off’ conditions is presented for the first time. We considered possible material-property dependent carrier generation and recombination mechanisms in layered MoS2 channels with different numbers of layers. We propose that the recombination rates that are mainly composed of direct band-to-band recombination and interface trap-involved recombination change on changing the light condition and the number of layers. By comparing the experimental results, it is shown that the model performs well in describing the photocurrent behaviors of MoS2 TFT photosensors, including the photocurrent generation under illumination and a hugely long time persistent trend of the photocurrent decay in the dark condition, for a range of MoS2 layer numbers.

  19. Magnetic and superconductivity studies on (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai Krishna, N. [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India); Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu 603 104, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhana Rao, N.; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Rigana Begam, M. [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu (India); Omkaram, I. [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sreekantha Reddy, D. [Department of Physics and Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films deposited using electron beam evaporation technique. • Characterization of the samples using XRD, SEM, EDAX, AES, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR, VSM and magnetoresistance. • All Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films exhibited the cubic structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Pure and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism and superconductivity at 2 K. - Abstract: Magnetic, magnetoresistivity and superconductivity studies were carried out on (In{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) thin films (2D structures) grown on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique at 350 °C. The films have an average size of 120 nm particles. All the samples shown soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature and saturation magnetization increased with iron dopant concentration. Observed magnetization could be best interpreted by F-center mediated magnetic exchange interaction in the samples. Temperature dependent resistivity of the sample (x = 0.00 and 0.07) showed metallic behavior down to very low temperatures and superconductivity at 2 K for undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas the In{sub 1.86}Fe{sub 0.14}O{sub 3} sample shows superconductivity below 2 K in the absence of magnetic fields. The reduction in transition temperature was attributed to increase electrical disorder with iron doping. Both samples showed positive magnetoresistivity (MR) in superconducting state due to increase of resistivity resulting from breaking of superconducting Cooper pairs upon application of magnetic field. In addition, both the samples show feeble negative MR in normal electrical state. The observed MR in normal state is not due to spin polarized tunneling instead it is due to suppression of scattering of charge carrier by single occupied localized states.

  20. Ionic properties of ultrathin yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition with water, oxygen, and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Keun; Jang, Dong Young; Kim, Jun Woo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kiho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); High-Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Joon Hyung, E-mail: shimm@korea.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    We compared the ionic properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using various oxidants including water, oxygen, and ozone. Cross-plane conductivity measurements were performed at low temperature (50 °C) and high temperature (450 °C) using AC impedance spectroscopy. As a result, we have confirmed that the conductivity of ALD YSZ films below 300 °C is greater by several orders of magnitude compared to the nano-scale YSZ thin films synthesized by other conventional techniques. Among the ALD YSZ samples, ALD YSZ fabricated using water showed the highest conductivity while ALD YSZ fabricated using ozone showed the lowest. We have analyzed this result in relation with grain morphology characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the chemical binding states measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). - Highlights: • YSZ is prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} as oxidants. • Grain size of ALD YSZ membranes deposited using H{sub 2}O is the smallest. • Conductivity of ALD YSZ made with H{sub 2}O shows the highest value below 300 °C. • Conductivity trends coincide with the hydroxyl group content measured by XPS.

  1. XRR Analysis of the Transition Layer in SiO2 Thin Film Formed on Si Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Akira; Odaka, Kenji; Fujimoto, Tosiyuki; Azuma, Yasushi

    To develop nanometric film thickness standard (FTSs), uniformity of silicon dioxide thin film were investigated by X-ray Reflectometry (XRR). The samples we investigated were thermally grown oxides (O2-Oxides) and ozone-formed oxide(Ozone-Oxide). The O2-oxide were grown on Si(100) substrate at 1000°C and at 700°C. The Ozone-Oxide was grown at 750°C with the highly concentrated ozone gas. With XRR method the bulk-layer density of oxide films were analyzed for; the O2-Oxide formed at 700°C (D700), the O2-Oxide formed at 1000°C(D1000), and the Ozone-Oxide formed at 750°C (Dozone750). We also analyzed the transition-layer density of the O2-Oxide formed at 700°C (DTL700). The results showed the relation was D1000DTL700. The result indicated that Ozone-Oxide is suitable to produce the FTSs which demands the homogeneous density in SiO2 thin film, and also indicated that the density of Ozone-Oxide corresponded to that of O2-Oxide with much higher substrate temperature.

  2. Temperature Dependent Viscosity of a Third Order Thin Film Fluid Layer on a Lubricating Vertical Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the influence of heat transfer on thin film flow of a reactive third order fluid with variable viscosity and slip boundary condition. The problem is formulated in the form of coupled nonlinear equations governing the flow together with appropriate boundary conditions. Approximate analytical solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. Such solutions are also obtained by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM and are compared with ADM solutions. Both of these solutions are found identical as shown in graphs and tables. The graphical results for embedded flow parameters are also shown.

  3. SnO2 thin films used as ammonia sensing layers at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddari A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors based on the SnO2 thin films were prepared by dip-coating method starting from their corresponding sols. The as-elaborated thin coatings were afterwards annealed at different temperatures during various times. Their morphology, composition and microstructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results of electrical and sensing measurements indicated that the sensor annealed at 300°C for 3 hours exhibited the best sensitivity towards the detection of NH3 at room temperature.

  4. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höger, Ingmar; Himmerlich, Marcel; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Krischok, Stefan; Andrä, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) or silicon oxide (SiO2) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiOxNy formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiOxNy top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  5. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höger, Ingmar, E-mail: ingmar.hoeger@ipht-jena.de; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun [Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, PF 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany); Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut für Mikro-und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universität Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  6. The photoluminescent lifetime of polyelectrolytes in thin films formed via layer by layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Roseanne S; Smyth, Ciarán A; Rakovich, Yury P; McCabe, Eithne M

    2009-03-04

    We present results on luminescence lifetime studies of thin multilayer films of polyelectrolyte molecules produced via layer by layer (LbL) electrostatic assembly. We found that, in contrast to common assumptions, LbL films show measurable photoluminescent lifetimes with an average value of 6 ns. Scanning fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy studies combined with steady-state photoluminescence measurements imply that this lifetime may be due to aggregation of polyelectrolyte molecules during preparation of LbL films. This conclusion has been further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images clearly show the presence of 100-200 nm high aggregates on the surface of these films. This aggregation of polyelectrolyte molecules contributes significantly to the experimentally detected luminescence decays of any light-emitting samples attached to LbL film, especially in a single molecule detection regime. To demonstrate this effect we compare photoluminescence lifetime results for CdTe quantum dots deposited on the surface of LbL polyelectrolyte films.

  7. Luminescence properties of lanthanide and ytterbium lanthanide titanate thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Per-Anders, E-mail: p.a.hansen@kjemi.uio.no; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Nilsen, Ola [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Sem Sælandsvei 26, 0371 Oslo (Norway); Finstad, Terje G. [Department of Physics, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Sem Sælandsvei 24, 0371 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    Lanthanide based luminescent materials are highly suitable as down conversion materials in combination with a UV-absorbing host material. The authors have used TiO{sub 2} as the UV-absorbing host material and investigated the energy transfer between TiO{sub 2} and 11 different lanthanide ions, Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) in thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. They have also investigated the possibility to improve the overall energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Yb{sup 3+} with a second Ln{sup 3+}, in order to enhance down conversion. The films were grown at a substrate temperature of 300 °C, using the Ln(thd){sub 3}/O{sub 3} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O precursor pairs. The focus of the work is to explore the energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Ln{sup 3+} ions, and the energy transfer between Ln{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions, which could lead to efficient down conversion. The samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence. All films were amorphous as deposited, and the samples have been annealed at 600, 800, and 1000 °C in order to investigate the correlation between the crystallinity and luminescence. The lanthanum titanium oxide samples showed a weak and broad emission centered at 540 nm, which was absent in all the other samples, indicating energy transfer from TiO{sub 2} to Ln{sup 3+} in all other lanthanide samples. In the amorphous phase, all samples, apart from La, Tb, and Tm, showed a typical f-f emission when excited by a 325 nm HeCd laser. None of the samples showed any luminescence after annealing at 1000 °C due to the formation of Ln{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Samples containing Nd, Sm, and Eu show a change in emission spectrum when annealed at 800 °C compared to the as-deposited samples, indicating that the smaller lanthanides crystallize in a different manner than the larger

  8. AlN passivation layer-mediated improvement in tensile failure of flexible ZnO:Al thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Rak; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Kim, Jong Seong; Cho, Yong Soo

    2010-09-01

    AlN passivation layer-mediated improvement in tensile failure of ZnO:Al thin films on polyethersulfone substrates is investigated. ZnO:Al films without any passivation layer were brittle with a crack-initiating bending strain εc of only about 1.13% with a saturated crack density ρs of 0.10 μm(-1) and a fracture energy Γ of 49.6 J m(-2). On passivation by an AlN overlayer, the fracture energy of the system increased considerably and a corresponding improvement in εc was observed. AlN layers deposited at higher discharge powers yielded higher fracture energy and exhibited better performance in terms of εc and ρs.

  9. Effects of cathode electrolyte interfacial (CEI) layer on long term cycling of all-solid-state thin-film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziying; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Xin, Huolin L.; Han, Lili; Grillon, Nathanael; Guy-Bouyssou, Delphine; Bouyssou, Emilien; Proust, Marina; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to not only push the current limits of energy density by utilizing Li metal, but also improve safety by avoiding flammable organic electrolyte. However, understanding the role of solid electrolyte - electrode interfaces will be critical to improve performance. In this study, we conducted long term cycling on commercially available lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)/lithium (Li) cells at elevated temperature to investigate the interfacial phenomena that lead to capacity decay. STEM-EELS analysis of samples revealed a previously unreported disordered layer between the LCO cathode and LiPON electrolyte. This electrochemically inactive layer grew in thickness leading to loss of capacity and increase of interfacial resistance when cycled at 80 °C. The stabilization of this layer through interfacial engineering is crucial to improve the long term performance of thin-film batteries especially under thermal stress.

  10. Final Report: Rational Design of Wide Band Gap Buffer Layers for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to enable rational design of wide band gap buffer layer materials for CIGS thin-film PV by building understanding of the correlation of atomic-scale defects in the buffer layer and at the buffer/absorber interface with device electrical properties. Optimized wide band gap buffers are needed to reduce efficiency loss from parasitic absorption in the buffer. The approach uses first-principles materials simulations coupled with nanoscale analytical electron microscopy as well as device electrical characterization. Materials and devices are produced by an industrial partner in a manufacturing line to maximize relevance, with the goal of enabling R&D of new buffer layer compositions or deposition processes to push device efficiencies above 21%. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the reference material for analysis, as the prototypical high-performing buffer material.

  11. Effect of etching stop layer on characteristics of amorphous IGZO thin film transistor fabricated at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifeng Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transparent bottom-gate amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs had been successfully fabricated at relative low temperature. The influence of reaction gas ratio of N2O and SiH4 during the growth of etching stop layer (SiOx on the characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs was investigated. The transfer characteristics of the TFTs were changed markedly because active layer of a-IGZO films was modified by plasma in the growth process of SiOx. By optimizing the deposition parameters of etching stop layer process, a-IGZO TFTs were manufactured and exhibited good performance with a field-effect mobility of 8.5 cm2V-1s-1, a threshold voltage of 1.3 V, and good stability under gate bias stress of 20 V for 10000 s.

  12. Influence of a highly doped buried layer for HfInZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eugene; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (HIZO) channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been reported with a 12 nm thick indium-zinc oxide (IZO)-buried layer. IZO-buried HIZO TFTs show excellent electrical characteristics and stabilities such as a high mobility (µFE) of ˜41.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 which is three times higher than that of conventional HIZO TFTs and significantly enhanced bias-temperature-induced stability. High mobility could be obtained since the current path is mainly formed on a highly conductive buried layer with a high carrier concentration over 1018 cm-3. Enhanced stability could be achieved mainly because the generation of the additional trap state was considerably reduced near the drain region due to a relatively short path since the current flows vertically from a highly conductive buried layer to a drain electrode through the HIZO channel via a relatively low carrier density region.

  13. Effects of ZnO Buffer Layer Thickness on Properties of MgxZn1-xO Thin Films Deposited by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xin; LIU Da-li; DU Guo-tong; ZHANG Yuan-tao; ZHU Hui-chao; YAN Xiao-long; GAO Zhong-min

    2005-01-01

    High-quality MgxZn1-xO thin films were grown on sapphire(0001) substrates with a ZnO buffer layer of different thicknesses by means of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Diethyl zinc, bis-cyclopentadienyl-Mg and oxygen were used as the precursor materials. The crystalline quality, surface morphologies and optical properties of the MgxZn1-xO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectrometry. It was shown that the quality of the MgxZn1-xO thin films depends on the thickness of the ZnO buffer layer and an MgxZn1-xO thin film with a ZnO buffer layer whose thickness was 20 nm exhibited the best crystal-quality, optical properties and a flat and dense surface.

  14. High Curie temperature Mn5Ge3 thin films produced by non-diffusive reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, E.; Portavoce, A.; Hoummada, K.; Bertoglio, M.; Bertaina, S.

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline Mn5Ge3 thin films were produced on SiO2 using magnetron sputtering and reactive diffusion (RD) or non-diffusive reaction (NDR). In situ X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were used to determine the layer structures, and magnetic force microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, and ferromagnetic resonance were used to determine their magnetic properties. RD-mediated layers exhibit similar magnetic properties as molecular beam epitaxy-grown monocrystalline Mn5Ge3 thin films, while NDR-mediated layers show magnetic properties similar to monocrystalline C-doped Mn5Ge3Cx thin films with 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. NDR appears as a complementary metal oxide semi-conductor-compatible efficient method to produce good magnetic quality high-Curie temperature Mn5Ge3 thin films.

  15. X-ray-absorption fine-structure studies of superconducting Tl2CaBa2Cu2Ox thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimarzio, D.; Wiesmann, H.; Chen, D. H.; Heald, S. M.

    1990-07-01

    Superconducting Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films have been prepared by the technique of reactive magnetron sputtering using targets of Tl, Ca-Ba, and Cu. Three films with different quality superconducting transitions were fabricated and analyzed. X-ray-absorption fine-structure measurements were performed on the Cu K edge in order to determine orientation, bond lengths, number of nearest neighbors, and relative disorder as a function of the quality of their superconducting transition. Magnetically oriented powder samples of the appropriate superconducting phase were used for comparison. X-ray-absorption near-edge results reveal increasing CuO2 plane orientation parallel to the substrate as the quality of the superconducting transition improved, consistent with x-ray-diffraction data. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements also show this trend. EXAFS gives a Cu-O(1) bond length of 1.92+/-0.01 Å for all three films, and all three samples exhibit an increasing Debye-Waller disorder factor consistent with the deterioration in the quality of their superconducting transitions.

  16. The I{sub c}(H)-T{sub c}(H) phase boundary of superconducting Nb thin films with periodic and quasiperiodic antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothner, D.; Kemmler, M.; Cozma, R.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D. [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Misko, V.; Peeters, F. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen (Belgium); Nori, F. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The magnetic field dependent critical current I{sub c}(H) of superconducting thin films with artificial defects strongly depends on the symmetry of the defect arrangement. Likewise the critical temperature T{sub c}(H) of superconducting wire networks is heavily influenced by the symmetry of the system. Here we present experimental data on the I{sub c}(H)-T{sub c}(H) phase boundary of Nb thin films with artificial defect lattices of different symmetries. For this purpose we fabricated 60 nm thick Nb films with antidots in periodic (triangular) and five different quasiperiodic arrangements. The parameters of the antidot arrays were varied to investigate the influence of antidot diameter and array density. Experiments were performed with high temperature stability ({delta}T<1 mK) at 0.5{<=}T/T{sub c}{<=}1. From the I-V-characteristics at variable H and T we extract I{sub c}(H) and T{sub c}(H) for different voltage and resistance criteria. The experimental data for the critical current density are compared with results from numerical molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Hysteresis in the I{sub c}(H) characteristics of high-temperature superconducting ceramics and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuler, E.; Musa, J.; Hart, C.; Ares, O. [Univ. of Havana, La Habana (Cuba)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The experimental hysteretic behavior of the transport critical current observed in ceramic Y-Ba-Cu-O and (Bi-Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, as well as thin film Y-Ba-Cu-O, are presented. The data are analyzed semiqualitatively. The results show certain similarities among the ceramic samples and the films.

  18. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  19. Superconducting transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  20. Superconducting thin films of As-free pnictide LaPd{sub 1-x}Sb{sub 2} grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzlaff, Reiner; Buckow, Alexander; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We use reactive molecular beam epitaxy as synthesis technique for the search of arsenic free pnictide superconductors. Epitaxial thin films of LaPd{sub 1-x}Sb{sub 2} were grown on (100) MgO substrates from elemental sources by simultaneous evaporation of high purity La, Pd and Sb metals by e-gun. LaPd{sub 1-x}Sb{sub 2} belongs to a novel class of pnictide superconductors with a peculiar pnictide square net layer. Previously, we have reported epitaxial growth of isostructural Bi based compounds. The substitution of Bi by Sb leads to thin films with metallic behavior and room temperature resistivity of about 85 μΩ cm. The highest observed transition temperature T{sub c} inLaPd{sub 1-x}Sb{sub 2} is 3.1 K and does not depend on x. We discuss strategies to increase T{sub c} in this pnictide subfamily.

  1. Effect of temperature on the deposition of ZnO thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Shih-Chang; Lee, Pay-Yu; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2012-08-01

    In this study, ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and the effect of the temperature treatment in ethylene glycol on the crystal structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of the films were investigated. When the temperature was below 85 °C, the ZnO films showed poor optical transmission and had a rough surface crystal structure. As the temperature was increased, dense polycrystalline films with uniform ZnO grain distribution were obtained. The optical transmittance of the ZnO thin films fabricated at temperatures greater than 95 °C was very high (90%) in the visible-light region. Therefore, it could be concluded that increasing the temperature of treatment in ethylene glycol helps in obtaining fine-grained ZnO films with a high growth rate and a low concentration of oxygen vacancies. However, temperatures greater than 145 °C led to shedding of ZnO from the surface and a reduction in the growth rate. Thus, temperature treatment was confirmed to play an important role in ZnO film deposition instead of post thermal annealing after the film growth.

  2. Polydopamine Thin Films as Protein Linker Layer for Sensitive Detection of Interleukin-6 by Surface Plasmon Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Mana; Tawa, Keiko

    2016-08-31

    Polydopamine (PDA) thin films are introduced to the surface modification of biosensor surfaces utilizing surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) as the linker layer of capture antibody on to the sensor surfaces. The capture antibody can be directly attached to the sensor surface without using any coupling agent by functionalizing the gold sensor surface with PDA thin films. The PDA coating is performed by a single-step preparation process by applying the dopamine solution on the sensor surface, which requires an extremely short incubation time (10 min). The real-time in situ measurement of the adsorption kinetics of the capture antibody onto the PDA-coated sensor surface is studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. It reveals that the immobilization of capture antibody immediately occurs after introduction of a solution containing capture antibody, and the sensor surface is fully covered with the capture antibody. The sensitive detection of the cytokine marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) is performed by SPFS using a sandwich assay format with fluorescently labeled detection antibody. The sensor chips functionalized by PDA chemistry exhibited sensitive sensor responses with low nonspecific adsorption of the detection antibody onto the sensor surface. The detection limit of IL-6 with the developed SPFS biosensor is determined to be 2 pg/mL (100 fM), which is within the range of the diagnostic criteria. Our observation elucidates the remarkable utility of PDA coatings for chemical modification of the metallic sensor surfaces by a simple, brief, and inexpensive manner.

  3. Indium oxide thin film prepared by low temperature atomic layer deposition using liquid precursors and ozone oxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, W.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Choi, Dong-Won [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-719 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jozeph, E-mail: jozeph.park@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Seong, E-mail: jsparklime@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-719 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Transparent conducting Indium oxide (InO{sub x}) thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition at low deposition temperatures below 100 °C. For the comparative study with liquid precursors in low temperature thermal ALD, diethyl[1,1,1-trimethyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)silanaminato]-Indium, [3-(dimethylamino-kN)propyl-kC]dimethyl-Indium, and triethyl indium (TEIn) were used as the In precursors. Ozone was used as the oxidant for all precursors. InO{sub x} films grown using the three precursors all exhibit relatively low electrical resistivity below 10{sup −3} Ω cm at temperatures above 150 °C. Below 100 °C, the lowest resistivity (2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm) was observed in the films grown with TEIn. The electrical, structural and optical properties were systematically investigated as functions of the deposition temperature and precursors. - Highlights: • InO{sub x} thin films were deposited by ALD at extremely low deposition temperatures below 100 °C. • InO{sub x} films exhibit relatively low electrical resistivity below 10{sup −3} Ω cm at temperatures above 150 °C. • Ozone stimulate the chemical reactions to yield dense indium oxide films at low temperatures.

  4. Phase-change properties of GeSbTe thin films deposited by plasma-enchanced atomic layer depositon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sannian; Yao, Dongning; Song, Zhitang; Gao, Lina; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Le; Shen, Lanlan; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Yan; Feng, Songlin

    2015-02-01

    Phase-change access memory (PCM) appears to be the strongest candidate for next-generation high-density nonvolatile memory. The fabrication of ultrahigh-density PCM depends heavily on the thin-film growth technique for the phase-changing chalcogenide material. In this study, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and GeSb8Te thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using Ge [(CH3)2 N]4, Sb [(CH3)2 N]3, Te(C4H9)2 as precursors and plasma-activated H2 gas as reducing agent of the metallorganic precursors. Compared with GST-based device, GeSb8Te-based device exhibits a faster switching speed and reduced reset voltage, which is attributed to the growth-dominated crystallization mechanism of the Sb-rich GeSb8Te films. These results show that ALD is an attractive method for preparation of phase-change materials.

  5. Evidence of extended solidlike layering in [Bmim][NTf2] ionic liquid thin films at room-temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovio, Simone; Podestà, Alessandro; Lenardi, Cristina; Milani, Paolo

    2009-05-14

    We report the direct observation of solidlike ordering at room temperature of thin films of [Bmim][NTf2] ionic liquid on mica, amorphous silica, and oxidized Si(110). A statistical quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy topographies shows that on these surfaces [Bmim][NTf2] forms layered structures, characterized by a perpendicular structural periodicity of approximately 0.6 nm. Remarkably, even the highest structures, up to 50 nm high, behave solidlike against the AFM probe. Conversely, on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite the ionic liquid forms nanometer-sized, liquidlike domains. The results of this study are directly relevant for those applications where ILs are employed in form of thin films supported on solid surfaces, such as in microelectromechanical or microelectronic devices. More generally, they suggest that at the liquid/solid interface the structural properties of ILs can be far more complex than those depicted so far, and prompt new fundamental investigations of the forces that drive supported ILs through a liquidlike-to-solidlike transition.

  6. An Iterative Formula for the Reflection Coefficient of Multi-layer Thin Film and Its Application in the Design of Optical All Pass Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Yichao; TAN Weihan; HUANG Zhaoming

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an iterative formula for the reflection coefficient of the multi-layer thin film is deduced and the design of multi-layer thin film gires-tournois interferometer optical all pass filter(GTI-OAPF) is discussed. The group delay τm ranges from 0.06 to 460 ps and the bandwidth Δω ranges from 0.068 to 0.0000079 (1015 rad/s). By changing the incident angle θ0, the multi-channel dispersion compensation may be achieved.

  7. EFFECT OF THICKNESS ON MICROSTRUCTURE, DIELECTRIC AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE LAYER Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 THIN FILM

    OpenAIRE

    VELUCHAMY ESWARAMOORTHI; RAYAR VICTOR WILLIAMS

    2014-01-01

    Single layered Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (304) and quartz substrates by solution method. The microstructure, grain size, surface morphology and thickness of the films were reported on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectrometer. Variation in thickness influences the microstructure of the films. The single layered thin film had uniform crack-free surfa...

  8. EFFECT OF THICKNESS ON MICROSTRUCTURE, DIELECTRIC AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE LAYER Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 THIN FILM

    OpenAIRE

    VELUCHAMY ESWARAMOORTHI; RAYAR VICTOR WILLIAMS

    2014-01-01

    Single layered Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (304) and quartz substrates by solution method. The microstructure, grain size, surface morphology and thickness of the films were reported on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectrometer. Variation in thickness influences the microstructure of the films. The single layered thin film had uniform crack-free surfa...

  9. Granular and layered ferroelectric-ferromagnetic thin-film nanocomposites as promising materials with high magnetotransmission effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbashev, A. R.; Telegin, A. V.; Kaul, A. R.; Sukhorukov, Yu. P.

    2015-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of granular and layered nanocomposites consisting of ferromagnetic perovskite Pr1-xSrxMnO3 and ferroelectric hexagonal LuMnO3 were grown on ZrO2(Y2O3) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A self-organized growth of the granular composite took place in situ as a result of phase separation of the Pr-Sr-Lu-Mn-O system into the perovskite and hexagonal phases. Optical transmission measurements revealed a large negative magnetotransmission effect in the layered nanocomposite over a wide spectral and temperature range. The granular nanocomposite unexpectedly showed an even larger, but positive, magnetotransmission effect at room temperature.

  10. Effects of Controlling the AZO Thin Film's Optical Band Gap on AZO/MEH-PPV Devices with Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyoung Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells were fabricated incorporating aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films of varying optical band gap in AZO/poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene structures. The band gaps were controlled by varying the flow rates of Ar and O2 used to deposit the AZO. Devices with CdS buffer layer were also fabricated for improved efficiency. The effects of AZO optical band gap were assessed by testing the I–V characteristics of devices with structures of glass/ITO/AZO/MEH-PPV/Ag under AM1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2. Efficiency was improved about 30 times by decreasing the AZO optical band gap, except in devices deposited without oxygen. A power conversion efficiency of 0.102% was obtained with the incorporation of a CdS buffer layer.

  11. Effect of UV-light illumination on oxide-based electric-double-layer thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jumei; Hu, Yunping

    2017-01-01

    Indium–tin-oxide (ITO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using porous SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition as dielectrics. The results showed that the porous SiO2 film exhibited a high electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Devices gated by the EDL dielectric exhibited a high drain current on/off ratio of >106 and a low operation voltage of illuminated by 254 nm UV light, ITO-based EDL TFTs gated by a single SiO2 dielectric displayed weak photo-responses. However, devices gated by a stacked Al2O3/EDL dielectric displayed a high photo responsivity of more than 104 with a gate bias of ‑0.5 V (depletion state).

  12. Thin film CdTe solar cells with an absorber layer thickness in micro- and sub-micrometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhizhong; Yang, Jun; Wang, Deliang

    2011-10-01

    CdTe thin film solar cell with an absorber layer as thin as 0.5 μm was fabricated. An efficiency of 7.9% was obtained for a 1-μm-thick CdTe solar cell. An increased intensity of deep recombination states in the band gap, which was responsible for the reduced open-circuit voltage and fill factor for ultra-thin solar cells, was induced due to the not-well-developed polycrystalline CdTe microstructure and the CdS/CdTe heterojunction and the presence of Cu in the back contact. The experimental results presented in this study demonstrated that 1-μm-thick absorber layer is thick enough to fabricate CdTe solar cell with a decent efficiency.

  13. Cadmium sulfide nanowires for the window semiconductor layer in thin film CdS-CdTe solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Piao; Singh, Vijay P; Jarro, Carlos A; Rajaputra, Suresh

    2011-04-08

    Thin film CdS/CdTe heterojunction device is a leading technology for the solar cells of the next generation. We report on two novel device configurations for these cells where the traditional CdS window layer is replaced by nanowires (NW) of CdS, embedded in an aluminum oxide matrix or free-standing. An estimated 26.8% improvement in power conversion efficiency over the traditional device structure is expected, primarily because of the enhanced spectral transmission of sunlight through the NW-CdS layer and a reduction in the junction area/optical area ratio. In initial experiments, nanostructured devices of the two designs were fabricated and a power conversion efficiency value of 6.5% was achieved.

  14. Effects of Al concentration on microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jae-Won; Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Sang Yun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jin-Seong

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with various Al concentrations were synthesized on Si(001) substrates with native oxide layers by atomic layer deposition process. The effects of the Al concentration on the microstructural characteristics of the AZO thin films grown at 250 degrees C and the correlation between their microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of the AZO thin films were investigated by AFM, XRD, HRTEM and Hall measurements. The XRD and HRTEM results revealed that the crystallinity and electrical properties of the undoped ZnO thin films were enhanced by 2.48 at% Al doping. However, 12.62 at% Al doping induced the deterioration of their crystallinity and electrical properties due to the formation of nano-sized metallic Al clusters and randomly oriented ZnO-based nano-crystals. To enhance the electrical properties of the AZO thin films while maintaining their crystallinity and electrical properties, a moderate Al concentration has to be chosen under the solubility limit of Al in ZnO.

  15. Fabrication of pyrite FeS{sub 2} thin films by sulfurizing oxide precursor films deposited via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kaiwen; Su, Zhenghua; Yang, Jia; Han, Zili [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Engineering Research Center of High Performance Battery Materials and Devices, Research Institute of Central South University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Liu, Yexiang [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-09-02

    Iron pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) is a naturally abundant and nontoxic semiconductor that can potentially be used in photovoltaic devices. In this report, pure pyrite FeS{sub 2} thin films with homogeneous morphology and ideal composition are fabricated by sulfurizing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursor thin films deposited via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The formation mechanism of FeS{sub 2} is identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical and electrical (including photoelectrochemical) measurements show that the prepared pyrite FeS{sub 2} thin films have high absorption coefficient, suitable band gap, p-type conductivity and good photo-electrical conversion ability. - Highlights: • FeS{sub 2} films were prepared based on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. • XPS analysis revealed the formation mechanism of FeS{sub 2} films. • The FeS{sub 2} thin films are of pure pyrite structure and p-type conductivity. • The FeS{sub 2} thin films have suitable optical and electrical properties for solar cells.

  16. Full compensation of oxygen vacancies in EuTiO3 (001) epitaxial thin film stabilized by a SrTiO3 surface protection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, K.; Hatabayashi, K.; Hirose, Y.; Nakao, S.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated highly insulating EuTiO3 (001) epitaxial thin films capped with SrTiO3 protection layers on SrTiO3 (001) substrates by combining pulsed laser deposition and post-annealing processes. The epitaxial SrTiO3 protection layer played a significant role in compensation of oxygen vacancies in the EuTiO3 thin films by preventing excess oxidation of the films and by "locking" the EuTiO3 perovskite structure in an epitaxial manner from the top during the air-annealing process. The obtained EuTiO3 thin films demonstrated an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.4 K, quantum paraelectricity down to ˜25 K, and a magnetoelectric coupling comparable to that of bulk EuTiO3.

  17. Improved Performance of Fluorinated Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Film Transistors Using Para-hexaphenyl as the Inducing Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Feng; WANG Shi-Rong; LI Xiang-Gao; YAN Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate n-type organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) employing copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (CuPcF16 ) as the active layer and para-hexaphenyl (p-6p) as the inducing layer.Compared with the CuPcF16-based OTFTs without the p-6p inducing layer,the performance of the CuPcF16 /p-6p OTFTs is greatly improved.The charge carrier field-effect mobility μ,on-off current ratio Ion/ Ioff and threshold voltage VT of the CuPcF16/p-6p OTFTs are 0.07cm2/V·s,1.61 × 105 and 6.28 V,respectively,approaching the level of a single crystal device.The improved performance is attributed to the introduction of p-6p to form a highly oriented and continuous film of CuPcF16 with the molecular π-π stack direction parallel to the substrate.Organic thin film transistors have received a wide interest because of their potential applications in displays,logic circuits,sensors and lightemitting devices.[1-4] Although the performance of p-type pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) has reached the α-Si level,[5] the mobility of n-channel OTFTs with air stability is still relatively low.Fluorinated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcF16) is one of a few air-stable n-type organic semiconductors with a low electron field-effect mobility.To improve the performance of CuPcF16-based OTFTs,Yan et al.[5] employed an organic heterojunction buffer layer to decrease the contact resistance of organic/metal.%We demonstrate n-type organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) employing copper hexadecafiuorophthalocyanine (CuPcF16) as the active layer and para-hexaphenyl (p-6p) as the inducing layer. Compared with the CuPcF16-based OTFTs without thep-6p inducing layer, the performance of the CuPcF16/p-6p OTFTs is greatly improved. The charge carrier Reid-effect mobility μ, on-off current ratio Ion/Ioff and threshold voltage Vt of the CuPcF16/p-6p OTFTs are 0.07cm2/V-s, 1.61 x 105 and 6.28 V, respectively, approaching the level of a single crystal device. The improved performance is attributed to

  18. Zirconium doped TiO2 thin films: A promising dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, we have fabricated the zirconium doped TiO2 thin (ZTO) films from a facile spin - coating method. The addition of Zirconium in TiO2 offers conduction band offset to Si and consequently decreased the leakage current density by approximately two orders as compared to pure TiO2 thin (TO) films. The ZTO thin film shows a high dielectric constant 27 with a very low leakage current density ˜10-8 A/cm2. The oxide capacitate, flat band voltage and change in flat band voltage are 172 pF, -1.19 V and 54 mV. The AFM analysis confirmed the compact and pore free flat surface. The RMS surface roughness is found to be 1.5 Å. The ellipsometry analysis also verified the fact with a high refractive index 2.21.

  19. Experimental study of boundary layers formation by thin film colorimetric interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MartinHartl; IvanKrupka; MiroslavLiska

    2001-01-01

    Thin film colorimetric interferometry was applied to the preliminary study of boundarylayers formation for a several liquids of known molecular structure that have been previously stud-ied by the force balance method. This technique intended for the study of very thin lubrication filmsdown to a few nanometers in a point contact between a steel ball and a transparent disk combinespowerful film thickness mapping capabilities with high accuracy. Central and minimum film thick-ness as well as film shape in the dependence on rolling speed was studied for hexadecane, oc-tamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) and n-tetradecane. Results are compared with data obtainedfrom surface force apparatus measurements. OMCTS and n-tetradecane were found to formboundary films that result in a considerable enhancement in film thickness at slow speeds.

  20. Combinatorial Reactive Sputtering of In2S3 as an Alternative Contact Layer for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siol, Sebastian; Dhakal, Tara P.; Gudavalli, Ganesh S.; Rajbhandari, Pravakar P.; DeHart, Clay; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-06-08

    High-throughput computational and experimental techniques have been used in the past to accelerate the discovery of new promising solar cell materials. An important part of the development of novel thin film solar cell technologies, that is still considered a bottleneck for both theory and experiment, is the search for alternative interfacial contact (buffer) layers. The research and development of contact materials is difficult due to the inherent complexity that arises from its interactions at the interface with the absorber. A promising alternative to the commonly used CdS buffer layer in thin film solar cells that contain absorbers with lower electron affinity can be found in ..beta..-In2S3. However, the synthesis conditions for the sputter deposition of this material are not well-established. Here, In2S3 is investigated as a solar cell contact material utilizing a high-throughput combinatorial screening of the temperature-flux parameter space, followed by a number of spatially resolved characterization techniques. It is demonstrated that, by tuning the sulfur partial pressure, phase pure ..beta..-In2S3 could be deposited using a broad range of substrate temperatures between 500 degrees C and ambient temperature. Combinatorial photovoltaic device libraries with Al/ZnO/In2S3/Cu2ZnSnS4/Mo/SiO2 structure were built at optimal processing conditions to investigate the feasibility of the sputtered In2S3 buffer layers and of an accelerated optimization of the device structure. The performance of the resulting In2S3/Cu2ZnSnS4 photovoltaic devices is on par with CdS/Cu2ZnSnS4 reference solar cells with similar values for short circuit currents and open circuit voltages, despite the overall quite low efficiency of the devices (-2%). Overall, these results demonstrate how a high-throughput experimental approach can be used to accelerate the development of contact materials and facilitate the optimization of thin film solar cell devices.

  1. Combinatorial Reactive Sputtering of In2S3 as an Alternative Contact Layer for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siol, Sebastian; Dhakal, Tara P; Gudavalli, Ganesh S; Rajbhandari, Pravakar P; DeHart, Clay; Baranowski, Lauryn L; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-06-08

    High-throughput computational and experimental techniques have been used in the past to accelerate the discovery of new promising solar cell materials. An important part of the development of novel thin film solar cell technologies, that is still considered a bottleneck for both theory and experiment, is the search for alternative interfacial contact (buffer) layers. The research and development of contact materials is difficult due to the inherent complexity that arises from its interactions at the interface with the absorber. A promising alternative to the commonly used CdS buffer layer in thin film solar cells that contain absorbers with lower electron affinity can be found in β-In2S3. However, the synthesis conditions for the sputter deposition of this material are not well-established. Here, In2S3 is investigated as a solar cell contact material utilizing a high-throughput combinatorial screening of the temperature-flux parameter space, followed by a number of spatially resolved characterization techniques. It is demonstrated that, by tuning the sulfur partial pressure, phase pure β-In2S3 could be deposited using a broad range of substrate temperatures between 500 °C and ambient temperature. Combinatorial photovoltaic device libraries with Al/ZnO/In2S3/Cu2ZnSnS4/Mo/SiO2 structure were built at optimal processing conditions to investigate the feasibility of the sputtered In2S3 buffer layers and of an accelerated optimization of the device structure. The performance of the resulting In2S3/Cu2ZnSnS4 photovoltaic devices is on par with CdS/Cu2ZnSnS4 reference solar cells with similar values for short circuit currents and open circuit voltages, despite the overall quite low efficiency of the devices (∼2%). Overall, these results demonstrate how a high-throughput experimental approach can be used to accelerate the development of contact materials and facilitate the optimization of thin film solar cell devices.

  2. Antibacterial and barrier properties of oriented polymer films with ZnO thin films applied with atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Pitkänen, Marja; Salo, Erkki; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Tanskanen, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Tanskanen@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo, E-mail: timo.sajavaara@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti; Sievänen, Jenni; Sneck, Asko; Rättö, Marjaana [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: Maarit.Karppinen@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Concerns on food safety, and need for high quality and extended shelf-life of packaged foods have promoted the development of antibacterial barrier packaging materials. Few articles have been available dealing with the barrier or antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited at low temperature with atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto commercial polymer films typically used for packaging purposes. The purpose of this paper was to study the properties of ZnO thin films compared to those of aluminum oxide. It was also possible to deposit ZnO thin films onto oriented polylactic acid and polypropylene films at relatively low temperatures using ozone instead of water as an oxidizing precursor for diethylzinc. Replacing water with ozone changed both the structure and the chemical composition of films deposited on silicon wafers. ZnO films deposited with ozone contained large grains covered and separated probably by a more amorphous and uniform layer. These thin films were also assumed to contain zinc salts of carboxylic acids. The barrier properties of a 25 nm ZnO thin film deposited with ozone at 100 °C were quite close to those obtained earlier with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of similar apparent thickness on similar polymer films. ZnO thin films deposited at low temperature indicated migration of antibacterial agent, while direct contact between ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films and bacteria promoted antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • Thin films were grown from diethylzinc also with ozone instead of water at 70 and 100 °C. • ZnO films deposited with diethylzinc and ozone had different structures and chemistries. • Best barrier properties obtained with zinc oxide films close to those obtained with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} • Ozone as oxygen source provided better barrier properties at 100 °C than water. • Both aluminum and zinc oxide thin films showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli.

  3. Influence of titanium-substrate roughness on Ca–P–O thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananda Sagari, A.R., E-mail: arsagari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Rahkila, Paavo [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Hongqiang, Ma [Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35 (L), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, FI-01511 Vantaa (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    Amorphous Ca–P–O films were deposited on titanium substrates using atomic layer deposition, while maintaining a uniform Ca/P pulsing ratio of 6/1 with varying number of atomic layer deposition cycles starting from 10 up to 208. Prior to film deposition the titanium substrates were mechanically abraded using SiC abrasive paper of 600, 1200, 2000 grit size and polished with 3 μm diamond paste to obtain surface roughness R{sub rms} values of 0.31 μm, 0.26 μm, 0.16 μm, and 0.10 μm, respectively. The composition and film thickness of as-deposited amorphous films were studied using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The results showed that uniform films could be deposited on rough metal surfaces with a clear dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MC3T3 mouse osteoblast showed a greater coverage of cells on the surface polished with diamond paste in comparison to rougher surfaces after 24 h culture. No statistically significant difference was observed between Ca–P–O coated and un-coated Ti surfaces for the measured roughness value. The deposited 50 nm thick films did not dissolve during the cell culture experiment. - Highlights: ► Atomic layer deposition of Ca–P–O films on abraded Ti substrate ► Surface analysis using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis ► Dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films ► An increase in Ca/P atomic ratio with decreasing roughness ► Mouse osteoblast showed greater coverage of cells in polished surface.

  4. Magnetic Exchange Between Superconducting and Ferromagnetic Oxide Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Sean; Taylor, Jon; Duffy, Jon; Dugdale, Stephen; Nakamura, T.; Santamaria, Jacobo

    2012-02-01

    The origins of high temperature superconductivity and the rich phase diagrams in complex oxides are still a matter of contention that have stimulated many novel experimental studies and observations. Recently the improvement of layer by layer growth techniques of thin films has enabled investigations of both bulk and surface properties. For most common superconductors the order parameter is thought to be antagonistic to that of the exchange mechanism in ferromagnets. Accurately grown thin fllms have enabled these competing interactions to be probed experimentally. In particular, the growth of epitaxial oxide layers, with well-characterized atomically flat interfaces, consisting of superconducting layers of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and lattice-matched ferromagnetic La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) has flourished. Using XMCD we demonstrate that the known superexchange between Mn and Cu across the YBCO/LCMO is modified when an apparent critical thickness of the superconducting layer is reduced. All samples show an apparent exchange below the superconducting transition but above it is dependent on the YBCO thickness. Possible origins of this behaviour will be discussed.

  5. Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition prepared aluminum doped p-type microcrystalline silicon carbide window layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Köhler, Florian; Heidt, Anna; Carius, Reinhard; Finger, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    Al-doped p-type microcrystalline silicon carbide (µc-SiC:H) thin films were deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at substrate temperatures below 400 °C. Monomethylsilane (MMS) highly diluted in hydrogen was used as the SiC source in favor of SiC deposition in a stoichiometric form. Aluminum (Al) introduced from trimethylaluminum (TMAl) was used as the p-type dopant. The material property of Al-doped p-type µc-SiC:H thin films deposited with different deposition pressure and filament temperature was investigated in this work. Such µc-SiC:H material is of mainly cubic (3C) SiC polytype. For certain conditions, like high deposition pressure and high filament temperature, additional hexagonal phase and/or stacking faults can be observed. P-type µc-SiC:H thin films with optical band gap E04 ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 eV and dark conductivity ranging from 10-5 to 0.1 S/cm can be prepared. Such transparent and conductive p-type µc-SiC:H thin films were applied in thin film silicon solar cells as the window layer, resulting in an improved quantum efficiency at wavelengths below 480 nm.

  6. Preparation and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films by sulfurization of Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongshin; Choi, In-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    We fabricated Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin films by sulfurization of co-evaporated Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursor layers under a mixed atmosphere of Ar and H2S. The concentration of H2S in the sulfurization chamber was adjusted to control the replacement of Se by S in CZTSSe thin films. The effect of applying different sulfurization atmospheres was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering, and secondary electron imaging. XRD patterns and Raman spectra confirmed the formation of polycrystalline CZTSSe thin films. The anion compositions of CZTSSe samples, which depended on the concentration of H2S, were estimated by using the peak heights of A modes in Raman spectra. To further analyze Raman scattering of CZTSSe thin film, we used a diamond anvil cell to apply a high pressure environment of up to 5.13 GPa on the CZTSSe sample. The effect of H2S concentration on the crystallinity of the CZTSSe thin films is also discussed.

  7. Direct charge carrier injection into Ga2O3 thin films using an In2O3 cathode buffer layer: their optical, electrical and surface state properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W.; Zhao, X. L.; An, Y. H.; Guo, D. Y.; Qing, X. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Li, P. G.; Li, L. H.; Cui, C.; Tang, W. H.

    2017-04-01

    Conductive Ga2O3 thin films with an In2O3 buffer layer have been prepared on c-plane sapphire substrates using a laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The effects of the In2O3 buffer layer on the structure and optical, electrical and surface state properties of the Ga2O3 films have been studied. The change in conductivity of the thin films is attributed to different thicknesses of the In2O3 buffer layer, which determine the concentration of charge carriers injected into the upper Ga2O3 layer from the interface of the bilayer thin films. In addition, the increase in flat band voltage shift and capacitance values as the In2O3 buffer layer thickens are attributed to the increase in surface state density, which also contributes to the rapid shrinkage of the optical band gap of the Ga2O3. With transparency to visible light, high n-type conduction and the ability to tune the optical band gap and surface state density, we propose that Ga2O3/In2O3 bilayer thin film is an ideal n-type semiconductor for fabrication of transparent power devices, solar cell electrodes and gas sensors.

  8. Growth of nitrogen-doped p-type ZnO thin films prepared by atomic layer epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Chongmu; LIM Jongmin; PARK Suyoung; KIM Hyounwoo

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped, p-type ZnO thin films were grown successfully on sapphire (0001) substrates by using atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). Zn(C2H5)2[Diethylzinc,DEZn], H2O and NH3 were used as a zinc precursor, an oxidant and a doping source gas, respectively. The lowest electrical resistivity of the p-type ZnO films grown by ALE and annealed at 1000 ℃ in an oxygen atmosphere for 1 h was 18.3 Ω·m with a hole concentration of 3.71×1017cm-3 . Low temperature-photoluminescence analysis and time-dependent Hall measurement results support that the nitrogen-doped ZnO after annealing is ap-type semiconductor.

  9. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  10. Bipolar resistive switching behavior of an amorphous Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ thin films with a Te layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sijung; Eom, Taeyong; Gwon, Taehong; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-04-14

    The mechanism of bipolar resistive switching (BRS) of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) thin films sandwiched between inert electrodes (Ti and Pt) was examined. Typical bipolar resistive switching behavior with a high resistance ratio (∼10(3)) and reliable switching characteristics was achieved. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a conductive Te-filament bridging between the top and bottom electrodes through an amorphous GST matrix. The conduction mechanism analysis showed that the low-resistance state was semiconducting and dominated by band transport, whereas Poole-Frenkel conduction governed the carrier transport in the high-resistance state. Thus, the BRS behavior can be attributed to the formation and rupture of the semiconducting conductive Te bridge through the migration of the Te ions in the amorphous GST matrix under a high electric field. The Te ions are provided by the thin (∼5 nm) Te-rich layer formed at the bottom electrode interface.

  11. Bipolar resistive switching behavior of an amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films with a Te layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sijung; Eom, Taeyong; Gwon, Taehong; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of bipolar resistive switching (BRS) of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) thin films sandwiched between inert electrodes (Ti and Pt) was examined. Typical bipolar resistive switching behavior with a high resistance ratio (~103) and reliable switching characteristics was achieved. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a conductive Te-filament bridging between the top and bottom electrodes through an amorphous GST matrix. The conduction mechanism analysis showed that the low-resistance state was semiconducting and dominated by band transport, whereas Poole-Frenkel conduction governed the carrier transport in the high-resistance state. Thus, the BRS behavior can be attributed to the formation and rupture of the semiconducting conductive Te bridge through the migration of the Te ions in the amorphous GST matrix under a high electric field. The Te ions are provided by the thin (~5 nm) Te-rich layer formed at the bottom electrode interface.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization And Optoelectrical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Poly Crystalline Nano Thin Films Deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindal, Nitin; Sharma, Manisha; Kumar, H.; Sharma, S.; Upadhaya, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium doped zinc oxide polycrystalline nano thin films were deposited on microscopic glass substrates following a modified chemical bath technique called Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR). Cadmium doping was found to increase the film grown rate. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that films have polycrystalline nature. The SEM image revealed growth of large crystallites perpendicular to the substrates. The optical transmittance spectra indicate that these thin films have the direct energy band gap. The resistivity of these films decreased with increase in the temperature for all compositions, which confirmed the semiconducting nature of films.

  13. Growth of zinc sulfide thin films on (100)Si with the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method studied by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Mika P.; Lindroos, Seppo; Resch, Roland; Leskelä, Markku; Friedbacher, Gernot; Grasserbauer, Manfred

    1998-10-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were grown on (100)Si substrates from solution with the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl 2 and Na 2S were used as precursors. The morphological development of the films with increasing number of SILAR cycles was monitored ex situ by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in tapping mode. Their roughness increased vs. the growth cycles. AFM studies on (100)Si substrates treated with Na 2S solution revealed that the dissolution of the silicon substrates is a process competing with the thin film growth and has to be considered when interpreting the AFM images.

  14. Characterization and antibacterial activity of nanocrystalline Mn doped Fe2O3 thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method have been successfully employed to grow nanocrystalline Mn doped α-Fe2O3 thin films onto glass substrates. The structural analysis revealed that, the films are nanocrystalline in nature with rhombohedral structure. The optical studies showed that α-Fe2O3 thin film exhibits 3.02 eV band gap energy and it decreases to 2.95 eV as the Mn doping percentage in it was increased from 0 to 8 wt.%. The SILAR grown α-Fe2O3 film exhibits antib...

  15. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Lau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, Lau (one of the authors pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  16. Fabrication of Thin Films of α-Fe2O3 via Atomic Layer Deposition Using Iron Bisamidinate and Water under Mild Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jason R; Kim, Dong Wook; Rimoldi, Martino; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-08-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown to be an excellent method for depositing thin films of iron oxide. With limited iron precursors available, the methods widely used require harsh conditions such as high temperatures and/or the use of oxidants such as ozone or peroxide. This letter aims to show that bis(N,N'-di-t-butylacetamidinato) iron(II) (iron bisamidinate or FeAMD) is an ideal ALD precursor because of its reactivity with water and relative volatility. Using in situ QCM analysis, we show outstanding conformal self-limiting growth of FeOx using FeAMD and water at temperatures lower than 200 °C. By annealing thin films of FeOx at 500 °C, we observe the formation of α-Fe2O3, confirming that we can use FeAMD to fabricate thin films of catalytically promising iron oxide materials using moderate growth conditions.

  17. Thin-Film Solar Cells with InP Absorber Layers Directly Grown on Nonepitaxial Metal Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Maxwell

    2015-08-25

    The design and performance of solar cells based on InP grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. An ex situ p-doping process for TF-VLS grown InP is introduced. Properties of the cells such as optoelectronic uniformity and electrical behavior of grain boundaries are examined. The power conversion efficiency of first generation cells reaches 12.1% under simulated 1 sun illumination with open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 692 mV, short-circuit current (JSC) of 26.9 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 65%. The FF of the cell is limited by the series resistances in the device, including the top contact, which can be mitigated in the future through device optimization. The highest measured VOC under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP. The design and performance of solar cells based on indium phosphide (InP) grown by the nonepitaxial thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth technique is investigated. The cell structure consists of a Mo back contact, p-InP absorber layer, n-TiO2 electron selective contact, and an indium tin oxide transparent top electrode. The highest measured open circuit voltage (VOC) under 1 sun is 692 mV, which approaches the optically implied VOC of ≈795 mV extracted from the luminescence yield of p-InP.

  18. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sheraz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001 substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm. The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR. By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA. We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer, in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  19. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Sheraz; He, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Jin; Gul, Qeemat; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001) substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm). The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED), magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer) one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA). We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer) to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer), in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  20. Characterization of the Organic Thin Film Solar Cells with Active Layers of PTB7/PC71BM Prepared by Using Solvent Mixtures with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film solar cells (OTFSCs were fabricated with blended active layers of poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexylcarbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  1. (001)-orientation of anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films on RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} seed layer prepared by ELAMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tomohiko; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Toshiya, E-mail: t-nakajima@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Advanced Manufacturing Reserch Institute, Flexible Chemical Coating Group, Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    By means of a metal-organic deposition process, the anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films with and without (010)-oriented RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} seed layer prepared by an excimer laser assisted metal-organic deposition process were crystallized on silica glass substrates. The anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film on the substrate with the seed layer showed high (001)-orientation because of the small lattice mismatch between the (001)-TiO{sub 2} and (010)-RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} planes, while the anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film without the seed layer was crystallized without any specific orientations. The Lotgering factor F(001) of the obtained (001)-oriented anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film was evaluated to be about 0.92. The (001)-orientation degree seems to be further improved by some surface modifications of the seed layer to stimulate the chemical bonding for the edge shared TiO{sub 6} octahedra along the c-axis.

  2. Material properties of pulsed-laser crystallized Si thin films grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia crystallization-induction layers by two-step irradiation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Kieu Lien, Mai; Horita, Susumu

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous Si thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers were crystallized widely in solid phase by the two-step method with a pulsed laser, moving the sample stage. The crystalline quality, impurity diffusion, and electrical properties of the crystallized Si films were investigated. It was found that the crystallinity of the Si thin films was improved and their surface was smooth without an incubation layer at the interface, indicating the uniform crystallinity of Si on YSZ. The diffusion of Zr and Y into the Si thin films was as small as or smaller than the order of 1017 atoms/cm3. We evaluated the electrical properties of carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the Si thin films with/without YSZ layers by using the resistivity and AC Hall effect measurements. The temperature and doping concentration dependences were measured for both undoped and P-doped films. It was found that both the undoped and P-doped Si/YSZ/glass films showed higher mobilities and carrier concentrations (and therefore higher conductivities), which indicate a smaller number of defects, than the Si/glass films. This suggested that the Si film crystallized on the YSZ layer is more suitable for application to electronic devices than the Si film on glass.

  3. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in CoSiB/Pd/CoSiB Trilayer Thin Films with Varying Pd-Layer Thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sol; Kim, Taewan; Yim, Haein

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of CoSiB (1 5-Å-thickness)/Pd (Pd thickness = 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 24, 27, 29 and 33 Å)/CoSiB (15-Å-thickness) trilayer thin films. The CoSiB-layer thickness was fixed to 15 Å, while the Pd-layer thickness was varied from 8-33 Å. In this paper, we present a new type of thin film containing amorphous Co75Si15B10 and Pd. We investigate the magnetic properties of a fabricated CoSiB/Pd/CoSiB trilayer thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and determine the correlation between the magnetic properties and the nonmagnetic Pd-layer thickness. With increasing Pd-layer thickness, both the coercivity and the saturation magnetization decreased. Furthermore, the maximum values of the magnetic anisotropy were calculated as 0.3 x 10(6) erg/cc. In order to examine the difference between the in-plane magnetic anisotropy and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, magnetic force microscopy images of the CoSiB (15-Å-thickness)/Pd (Pd thickness = 8 and 14 Å)/CoSiB (15-Å-thickness) trilayer thin films were obtained.

  4. Superconducting thin films of Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D. S.; Kwak, J. F.; Hellmer, R. P.; Baughman, R. J.; Venturini, E. L.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-01

    We present techniques for preparing unoriented polycrystalline and epitaxial superconducting thin films of the Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y and Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y phases on a wide variety of substrates. The crucial steps determining the properties of the films are shown to be the air sintering and oxygen annealing following the initial metal deposition by electron beam evaporation under a slight oxygen overpressure. A sintered Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O pellet is employed as a source of excess Tl during sintering and annealing of the thin film. The Tl concentration in the final films controls the nature of the intergrain connections. The films are characterized by their structural, chemical, magnetic and transport properties. Zero resistance typically occurs at 97 K for Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O and at 106 K for Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y. Transport critical currents of up to 110 000 A/cm 2 have been obtained at 77 K for unoriented Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y, up to 160 000 A/cm 2 for epitaxial Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y and up to 240 000 A/cm 2 for unoriented Tl 2Ca 2Cu 3O y films with little field dependence of the critical current observed.

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of finite particle of layered double hydroxide-acetate intercalation compound: Swelling, thin film and ion exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Kyoko; Intasa-Ard, Soontaree (Grace); Bureekaew, Sareeya; Ogawa, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    Acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was successfully synthesized by the solid-state reactions between magnesium acetate and aluminum hydroxide as the starting materials using a planetary mil. The acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide prepared by the present solid-state reaction was finite particle and was processed into stable aqueous suspension with variable transparency and viscosity depending on the concentration. By drying the suspension on a substrate under nitrogen atmosphere, thin film (with the thickness of several micrometers) of the acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide with the basal plane oriented parallel to the substrate was obtained. The ion exchange ability of the film, which is as an advantage of the acetate form of layered double hydroxide, was shown by the ion exchange with coumarin-3-carboxylate to give a photoluminescent film. The solid-solid reaction is advantageous for the preparation of layered double hydroxides due to the simple and eco-friendly nature (no solvent) of the operation, lower possibility of carbonate contamination and finite particles of the products.

  6. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchamp, M.; Boothroyd, C.B.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Moreno, M.S. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 - S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Van Aken, B.B.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, High Tech Campus, Building 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-07

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to study p-doped layers in n-i-p amorphous thin film Si solar cells grown on steel foil substrates. For a solar cell in which an intrinsic amorphous hydrogenated Si (a-Si-H) layer is sandwiched between 10-nm-thick n-doped and p-doped a-Si:H layers, we assess whether core-loss EELS can be used to quantify the B concentration. We compare the shape of the measured B K edge with real space ab initio multiple scattering calculations and show that it is possible to separate the weak B K edge peak from the much stronger Si L edge fine structure by using log-normal fitting functions. The measured B concentration is compared with values obtained from secondary ion mass spectrometry, as well as with EELS results obtained from test samples that contain ?200-nm-thick a-Si:H layers co-doped with B and C. We also assess whether changes in volume plasmon energy can be related to the B concentration and/or to the density of the material and whether variations of the volume plasmon line-width can be correlated with differences in the scattering of valence electrons in differently doped a-Si:H layers.

  7. High Ms Fe16N2 thin film with Ag under layer on GaAs substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    (001) textured Fe16N2 thin film with Ag under layer is successfully grown on GaAs substrate using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system. After post annealing, chemically ordered Fe16N2 phase is formed and detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). High saturation magnetization (Ms) is measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). In comparison with Fe16N2 with Ag under layer on MgO substrate and Fe16N2 with Fe under layer on GaAs substrate, the current layer structure shows a higher Ms value, with a magnetically softer feature in contrast to the above cases. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed to characterize the binding energy of N atoms. To verify the role of strain that the FeN layer experiences in the above three structures, Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) is conducted to reveal a large in-plane lattice constant due to the in-plane biaxial tensile strain. INTRODUCTION

  8. Impact of NiOx Buffer Layers on the Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3 Thin Films on Nickel Substrates Fabricated by Polymer Assisted Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring with piezoelectric thin films integrated on structural metals shows great advantages for potential applications. However, the integration of piezoelectric thin films on structure metals is still challenged. In this paper, we report the piezoelectric barium titanate [BaTiO3 (BTO] thin films deposited on polycrystalline Ni substrates by the polymer assisted deposition (PAD method using NiOx as the buffer layers. The NiOx buffer layers with different thicknesses were prepared by varying immersing time from 5 minutes to 4 hours in H2O2 solution. The dielectric and leakage current properties of the thin films have been studied by general test systems. The BTO/Ni heterostructure with 2-hour immersing time exhibits better dielectric properties with a dielectric constant over 1500 and a 34.8% decrease of the dielectric loss compared to that with 5-minute immersing time. The results show that the leakage current density is strongly affected by the thickness of the NiOx buffer layer. The conduction mechanisms of the BTO/Ni heterostructure have been discussed according to the J-V characteristic curves.

  9. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  10. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum confined nanostructured tin oxide thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murali, K.V., E-mail: kvmuralikv@gmail.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Nehru Arts and Science College, Kanhangad, Kerala 671314 (India); Ragina, A.J. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Nehru Arts and Science College, Kanhangad, Kerala 671314 (India); Preetha, K.C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Sree Narayana College, Kannur, Kerala 670007 (India); Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T.L. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Kannur University, Kerala 670327 (India); Department of Physics, Pazhassi Raja N.S.S. College, Mattannur, Kerala 670702 (India)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum confined SnO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized at 80 °C by SILAR technique. • Film formation mechanism is discussed. • Films with snow like crystallite morphology offer high specific surface area. • The blue-shifted value of band gap confirmed the quantum confinement effect. • Present synthesis has advantages – low cost, low temperature and green friendly. - Abstract: Quantum confined nanostructured SnO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized at 353 K using ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) and other chemicals by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. Film formation mechanism is discussed. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated and compared with the as-grown and annealed films fabricated without NH{sub 4}Cl solution. SnO{sub 2} films were polycrystalline with crystallites of tetragonal structure with grain sizes lie in the 5–8 nm range. Films with snow like crystallite morphology offer high specific surface area. The blue-shifted value of band gap of as-grown films confirmed the quantum confinement effect of grains. Refractive index of the films lies in the 2.1–2.3 range. Films prepared with NH{sub 4}Cl exhibit relatively lower resistivity of the order of 10{sup 0}–10{sup −1} Ω cm. The present synthesis has advantages such as low cost, low temperature and green friendly, which yields small particle size, large surface–volume ratio, and high crystallinity SnO{sub 2} films.

  11. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  12. Performance Enhancement of ZITO Thin-Film Transistors via Graphene Bridge Layer by Sol-Gel Combustion Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Dong, Panpan; Gao, Yana; Sheng, Chenhang; Li, Xifeng

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we reported the stacked structure zinc-indium-tin oxide (ZITO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with graphene nanosheets (GNSs) prepared by solution process. GNSs were used as bridge layer between dual-ZITO layers. The transmission of stacked ZITO/GNSs/ZITO films are more than 80% in the visible region and the resistivity of ZITO films with GNSs bridge layer decreased from 502.9 to 13.4 Ω cm. The solution-processed TFT devices with GNSs bridge layer exhibited a desirable characteristic with a subthreshold slope of 0.25 V/dec and current on-off ratio of 1 × 10(7), and the saturation filed effect mobility is improved to 45.9 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), which exceeds the mobility values of the pristine ZITO TFTs by one order. These results demonstrate the solution-processed ZITO/GNSs/ZITO TFTs maybe make a further step to achieve high-performance TFTs and show the potential for next-generation applications.

  13. NiAl seed layer for obliquely sputtered thin film tape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.T.; Hozoi, A.; Lodder, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two types of magnetic tape were produced by oblique sputtering with the incident angle of 65/spl plusmn/5/spl deg/. One consists of a 180-nm Cr underlayer layer and 20-nm Co layer. The other consists of a 90-nm NiAl seed layer, 90-nm Cr intermediate layer, and 20-nm Co layer. It is shown that the us

  14. Ceramic barrier layers for flexible thin film solar cells on metallic substrates: a laboratory scale study for process optimization and barrier layer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Sanchez, Jose-Maria; Guilera, Nuria; Francesch, Laia; Alba, Maria D; Lopez, Laura; Sanchez, Emilio

    2014-11-12

    Flexible thin film solar cells are an alternative to both utility-scale and building integrated photovoltaic installations. The fabrication of these devices over electrically conducting low-cost foils requires the deposition of dielectric barrier layers to flatten the substrate surface, provide electrical isolation between the substrate and the device, and avoid the diffusion of metal impurities during the relatively high temperatures required to deposit the rest of the solar cell device layers. The typical roughness of low-cost stainless-steel foils is in the hundred-nanometer range, which is comparable or larger than the thin film layers comprising the device and this may result in electrical shunts that decrease solar cell performance. This manuscript assesses the properties of different single-layer and bilayer structures containing ceramics inks formulations based on Al2O3, AlN, or Si3N4 nanoparticles and deposited over stainless-steel foils using a rotogravure printing process. The best control of the substrate roughness was achieved for bilayers of Al2O3 or AlN with mixed particle size, which reduced the roughness and prevented the diffusion of metals impurities but AlN bilayers exhibited as well the best electrical insulation properties.

  15. Synthesis of the Thickness Profile of the Waveguide Layer of the Thin Film Generalized Waveguide Luneburg Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayryan E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A local variation in the thickness of the waveguide layer of integrated optics waveguide causes a local decrease of phase velocity, and hence bending of rays and of the wave front. The relationship of the waveguide layer thickness profile h (y, z with the distribution of the effective refractive index of the waveguide β (y, z is described in terms of a particular model of waveguide solutions of the Maxwell equations. In the model of comparison waveguides the support of the thickness irregularity of the waveguide layer Δh coincides with the support of inhomogeneity of the effective refractive index Δβ. A more adequate but more cumbersome model of the adiabatic waveguide modes allows them to mismatch supp Δh ⊃ supp Δβ. In this paper, we solve the problem of the Δh reconstruction on the base of given Δβ of the thin film generalized waveguide Luneburg lens in a model of adiabatic waveguide modes. The solution is found in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian exponential functions and in the form of a cubic spline for the cylindrically symmetric Δh (r and in the form of a cubic spline for Δβ (r.

  16. Effect of nickel seed layer on growth of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kant, Chandra; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Megha, E-mail: meghasingh-08@yahoo.com; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-110016 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In this communication, we reported the role of Ni seed layer on the growth of vanadium pentoxide (α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) using plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP). Two different substrates, simple glass substrate and the Ni coated glass substrate (Ni thickness ∼ 100 nm) are employing in the present work. The influence of seed layer on structural, morphological, and vibrational properties have been studied systematically. The structural analysis divulged that both films deposited on simple glass as well as on Ni coated glass shown purely orthorhombic phase, no other phases are detected. The morphological studies of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film deposited on both substrates are carried out by SEM, revealed that features of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NSTs is completely modified in presence of Ni seed layer and the film possessing the excellent growth of nanorods (NRs) on Ni coated glass rather than simple glass. The HRTEM analysis of NRs is performed at very high magnification, shows very fine fringe pattern, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of nanorods. The vibrational study of NRs is performed using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which strongly support the XRD observations.

  17. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  18. Structural properties 3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (pentacene) (TIPS-pentacene) thin films onto organic dielectric layer using slide coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnan, Fara Naila; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Seria, Dzul Fahmi Mohd Husin; Saad, Ismail; Ghosh, Bablu K.; Alias, Afishah [Nano Engineering & Materials (NEMs) Research Group, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400 Sabah (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    3,16-bis triisopropylsilylethynyl (Pentacene) (TIPS-Pentacene) compactable interface property is important in order to have a good arrangement of molecular structure. Comparison for TIPS-Pentacene deposited between two different surface layers conducted. 0.1wt% TIPS-Pentacene diluted in chloroform were deposited onto poly(methylmeaclyrate) (PMMA) layered transparent substrates using slide coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to determine crystallinity of thin films. Series of (00l) diffraction peaks obtained with sharp first peaks (001) for TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer at 5.35° and separation of 16.3 Å. Morphology and surface roughness were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilemeter LS500, respectively.TIPS-Pentacene deposited onto PMMA layer formed needled-like-shape grains with 10.26 nm surface roughness. These properties were related as thin film formed and its surface roughness plays important role towards good mobility devices.

  19. All-Solid-Thin Film Electrochromic Devices Consisting of Layers ITO / NiO / ZrO2 / WO3 / ITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Patel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared an all-solid-thin film electrochromic device (ECD, consisting of layers ITO / NiO / ZrO2 / WO3 / ITO using the PVD method. The WO3 is used as an electrochromic layer, NiO as an ion-storage layer, and ZrO2 as a solid electrolyte layer in the all-solid-thin film ECD. The optical transmittance varied between 3-59 %. The device shows the coloration and bleaching time of 120 s and 2 s, respectively, with a good memory effect and desirable cycle-life.

  20. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells prepared by layered laser crystallization with 540 mV open circuit voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Experimental Physics I, Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Jia, Guobin; Falk, Fritz [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on a glass substrate are investigated. The solar cell layer structure was generated by a two-step process in which first a 100–600 nm thin seed layer is formed by diode laser crystallization of electron beam evaporated amorphous silicon. In a second step this layer is epitaxially thickened to 2–3.5 μm by layered laser crystallization. In this process further amorphous silicon is deposited and in situ repeatedly is irradiated by excimer laser pulses. The polycrystalline layer consists of grains several hundreds of microns long and several tens of microns wide and it contains a p{sup +}–p–n{sup +} doping profile. After deposition a rapid thermal annealing and hydrogen passivation steps follow. The back and front contacts are prepared after mesa structuring. The influence of the seed layer thickness on the solar cell performance was investigated. In addition, the absorber contamination due to the background pressure during absorber deposition and its influence on the short circuit current density was investigated. The best parameters reached for various solar cells are 540 mV open circuit voltage, 20.3 mA/cm{sup 2} short circuit current density (without light trapping), 75% fill factor, and 5.2% efficiency. - Highlights: • Layered laser crystallization leads to grain sizes of 10–300 μm on glass. • Open circuit voltage of 540 mV and efficiency of 5.2% are achieved. • Short circuit current is influenced by background pressure during deposition. • Short circuit current density of 20.3 mA/cm{sup 2} is reached without light trapping. • Progress requires pressures below 10{sup −7} hPa and deposition rates over 100 nm/min.

  1. Deposition by plasma-assisted laser ablation and maskless patterning of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, P. (Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)); Cagigal, M. (Dept. de Fisica de Materiales, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)); Vicent, J.L. (Dept. de Fisica de Materiales, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)); Briones, F. (Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-04-01

    YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] superconducting thin films were deposited in situ by plasma-assisted laser ablation onto polycrystalline yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) substrates at 700 C in a low pressure (200-400 mTorr) O[sub 2] discharge (-300 V). The laser operated at 5-50 Hz repetition rate and was focused onto a superconducting target with a typical energy density of 2.5-4 J cm[sup -2]. An in situ annealing step in 1 Torr O[sub 2] atmosphere at 425 C for 1-2 h was followed by slow cooling of the films to room temperature. The YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] films grew preferentially oriented with the c-axis normal to the substrate surface. They exhibited metallic behaviour in the normal state and superconducting transitions with typical onset of 91 K and zero resistance between 82 and 87 K. The transport critical current densities J[sub c] were 10[sup 2] A cm[sup -2] for 1 [mu]m thick films and two orders of magnitude higher, J[sub c] = 3 x 10[sup 4] A cm[sup -2], for 0.08 [mu]m thick films. Maskless patterning was achieved by utilizing the ArF laser beam to induce etching selectivity of the superconducting thin films. For this purpose, the central part of the beam was apertured by a slit and focused onto the sample by means of a 15 x Schwarzschild microscope objective to give an irradiated area on the sample of approximately 10 x 150 [mu]m[sup 2]. The laser energy density on the sample was typically 10[sup 3] J cm[sup -2], while the repetition rate was varied between 10 and 20 Hz. Microbridges of different geometries with a maximum resolution of 10 [mu]m and high edge definition were obtained at 20 [mu]m s[sup -1] scan rate using this technique. (orig.)

  2. Conformal organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer thin films by molecular layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Peng, Qing; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-05-19

    Growing interest in nanoscale organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer materials is driving exploration of new bulk and thin film synthesis reaction mechanisms. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a vapor-phase deposition process, based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) which proceeds by exposing a surface to an alternating sequence of two or more reactant species, where each surface half-reaction goes to completion before the next reactant exposure. This work describes film growth using trimethyl aluminum and heterobifunctional glycidol at moderate temperatures (90-150 °C), producing a relatively stable organic-inorganic network polymer of the form (-Al-O-(C(4)H(8))-O-)(n). Film growth rate and in situ reaction analysis indicate that film growth does not initially follow a steady-state rate, but increases rapidly during early film growth. The mechanism is consistent with subsurface species transport and trapping, previously documented during MLD and ALD on polymers. A water exposure step after the TMA produces a more linear growth rate, likely by blocking TMA subsurface diffusion. Uniform and conformal films are formed on complex nonplanar substrates. Upon postdeposition annealing, films transform into microporous metal oxides with ∼5 Å pore size and surface area as high as ∼327 m(2)/g, and the resulting structures duplicate the shape of the original substrate. These hybrid films and porous materials could find uses in several research fields including gas separations and diffusion barriers, biomedical scaffolds, high surface area coatings, and others.

  3. An iron(II) diketonate-diamine complex as precursor for thin film fabrication by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratvold, Jon E.; Carraro, Giorgio; Barreca, Davide; Nilsen, Ola

    2015-08-01

    A new divalent Fe precursor has been explored for deposition of iron-containing thin films by atomic layer deposition and molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD). The Fe(II) β-diketonate-diamine complex, Fe(hfa)2TMEDA, (hfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionate, TMEDA = N,N,N‧,N‧-tetramethylethylenediamine) can be handled in air, and sublimation at 60 °C ensures a satisfactory vaporization rate. The reactivity of the precursor does not allow for direct reaction with water as co-reactant. Nevertheless, it reacts with carboxylic acids, resulting in organic-inorganic hybrid materials, and with ozone, yielding α-Fe2O3. The divalent oxidation state of iron was maintained during deposition when oxalic acid was used as co-reactant, demonstrating the first preservation of Fe(II) from precursor to film during an MLD process. A self-saturating growth mode was proven by in situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and the films were further characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  4. Investigation of stacked elemental layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film preparation by rapid thermal selenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, Christiane; Ohland, Joerg; Mikolajczak, Ulf; Madena, Thomas; Keller, Jan; Parisi, Juergen; Hammer, Maria; Riedel, Ingo [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Rapid thermal selenization of pure metallic (Cu-In-Ga) or selenium-containing (Cu-In-Ga-Se) precursors is a favorable method to fabricate Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films for application in thin film solar cells. Because of its upscaling potential and the short process time it is a promising approach for the fabrication of CIGSe photovoltaic modules on industrial scale. As a preliminary work for prospective plasma-enhanced selenization of stacked elemental layers (SEL) the elements copper, indium and gallium were sequentially deposited on molybdenum coated soda-lime glass by thermal evaporation. The stacking order was varied and the precursors were annealed with different heating rates. Morphology, elemental depth distribution and phases of the layers were investigated before and after annealing using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore the influence of different heating rates on phase transitions during annealing was studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction.

  5. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted ZnO nanoparticles for oxide charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Ho; Yun, Da Jeong; Lee, Won Ho; Yoon, Sung Min

    2017-02-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with monolayer structures were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to use for a charge-trap layer (CTL) for nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (MTFTs). The optimum ALD temperature of the NP formation was demonstrated to be 160 °C. The size and areal density of the ZnO NPs was estimated to be approximately 33 nm and 4.8 × 109 cm-2, respectively, when the number of ALD cycles was controlled to be 20. The fabricated MTFTs using a ZnO-NP CTL exhibited typical memory window properties, which are generated by charge-trap/de-trap processes, in their transfer characteristics and the width of the memory window (MW) increased from 0.6 to 18.0 V when the number of ALD cycles increased from 5 to 30. The program characteristics of the MTFT were markedly enhanced by the post-annealing process performed at 180 °C in an oxygen ambient due to the improvements in the interface and bulk qualities of the ZnO NPs. The program/erase (P/E) speed was estimated to be 10 ms at P/E voltages of -14 and 17 V. The memory margin showed no degradation with the lapse in retention time for 2 × 104 s and after the repetitive P/E operations of 7 × 103 cycles.

  6. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times).

  7. Sputtered nickel oxide thin film for efficient hole transport layer in polymer–fullerene bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjonarko, N. Edwin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ratcliff, Erin L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Perkins, Craig L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigdel, Ajaya K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Denver, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ndione, Paul F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gillaspie, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are promising thin-film renewable energy conversion options due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication.

  8. SiO$_2$/TiO$_2$ multi-layered thin films with self-cleaning and enhanced optical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CIPRIAN MIHOREANU; ALEXANDRU ENESCA; ANCA DUTA

    2017-06-01

    Self-cleaning, high transmittance glazing was obtained by cold spray deposition for glazings. The thin films contain TiO$_2$, SiO$_2$ and Au nanoparticles in different structures which allow for tailoring the optical, hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties. The crystallinity, morphology and surface energy were correlated with the optical transmittanceand reflectance; the transmittance increased from 89.45 (for the glass substrate) to 91.76% when Au nanoparticles were used in the tandem layered structures. The samples containing alternating multi-layered SiO$_2$ and TiO$_2$ thin films without gold nanoparticles show hydrophilic surface; for these layers, the photocatalytic efficiency reaches 40% under simulated solar radiation. A conditioning effect based on adsorption was observed to increase the photocatalytic efficiency. These highly transparent coatings are well suited for glazings and fenestration, showing the self-cleaning effect based on combinedsuperhydrophilicity and photocatalysis.

  9. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO2 thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, R.; Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M. G.; Chaussé, A.; Andrieux, M.

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO2) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO2 layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  10. Enhanced electrical properties of oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors with high conductivity thin layer insertion for the channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Sunbo; Jang, Kyungsoo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the performance and the stability of indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) by inserting an ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO) layer at the active/insulator interface. The electrical properties of the double channel device (ITO thickness of 5 nm) were improved in comparison with the single channel ITZO or ITO devices. The TFT characteristics of the device with an ITO thickness of less than 5 nm were degraded due to the formation of an island-like morphology and the carriers scattering at the active/insulator interface. The 5 nm-thick ITO inserted ITZO TFTs (optimal condition) exhibited a superior field effect mobility (∼95 cm2/V·s) compared with the ITZO-only TFTs (∼34 cm2/V·s). The best characteristics of the TFT devices with double channel layer are due to the lowest surface roughness (0.14 nm) and contact angle (50.1°) that result in the highest hydrophicility, and the most effective adhesion at the surface. Furthermore, the threshold voltage shifts for the ITO/ITZO double layer device decreased to 0.80 and -2.39 V compared with 6.10 and -6.79 V (for the ITZO only device) under positive and negative bias stress, respectively. The falling rates of EA were 0.38 eV/V and 0.54 eV/V for the ITZO and ITO/ITZO bi-layer devices, respectively. The faster falling rate of the double channel devices suggests that the trap density, including interface trap and semiconductor bulk trap, can be decreased by the ion insertion of a very thin ITO film into the ITZO/SiO2 reference device. These results demonstrate that the double active layer TFT can potentially be applied to the flat panel display.

  11. Effect of tunneling layers on the performances of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Jinhua; Ying, Jun; Xiang, Lanyi; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-09-01

    Two types of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories (FG-OTFT-NVMs) were demonstrated, with poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-GMA)) and tetratetracontane (TTC) as the tunneling layer, respectively. Their device performances were measured and compared. In the memory with a P(MMA-GMA) tunneling layer, typical unipolar hole transport was obtained with a relatively small mobility of 0.16 cm2/V s. The unidirectional shift of turn-on voltage (Von) due to only holes trapped/detrapped in/from the floating gate resulted in a small memory window of 12.5 V at programming/erasing voltages (VP/VE) of ±100 V and a nonzero reading voltage. Benefited from the well-ordered molecule orientation and the trap-free surface of TTC layer, a considerably high hole mobility of 1.7 cm2/V s and a visible feature of electrons accumulated in channel and trapped in floating-gate were achieved in the memory with a TTC tunneling layer. High hole mobility resulted in a high on current and a large memory on/off ratio of 600 at the VP/VE of ±100 V. Both holes and electrons were injected into floating-gate and overwritten each other, which resulted in a bidirectional Von shift. As a result, an enlarged memory window of 28.6 V at the VP/VE of ±100 V and a zero reading voltage were achieved. Based on our results, a strategy is proposed to optimize FG-OTFT-NVMs by choosing a right tunneling layer to improve the majority carrier mobility and realize ambipolar carriers injecting and trapping in the floating-gate.

  12. Cd-Zn-O-S alloys for optimal buffer layers in thin-film photovoltaics (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel B.; He, Xiaoqing; Mackie, Neil; Rockett, Angus A.; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    Advances in thin-film photovoltaics have largely focused on modifying the absorber layer(s), while the choices for other layers in the solar cell stack have remained somewhat limited. In particular, cadmium sulfide (CdS) is widely used as the buffer layer in typical record devices utilizing absorbers like Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) or Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) despite leading to a loss of solar photocurrent due to its band gap of 2.4 eV. While different buffers such as Zn(S,O,OH) are beginning to become competitive with CdS, the identification of additional wider-band gap alternatives with electrical properties comparable to or better than CdS is highly desirable. Here we use hybrid density functional calculations to characterize CdxZn1-xOyS1-y candidate buffer layers in the quaternary phase space composed by Cd, Zn, O, and S. We focus on the band gaps and band offsets of the alloys to assess strategies for improving absorption losses from conventional CdS buffers while maintaining similar conduction band offsets known to facilitate good device performance. We also consider additional criteria such as lattice matching to identify regions in the composition space that may provide improved epitaxy to CIGSe and CZTS absorbers. Lastly, we incorporate our calculated alloy properties into device model simulations of typical CIGSe devices to identify the CdxZn1-xOyS1-y buffer compositions that lead to the best performance. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the Department of Energy office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) through the SunShot Bridging Research Interactions through collaborative Development Grants in Energy (BRIDGE) program.

  13. Effect of tunneling layers on the performances of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Han, Jinhua; Ying, Jun; Xiang, Lanyi; Xie, Wenfa [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-09-22

    Two types of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories (FG-OTFT-NVMs) were demonstrated, with poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-GMA)) and tetratetracontane (TTC) as the tunneling layer, respectively. Their device performances were measured and compared. In the memory with a P(MMA-GMA) tunneling layer, typical unipolar hole transport was obtained with a relatively small mobility of 0.16 cm{sup 2}/V s. The unidirectional shift of turn-on voltage (V{sub on}) due to only holes trapped/detrapped in/from the floating gate resulted in a small memory window of 12.5 V at programming/erasing voltages (V{sub P}/V{sub E}) of ±100 V and a nonzero reading voltage. Benefited from the well-ordered molecule orientation and the trap-free surface of TTC layer, a considerably high hole mobility of 1.7 cm{sup 2}/V s and a visible feature of electrons accumulated in channel and trapped in floating-gate were achieved in the memory with a TTC tunneling layer. High hole mobility resulted in a high on current and a large memory on/off ratio of 600 at the V{sub P}/V{sub E} of ±100 V. Both holes and electrons were injected into floating-gate and overwritten each other, which resulted in a bidirectional V{sub on} shift. As a result, an enlarged memory window of 28.6 V at the V{sub P}/V{sub E} of ±100 V and a zero reading voltage were achieved. Based on our results, a strategy is proposed to optimize FG-OTFT-NVMs by choosing a right tunneling layer to improve the majority carrier mobility and realize ambipolar carriers injecting and trapping in the floating-gate.

  14. Quantum and conversion efficiencies optimization of superstrate CIGS thin-films solar cells using In2Se3 buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchama, Idris; Boudour, Samah; Bouarissa, Nadir; Rouabah, Zahir

    2017-10-01

    In this present contribution, AMPS-1D device simulator is employed to study the performances of superstrate SLG/TCO/p-Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS)/n-ODC/n-In2Se3/Metal thin film solar cells. The impact of the TCO and Metal work functions on the cell performance has been investigated. The combination of optical transparency and electrical property for TCO front contact layer is found to yield high efficiency. The obtained results show that the TCO work function should be large enough to achieve high conversion efficiency for superstrate CIGS solar cell. Nevertheless, it is desirable for Metal back contact layer to have low work function to prevent the effect of band bending in the n-In2Se3/Metal interface. Several TCOs materials and metals have been tested respectively as a front and back contact layers for superstrate CIGS solar cells. An efficiency of 20.18%, with Voc ≈ 0.71 V, Jsc ≈ 35.36 mA/cm2 and FF ≈ 80.42%, has been achieved with ZnSn2O3-based as TCO front contact layer. In the case of SnO2:F front contact and indium back contact layers, an efficiency of 16.31%, with Voc ≈ 0.64 V, Jsc ≈ 31.4 mA/cm2 and FF ≈ 79.4%, has been obtained. The present results of simulation suggest an improvement of superstrate CIGS solar cells efficiency for feasible fabrication.

  15. The effect of buffer layer on the thermochromic properties of undoped radio frequency sputtered VO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulou, M., E-mail: marpanag@mail.ntua.gr [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, GR 157 80, Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Gagaoudakis, E. [Physics Department, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology — FORTH-Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion 70013, Crete (Greece); Aperathitis, E.; Michail, I. [Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology — FORTH-Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion 70013, Crete (Greece); Kiriakidis, G. [Physics Department, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology — FORTH-Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion 70013, Crete (Greece); Tsoukalas, D.; Raptis, Y.S. [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, GR 157 80, Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)

    2015-11-02

    Thermochromic (TC) coatings can find use in a wide range of applications. Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) specifically, can be potentially used as a smart window coating, as it presents a metal-to-semiconductor transition close to the room temperature (T{sub c} = 68 °C). This results in low transmission in the infrared (thermal) part of the spectrum, while preserving its transmittance in the visible. In the present work, vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films with a thickness of ~ 85 nm were prepared by radio frequency sputtering, to investigate the influence of the buffer layer and deposition properties employed, on their thermochromic behavior. The substrates used were uncoated glass and pre-coated glasses with SnO{sub 2} or ZnON as buffer layer. The lowest growth temperature applied was 300 °C, yielding TC-VO{sub 2}, without the necessity of any post-growth treatment. The structure of the VO{sub 2} films was studied by X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent micro Raman techniques, and the transition temperatures were determined through transmittance measurements. - Highlights: • RF-sputtered thermochromic VO{sub 2}, was grown at 300 °C and 400 °C. • Buffer layers of SnO{sub 2} or ZnON are used over glass. • Low Tc, without post-treatment, for both buffer-layers and T-growth • Thermochromicity of glass/VO{sub 2}, at low T-growth, is improved by ZnON buffer layer.

  16. Field Dependence of π-Band Superconducting Gap in MgB2 Thin Films from Point-Contact Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan; XI Xiao-Xing; WANG Yong-Lei; SHAN Lei; JIA Ying; YANG Huan; WEN Hai-Hu; ZHUANG Cheng-Gang; LI Qi; CUI Yi

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of point-contact spectroscopy measurements on high-quality epitaxial MgB2 thin films with injected current along the c-axis. The temperature and field dependences of л-band properties with the field parallel to (H‖) or perpendicular to (H┴ ) the c-axis are investigated in detail. When a magnetic field is applied, either parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis, the density of the quasiparticle state (DOS) of the л-band proliferates quickly with increasing field, while the gap amplitude of the л-band decreases slowly, which is different from the recent theoretical calculations, showing a field dependent competition between the interband scattering and the pair-breaking effects.

  17. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza

    2012-04-01