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Sample records for superconducting heavy-ion accelerators

  1. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a /sup 19/F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an /sup 16/O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Tests of a niobium split-ring superconducting heavy ion accelerating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Jaffey, A.H.; Khoe, T.K.; Olesen, M.C.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wesolowski, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A niobium split-ring accelerating structure designed for use in the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion energy booster was successfully tested. The superconducting resonator has a resonant frequency of 97 MHz and an optimum particle velocity ..beta.. = 0.11. Ultimate performance is expected to be limited by peak surface fields, which in this structure are 4.7 E/sub a/ electric and 170 E/sub a/ (Gauss) magnetic, where E/sub a/ is the effective accelerating gradient in MV/m. The rf losses in two demountable superconducting joints severely limited performance in initial tests. Following independent measurements of the rf loss properties of several types of demountable joints, one demountable joint was eliminated and the other modified. Subsequently, the resonator could be operated continuously at E/sub a/ = 3.6 MV/m (corresponding to an energy gain of 1.3 MeV per charge) with 10W rf input power. Maximum field level was limited by electron loading. The mechanical stability of the resonator under operating conditions is excellent: vibration induced eigenfrequency noise is less than 120 Hz peak to peak, and the radiation pressure induced frequency shift is ..delta..f/f = 1.6 x 10/sup -6/ E/sub a//sup 2/.

  3. A superconducting CW-LINAC for heavy ion acceleration at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Aulenbacher, Kurt; Basten, Markus; Dziuba, Florian; Gettmann, Viktor; Miski-Oglu, Maksym; Podlech, Holger; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2017-03-01

    Recently the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC) serves as a powerful high duty factor (25%) heavy ion beam accelerator for the ambitious experiment program at GSI. Beam time availability for SHE (Super Heavy Element)-research will be decreased due to the limitation of the UNILAC providing Uranium beams with an extremely high peak current for FAIR simultaneously. To keep the GSI-SHE program competitive on a high level and even beyond, a standalone superconducting continuous wave (100% duty factor) LINAC in combination with the upgraded GSI High Charge State injector is envisaged. In preparation for this, the first LINAC section (financed by HIM and GSI) will be tested with beam in 2017, demonstrating the future experimental capabilities. Further on the construction of an extended cryo module comprising two shorter Crossbar-H cavities is foreseen to test until end of 2017. As a final R&D step towards an entire LINAC three advanced cryo modules, each comprising two CH cavities, should be built until 2019, serving for first user experiments at the Coulomb barrier.

  4. Bucharest heavy ion accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceausescu, V.; Dobrescu, S.; Duma, M.; Indreas, G.; Ivascu, M.; Papureanu, S.; Pascovici, G.; Semenescu, G.

    1986-02-15

    The heavy ion accelerator facility of the Heavy Ion Physics Department at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest is described. The Tandem accelerator development and the operation of the first stage of the heavy ion postaccelerating system are discussed. Details are given concerning the resonance cavities, the pulsing system matching the dc beam to the RF cavities and the computer control system.

  5. Final Commissioning of the Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator at IUAC, Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Tripti Sekhar; Choudhury, Anup; Chacko, Jacob; Kar, Soumen; Antony, Joby; Babu, Suresh; Kumar, Manoj; Mathuria, D. S.; Sahu, Santosh; Kanjilal, Dinakar

    The superconducting linac as a booster of the 15UD Pelletron accelerator was partly commissioned with one linac module housing eight quarter wave bulk niobium cavities along with the superbuncher and rebuncher cryomodules. Subsequently two more linac cryomodules were added to have in total 24 cavities for acceleration. In addition, a new Linde helium refrigerator of capacity 750 W @ 4.2 K was installed in parallel to the earlier CCI refrigerator. The new refrigerator was integrated with the earlier cryogenics network system through a specially designed liquid helium distribution line without any valve box. The cooling philosophy with this new system is modified to have a faster cool down rate in the critical zone (150 - 70 K) to avoid Q disease. The helium gas pressure fluctuation in the cavities is reduced significantly to have stable RF locking. The full linac is being operated and beams with higher energy are being delivered to the users. The present paper will highlight the performance of the new cryogenic system with respect to cool down rate, and helium pressure fluctuation.

  6. The Toledo heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, R.R. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Beideck, D.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Curtis, L.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Kvale, T.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Sen, A. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Schectman, R.M. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Stevens, H.W. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The recently installed 330 kV electrostatic positive ion accelerator at the University of Toledo is described. Experiments have been performed using ions ranging from H[sup +] to Hg[sup 2+] and exotic molecules such as HeH[sup +]. Most of these experiments involve the beam-foil studies of the lifetimes of excited atomic states and the apparatus used for these experiments is also described. Another beamline is available for ion-implantation. The Toledo heavy ion accelerator facility welcomes outside users. (orig.)

  7. Superconducting magnet system of in-flight separator for a heavy ion accelerator planned in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. W.; Kim, D. G.; Jo, H. C. [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. H. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, K. D.; Sohn, M. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    An in-flight fragment separator, which aims to produce and study rare isotopes, consists of superferric quadrupole triplets and dipole magnets to focus and bend the beams for achromatic focusing and momentum dispersion, respectively. The separator is divided into pre and main stages, and we plan to use superconducting magnets employing high-Tc superconductor (HTS) coils in the pre-separator area, where radiation heating is high. The HTS coils will be cooled by cold He gas in 20-50 K, and in the other area, superferric magnets using low-temperature superconductor (LTS) will be used at 4 K. A few LTS coils were wound and successfully tested in a LHe dewar, and the design of cryostat has been optimized. Development of the HTS coils is ongoing in collaboration with a group at KERI. An HTS coil of racetrack shape was wound and tested in a bath and in a dewar with cryocooler. No degradation on critical current due to coil winding was found.

  8. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (..delta..E/E approximately equal to 2 x 10/sup -4/) or very good time resolution (..delta.. t approximately equal to 30 psec).

  9. Initial operation of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Initial operation and recent development of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac are discussed. The linac has been developed in order to demonstrate a cost-effective means of extending the performance of electrostatic tandem accelerators. The results of beam acceleration tests which began in June 1978 are described. At present 7 of a planned array of 22 resonators are operating on-line, and the linac system provides an effective accelerating potential of 7.5 MV. Although some technical problems remain, the level of performance and reliability is sufficient that appreciable beam time is becoming available to users.

  10. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  11. Low- to medium-β cavities for heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Acceleration of low- and medium-β heavy ions by means of superconducting (SC) linear accelerators (linacs) was made possible by the development, during four decades, of a particular class of cavities characterized by low operation frequency, several different shapes and different electromagnetic modes of operation. Their performance, initially rather poor in operating accelerators, have steadily increased along with the technological progress and nowadays the gap with the high-β, elliptical cavities is close to be filled. Initially confined to a very small number of applications, this family of cavities evolved in many directions becoming one of the most widespread in linacs. Nowadays it is present in the majority of superconducting radio-frequency ion linac projects worldwide. An overview of low- and medium-β SC cavities for heavy ions, focused on their recent evolution and achievements, will be given.

  12. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  13. Development of Low Level RF Control Systems for Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerators, Electron Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Kolesov, Sergej; Pekeler, Michael; Piel, Christian; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001 ACCEL Instruments is supplying low level RF control systems together with turn key cavity systems. The early LLRF systems used the well established technology based on discrete analogue amplitude and phase detectors and modulators. Today analogue LLRF systems can make use of advanced vector demodulators and modulators combined with a fast computer controlled analogue feed back loop. Feed forward control is implemented to operate the RF cavity in an open loop mode or to compensate for predictable perturbations. The paper will introduce the general design philosophy and show how it can be adapted to different tasks as controlling a synchrotron booster nc RF system at 500 MHz, or superconducting storage ring RF cavities, as well as a linear accelerator at 176 MHz formed by a chain of individually driven and controlled superconducting λ/2 cavities.

  14. Heavy Ion Acceleration in Impulsive Solar Flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德焴

    2002-01-01

    The abundance enhancements of heavy ions Ne, Mg, Si and Fe in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) eventsare explained by a plasma acceleration mechanism. In consideration of the fact that the coronal plasma is mainlycomposed of hydrogen and helium ions, we think that theion-ion hybrid wave and quasi-perpendicular wave can.be excited by the energetic electron beam in impulsive solar flares. These waves may resonantly be absorbed byheavy ions when the frequencies of these waves are close to the second-harmonic gyrofrequencies of these heavyions. This requires the coronal plasma temperature to be located in the range ofT ~ (5 - 9) × 106 K in impulsivesolar flares and makes the average ionic charge state of these heavy ions in impulsive SEP events higher than theaverage ionic charge state of these heavy ions in gradual SEP events. These pre-heated and enhanced heavy ionsin impulsive SEP events.

  15. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  16. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  17. Heavy ion acceleration using femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (<200 nm) gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the time history of the laser bullet is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 mkm and energy 27 Joules the calculated reflection, transmission and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80 %, 5 % and 15 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8 %. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon and flux . Analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the Radiation Pressure Acceleration regime and the onset of the Target Normal Sheath Acceleratio...

  18. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  19. Development of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for Heavy Ion Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Manahan, R; Lietzke, A F

    2001-09-10

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is exploring a promising path to a practical inertial-confinement fusion reactor. The associated heavy ion driver will require a large number of focusing quadrupole magnets. A concept for a superconducting quadrupole array, using many simple racetrack coils, was developed at LLNL. Two, single-bore quadrupole prototypes of the same design, with distinctly different conductor, were designed, built, and tested. Both prototypes reached their short sample currents with little or no training. Magnet design, and test results, are presented and discussed.

  20. Development of a superconducting CH-accelerator-structure for light and heavy ions; Entwicklung einer supraleitenden CH-Beschleuniger-Struktur fuer leichte und schwere Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebermann, Holger

    2007-07-01

    This work deals with the development of the prototype of a superconducting CH accelerator structure. The simulations were calculated with the program CST Microwave Studio. It is based on the finite integration theory, which the Maxwell equations in a two-grid matrix form convicted so they can be solved numerically. In another chapter, a method for determining the coupling strength is discussed. The conditions that previously were created for the optimization of the prototype of the superconducting CH structure are described. It was for the optimization of the field distribution on the beam axis by adjusting the end cell design, optimization of support for the magnetic and electric fields, leading to reduction of the quadrupole component of the CH-structure, the coupling and, finally, the possibility of static tuning during the completion of the structure. On the basis of these investigations the completion of an initial prototype superconducting at the company ACCEL in Bergisch Gladbach was commissioned. Finally simulations for an operation accelerator facility, and a look at possible areas of the superconducting CH-structure are presented. The optimizations performed for the high power injector led to a more stable operation of the plant. Through this work it could be shown that the newly-CH structure is very well suited for use in superconducting accelerators. (orig.)

  1. Status of the Argonne superconducting-linac heavy-ion energy booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Henning, W.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting linac is being constructed to provide an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem. By late 1980 the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased superconducting resonators, and will provide an effective accelerating potential of more than 25 MV. While the linac is under construction, completed sections are being used to provide useful beam for nuclear physics experiments. In the most recent run with beam (June 1979), an eight resonator array provided an effective accelerating potential of 9.3 MV. Operation of a 12 resonator array is scheduled to begin in October 1979.

  2. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  3. Split ring resonator for the Argonne superconducting heavy ion booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A split-ring resonator for use in the ANL superconducting heavy-ion linac was constructed and is being tested. The electromagnetic characteristics of the 98-MHz device are the same as the unit described earlier, but the housing is formed of a new material consisting of niobium sheet explosively bonded to copper. The niobium provides the superconducting path and the copper conducts heat to a small area cooled by liquid helium. This arrangement greatly simplified the cryogenic system. Fabrication of the housing was relatively simple, with the result that costs have been reduced substantially. The mechanical stability of the resonator and the performance of the demountable superconducting joints are significantly better than for the earlier unit.

  4. Progress in the Development of Superconducting Quadrupoles forHeavy-ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, R.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  5. Progress in the development of superconducting quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Lietzke, A.; Sabbi, G.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.; Manahan, B.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Schultz, J.; Myatt, L.; Meinke, R.

    2002-05-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion program is developing single aperture superconducting quadrupoles based on NbTi conductor, for use in the High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Following the fabrication and testing of prototypes using two different approaches, a baseline design has been selected and further optimized. A prototype cryostat for a quadrupole doublet, with features to accommodate induction acceleration modules, is being fabricated. The single aperture magnet was derived from a conceptual design of a quadrupole array magnet for multi-beam transport. Progress on the development of superconducting quadrupole arrays for future experiments is also reported.

  6. Heavy ion acceleration in the Breakout Afterburner regime

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, G M; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K; Beg, F N

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from an ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by sub-picosecond lasers is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we identified two highly efficient ion acceleration schemes. By varying the laser pulse duration we observed a transition from Radiation Pressure Acceleration to the Breakout Afterburner regime akin to light ions. The underlying physics and ion acceleration regimes are similar to that of light ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the acceleration of heavy ions more challenging. Two laser systems are studied in detail: the Texas Petawatt Laser and the Trident laser, the former having pulse duration 180 fs, intermediate between very short femtosecond pulses and picosecond pulses. Both laser systems generated directional gold ions beams (~10 degrees half-angle) with fluxes in excess of 1011 ion/sr and normalized energy >10 MeV/nucleon.

  7. Linear induction accelerator for heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.

    1976-09-01

    There is considerable recent interest in the use of high energy (..gamma.. = 1.1), heavy (A greater than or equal to 100) ions to irradiate deuterium--tritium pellets in a reactor vessel to constitute a power source at the level of 1 GW or more. Various accelerator configurations involving storage rings have been suggested. A discussion is given of how the technology of Linear Induction Accelerators--well known to be matched to high current and short pulse length--may offer significant advantages for this application.

  8. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  9. Electrostatic quadrupole accelerator for the heavy ion fusion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.; Eylon, S.

    1994-07-01

    A full scale (2 MeV, 800 mA, K{sup +}), low emittance injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Project has been built at LBL It consists of a 750 key diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provide strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The actual operation of this new machine has exceeded design parameters. Design of the accelerator, report on experiments performed in connection with the evaluation and characterization of the ESQ and corresponding 3D Particle in Cell simulations will be presented.

  10. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  11. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  12. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  13. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  14. Simulating Electron Clouds in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik,A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-04-07

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly-, weakly-, and un-magnetized. They describe their approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. They present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam and an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  15. Electrodeposition and characterisation of lead tin superconducting films for application in heavy ion booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R., E-mail: Nikolai.Lobanov@anu.edu.au

    2015-12-15

    The ANU has developed experimental systems and procedures for lead–tin (PbSn) film deposition and characterisation. The 12 split loop resonators have been electroplated with 96%Pb4%Sn film to the final thickness of 1.5 micron using methanesulfonic acid (MSA) chemistry. As a result, an average acceleration field of 3.6 MV/m off-line at 6 W rf power was achieved at extremely low technological cost. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Heavy Ion Elastic Detection Analyses (HIERDA), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) revealed correlation between the substrate and film structure, morphology and the rf performance of the cavity. The PbSn plating, exercised on the existing split loop resonators (SLR), has been extended to the two stub quarter wave resonator (QWR) as a straightforward step to quickly explore the superconducting performance of the new geometry. The oxygen free copper (OHFC) substrate for two stub QWR was prepared by reverse pulse electropolishing. The ultimate superconducting properties and long-term stability of the coatings have been assessed by operation of the ANU superconducting linac over the last few years. - Highlights: • PbSn alloy is investigated as a material for superconducting low and medium velocity rf resonators. • It is easily electrodeposited with MSA chemistry at very low cost, has high T{sub c}, and good performance at high fields. • The optimum substrate preparation and coating conditions are established based on examination of the properties of substrate and superconducting films. • A long term stability of the electroplated resonators has been showing no evidence of degradation of the rf properties over the last decade. • The resonators high field performance limiting factors and their possible elimination have been evaluated.

  16. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios.

  17. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  18. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  19. Heavy ion acceleration in the radiation pressure acceleration and breakout afterburner regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2017-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from ultrathin (20 nm) gold foil irradiated by high-intensity sub-picosecond lasers. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, three laser systems are modeled that cover the range between femtosecond and picosecond pulses. By varying the laser pulse duration we observe a transition from radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) to the relativistic induced transparency (RIT) regime for heavy ions akin to light ions. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. A more detailed study involving variation of peak laser intensity I 0 and pulse duration τFWHM revealed that the transition point from RPA to RIT regime depends on the peak laser intensity on target and occurs for pulse duration {τ }{{F}{{W}}{{H}}{{M}}}{{R}{{P}}{{A}}\\to {{R}}{{I}}{{T}}}[{{f}}{{s}}]\\cong 210/\\sqrt{{I}0[{{W}} {{{cm}}}-2]/{10}21}. The most abundant gold ion and charge-to-mass ratio are Au51+ and q/M ≈ 1/4, respectively, half that of light ions. For ultrathin foils, on the order of one skin depth, we established a linear scaling of the maximum energy per nucleon (E/M)max with (q/M)max, which is more favorable than the quadratic one found previously. The numerical simulations predict heavy ion beams with very attractive properties for applications: high directionality (high fluxes (>1011 ions sr-1) and energy (>20 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  20. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  2. Development of a superconducting rotating-gantry for heavy-ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp [Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Noda, K.; Murakami, T.; Shirai, T.; Furukawa, T.; Fujita, T.; Mori, S.; Mizushima, K.; Shouda, K. [Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation (AEC), 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Ogitsu, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Obana, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki-city509-5292 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Orikasa, T.; Takami, S.; Takayama, S. [Toshiba Corporation, 1-1-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8001 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    An isocentric superconducting rotating-gantry for heavy-ion therapy is being developed. This rotating gantry can transport heavy ions having 430 MeV/u to an isocenter with irradiation angles of over ±180°, and is further capable of performing fast raster-scanning irradiation. For the magnets, combined-function superconducting-magnets are to be employed. All of the superconducting magnets have been designed, and their magnetic-field distributions were calculated by using a 3D electromagnetic-field solver. With the calculated magnetic-fields, beam-tracking simulations were performed to evaluate the field quality of the superconducting magnets. Beam profiles as well as phase-space distributions at the isocenter, as calculated by simulations, agreed well with those of linear beam-optics calculations, proving validity of the final design for the magnets. Three superconducting magnets were manufactured, and are being tested. In this paper, results of tracking simulations as well as test results for the superconducting magnets are presented.

  3. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob, E-mail: bslee@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 339-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  4. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  5. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration.

  6. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  7. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  8. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A. (eds.)

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  9. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C{sup +} source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2{theta} quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis.

  10. Heavy ion accelerator and associated developments in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Mehta

    2002-11-01

    Developments of ion accelerator and associated facilities in India are presented. Various types of accelerator facilities which are systematically built in the country through sustained development and research programs at various research centres and institutions are highlighted. Impact of accelerator in different interdisciplinary fields of research are highlighted.

  11. Interphase Death of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Exposed to Accelerated Heavy Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mehnati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy ions are nucleus of elements of iron, argon, carbon and neon that all carry positive electrical charges. For these particles to be useful in radiotherapy they need to accelerated to high energy by more than thousand mega volts. Also the cosmic environment is considered to be a complicated mixture of highly energetic photons and heavy ions such as iron. Therefore, the health risks to astronauts during long mission should be considered.  Materials and Methods: The induction of interphase death was tested on Chinese hamster ovary cells by exposing them to accelerated heavy ions (carbon, neon, argon and iron of 10-2000 linear energy transfers (LETs. The fraction of cells that underwent interphase death was determined by observing individual cells with time-lapse photography (direct method as well as by the indirect method of counting cells undergoing interphase death made visible by the addition of caffeine (indirect method. Results: The interphase death due to the exposure to X- rays is increased linearly as the dose exceeds the threshold dose of 10 Gy. Whereas the interphase death increases at a higher rate due to the exposure to high LET heavy ions and no threshold dose was observed. The range of LET values corresponding to the maximum RBE for the interphase death is 120-230 keV/µm. The probability of inducing the interphase death by a single heavy ion traversing through the nucleus is about 0.04-0.08. Discussion and Conclusion: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE of heavy ions as compared to X- rays as determined at the 50% level of induction is increased with LET. It reached a maximum value at a LET of approximately 230 keV/µm and then decreased with further increase in LET. The range of LET values corresponding to the maximum RBE appears to be narrower for interphase death than for reproductive death.

  12. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyunchang, E-mail: hcjin@ibs.re.kr; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  13. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  14. Acceleration of 3HE and heavy ions at interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, C. W.; Koug, R. M.

    2001-08-01

    We have surveyed the 0.5-2.0 MeV nucleon-1 ion composition of 56 interplanetary shocks (IP) observed with the Ultra-Low-Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) from 1997 October 1 through 2000 November 30. Our results show the first ever measurement (25 cases) of 3 He ions being accelerated at IP shocks. The 3 He/4 He ratio at the 25 shocks exhibited a wide range of values between 0.00140.24; the ratios were enhanced between factors of ~3-600 over the solar wind value. During the survey period, the occurrence probability of 3 He-rich shocks increased with rising solar activity as measured in terms of the daily occurrence rates of sunspots and X-ray flares. The 3 He enhancements at IP shocks cannot be attributed to rigidity dependent acceleration of solar wind ions and are better explained if the shocks accelerate ions from multiple sources, one being remnant impulsive solar flare material enriched in 3 He ions. Our results also indicate that the contribution of impulsive flares to the seed population for IP shocks varies from event to event, and that the interplanetary medium is being replenished with impulsive material more frequently during periods of increased solar activity. 1. Introduction Enhancements in the intensities of energetic ions associated with transient interplanetary (IP) shocks have been observed routinely at 1 AU since the 1960's (e.g., Reames 1999). It is presently believed that the majority of such IP shocks are driven by fast coronal mass ejections or CMEs as they propagate through interplanetary space (e.g., Gosling 1993), and that the associated ion intensity enhancements are due to diffusive shock acceleration of solar wind ions (Lee 1983; Jones and Ellison 1991; Reames 1999). However, the putative solar wind origin of the IP-shock accelerated ions is based on composition measurements associated with a very limited number of individual IP shocks (Klecker et al. 1981; Hovestadt et al. 1982; Tan et

  15. Coulomb driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser plasma acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Braenzel, J; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2014-01-01

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultra thin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultra short laser pulse at an intensity of $6\\times 10^{19}$ W/cm$^{2}$. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to $> 200$ MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using $1.3$ Joule laser energy on target. $1$D and $2$D Particle in Cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ions ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a varying charge density along the target normal and is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, leading to a higher efficiency in laser acceleration of heavy ions.

  16. The Origin and Acceleration of 3He and Heavy Ions in the 2000 July 14 Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ping Wu; Guang-Li Huang; Yu-Hua Tang; Yu Dai

    2007-01-01

    According to the evolutionary properties of the flare, halo coronal mass ejection (CME), enrichments of 3He ions in the energy range of 3.5-26 MeV nucl-1 and Ne, Mg, Si and Fe ions in the energy range of 8.5-15 MeV nucl-1, we argue that the 3He and heavy ions originate in the middle corona (~0.1-1 R⊙) with well-connected open field lines to the Earth,where the magnetic reconnection leads to acceleration of the electrons and the production of type-Ⅲ burst during the decay phase of the soft X-ray emission. The acceleration of 3He and heavy ions may have been accomplished in two stages: first H-He ion-ion hybrid waves may be easily excited by the energetic electron beams produced in the middle corona, and these waves are preferentially absorbed by 3He and heavy ions due to their frequency being near the fundamental gyro frequency of the 3He ions and harmonic gyro frequency of Ne, Mg, Si and Fe ions. These preheated ions escape into interplanetary space along the open field lines and may be further accelerated to tens of MeV nucl-1 by CME-driven shock. The theoretical calculations show that the 3He and heavy ions may be accelerated to the energy of ~ MeV nucl-1 by the ion-ion hybrid waves and be further accelerated to the energy of ~ 100 MeV nucl- 1 by the shock wave: these are basically consistent with the observations.

  17. Heavy-ion beams required for the RIA accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Nolen, J A; Rehm, K E; Savard, Guy

    2004-01-01

    A class of experiments which will be representative of the expected initial fields of study at the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility (RIA), are discussed. Improvement in the understanding of the rapid neutron capture process that is responsible for the creation of most stable nuclei heavier than the iron-region nuclei, will be the most important areas of research with RIA. RIA will provide beams of nuclei far from stability at low energies and with excellent beam quality, similar to the properties of stable beams available from facilities such as ATLAS. A total of 21 driver beams are identified which are necessary to provide optimal population of the r-process path, and provide good production of light neutron-rich nuclei. (Edited abstract) 15 Refs.

  18. Design and Test Results of Superconducting Magnet for Heavy-Ion Rotating Gantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S.; Koyanagi, K.; Miyazaki, H.; Takami, S.; Orikasa, T.; Ishii, Y.; Kurusu, T.; Iwata, Y.; Noda, K.; Obana, T.; Suzuki, K.; Ogitsu, T.; Amemiya, N.

    2017-07-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy has a high curative effect in cancer treatment and also can reduce the burden on patients. These advantages have been generally recognized. Furthermore, a rotating gantry can irradiate a tumor with ions from any direction without changing the position of the patient. This can reduce the physical dose on normal cells, and is thus commonly used in proton radiotherapy. However, because of the high magnetic rigidity of carbon ions, the weight of the rotating gantry for heavy-ion therapy is about three-times heavier than those used for proton cancer therapy, according to our estimation. To overcome this issue, we developed a small and lightweight rotating gantry in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The compact rotating gantry was composed of ten low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnets that were designed from the viewpoint of beam optics. These LTS magnets have a surface-winding coil-structure and provide both dipole and quadrupole fields. The maximum dipole and quadrupole magnetic field of the magnets were 2.88 T and 9.3 T/m, respectively. The rotating gantry was installed at NIRS, and beam commissioning is in progress to achieve the required beam quality. In the three years since 2013, in a project supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), we have been developing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets with the aim of a further size reduction of the rotating gantry. To develop fundamental technologies for designing and fabricating HTS magnets, a model magnet was manufactured. The model magnet was composed of 24 saddle-shaped HTS coils and generated a magnetic field of 1.2 T. In the presentation, recent progress in this research will be reported.

  19. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A

    2002-09-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed.

  20. First Operation of PIAVE, the Heavy Ion Injector Based on Superconducting RFQ's

    CERN Document Server

    Bisoffi, Giovanni; Battistella, Andrea; Bezzon, Giampietro; Boscagli, Lucia; Calore, Andrea; Canella, Stefania; Carlucci, Davide; Chiurlotto, Francesca; Comunian, Michele; De Lazzari, Mauro; Facco, Alberto; Fagotti, Enrico; Lombardi, Augusto; Modanese, Paolo; Moisio, M Francesca; Pisent, Andrea; Poggi, Marco; Porcellato, Anna M; Stark, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    The Positive Ion Accelerator for low-Velocity Ions (PIAVE), based on superconducting RFQ's (SRFQ's), has been completed in fall 2004 with the first acceleration of beams from the ECR ion source. Superconducting RFQ's were used, for the first time, for beam acceleration on a user-oriented accelerator complex. A general status of the injector performances is given: it includes, besides the SRFQ's, eight superconducting (SC) QWR's and three bunchers; the beam is received from an ECR source on a HV platform and is delivered, through the SC accelerator ALPI, to nuclear physics experimental apparatuses. The paper emphasizes, in particular, the technological challenges related to the operation of the SC cavities, the cryogenics, control, diagnostics and vacuum systems.

  1. Superconducting, energy variable heavy ion linac with constant β, multicell cavities of CH-type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Minaev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An energy variable ion linac consisting of multigap, constant-β cavities was developed. The effect of phase sliding, unavoidable in any constant-β section, is leading to a coherent rf phase motion, which fits well to the H-type structures with their long π-mode sections and separated lenses. The exact periodicity of the cell lengths within each cavity results in technical advantages, such as higher calculation accuracy when only one single period can be simulated, simpler manufacturing, and tuning. This is most important in the case of superconducting cavities. By using this concept, an improved design for a 217 MHz cw superconducting heavy ion linac with energy variation has been worked out. The small output energy spread of ±3  AkeV is provided over the whole range of energy variation from 3.5 to 7.3 AMeV. These capabilities would allow for a competitive research in the field of radiochemistry and for a production of super heavy elements (SHE, especially. A first 19-cell cavity of that type was designed, built, and rf tested successfully at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP Frankfurt. A 325.224 MHz, seven-cell cavity with constant β=0.16 is under development and will be operated in a frequency controlled mode. It will be equipped with a power coupler and beam tests with Unilac beams at GSI are foreseen.

  2. Performance of a compact injector for heavy-ion medical accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Yamada, S.; Murakami, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyahara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.

    2007-03-01

    A compact injector, designed for a heavy-ion medical accelerator complex, was constructed. It consists of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS) and two linacs, which are a Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole linac and an Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (IH-DTL) having the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the IH-DTL, the method of Alternating-Phase-Focusing (APF) was employed. The compact injector can accelerate heavy ions having a charge-to-mass ratio of {q}/{m}={1}/{3} up to 4.0 MeV/u. Use of the APF IH-DTL and operating frequency of 200 MHz allowed us to design compact linacs; the total length of the two linacs is less than 6 m. Beam-acceleration tests of the compact injector system were performed. The measured intensity of accelerated C4+12 beams with the compact injector was 380 eμA. Beam transmission of the APF IH-DTL was estimated to be as high as 96%, which is comparable to the value calculated by a simulation code. Transverse phase-space and energy distributions of accelerated beams were measured and compared with those calculated by the simulation code, and we found that they were agreed well with each other.

  3. Development of high intensity linear accelerator for heavy ion inertial fusion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liang, E-mail: luliang@riken.jp [Institute of Modern Physics, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Riken Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-25 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishibashi, Takuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Takeuchi, Takeshi [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 301, 6-18-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Zhao, Hongwei; He, Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    In order to verify the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), an acceleration test was carried out in 2001 using a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) heavy ion linear accelerator (linac) and a CO{sub 2}-laser ion source (LIS) (Okamura et al., 2002) [1]. The accelerated carbon beam was observed successfully and the obtained current was 9.22 mA for C{sup 4+}. To confirm the capability of the DPIS, we succeeded in accelerating 60 mA carbon ions with the DPIS in 2004 (Okamura et al., 2004; Kashiwagi and Hattori, 2004) [2,3]. We have studied a multi-beam type RFQ with an interdigital-H (IH) cavity that has a power-efficient structure in the low energy region. We designed and manufactured a two-beam type RFQ linac as a prototype for the multi-beam type linac; the beam acceleration test of carbon beams showed that it successfully accelerated from 5 keV/u up to 60 keV/u with an output current of 108 mA (2×54 mA/channel) (Ishibashi et al., 2011) [4]. We believe that the acceleration techniques of DPIS and the multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac are technical breakthroughs for heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF). The conceptual design of the RF linac with these techniques for HIF is studied. New accelerator-systems using these techniques for the HIF basic experiment are being designed to accelerate 400 mA carbon ions using four-beam type IH-RFQ linacs with DPIS. A model with a four-beam acceleration cavity was designed and manufactured to establish the proof of principle (PoP) of the accelerator.

  4. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, Anton

    2014-10-20

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  5. Generation of heavy ion beams using femtosecond laser pulses in the target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from sub-micron gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the time history of the laser pulse is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity 3 × 10 21 W / cm 2 , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 μm, and energy 27 J, the calculated reflection, transmission, and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80%, 5%, and 15%, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8%. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon, and flux 2 × 10 11 ions / sr . An analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the radiation pressure acceleration regime and the onset of the target normal sheath acceleration regime. The numerical simulations and analytical model point to at least four technical challenges hindering the heavy ion acceleration: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration, and high reflectivity of the plasma. Finally, a regime suitable for heavy ion acceleration has been identified in an alternative approach by analyzing the energy absorption and distribution among participating species and scaling of conversion efficiency, maximum energy, and flux with laser intensity.

  6. Harmonic analysis and field quality improvement of an HTS quadrupole magnet for a heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Kim, Do Gyun; Kim, Jong Won [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, the iron-dominated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) quadrupole magnets are being developed for heavy ion accelerators. Field analyses for iron-dominated quadrupole magnets were based on the normal-conducting (NC) quadrupole magnet early in the development for accelerators. Some conclusions are still in use today. However, the magnetic field of iron-dominated HTS quadrupole magnets cannot fully follow these conclusions. This study established an HTS quadrupole magnet model and an NC quadrupole magnet model, respectively. The harmonic characteristics of two magnets were analyzed and compared. According to the comparison, the conventional iron-dominated quadrupole magnets can be designed for maximum field gradient; the HTS quadrupole magnet, however, should be considered with varying field gradient. Finally, the HTS quadrupole magnet was designed for the changing field gradient. The field quality of the design was improved comparing with the result of the previous study. The new design for the HTS quadrupole magnet has been suggested.

  7. Accelerating Solutions of Perfect Fluid Hydrodynamics for Initial Energy Density and Life-Time Measurements in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Csörgö, T; Csanad, M

    2007-01-01

    A new class of accelerating, exact, explicit and simple solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics is presented. Since these new solutions yield a finite rapidity distribution, they lead to an advanced estimate of the initial energy density and life-time of high energy heavy ion reactions. Accelerating solutions are also given for spherical expansions in arbitrary number of spatial dimensions.

  8. Induction core alloys for heavy-ion inertial fusion-energy accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W. Molvik

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction core alloys are evaluated that are appropriate for heavy-ion induction accelerators to drive heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF power plants. Parameters evaluated include the usable flux swing and the energy loss over a range of magnetization rates of ∼10^{5}–10^{7} T/s, corresponding to pulse durations of ∼20 to 0.2 μs, respectively. The usable flux swing, for minimum core losses, extends from near the reversed remanent field to about 80% of the saturation field. The usable flux swing is enhanced, with little increase in losses, by annealing the core after winding. Maintaining low energy loss at high magnetization rates requires insulation to block interlaminar eddy currents. To obtain annealed cores with a high ratio of remanent to saturation magnetic field, the insulation must withstand annealing temperatures and apply minimum mechanical stress to the core during cooldown. We find that commercially available insulating coatings for amorphous metals either break down near 10^{6} T/s (a factor of 10 below the requirement, or do not achieve the maximum remanent field and hence the usable flux swing after annealing. More satisfactory coatings are available for silicon steel and nanocrystalline alloys, which could have applications in HIF. Amorphous alloys are capable of meeting most HIF needs, especially with improved coatings.

  9. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for low-energetic heavy ions and their application in accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S; Andrianov, V A; Bleile, A; Echler, A; Egelhof, P; Kiseleva, A; Kiselev, O; Meier, H J; Meier, J P; Shrivastava, A; Weber, M; Golser, R; Kutschera, W; Priller, A; Steier, P; Vockenhuber, C

    2009-10-01

    The energy-sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors was investigated in the energy range of E=0.1-1 MeV/amu, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting aluminum transition edge thermometers operated at T approximately 1.5 K. They were irradiated with various ion beams (13C, 197Au, 238U) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. The relative energy resolution obtained was DeltaE/E=(5-9) x 10(-3), even for the heaviest ions such as 238U. In addition, no evidence for a pulse height defect was observed. This performance allowed for the first time to apply a calorimetric low temperature detector in an AMS experiment. The aim was to precisely determine the isotope ratio of 236U/238U for several samples of natural uranium, 236U being known as a sensitive monitor for neutron fluxes. Replacing a conventionally used detection system at VERA by the calorimetric detector enabled to substantially reduce background from neighboring isotopes and to increase the detection efficiency. Due to the high sensitivity achieved, a value of 236U/238U=6.1 x 10(-12) could be obtained, representing the smallest 236U/238U ratio measured at the time. In addition, we contributed to establishing an improved material standard of 236U/238U, which can be used as a reference for future AMS measurements.

  10. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for low-energetic heavy ions and their application in accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V. A.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Kiseleva, A.; Kiselev, O.; Meier, H. J.; Meier, J. P.; Shrivastava, A.; Weber, M.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Vockenhuber, C.

    2009-10-01

    The energy-sensitive detection of heavy ions with calorimetric low temperature detectors was investigated in the energy range of E =0.1-1 MeV/amu, commonly used for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The detectors used consist of sapphire absorbers and superconducting aluminum transition edge thermometers operated at T ˜1.5 K. They were irradiated with various ion beams (C13,A197u,U238) provided by the VERA tandem accelerator in Vienna, Austria. The relative energy resolution obtained was ΔE /E=(5-9)×10-3, even for the heaviest ions such as U238. In addition, no evidence for a pulse height defect was observed. This performance allowed for the first time to apply a calorimetric low temperature detector in an AMS experiment. The aim was to precisely determine the isotope ratio of U236/U238 for several samples of natural uranium, U236 being known as a sensitive monitor for neutron fluxes. Replacing a conventionally used detection system at VERA by the calorimetric detector enabled to substantially reduce background from neighboring isotopes and to increase the detection efficiency. Due to the high sensitivity achieved, a value of U236/U238=6.1×10-12 could be obtained, representing the smallest U236/U238 ratio measured at the time. In addition, we contributed to establishing an improved material standard of U236/U238, which can be used as a reference for future AMS measurements.

  11. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  12. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane.

  13. Alternating-phase-focused IH-DTL for an injector of heavy-ion medical accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Yamada, S.; Murakami, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Fujisawa, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyahara, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Tsutsui, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ueda, T.

    2006-12-01

    A compact Drift-Tube-Linac (DTL) using an Interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity was designed for an injector of medical accelerators. For beam focusing, the method of Alternating-Phase-Focusing (APF) was applied. The APF IH-DTL can accelerate heavy ions having a charge-to-mass ratio of q/m={1}/{3} up to 4.0 MeV/u. Having optimized an array of synchronous phases for cells, namely arranging drift tubes and gaps appropriately, both longitudinal and transverse focusing strengths were produced just with the rf acceleration field, and therefore no focusing element or cooling equipments had to be installed in the cavity. This allowed us to employ a rather high operating frequency, and hence to design a compact and cost-effective cavity. A further advantage of the APF linac can be found in its operation. Since the parameters to be adjusted are just the level and phase of the input rf, beam tuning can be made with ease. Consequently, the APF linac is suitable for an injector for medical accelerators. Tuning methods of the gap voltages and cavity frequency as well as the design of the cavity for APF IH-DTL have been developed. After constructing the cavity, measurements of the electric field and tuning of the gap voltages were performed. Finally, the rf power was fed into the cavity. In this paper, the design and results of the measurements are described.

  14. Acceleration and Utilization of Highly Stripped Charge State Heavy Ions at HI-13 Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Even higher linear energy transfer (LET) values of the heavy ions are necessary as the investigationsof single event effects (SEE) of satellite devices are developing rapidly. For example, the researches aredeveloped from the single-event upset (SEU) which needs comparatively low LET values towards singleevent latch up (SEL) and single event burnout (SEB) which requires high LET values, namely LET’s arehigher than 80 MeV mg-1,cm-2 and range of the ions in the silicon should be large than 20 micrometers,

  15. Review of Heavy-ion Induced Desorption Studies for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E

    2008-01-01

    During high-intensity heavy-ion operation of several particle accelerators worldwide, large dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were caused by lost beam ions that impacted under grazing angle onto the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced desorption, observed, for example, at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion intensity, luminosity, and beam lifetime of the accelerator. For the heavyion program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider collisions between beams of fully stripped lead (208Pb82+) ions with a beam energy of 2.76 TeV/u and a nominal luminosity of 10**27 cm**-2 s**-1 are foreseen. The GSI future project FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) aims at a beam intensity of 10**12 uranium (238U28+) ions per second to be extracted from the synchrotron SIS18. Over the past years an experimental effort has been made to study the observed dynamic vacuum degradations, which are important to understand and overcome for present and future particle accelerators. The paper reviews the resu...

  16. Status and Control Requirements of the Planned Heavy Ion Tumor Therapy Accelerator Facility HICAT

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, R C; Haberer, T; Baer, Ralph C.; Eickhoff, Hartmut; Haberer, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The HICAT project is a Heavy Ion accelerator for light ion Cancer Treatment to be built for the clinics in Heidelberg, Germany. It consists of a 7 MeV/u linac, a compact synchrotron and three treatment places, one of them equipped with a 360 degree gantry beam-line. The facility will implement the intensity controlled raster-scanning technique that was developed and successfully demonstrated at GSI with over 100 patients at present. In order to produce the beams with the characteristics requested by the treatment sequencer, the accelerator must operate on a pulse-to-pulse basis with different settings. This concept imposes strict and challenging demands on the operation of the accelerators and hence the control system of the facility. The control system should be developed, installed and maintained by and under the complete responsibility of an industrial system provider, using a state-of-the-art system and wide-spread industrial components wherever possible. The presentation covers the status of the project ...

  17. Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapano, Filomena; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella [Calabria Univ., Rende (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Artemyev, Anton V. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Space Research Inst.; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Science and Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015). These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He{sup ++} and O{sup +}, and it is found that energies of the order of 100-200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He{sup ++}, and about 100 keV for O{sup +}.

  18. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Roots, R.

    1983-07-01

    The radiation dose responses of fibroblast from a patient with Ataxia telangiectasis (AT-2SF) and an established line of human T-1 cells were studied. Nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions were used at the Berkeley Bevalac with various residual range values. The LET of the particles varied from 30 keV/..mu..m to over 1000 keV/..mu..m. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose. Their radiosensitivity reached peak values at 100 to 200 keV/..mu..m. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair as has been evidenced by split dose experiments, and they are much more resistant to low LET than to high LET radiation. The repair-misrepair model has been used to interpret these results. We have obtained mathematical expressions that describe the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and the type of particle used. The results suggest either that high-LET particles induce a greater number of radiolesions per track or that heavy-ions at high LET induce lesions that kill cells more effectively and that are different from those produced at low LET. We assume that the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells are qualitatively similar and that each cell line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. 63 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  19. An EBIS-based heavy ion injector for the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.; Raparia, D.

    1994-09-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS), followed by a heavy ion RFQ and superconducting linac, can be considered as a heavy ion injector for high energy accelerators, such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A test EBIS, on long term loan from Sandia National Laboratory, is presently being commissioned at BNL. Experiments on this source will be used in evaluating the parameters for an EBIS-based RHIC injector. Some results of this commissioning, as well as the conceptual designs of the RFQ and linac, are presented.

  20. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  1. Development of a silicon detector monitor for the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zocca, F; Bravin, E; Pasini, M; Voulot, D; Wenander, F

    2012-01-01

    A silicon detector monitor has been developed and tested in the framework of the beam diagnostics development program for the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion linac at CERN. The monitor is intended for beam energy and timing measurements aimed at the phase tuning of the superconducting cavities. Tests were performed with a stable ion beam, composed of carbon, oxygen and neon ions accelerated to energies from 300keV/u to 2.82MeV/u. The energy measurements performed allowed for beam spectroscopy and ion identification with a resolution of 1.4%-0.5% rms in the measured energy range. The achieved resolution is suited for a fast phase tuning of the cavities, which was demonstrated with the third REX 7-gap resonator. The time structure of the beam, characterised by a bunch period of 9.87ns, was measured with a resolution better than 200ps rms. This paper describes the results from all these tests and provides details of the detector set-up.

  2. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  3. Annual report of joint research for using heavy ion accelerator for cancer therapy of the fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The heavy ion project consisted of 2 parts; clinical studies using HIMAC and joint basic researches using it. The clinical studies have been satisfactorily progressed and the number of patients treated by HIMAC reached 230 in total by the end of the fiscal year 1996. In Japan, HIMAC is the only apparatus for heavy ion acceleration. Thus, a lot of concerns from not only the medical and biological fields, but also other fundamental fields are paid to HIMAC. Further, the beam of HIMAC has been attracting international concerns, especially in the fields such as simulation of cosmic environment by heavy ion beam, dose determination using the beam, international comparison of its biological effects, etc. The operating times of HIMAC in 1996 was ca. 4800 hours in total and of those ca. 2700 hours were used for joint researches. This annual report include 12 reports of clinical research group, 4 of diagnosis one 64 of biology one and 42 of physical and engineering one. (M.N.)

  4. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity has been the most influential technology in the field of accelerators in the last 30 years. Since the commissioning of the Tevatron, which demonstrated the use and operability of superconductivity on a large scale, superconducting magnets and rf cavities have been at the heart of all new large accelerators. Superconducting magnets have been the invariable choice for large colliders, as well as cyclotrons and large synchrotrons. In spite of the long history of success, superconductivity remains a difficult technology, requires adequate R&D and suitable preparation, and has a relatively high cost. Hence, it is not surprising that the development has also been marked by a few setbacks. This article is a review of the main superconducting accelerator magnet projects; it highlights the main characteristics and main achievements, and gives a perspective on the development of superconducting magnets for the future generation of very high energy colliders.

  5. Beam loss mechanisms in relativistic heavy-ion colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Gilardoni, S; Wallén, E

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator ever built, is presently under commissioning at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). It will collide beams of protons, and later Pb82+ ions, at ultrarelativistic energies. Because of its unprecedented energy, the operation of the LHC with heavy ions will present beam physics challenges not encountered in previous colliders. Beam loss processes that are harmless in the presently largest operational heavy-ion collider, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, risk to cause quenches of superconducting magnets in the LHC. Interactions between colliding beams of ultrarelativistic heavy ions, or between beam ions and collimators, give rise to nuclear fragmentation. The resulting isotopes could have a charge-to-mass ratio different from the main beam and therefore follow dispersive orbits until they are lost. Depending on the machine conditions and the ion species, these losses could occur in loca...

  6. Generation of quasi-monoenergetic heavy ion beams via staged shock wave acceleration driven by intense laser pulses in near-critical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. L.; Qiao, B.; Shen, X. F.; You, W. Y.; Huang, T. W.; Yan, X. Q.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.

    2016-09-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration potentially offers a compact, cost-effective alternative to conventional accelerators for scientific, technological, and health-care applications. A novel scheme for heavy ion acceleration in near-critical plasmas via staged shock waves driven by intense laser pulses is proposed, where, in front of the heavy ion target, a light ion layer is used for launching a high-speed electrostatic shock wave. This shock is enhanced at the interface before it is transmitted into the heavy ion plasmas. Monoenergetic heavy ion beam with much higher energy can be generated by the transmitted shock, comparing to the shock wave acceleration in pure heavy ion target. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that quasi-monoenergetic {{{C}}}6+ ion beams with peak energy 168 MeV and considerable particle number 2.1 × {10}11 are obtained by laser pulses at intensity of 1.66 × {10}20 {{W}} {{cm}}-2 in such staged shock wave acceleration scheme. Similarly a high-quality {{Al}}10+ ion beam with a well-defined peak with energy 250 MeV and spread δ E/{E}0=30 % can also be obtained in this scheme.

  7. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Zhang, H.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Chang, H. X.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-05-01

    A method to achieve stable radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of heavy ions from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils is proposed, where a high-Z material coating in front is used. The coated high-Z material, acting as a moving electron repository, continuously replenishes the accelerating heavy ion foil with comoving electrons in the light-sail acceleration stage due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal profile. As a result, the detrimental effects such as foil deformation and electron loss induced by the Rayleigh-Taylor-like and other instabilities in RPA are significantly offset and suppressed so that stable acceleration of heavy ions are maintained. Particle-in-cell simulations show that a monoenergetic Al13 + beam with peak energy 3.8 GeV and particle number 1 010 (charge >20 nC ) can be obtained at intensity 1 022 W /cm2 .

  8. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Biri, S.; Rácz, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  9. On capture and acceleration of heavy ions (a-particle) in high-speed solar wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Liting(宋礼庭); XIAO; Chijie(肖池阶)

    2002-01-01

    The α-particles and other heavy ions, as well es a few protons are observed to be faster than the main part of protons by about the local Alfven speed in the high-speed solar wind. It is suggested that when the velocity of the solar wind is equal to the local Alfven velocity, another Iow-frequency kinetic Alfvan wave will be excitated, and trap ail the α-particles and a few protons, so these ions have a local Alfven velocity faster than the other parts of the solar wind. The undamping kinetic Alfven waves change into Iow-frequency Alfven solitons in the solar wind. This model can explain the observation and give the conditions of wave excitated and ions trapped.

  10. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2016-10-01

    Generation of monoenergetic heavy ion beams aroused more scientific interest in recent years. Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is an ideal mechanism for obtaining high-quality heavy ion beams, in principle. However, to achieve the same energy per nucleon (velocity) as protons, heavy ions undergo much more serious Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability and afterwards much worse Coulomb explosion due to loss of co-moving electrons. This leads to premature acceleration termination of heavy ions and very low energy attained in experiment. The utilization of a high-Z coating in front of the target may suppress the RT instability and Coulomb explosion by continuously replenishing the accelerating heavy ion foil with co-moving electrons due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal and spatial profiles. Thus stable RPA can be realized. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional particles-in-cell simulations with dynamic ionization show that a monoenergetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 4.0GeV and particle number 1010 (charge > 20nC) can be obtained at intensity 1022 W/cm2. Supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  11. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  12. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to...

  13. Effect of a short weak prepulse on laser-triggered front-surface heavy-ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, S. G.; Bychenkov, V. Yu. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovin, G. V.; Uryupina, D. S.; Shulyapov, S. A.; Savel' ev, A. B. [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, International Laser Centre and Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Andriyash, A. V. [The All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    A suppression of light-ion acceleration (from surface water contaminants) was observed when a moderate-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse was focused on a thick metal target. Simultaneously, an effective generation of high-energy multicharge ions of the target material (Fe) was experimentally observed. A numerical simulation based on the Boltzmann-Vlasov-Poisson model revealed that this is due to the very specific regime of cleaning contaminants from the target surface by the short weak prepulse preceding the main pulse by more than 10 ns and having an intensity below the surface breakdown threshold. Because this prepulse causes the contaminant layer to boil explosively, a low-density gap forms above the target surface. These conditions are consequently favorable for boosting the energy of heavy ions.

  14. Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, L.

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space, especially when outside the protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere. The light flashes (LF) observed by astronauts in space, mostly when dark adapted, are an example of these interactions; investigations in space and on the ground showed that these effects can originate with the action of ionizing radiation in the eye. Recent findings from ALTEA, an interdisciplinary and multiapproach program devoted to the study of different aspects of the radiation-brain functions interaction, are presented in this paper. These include: (i) study of radiation passing through the astronauts' eyes in the International Space Station (≈20 ions min-1, excluding H and fast and very slow He), measured in conjunction with reporting of the perception of LF; (ii) preliminary electrophysiological evidence of these events in astronauts and in patients during heavy ion therapy; and (iii) in vitro results showing the radiation driven activation of rhodopsin at the start of the phototransduction cascade in the process of vision. These results are in agreement with our previous work on mice. A brief but complete summary of the earlier works is also reported to permit a discussion of the results.

  15. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977. [Planning for use for radiotherapy and as radiation source for diagnostic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, S. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery.

  16. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.; MUSOLINO,S.V.

    2001-06-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations.

  17. Tutorial on Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M. J. Penny; Goodzeit, Carl L.

    1997-05-01

    A multimedia CD-ROM tutorial on the physics and engineering concepts of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators is being developed under a U.S. Dept. of Energy SBIR grant. The tutorial, scheduled for distribution this summer, is targeted to undergraduate junior or senior level science students. However, its unified presentation of the broad range of issues involved in the design of superconducting magnets for accelerators and the extensive detail about the construction process (including animations and video clips) will also be of value to staff of research institutes and industrial concerns with an interest in applied superconductivity or magnet development. The source material, which is based on the world-wide R and D programs to develop superconducting accelerator magnets, is organized in five units with the following themes: Introduction to magnets and accelerators; (2) Superconductors for accelerator magnets; (3) Magnetic design methods for accelerator magnets; (4) Electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic considerations for the final magnet package; (5) Performance characteristics and measurement methods. A detailed outline and examples will be shown.

  18. Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration (RITA) of Protons and Light-ions with Ultrashort Laser Interaction with Heavy-ion Plasma Density Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A; Tableman, A R; Mori, W B; Katsouleas, T C

    2014-01-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma ...

  19. Heavy-ion Acceleration and Self-generated Waves in Coronal Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Battarbee, Markus; Vainio, Rami; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117507

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acceleration in coronal mass ejection driven shocks is currently considered the primary source of large solar energetic particle events. Aims: The solar wind, which feeds shock-accelerated particles, includes numerous ion populations, which offer much insight into acceleration processes. We present first simulations of shock-accelerated minor ions, in order to explore trapping dynamics and acceleration timescales in detail. Methods: We have simulated diffusive shock acceleration of minor ions (3He2+, 4He2+, 16O6+ and 56Fe14+) and protons using a Monte Carlo method, where self-generated Alfv\\'enic turbulence allows for repeated shock crossings and acceleration to high energies. Results: We present the effect of minor ions on wave generation, especially at low wavenumbers, and show that it is significant. We find that maximum ion energy is determined by the competing effects of particle escape due to focusing in an expanding flux tube and trapping due to the amplified turbulence. We show the dependence...

  20. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T., E-mail: ttinoue@juntendo.ac.jp; Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K. [Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113–8421 (Japan); Hattori, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263–0024 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  1. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  2. Acceleration test of TIT-IHQ linac for heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi, Ito; Noriyosu, Hayashizaki; Shinjiro, Matsui; Kimikazu, Sasa; Schubert, H.; Osvath, E.; Toshiyuki, Hattori

    2000-03-01

    We have developed an interdigital-H quadrupole (IHQ) linac for industrial applications. This linac was designed to accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio greater than 1/16 from 21.8 up to 145 keV/u. The particles are focused by an electric quadrupole field exited by fingertips on the drift tubes. This IHQ linac was installed at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1997 and some tests such as low power tuning and vacuum tests were done. Then, proton acceleration tests ware performed in 1998, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated up to the designed energy. As a result of this experiment, the effective shunt impedance was determined to be 210 MΩ/m, the required RF power consumption was 93 W and the beam transmission rate was about 9%. In this paper, the results of the high power acceleration test with H + ion are described.

  3. A study on the design of hexapole in an 18-GHz ECR ion source for heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Wei, Shaoqing; Lee, Sang Jin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk Jin [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    High charge state electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is important on the performance of heavy ion accelerators. In this paper, a low temperature superconductor (LTS) was used to make a hexapole coil for an 18-GHz ECR ion source. Several hexapole structures, including racetrack, graded racetrack, and saddle were implemented and analyzed for the hexapole-in-solenoid ECR ion source system. Under the appropriate radial confinement field, the smaller outer radius of hexapole can be better for the solenoid design. Saddle hexapole was selected by comparing the wire length, maximum outer radius of the hexapole, the Lorentz force at the end part of the hexapole and the maximum magnetic field in the coil. Based on saddle hexapole, a new design for hexapoles, the snake hexapole, was developed in this paper. By comparative analysis of the Lorentz force at the end part of the saddle and snake hexapoles, the snake hexapole is much better in the ECR ion source system. The suggested design for the ECR ion source with the snake hexapole is presented in this paper.

  4. Heavy ion storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  5. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  6. Induction of the Tn10 Precise Excision in E. coli Cells after Accelerated Heavy Ions Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuravel, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the irradiation of different kinds on the indication of the structural mutations in the bacteria Escherichia coli is considered. The regularities of the Tn10 precise excision after accelerated ^{4}He and ^{12}C ions irradiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) were investigated. Dose dependences of the survival and relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision were obtained. It was shown, that the relative frequency of the Tn10 precise excision is the exponential function from the irradiation dose. Relative biological efficiency (RBE), and relative genetic efficiency (RGE) were calculated, and were treated as the function of the LET.

  7. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonin, A. A., E-mail: a.adonin@gsi.de; Hollinger, R. [Linac and Operations/Ion Sources, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  8. Quasi-static drift-tube accelerating structures for low-speed heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1977-11-03

    The major attractions of the pulsed drift-tubes are that they are non-resonant structures and that they appear suitable for accelerating a very high current bunch at low energies. The mechanical tolerances of the non-resonant structure are very loose and the cost per meter should be low; the cost of the transport system is expected to be the major cost. The pulse power modulators used to drive the drift-tubes are inexpensive compared to r.f. sources with equivalent peak-power. The longitudinal emittance of the beam emerging from the structure could be extremely low.

  9. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  10. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W [Borame Medical Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W [Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center.

  11. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  12. Improving the design and analysis of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ramesh Chandra [Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    High energy particle accelerators are now the primary means of discovering the basic building blocks of matter and understanding the forces between them. In order to minimize the cost of building these machines, superconducting magnets are used in essentially all present day high energy proton and heavy ion colliders. The cost of superconducting magnets is typically in the range of 20--30% of the total cost of building such machines. The circulating particle beam goes through these magnets a large number of times (over hundreds of millions). The luminosity performance and life time of the beam in these machines depends significantly on the field quality in these magnets. Therefore, even a small error in the magnetic field shape may create a large cumulative effect in the beam trajectory to throw the particles of the magnet aperture. The superconducting accelerator magnets must, therefore, be designed and constructed so that these errors are small. In this thesis the research and development work will be described 3which has resulted in significant improvements in the field quality of the superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The design and the field quality improvements in the prototype of the main collider dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) will also be presented. RHIC will accelerate and collide two counter rotating beams of heavy ions up to 100 GeV/u and protons up to 250 GeV. It is expected that RHIC will create a hot, dense quark-gluon plasma and the conditions which, according to the Big Bang theory, existed in the early universe.

  13. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Prakash; T S Datta; B P Ajith Kumar; J Antony; P Barua; J Chacko; A Choudhury; G K Chadhari; S Ghosh; S Kar; S A Krishnan; Manoj Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; A Mandal; D S Mathuria; R S Meena; R Mehta; K K Mistri; A Pandey; M V Suresh Babu; B K Sahu; A Sarkar; S S K Sonti; A Rai; S Venkatramanan; J Zacharias; R K Bhowmik; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed sufficiently. Details of the entire accelerator system including the cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indigenously, and present status of the project are presented.

  14. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  15. Recent progress and future plans of heavy-ion cancer radiotherapy with HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, K.; Furukawa, T.; Fujimoto, T.; Hara, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Kanematsu, N.; Mizushima, K.; Mori, S.; Saotome, N.; Saraya, Y.; Sato, S.; Shirai, T.; Takada, M.; Takei, Y.; Tansyo, R.; Yonai, S.

    2017-09-01

    The HIMAC clinical study has been conducted with a carbon-ion beam since June 1994. Since 2006, as a new treatment research project, NIRS has developed both the accelerator and beam-delivery technologies for the sophisticated heavy-ion radiotherapy, which brings a pencil-beam 3D rescanning technology for both the static and moving-tumor treatments. In this technology, the depth-scanning technique was improved to the full-energy depth scanning by realizing a variable-energy operation of the HIMAC synchrotron itself. At present, a heavy-ion rotating gantry has been developed with the superconducting technology and is in a beam-commissioning stage. As a future plan, we just start a study of a multi-ions irradiation for more sophisticated LET-painting and a design study of a superconducting synchrotron for more compact heavy-ion radiotherapy facility.

  16. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  17. Implement of Synchronous Timing Trigger System in Heavy Ion Accelerator%重离子加速器同步定时触发系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江; 陈又新; 黄玉珍; 张华剑; 吴凤军; 闫怀海; 周忠祖; 高大庆

    2014-01-01

    同步定时触发系统是重离子同步加速器的控制核心,控制磁场电源对带电离子束进行同步加速,其对可靠性和定时精度要求高。在重离子治癌、材料辐照等领域的发展中,为了满足这些领域对重离子同步加速器小型化的需求,本文以NIOSII为核心处理器,结合FPGA上的可编程片上系统(SOPC),实现了一种基于可编程硬件的同步定时触发系统。该系统可控制延时精度,且使用灵活、可靠,易升级,向小型化的同步加速器及重离子治癌等应用工程提供了切实可行的方案。%The synchronous timing trigger system is the control core of a heavy ion syn-chrotron and controls magnetic field power supply to accelerate charged ion beam .The high reliability and high timing precision are required for the system .With the develop-ment of some domains ,such as the heavy-ion cancer therapy and the material irradia-tion ,a synchronous timing trigger system in synchrotron was presented in order to meet the requirement of miniaturizing accelerator .This system was implemented based on the processor NIOSII and combined with the SOPC on FPGA .It is flexible ,reliable ,easy to upgrade ,and has controllable delay precision .The system ,as a feasible scheme ,can be suitable for the miniaturized accelerator and any application engineering like heavy-ion cancer therapy .

  18. Development of heavy-ion radiotherapy technology with HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Since 1994, HIMAC has carried out clinical studies and treatments for more than 9000 cancer patients with carbon-ion beams. During the first decade of the HIMAC study, a single beam-wobbling method, adopted as the HIMAC beam-delivery technique, was improved for treatments of moving tumors and for obtaining more conformal dose distribution. During the second decade, a pencil-beam 3D scanning method has been developed toward an “adaptive cancer treatment” for treatments of both static and moving tumors. A new treatment research facility was constructed with HIMAC in order to verify the developed 3D scanning technology through a clinical study that has been successfully conducted since 2011. As the next stage, a compact heavy-ion rotating gantry with a superconducting technology has been developed for the more accurate and shorter-course treatments. The twenty-year development of the heavy-ion radiotherapy technologies including accelerator technologies with HIMAC is reviewed.

  19. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  20. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  1. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  2. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  3. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver LINAC and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both LINACs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver LINAC is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver LINAC is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver LINAC are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  4. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Tsung, Frank S.; Tableman, Adam R.; Mori, Warren B.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1692942 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.27.1342 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1693437 14, 371 (1971); Silva , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.2273 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca , Lect. Note Comput. Sci.9783

  5. Study of the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced desorption on accelerator-relevant materials; Untersuchung der Mechanismen schwerioneninduzierter Desorption an beschleunigerrelevanten Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Markus

    2008-02-22

    The ion beam loss induced desorption is a performance limitation for low charge state heavy ion accelerators. If charge exchanged projectile ions get lost onto the beam pipe, desorption of gas is stimulated resulting in a pressure increase inside of the synchrotron and thus, a dramatically reduction of the beam life time. To minimize the amount of desorbed gas an experimental program has been started to measure the desorption yields (released gas molecules per incident ion) of various materials and different projectile ions. The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the physical processes behind the ion beam loss induced desorption. The yield measurements by the pressure rise method have been combined for the rst time with in situ ion beam analysis technologies such as ERDA and RBS. With this unique method the desorption behavior of a sample can be correlated to its surface and bulk properties. The performed experiments with 1,4 MeV/u Xenon-Ions show that the ion induced desorption is mainly a surface effect. Sputtered oxide layers or impurities do not contribute to the desorbed gas significantly. Nevertheless bulk properties play an important role in the desorption strength. Pure metallic samples desorb less gas than isolating materials under swift heavy ion irradiation. From the experimental results it was possible to estimate the desorption yields of various materials under ion bombardment by means of an extended inelastic thermal-spike-model. The extension is the combination of the thermal-spike's temperature map with thermal desorption. Within this model the ion induced desorption can be regarded as the release of adsorbates from a transient overheated spot on the samples surface around the ion impact. Finally a copper substrate with a gold coated surface was developed and proposed as a suitable material for a beam loss collimator with minimum desorption to ensure the performance of GSI's SIS18 in high current beam operation. (orig.)

  6. Towards the heavy-ion program at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chujo, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Gunji, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Harada, H. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kaneta, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kinsho, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Liu, Y. [J-PARC Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nagamiya, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); J-PARC Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishio, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ozawa, K. [J-PARC Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Saha, P.K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakaguchi, T. [Broohaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Sato, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tamura, J. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokay, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A future heavy-ion program at J-PARC has been discussed. The QCD phase structure in high baryon density regime will be explored with heavy ions at the beam momenta of around 10 A GeV/c at the beam rate of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} Hz. For this quest, a large acceptance spectrometer is designed to measure electrons and muons, and rare probes such as multi-strangeness and charmed hadrons/nuclei. A heavy-ion acceleration scheme is under study with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring, which accelerate and inject beams into the existing Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron and Main Ring synchrotron. An overview of the heavy-ion program and an accelerator design, as well as physics goals and a conceptual design of the heavy-ion experiment are discussed.

  7. Accelerator Technology: Magnets, Normal and Superconducting

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.1 Magnets, Normal and Superconducting' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.1 Magnets, Normal and Superconducting 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Normal Conducting Magnets 8.1.2.1 Magnetic Design 8.1.2.2 Coils 8.1.2.3 Yoke 8.1.2.4 Costs 8.1.2.5 Undulators, Wigglers, Permanent Magnets 8.1.2.6 Solenoids 8.1.3 Superconducting Magnets 8.1.3.1 Superconducting Materials 8.1.3.2 Superconducting Cables 8.1.3.3 Stability and Margins, Quench and Protection 8.1.3.4 Magnetization, Coupling and AC Loss 8.1.3.5 Magnetic Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets 8.1.3.6 Current Leads 8.1.3.7 Mechanics, Insulation, Cooling and Manufacturing Aspects

  8. Measurements of neutron effective doses and attenuation lengths for shielding materials at the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Noda, Yutaka; Sato, Yukio; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2005-05-01

    The effective doses and attenuation lengths for concrete and iron were measured for the design of heavy ion facilities. Neutrons were produced through the reaction of copper, carbon, and lead bombarded by carbon ions at 230 and 400 MeV.A, neon ions at 400 and 600 MeV.A, and silicon ions at 600 and 800 MeV.A. The detectors used were a Linus and a Andersson-Braun-type rem counter and a detector based on the activation of a plastic scintillator. Representative effective dose rates (in units of 10(-8) microSv h(-1) pps(-1) at 1 m from the incident target surface, where pps means particles per second) and the attenuation lengths (in units of m) were 9.4 x 10(4), 0.46 for carbon ions at 230 MeV.A; 8.9 x 10(5), 0.48 for carbon ions at 400 MeV.A; 9.3 x 10(5), 0.48 for neon ions at 400 MeV.A; 3.8 x 10(6), 0.50 for neon ions at 600 MeV.A; 3.9 x 10(6), 0.50 for silicon ions at 600 MeV.A; and 1.1 x 10(7), 0.51 for silicon ions at 800 MeV.A. The attenuation provided by an iron plate approximately 20 cm thick (nearly equal to the attenuation length) corresponded to that of a 50-cm block of concrete in the present energy range. Miscellaneous results, such as the angular distributions of the neutron effective dose, narrow beam attenuation experiments, decay of gamma-ray doses after the bombardment of targets, doses around an irradiation room, order effects in the multi-layer (concrete and iron) shielding, the doses from different targets, the doses measured with a scintillator activation detector, the gamma-ray doses out of walls and the ratio of the response between the Andersson-Braun-type and the Linus rem counters are also reported.

  9. Development of superconducting crossbar-H-mode cavities for proton and ion accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dziuba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crossbar-H-mode (CH structure is the first superconducting multicell drift tube cavity for the low and medium energy range operated in the H_{21} mode. Because of the large energy gain per cavity, which leads to high real estate gradients, it is an excellent candidate for the efficient acceleration in high power proton and ion accelerators with fixed velocity profile. A prototype cavity has been developed and tested successfully with a gradient of 7  MV/m. A few new superconducting CH cavities with improved geometries for different high power applications are under development at present. One cavity (f=325  MHz, β=0.16, seven cells is currently under construction and studied with respect to a possible upgrade option for the GSI UNILAC. Another cavity (f=217  MHz, β=0.059, 15 cells is designed for a cw operated energy variable heavy ion linac application. Furthermore, the EUROTRANS project (European research program for the transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system, 600 MeV protons, 352 MHz is one of many possible applications for this kind of superconducting rf cavity. In this context a layout of the 17 MeV EUROTRANS injector containing four superconducting CH cavities was proposed by the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP Frankfurt. The status of the cavity development related to the EUROTRANS injector is presented.

  10. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Acceleration Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — SRF cavities enable accelerators to increase particle beam energy levels while minimizing the use of electrical power by all but eliminating electrical resistance....

  11. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, the maximum charge state and then q/A increase in the rear side, so that ions near the front are further accelerated to high energy.

  12. Niobium films for superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuti, C.; Circelli, N.; Hauer, M.

    1984-09-01

    Superconducting accelerating cavities made of Nb-coated copper were produced. Niobium films of a thickness ranging from 1.4 to 4 ..mu..m were deposited onto the inside of 3-GHz cavities and 500-MHz frequency by bias diode sputtering. A maximum accelerating field of 8.6 MV m/sup -1/ was reached without quench which is attributed to the large thermal conductivity of copper at liquid helium temperatures.

  13. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  14. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  15. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  16. Short and long term ionizing radiation effects on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2012-11-01

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices is a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras, which are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. One should have a clear idea of short and long term radiation effects on such devices. To study these effects, a CCD camera was placed in positions less than half meter away from beam loss point. Primary heavy ion beam of 0.95GeV/n Uranium was dumped into a thick aluminium target creating high fluences of secondary particles (e.g., gammas, neutrons, protons). Effects of these particles on CCD camera were scored with LabView based acquisition software. Monte Carlo calculations with FLUKA code were performed to obtain fluence distributions for different particles and make relevant comparisons. Long term total ionising dose effects are represented by dark current increase, which was scored throughout experiment. Instant radiation effects are represented by creation of charge in CCD cells by ionising particles. Relation of this charge to beam intensity was obtained for different camera positions and fluences within 5 orders of magnitude ranges. With high intensities this charge is so high that it may dramatically influence data obtained from CCD camera used in high radiation environment. The linearity of described above relation confirms linear response of CCD to ionizing radiation. It gives an opportunity to find a new application to CCD cameras as beam loss monitors (BLM).

  17. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y

    2016-01-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, ...

  18. Technology of superconducting accelerator dipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Meuser, R.B.; Taylor, C.

    1983-06-01

    We discuss accelerator dipoles and their characteristics. Other types of magnets, in particular bubble chamber magnets have been quite successful. Their performance is based on cryogenic stability which is addressed only briefly in this chapter. This type of stability is not available to the accelerator designer because of the large quantities of copper or other stabilizer that would reduce the current density in the windings to an unacceptably low value.

  19. Manufacturing and Testing of Accelerator Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing of superconducting magnet for accelerators is a quite complex process that is not yet fully industrialized. In this paper, after a short history of the evolution of the magnet design and construction, we review the main characteristics of the accelerator magnets having an impact on the construction technology. We put in evidence how the design and component quality impact on construction and why the final product calls for a total-quality approach. LHC experience is widely discussed and main lessons are spelled out. Then the new Nb3Sn technology, under development for the next generation magnet construction, is outlined. Finally, we briefly review the testing procedure of accelerator superconducting magnets, underlining the close connection with the design validation and with the manufacturing process.

  20. Cryogenic safety of the superconducting ALPI accelerator at INFN-LNL

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting linac ALPI at INFN-LNL is composed of 20 identical cryostats housing, at a group of four (or two), 74 superconducting QWR type cavities: 58 resonators are made of copper with Nb sputtered on the internal surface and 16 are made of Nb bulk. In each cryostat is installed a 100 liter volume LHe reservoir feeding by gravity the QWR’s. The thermal shield around is cooled by GHe at 6 bar abs at 60-80 K. The linac ALPI is a post-accelerator which can receive heavy ions from either the 16 MV Tandem Van de Graaf or from the superconducting injector PIAVE. The latter is composed by an ECR source, two superconducting RFQ, and two cryostats each containg four superconducting bulk Nb QWR. The ALPI cryostats are cooled by a Helium refrigerator whose refrigerator capacity is 1200 W at 4.5 K and 3900 W additional at 60-80 K. PIAVE cryostats are cooled by a separate TCF50 helium refrigerator. The complex ALPI-PIAVE is installed in a semi-open removable concrete tunnel in the same building where the two h...

  1. PRISMA - a magnetic spectrometer for heavy ions at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latina, A.; Stefanini, A.M.; Beghini, S.; Behera, B.R.; Corradi, L.; De Angelis, G.; De Rosa, A.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Gulmini, M.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Maron, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Marginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D.R.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Scarlassara, F.; Szilner, S.; Toniolo, N.; Trotta, M.; Wu, Y.W

    2004-04-05

    The heavy-ion magnetic spectrometer PRISMA was recently installed at Laboratori Naz. di Legnaro, in order to exploit the heavy-ion beams of the XTU Tandem-ALPI-PIAVE accelerator complex, with masses up to A{approx_equal}200 at energies {approx_equal}5-10 MeV MeV A.

  2. Heavy ion isotope resolution with polymer detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Quadras Roca, Alejo; Ortega Girón, Manuel; Fernández Moreno, Francisco; Font Garcia, Josep Lluís; Casas Ametller, Montserrat; Baixeras Divar, Carmen; Gonzalo Cestero, Miguel

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion mass resolution power of polymer detectors Lexan and cellulose nitrate is systematically studied both for accelerator and for cosmic ions. It is concluded that a satisfactory isotopic discrimination, better than 1 u, is hardly attainable with these detectors. Peer Reviewed

  3. Experimental Verification of Heavy Ion Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe investigation of radiation damage induced by high dose neutrons and/or protons is a currently interesting topic in nuclear power, ADS etc., The lack of high dose neutron and proton sources hampers this investigation. The advent of heavy ion accelerators opens up a way to study radiation damage caused by high dose neutron and/or proton irradiation[1]. The displacement rate of heavy ions is much higher than that of neutrons and protons. Higher displacement rate leads to short irradiation time. An irradiation dose of -20 dpa takes about a year in a reactor, while only a few minutes or hours by

  4. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    CERN Document Server

    Plass, Günther

    1996-01-01

    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  5. LEP superconducting accelerating cavity module

    CERN Multimedia

    With its 27-kilometre circumference, the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was – and still is – the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built. The excavation of the LEP tunnel was Europe’s largest civil-engineering project prior to the Channel Tunnel. Three tunnel-boring machines started excavating the tunnel in February 1985 and the ring was completed three years later. In its first phase of operation, LEP consisted of 5176 magnets and 128 accelerating cavities. CERN’s accelerator complex provided the particles and four enormous detectors, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, observed the collisions. LEP was commissioned in July 1989 and the first beam circulated in the collider on 14 July. The collider's initial energy was chosen to be around 91 GeV, so that Z bosons could be produced. The Z boson and its charged partner the W boson, both discovered at CERN in 1983, are responsible for the weak force, which drives the Sun, for example. Observing the creation and decay of the short-lived Z boson w...

  6. Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dainese, A; Armesto, N; d'Enterria, D; Jowett, J M; Lansberg, J -P; Milhano, J G; Salgado, C A; Schaumann, M; van Leeuwen, M; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonioli, P; Apolinario, L; Bass, S; Beraudo, A; Bilandzic, A; Borsanyi, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Chen, Z; Mendez, L Cunqueiro; Denicol, G S; Eskola, K J; Floerchinger, S; Fujii, H; Giubellino, P; Greiner, C; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Ko, C -M; Kotko, P; Krajczar, K; Kutak, K; Laine, M; Liu, Y; Lombardo, M P; Luzum, M; Marquet, C; Masciocchi, S; Okorokov, V; Paquet, J -F; Paukkunen, H; Petreska, E; Pierog, T; Ploskon, M; Ratti, C; Rezaeian, A H; Riegler, W; Rojo, J; Roland, C; Rossi, A; Salam, G P; Sapeta, S; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Stachel, J; Uphoff, J; van Hameren, A; Watanabe, K; Xiao, B -W; Yuan, F; Zaslavsky, D; Zhou, K; Zhuang, P

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.

  7. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiniger, Michael; Pekeler, Michael; Vogel, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) accelerator technology has basically existed for 50 years. It took about 20 years to conduct basic R&D and prototyping at universities and international institutes before the first superconducting accelerators were built, with industry supplying complete accelerator cavities. In parallel, the design of large scale accelerators using SRF was done worldwide. In order to build those accelerators, industry has been involved for 30 years in building the required cavities and/or accelerator modules in time and budget. To enable industry to supply these high tech components, technology transfer was made from the laboratories in the following three regions: the Americas, Asia and Europe. As will be shown, the manufacture of the SRF cavities is normally accomplished in industry whereas the cavity testing and module assembly are not performed in industry in most cases, yet. The story of industrialization is so far a story of customized projects. Therefore a real SRF accelerator product is not yet available in this market. License agreements and technology transfer between leading SRF laboratories and industry is a powerful tool for enabling industry to manufacture SRF components or turnkey superconducting accelerator modules for other laboratories and users with few or no capabilities in SRF technology. Despite all this, the SRF accelerator market today is still a small market. The manufacture and preparation of the components require a range of specialized knowledge, as well as complex and expensive manufacturing installations like for high precision machining, electron beam welding, chemical surface preparation and class ISO4 clean room assembly. Today, the involved industry in the US and Europe comprises medium-sized companies. In Japan, some big enterprises are involved. So far, roughly 2500 SRF cavities have been built by or ordered from industry worldwide. Another substantial step might come from the International Linear Collider (ILC) project

  9. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pastuović, Ž., E-mail: zkp@ansto.gov.au [Center for Accelerator Science, ANSTO, Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee Dc, NSW 2232 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Center for Accelerator Science, ANSTO, Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee Dc, NSW 2232 (Australia); Jaćimović, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V{sub 2}(−/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V{sub 2}(=/−) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V{sub 2}(−/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer–Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  10. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  11. MEGHNAD – A multi element detector array for heavy ion collision studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satyajit Saha

    2001-07-01

    In the coming decade, the expanding field of experimental nuclear physics in our country is going to see a quantum leap in research and developmental activities with new accelerator facilities like the variable energy cyclotron with ECR heavy ion source, the upcoming K-500 superconducting cyclotron, both at VECC, Calcutta, and the superconducting linac boosters at both the Pelletron Accelerator Facilities at TIFR, Mumbai and NSC, New Delhi. When heavy ion beam available from such machines fall on a target and undergo collision, very rich and often pristine fields of research open up. In order to carry on such activities, we have taken up a project to build a multi element gamma, heavy ion and neutron array of detectors (MEGHNAD) to detect and study the properties of a wide variety of particles like neutrons, protons, light mass clusters, massive ejected fragments, and gamma rays with good solid angle coverage and efficiency. Design of the detector array, performance of the prototype detector and brief outline of the research programme to be undertaken with the detector array will be discussed.

  12. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LBNL and LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahle, L

    1998-08-19

    The long-range goal of the US Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is to develop heavy ion accelerators capable of igniting inertial fusion targets to generate fusion energy for electrical power production. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, induction acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a final-focus system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss some of these experiments.

  13. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  14. High Temperature Superconducting Magnets: Revolutionizing Next Generation Accelerators and Other Applications (466th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ramesh (BNL Superconducting Magnet Division)

    2011-02-16

    BNL has always been a leader in the world of superconducting magnets, which are essential to the great modern ccelerators such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, or the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Switzerland. These magnets are made of material that, cooled to 4 Kelvins (K) (-452° Farenheit) become superconducting, that is, lose essentially all resistance to electricity. For the past decade, however, Lab researchers have been exploring the use of new materials that become superconducting at higher temperatures. These materials can operate at the relatively high temperature of 77 K (-351°F), allowing them to be cooled by cheap, plentiful liquid nitrogen, rather than helium, and can create very high magnetic fields. Now far in the lead of this area of research, BNL scientists are exploring avenues for high temperature superconducting magnets that are energy efficient and have magnetic fields that are a million times stronger than the Earth’s. If successful, these new magnets could potentially revolutionize usage in future accelerators, play a key role in energy efficiency and storage, and make possible new applications such as muon colliders and MRI screening in remote areas.

  15. Conceptual design of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider: RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, Nicholas P.

    1986-05-01

    The complete Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility will be a complex set of accelerators and beam transfer equipment connecting them. A significant portion of the total facility either exists or is under construction. Two existing Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will serve for the initial ion acceleration. Ions with a charge of -1 would be accelerated from ground to +15 MV potential, pass through a stripping foil, and accelerate back to ground potential, where they would pass through a second stripping foil. From there the ions will traverse a long transfer line to the AGS tunnel and be injected into the Booster accelerator. The Booster accelerates the ion bunch, and then the ions pass through one more stripper and then enter the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are accelerated to the top AGS energy and transferred to the collider. Bending and focusing of ion beams is to be achieved by superconducting magnets. The physics goals behind the RHIC are enumerated, particularly as regards the study of quark matter and the characteristics of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The design of the collider and all its components is described, including the injector, the lattice, magnet system, cryogenic and vacuum systems, beam transfer, injection, and dump, rf system, and beam instrumentation and control system. Also given are cost estimates, construction schedules, and a management plan. (LEW)

  16. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  17. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  18. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10/sup -7/ torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column.

  19. FAIR—Status and relevance for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, P., E-mail: P.Spiller@gsi.de; Barth, W.

    2014-01-01

    The chosen design concepts and technical approaches as described in the Heavy Ion Driver Ignition Facility (HIDIF) study are compared with the present status of accelerator technologies and the experiences gained in the operation of the heavy ion accelerator facilities at GSI. Novel advanced technologies, as developed e.g. for the FAIR Project, may be used for a more compact and realistic driver layout. Major differences between a single shot and a high repetition rate facility will be discussed.

  20. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  1. Heavy ion facilities and heavy ion research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been heavily involved since 1956 in the construction and adaptation of particle accelerators for the acceleration of heavy ions. At the present time it has the most extensive group of accelerators with heavy-ion capability in the United States: The SuperHILAC, the 88-Inch Cyclotron, and the Bevatron/Bevalac. An extensive heavy-ion program in nuclear and particle physics, in nuclear chemistry, and in the study of biological effects of heavy-ion irradiations has been supported in the past; and the Laboratory has a strong interest in expanding both its capabilities for heavy-ion acceleration and its participation in heavy-ion science. The first heavy-ion accelerator at LBL was the HILAC, which began operation in 1957. A vigorous program of research with ion beams of masses 4 through 40 began at that time and continued until the machine was shut down for modifications in February 1971. At that time, a grant of $3 M had been received from the AEC for a total reconstruction of the HILAC, to turn it into an upgraded accelerator, the SuperHILAC. This new machine is designed for the acceleration of all ions through uranium to an energy of 8.5 MeV/u. The SuperHILAC is equipped with two injectors. The lower energy injector, a 750-kV Cockcroft-Walton machine, was put into service in late 1972 for acceleration of ions up through {sup 40}Ar. By spring of 1973, operation of the SuperHILAC with this injector exceeded the performance of the original HILAC. The second injector, a 2.5-MV Dynamitron, was originally designed for the Omnitron project and built with $1 M of Omnitron R and D funds. Commissioning of this injector began in 1973 and proceeded to the point where nanoampere beams of krypton were available for a series of research studies in May and June. The first publishable new results with beams heavier than {sup 40}Ar were obtained at that time. Debugging and injector improvement projects will continue in FY 74.

  2. Changes of gene expression in developing mouse brain after exposures to x-rays, in comparison with exposures to accelerated heavy ion particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Kyoto (Japan); Nojima, Kumie [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, International Space Radiation Lab., Anagawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation of low doses in rodents impedes neuronal migration during the period of cortical histogenesis, and results in disorganized cortical architecture in mature brain. On the contrary, exposure to heavy ion beams during fetal period mainly affects cell survival, viz., induction of apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying to produce such difference in the effects between exposure to heavy particles and exposure to X-rays remain unknown. We have attempted to elucidate whether the changes of gene expression after exposure to heavy ions differ from those after X-irradiation in fetal brains. We thus applied two molecular biological techniques, i.e., the Restriction Landmark cDNA Scanning (RLCS) method and the suppression subtractive PCR method. Approximately 13,000 cDNA species were scanned and it turned out that more than twenty genes among the genes scanned were differentially expressed between X-irradiated embryos and non-irradiated ones. One of the genes showing up-regulation is Rab6A that is known to be associated with vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network. In addition, expression of some genes encoding RAB6A-interacting proteins was up-regulated. When expression of these genes was compared between animals after heavy-ion irradiation and those after X-irradiation, the changing pattern was different. Taking our previous observation that prenatal exposure to carbon particles induces apoptotic cell death in developing cerebral cortex into consideration, the difference in gene expression herein reported may contribute to better understand the difference in effects between exposures to heavy-ion particles and to X-rays. In conclusion, we identified Rab6A and its interacting proteins as candidates for the migration-associated genes, whose expression in fetal brain is up-regulated by carbon beam irradiation. (author)

  3. Diffraction radiation from relativistic heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyna, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the relativistic heavy ion beams at new accelerator facilities are allowed to obtain some new interesting results (see, for instance, Datz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (18) (1997) 3355; Ladyrin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 404 (1998) 129). The problem of non-destructive heavy ion beam diagnostics at these accelerators is highly pressing. The authors of the papers (Rule et al., Proceedings of the Seventh Beam Instrumentation Workshop, Argonne IL, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 390, NY, 1997; Castellano, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 394 (1997) 275) suggested to use diffraction radiation (DR) appearing when a charge moves close to a conducting surface (Bolotovskii and Voskresenskii, Sov. Phys. Usp. 9 (1966) 73) for non-destructive electron beam diagnostics. The DR characteristics are defined by both Lorentz-factor and the particle charge, and do not depend on its mass. The estimation of feasibility of using DR for relativistic ion beam diagnostics is undoubtedly interesting.

  4. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  5. Superconducting Linac and associated accelerator development at NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Roy

    2001-08-01

    There has been significant progress in the programme to develop a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster for the Pelletron accelerator at the Nuclear Science Centre. This paper presents the current status of the development in all the major components of the accelerator.

  6. Calorimetric low temperature detectors for heavy ion physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egelhof, P.; Kraft-Bermuth, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2005-05-01

    Calorimetric low temperature detectors have the potential to become powerful tools for applications in many fields of heavy ion physics. A brief overview of heavy ion physics at present and at the next generation heavy ion facilities is given with a special emphasis on the conditions for heavy ion detection and the potential advantage of cryogenic detectors for applications in heavy ion physics. Two types of calorimetric low temperature detectors for the detection of energetic heavy ions have been developed and their response to the impact of heavy ions was investigated systematically for a wide range of energies (E=0.1-360 MeV/amu) and ion species ({sup 4}He.. {sup 238}U). Excellent results with respect to energy resolution, {delta}E/E ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup -3} even for the heaviest ions, and other basic detector properties such as energy linearity with no indication of a pulse height defect, energy threshold, detection efficiency and radiation hardness have been obtained, representing a considerable improvement as compared to conventional heavy ion detectors based on ionization. With the achieved performance, calorimetric low temperature detectors bear a large potential for applications in various fields of basic and applied heavy ion research. A brief overview of a few prominent examples, such as high resolution nuclear spectroscopy, high resolution nuclear mass determination, which may be favourably used for identification of superheavy elements or in direct reaction experiments with radioactive beams, as well as background discrimination in accelerator mass spectrometry, is given, and first results are presented. For instance, the use of cryogenic detectors allowed to improve the sensitivity in trace analysis of {sup 236}U by one order of magnitude and to determine the up to date smallest isotope ratio of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 6.1 x 10{sup -12} in a sample of natural uranium. Besides the detection of heavy ions, the concept of cryogenic detectors also

  7. An efficient magnetron transmitter for superconducting accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakevich, G.; Lebedev, V.; Yakovlev, V.; Pavlov, V.

    2016-12-01

    A concept of a highly-efficient high-power magnetron transmitter allowing wide-band phase and the mid-frequency power control at the frequency of the locking signal is proposed. The proposal is aimed for powering Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities of intensity-frontier accelerators. The transmitter is intended to operate with phase and amplitude control feedback loops allowing suppression of microphonics and beam loading in the SRF cavities. The concept utilizes injection-locked magnetrons controlled in phase by the locking signal supplied by a feedback system. The injection-locking signal pre-excites the magnetron and allows its operation below the critical voltage in free run. This realizes control of the magnetron power in an extended range (up to 10 dB) by control of the magnetron current. Experimental studies were carried out with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, CW magnetrons. They demonstrated stable operation of the magnetrons and the required range of power control at a low noise level. An analysis of the kinetics of the drifting charge within the framework of the presented model of phase focusing in magnetrons substantiates the concept and the experimental results.

  8. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  9. Charmonium physics with heavy ions: experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Scomparin, E

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the suppression of charmonium production in heavy-ion collisions was first proposed as an unambiguous signature for the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma. Since then, experiments at fixed-target accelerators (SPS) and hadronic colliders (RHIC, LHC) have investigated this observable and discovered a wide range of effects, that have been related to the original proposal but at the same time have also prompted a strong development in the underlying theory concepts. In this contribution, I will review the main achievements of this field, with emphasis on recent results obtained by LHC experiments.

  10. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. L.; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71 st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R 2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R 2 respectively.

  11. Some remarks on in-situ studies using TEM-heavy-ion accelerator link from the stand point of extracting radiation damage caused by fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Shiori, E-mail: ishino@k9.dion.ne.jp [University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Kenta [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Radiation damage of materials for fission and fusion reactors has been scaled in terms of the number of displacements per atoms (dpa). The method of evaluating the dpa has been established and standardized. However, it has become obvious that more detailed analyses are required, particularly for the nature and spatial distribution of the introduced point defects and their clusters. Such detailed nature of the defects introduced is thought to be governed by the primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum, A number of trials to elucidate the PKA dependent radiation effects by choosing the mass and energy of the incident ions have been explored. In some cases, defect formation by a single impinging ion has been observed. However, it has also been recognized that there are a number of artefacts arising from energy deposition distributions, existence of surface sinks together with radiation induced surface modifications and so on. In this paper, discussion will be made on how to establish irradiation correlation between neutron and heavy ion irradiations in a cascade damage formation regime. For the past fifty years, the correlation between neutron and ion irradiations from the view point of simulating the neutron radiation damage by ion irradiations has been discussed many times. However, the correlation itself has not been fully discussed separately. This is the major objective of this paper.

  12. Heavy-Ion-Induced Electronic Desorption of Gas from Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Molvik, A W; Mahner, E; Kireeff Covo, M; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Krämer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2007-01-01

    During heavy-ion operation in several particle accelerators worldwide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion-induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dEe/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  13. Heavy-ion induced electronic desorption of gas from metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2006-12-19

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/d/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  14. The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab: Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Henderson, Stuart [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) currently in commissioning phase at Fermilab is foreseen to support a broad range of beam-based experiments to study fundamental limitations to beam intensity and to develop novel approaches to particle-beam generation, acceleration and manipulation. ASTA incorporates a superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) linac coupled to a flexible high-brightness photoinjector. The facility also includes a small-circumference storage ring capable of storing electrons or protons. This report summarizes the facility capabilities, and provide an overview of the accelerator-science researches to be enabled.

  15. Lecture review, question collection: accelerators, detectors, particle and heavy ion physics, cosmology / Az előadások megbeszélése, kérdések összegyűjtése: gyorsítók, detektorok, részecske- és nehézion-fizika, kozmológia

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Lecture review, question collection: accelerators, detectors, particle and heavy ion physics, cosmology / Az előadások megbeszélése, kérdések összegyűjtése: gyorsítók, detektorok, részecske- és nehézion-fizika, kozmológia

  16. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  17. Case Studies on Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P

    2014-01-01

    During the CERN Accelerator School 'Superconductivity for accelerators', the students were divided into 18 groups, and 6 different exercises (case studies), involving the design and analysis of superconducting magnets and RF cavities, were assigned. The problems covered a broad spectrum of topics, from properties of superconducting materials to operation conditions and general dimensions of components. The work carried out by the students turned out to be an extremely useful opportunity to review the material explained during the lectures, to become familiar with the orders of magnitude of the key parameters, and to understand and compare different design options. We provide in this paper a summary of the activities related to the case studies on superconducting magnets and present the main outcomes.

  18. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Srinivasan; S K Singh; R G Pillay; M P Kurup; M K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    We are in the process of constructing a superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. With feasibility studies having been completed during the course of the 4th and 5th five-year plan periods, culminating with the demonstration of beam acceleration using one accelerating module, the construction of the LINAC is now under way.

  19. New Method to Improve the Accelerating Gradient of Superconducting Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhenchao

    2013-01-01

    Quench is a common phenomenon in a superconducting cavity and often limits the accelerating gradient of the cavity. Accurate location of the quench site can be located by second sound detection. For multi-cell superconducting cavity, one defect may cause the cell with defect quenches and then the whole cavity quenches. Now we proposed a new method to eliminate the bad influence of the quench cell to the whole cavity.

  20. Overview of the Heavy Ion Fusion Program

    CERN Document Server

    Celata, C M

    2000-01-01

    The world Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program for inertial fusion energy is looking toward the development and commissioning of several new experiments. Recent and planned upgrades of the facilities at GSI, in Russia, and in Japan greatly enhance the ability to study energy deposition in hot dense matter. Worldwide target design developments have focused on non-ignition targets for nearterm experiments and designs which, while lowering the energy required for ignition, tighten accelerator requirements. The U.S program is transitioning between scaled beam dynamics experiments and high current experiments with power-plant-driver-scale beams. Current effort is aimed at preparation for the next-step large facility, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)-- an induction linac accelerating multiple beams to a few hundred MeV, then focusing to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. The goal is to study heavy ion energy deposition, and to test all of the components and physics needed for an engineering test of a power p...

  1. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonia Kabana

    2012-10-01

    We review selected highlights from the experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) exploring the QCD phase diagram. A wealth of new results appeared recently from RHIC due to major recent upgrades, like for example the $\\Upsilon$ suppression in central nucleus-nucleus collisions which has been discovered recently in both RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, we discuss RHIC results from the beam energy scan (BES) program aiming to search for a possible critical point and to map out the QCD phase diagram.

  2. Recent progress in heavy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of the progress during the last several years in the technology of sources of high charge state positive heavy ions and negative heavy ions. Subjects covered include recent results in ECR and EBIS source development and comparison of various source types for high charge state heavy ions.

  3. A simple method for energy calibration of heavy-ion beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, E.J.; Vries, J.W.; Engelbertink, G.A.P.; Leun, C. van der

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the calibration of analyzing-magnet systems of heavy-ion accelerators. It makes use of resonances in inverse (p, αγ) reactions, i.e. with heavy-ion beams on hydrogen targets. Instead of a gas target we use the very thin hydrogen-containing surface layer on a gold foil, whic

  4. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four

  5. Integrated design of superconducting accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, Stephan; Ramberger, S; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Wolf, R

    1999-01-01

    This chapter introduces the main features of the ROXIE program which has been developed for the design of the superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The program combines numerical field calculation with a reduced vector-potential formulation, the application of vector-optimization methods, and the use of genetic as well as deterministic minimization algorithms. Together with the applied concept of features, the software is used as an approach towards integrated design of superconducting magnets. The main quadrupole magnet for the LHC, was chosen as an example for the integrated design process. (17 refs).

  6. Superconducting travelling wave ring with high gradient accelerating section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrakhov, P.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Use of a superconducting traveling wave accelerating (STWA) structure instead of a standing wave cavity has major advantages in increasing the accelerating gradient in the ILC. In contrast with standing wave cavity STWA requires feedback loop, which sends wave from the structure output to input, making a superconducting traveling wave ring (STWR). One or few input couplers need to excite STWR and compensate power dissipations due to beam loading. To control traveling wave regime in the structure two independent knobs can be used for tuning both resonant ring frequency and backward wave. We discuss two variants of the STWR with one and two feed couplers.

  7. Heavy ion beam transmission in the AGOR cyclotron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Ayanangsha

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the TRImP program initiated at the KVI in 2002, the AGOR cyclotron was used to accelerate low energy heavy ion beams up to a beam intensity (>=10^12 particles per second). Typical beam ions are: 206Pb accelerated to 8 MeV/amu and 20Ne accelerated to 25 MeV/amu. In the course of b

  8. High-Intensity, High Charge-State Heavy Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J

    2004-01-01

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions will be reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. The benefits and limitations for these type sources will be described, for both dc and pulsed applications. Possible future improvements in these type sources will also be discussed.

  9. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F

    2006-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  10. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Preis, Florian

    2017-03-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  11. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  12. Relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, Rajeev S

    2014-01-01

    The field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is introduced to the high-energy physics students with no prior knowledge in this area. The emphasis is on the two most important observables, namely the azimuthal collective flow and jet quenching, and on the role fluid dynamics plays in the interpretation of the data. Other important observables described briefly are constituent quark number scaling, ratios of particle abundances, strangeness enhancement, and sequential melting of heavy quarkonia. Comparison is made of some of the basic heavy-ion results obtained at LHC with those obtained at RHIC. Initial findings at LHC which seem to be in apparent conflict with the accumulated RHIC data are highlighted.

  13. Heavy Ion Physics in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, G; Chatrchyan, Serguei; Contardo, Didier; Damgov, Jordan; De Min, Alberto; Denegri, Daniel; Drapier, Olivier; Geist, Walter; Genchev, Vladimir; Haroutunian, Roger; Hayrapetyan, M G; Hencken, K; Jenkovszky, L L; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Kharlov, Yuri; Kodolova, Olga; Kotlinski, Danek; Kruglov, Nikolai A; Kva, R

    2000-01-01

    This note summarizes the CMS potential for Heavy Ions Collisions studies. The main physics topic is the study of Y to muon pair decays in view of Y family supression studies, with a detailed discussion of muon reconstruction efficiencies and purities in conditions of central Pb-Pb collisions. We also discuss energy flow and impact parameter measurements, the observability of continuum muon pairs and of Z to mu + mu decays, and of jets and hard direct photons as a means to study jet quenching. We also discuss pA interactions as well as gamma-gamma physics. The instrumental specificities of CMS for heavy ion running are discussed, including trigger and data acquisition aspects.

  14. Timescales in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lisa, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The study of high energy collisions between heavy nuclei is a field unto itself, distinct from nuclear and particle physics. A defining aspect of heavy ion physics is the importance of a bulk, self-interacting system with a rich space-time substructure. I focus on the issue of timescales in heavy ion collisions, starting with proof from low-energy collisions that femtoscopy can, indeed, measure very long timescales. I then discuss the relativistic case, where detailed measurements over three orders of magnitude in energy reveal a timescale increase that might be due to a first-order phase transition. I discuss also consistency in evolution timescales as determined from traditional longitudinal sizes and a novel analysis using shape information.

  15. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  16. Central collisions of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  17. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10{sup 9} at 2.5K, and 8x10{sup 9} at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers.

  18. Novel Approach to Linear Accelerator Superconducting Magnet System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2011-11-28

    Superconducting Linear Accelerators include a superconducting magnet system for particle beam transportation that provides the beam focusing and steering. This system consists of a large number of quadrupole magnets and dipole correctors mounted inside or between cryomodules with SCRF cavities. Each magnet has current leads and powered from its own power supply. The paper proposes a novel approach to magnet powering based on using superconducting persistent current switches. A group of magnets is powered from the same power supply through the common, for the group of cryomodules, electrical bus and pair of current leads. Superconducting switches direct the current to the chosen magnet and close the circuit providing the magnet operation in a persistent current mode. Two persistent current switches were fabricated and tested. In the paper also presented the results of magnetic field simulations, decay time constants analysis, and a way of improving quadrupole magnetic center stability. Such approach substantially reduces the magnet system cost and increases the reliability.

  19. Production of Heavy Ion Beams by Operating Serse in DC Mode and Afterglow Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S; Celona, L; Girard, A; Hitz, D; Melin, G

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source SERSE is going to be coupled to a 28 GHz generator, in order to achieve higher current of intermediate and high charge states of heavy ions. Some preliminary tests have been carried out to $9 demonstrate the capability to produce currents of heavy ion beams in the order of hundreds emA in dc mode and afterglow mode. In particular, the latter tests in afterglow mode ùay play a relevant role in the design of the new source $9 for the LHC heavy ion injector.

  20. Survey of high field superconducting material for accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scahlan, R.; Greene, A.F.; Suenaga, M.

    1986-05-01

    The high field superconductors which could be used in accelerator dipole magnets are surveyed, ranking these candidates with respect to ease of fabrication and cost as well as superconducting properties. Emphasis is on Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi. 27 refs., 2 figs. (LEW)

  1. Numerical and experimental investigations of coupled electromagnetic and thermal fields in superconducting accelerator magnets; Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen gekoppelter elektromagnetischer und thermischer Felder in supraleitenden Beschleunigermagneten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierau, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The new international facility for antiproton and ion research FAIR will be built in Darmstadt (Germany). The existing accelerator facility of GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy Ion Research will serve as a pre-accelerator for the new facility. FAIR will provide high-energy antiproton and ion beams with unprecedented intensity and quality for fundamental research of states of matter and the evolution of the universe. The central component of FAIR's accelerator and storage rings complex is a double-ring accelerator consisting of two heavy ion synchrotrons SIS100 and SIS300. The SIS100 is the primary accelerator of FAIR. The desired beam properties of SIS100 require a design of the machine much more challenging than the conventional design of existing proton and ion synchrotrons. The key technical components of each synchrotron are the special electromagnets, which allow guiding the charged particles on their orbits in the synchrotron during the acceleration processes. For a stable operation of the SIS100's the magnets have to produce extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. Furthermore, the SIS100 high-intensity ion beam modes, for example with U{sup 28+} ions, require an ultra-high vacuum in the beam pipe of the synchrotron, which can be generated effectively only at low temperatures below 15 K. Due to the field quality requirements for the magnets, the properties of the dynamic vacuum in the beam pipe but also in order to minimise future operating costs, fast ramped superconducting magnets will be used to guide the beam in SIS100. These magnets have been developed at GSI within the framework of the FAIR project. Developing a balanced design of a superconducting accelerator magnet requires a sound understanding of the interaction between its thermal and electromagnetic fields. Of special importance in this case are the magnetic field properties such as the homogeneity of the static magnetic field in the aperture of the magnet, and the dynamic heat losses of the

  2. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  3. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z = 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  4. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, E; Boduch, P; Brunetto, R; Chabot, M; Domaracka, A; Ding, J J; Kamalou, O; Lv, X Y; Rothard, H; da Silveira, E F; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic ...

  5. sPHENIX: The next generation heavy ion detector at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    sPHENIX is a new collaboration and future detector project at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). It seeks to answer fundamental questions on the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), including its temperature dependence and coupling strength, by using a suite of precision jet and upsilon measurements that probe different length scales of the QGP. This will be achieved with large acceptance, $|\\eta| < 1$ and $0$-$2\\pi$ in $\\phi$, electromagentic and hadronic calorimeters and precision tracking enabled by a $1.5$ T superconducting magnet. With the increased luminosity afforded by accelerator upgrades, sPHENIX will perform high statistics measurements extending the kinematic reach at RHIC to overlap the LHC's. This overlap with the LHC will facilitate better understanding of the role of temperature, density and parton virtuality in QGP dynamics and for jet quenching in particular. This talk will focus on key future measurements and the current state of the sPHENIX proje...

  6. The heavy ion cooler-storage-ring project (HIRFL-CSR) at Lanzhou

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, J W; Wei, B W; Yuan, Y J; Song, M T; Zhang, W Z; Yang, X D; Yuan Ping; Gao, D Q; Zhao, H W; Yang, X T; Xiao, G Q; Man, K T; Dang, J R; Cai, X H; Wang, Y F; Tang, J Y; Qiao, W M; Rao, Y N; He, Y; Mao, L Z; Zhou, Z Z

    2002-01-01

    HIRFL-CSR, a new ion Cooler-Storage-Ring (CSR) project, is the post-acceleration system of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). It consists of a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe). From the HIRFL cyclotron system the heavy ions will be accumulated, cooled and accelerated in the CSRm, then extracted fast to produce radioactive ion beams (RIB) or highly charged heavy ions. Those secondary beams will be accepted and stored by the CSRe for many internal-target experiments with electron cooling.

  7. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-15

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10} - 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic

  8. Superconducting accelerating four-cell cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A close view of the four-cell cavity. This was a prototype designed for LEP2 (LEP1 had warm copper cavities as accelerating elements). The first successful tests were made in December 1980 - reaching a Q = 10^6. (see photo 8012650X)

  9. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  10. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  11. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  12. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, L.M. E-mail: lalit.pant@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de; Biswas, D.C.; Dinesh, B.V.; Thomas, R.G.; Saxena, A.; Sawant, Y.S.; Choudhury, R.K

    2002-12-11

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with {alpha} particles from {sup 241}Am-{sup 239}Pu source, fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  13. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, L M; Dinesh, B V; Thomas, R G; Saxena, A; Sawant, Y S; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with alpha particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am- sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu source, fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  14. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schükraft, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The field of ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics, which started some 15 years ago at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS with fixed target experiments, is entering today a new era with the recent start-up of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC and preparations well under way for a new large heavy ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  15. Superconducting Magnets for Accelerators and Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of superconductors for magnet applications has received a strong boost from the High Energy Physics (HEP) community, both for detector magnets and for accelerator magnets. The demand for very high current density (both Jc and Jc,overall), for fine filaments, for control of the copper content, for very compact cables with large current capability, the ability to superstabilize large cables at moderate cost, together with necessity of producing hundreds of tons of materials for large projects, have been the main motivation for the continued improvement of practical superconductors. HEP has provided so far, and still does nowadays, a unique forum where material scientists, fabrication engineers and final users, i.e. magnet designers and magnet constructors, gather together and, by sharing their knowledge and their needs, are able to accomplish real progress in the technology. In particular accelerator magnets have reached a point where, in order to go beyond the 9 T limit of the present LHC in co...

  16. Research on quality testing for active spot scanning proton and heavy ion accelerator%主动式点扫描质子重离子加速器质量检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金生; 袁继龙; 李明生

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the quality testing of dose delivery system of the active spot scanning proton and heavy ion accelerator,in order to provide the reference for the quality control of related equipment.Methods In the four therapy rooms,both 0.6 cc chambers and Gafchromic EBT3 films were used,respectively,to test the accelerator for dose reproducibility,dose linearity,dose stability,depth dose distribution,beam scanning position deviation and radiation field uniformity in each therapy room.Results Dose reproducibility variation coefficients are all less than 1.5%,dose linearity's maximum deviations less than 2%,dose stability's deviations less than 2%,depth dose distribution stability within 2%,beam scanning position deviation less than 1 mm,consistency of irradiation field's deviation less than 2 mm,and flatness within ± 5%.Conclusions The indicators about quality testing for the active spot scanning proton and heavy ion accelerator are all in line with the requirements of IEC standards draft.%目的 对主动式点扫描质子重离子加速器剂量传输系统进行质量检测,为相关设备质量检测研究提供参考.方法 在4个治疗室中,分别采用0.6 CC指型电离室和辐射胶片测量质子重离子加速器在每间治疗室的输出剂量重复性、剂量线性、剂量日稳定性、深度剂量分布、束流扫描位置偏差和射野的一致性.结果 4个治疗室分别对应的4个终端的剂量重复性变异系数均<1.5%,剂量线性最大偏差均<2%,剂量日稳定性偏差均<2%,深度剂量分布稳定性均在2%之内,束流扫描位置偏差均<1 mm,射野一致性中射野大小偏差均<2 mm,射野平坦度均<±5%.结论 本研究涉及的主动式点扫描质子重离子加速器质量检测的各项指标均符合国际电工委员会(IEC)相关标准草案的要求.

  17. Continuous thermochromatographic separation of carrier-free radioisotopes of platinum elements in air flow from products of nuclear reactions in beam of heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanov, V.P.; Zvara, I.

    1984-01-01

    The thermochromatographic behaviour of volatile oxygen-containing compounds of platinum group metals in on-line regime in an accelerator beam has been studied to evaluate possibilities of chemical separation of the Z=108-110 elements. Volatile compounds of radioplatinoids were prepared while decelerating the recoil atoms - nuclear reaction products - in a flow of dry (partial water vapour pressure below 10/sup -4/ Pa) or humid air (saturated with H/sub 2/O vapours at 0 deg C) and they were extracted on the walls of a quartz thermochromatographic column. Under certain experimental conditions the maximum of /sup 173/OsO/sub 4/ precipitation zone is located at -88 +- 10 deg C, and that for sup(183, 184)IrO/sub 3/ - at 80 +- 10 deg C. It is shown that the fast response of the method for Os is not worse than 1 s. A high volatility of sup(99, 100)Rh has been observed for the first time, being evidently related to the RhO/sub 3/ formation. Ir and /sup 187/Pt in the humid air flow were precipitated at 20-10 deg C. Possible composition of compounds formed is being discussed. Possibility of using, in principle, oxygen-containing compounds for chemical identification of Z=108-110 elements is pointed out.

  18. [Effect of accelerated heavy ions of carbon 12C, neon 20Ne and iron 56Fe on the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic assay of the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes was carried out after in vitro irradiation by heavy charged particles with high LET values. Blood plasm samples enriched with lymphocytes were irradiated by accelerated ions of carbon 12C (290 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), neon 20Ne (400 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), and iron 56Fe (500 MeV/nucleon and LET = 200 keV/microm) in the dose range from 0.25 to 1 Gy. Rate of chromosome aberrations showed a linear dependence on doses from the densely ionizing radiations with high LET values. Frequency of dicentrics and centric rings in human lymphocytes irradiated by 12C with the energy of 290 MeV/nucleon was maximal at 1 Gy (p < 0.05) relative to the other heavy particles. It was found that relative biological effectiveness of heavy nuclei is several times higher than of 60Co gamma-radiation throughout the range of doses in this investigation.

  19. The Future of Superconducting Technology for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - Colliders constructed and operated - Future High Energy Colliders under Study - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Possible Choices among SC Materials Superconducting Magnets and the Future - Advances in SC Magnets for Accelerators - Nb3Sn for realizing Higher Field - NbTi to Nb3Sn for realizing High Field (> 10 T) - HL-LHC as a critical milestone for the Future of Acc. Magnet Technology - Nb3Sn Superconducting Magnets (> 11 T)and MgB2 SC Links for HL-LHC - HL-LHC, 11T Dipole Magnet - Nb3Sn Quadrupole (MQXF) at IR - Future Circular Collider Study - Conductor development (1998-2008) - Nb3Sn conductor program - 16 T Dipole Options and R&D sharing - Design Study and Develoment for SppC in China - High-Field Superconductor and Magnets - HTS Block Coil R&D for 20 T - Canted Cosine Theta (CCT) Coil suitable with Brittle HTS Conductor - A topic at KEK: S-KEKB IRQs just integrated w/ BELLE-II ! Superconducting RF and the Future - Superconducting Phases and Applications - Poss...

  20. Electron cloud studies for heavy-ion and proton machines

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, F; Weiland, Th

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud effects are a known problem in various accelerator facilities around the world. Electron clouds cause instabilities and emittance growth in positron and proton beams as well as in heavy ion beams. Most of the hadron machines experience the build-up of EC due to the multipacting. In LHC and in positron machines production of electrons due to the synchrotron radiation becomes as important as the build-up due to the secondary emission. The main source of seed electrons in heavy ion machines is the residual gas ionization. FAIR facility in Darmstadt will operate with heavy-ion and proton beams. However, the beam parameters are such that the multipacting will start to play a role only for the unconditioned wall with the secondary emission yieldmore than 1.8. In this paperwe study the electron cloud build-up and its effect on the beam stability for FAIR heavy-ion coasting beams. These beams will be used during slow extraction. Electron scattering on the beam ions and its effect on the final neutraliz...

  1. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to cw acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the U.S. and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front end of such linacs, particularly for the postacceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008<β=v/c<0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication, and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3–4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  2. Superconducting RF cavity R&D for future accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsburg, C M

    2009-01-01

    High-beta superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) elliptical cavities are being developed for several accelerator projects including Project X, the European XFEL, and the International Linear Collider (ILC). Fermilab has recently established an extensive infrastructure for SRF cavity R&D for future accelerators, including cavity surface processing and testing and cavity assembly into cryomodules. Some highlights of the global effort in SRF R&D toward improving cavity performance, and Fermilab SRF cavity R&D in the context of global projects are reviewed.

  3. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  4. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  5. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  6. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Itzhak Tserruya

    2003-04-01

    The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  7. Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann; Müller, Berndt; Reinhardt, Joachim; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We recall how nearly half a century ago the proposal was made to explore the structure of the quantum vacuum using slow heavy-ion collisions. Pursuing this topic we review the foundational concept of spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by observable positron emission in heavy-ion collisions and describe the related theoretical developments in strong fields QED.

  8. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  9. <span class="hlt">Heavy-Ion</span> Imaging Applied To Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J. I.; Tobias, C. A.; Capp, M. P.; Benton, E. V.; Holley, W. R.; Gray, Joel E.; Hendee, William R.; Haus, Andrew G.; Properzio, William S.

    1980-08-18

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  10. Heavy-ion Results of the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B

    2016-01-01

    An overview of selected heavy-ion results of the CMS experiment is presented. Jet quenching, quarkonia suppression and two-particle angular correlation results are discussed. The measurements have been performed for lead–lead, proton–lead and proton–proton data samples recorded for Run 1 of the LHC accelerator. In the correlation analysis, low pile-up proton–proton collisions at an energy of 13 TeV (from Run 2) have been used as well

  11. Compact Superconducting Radio-frequency Accelerators and Innovative RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, Robert [Fermilab; Chattopadhyay, Swaapan [Northern Illinois U.; Milton, Stephen [Colorado State U.

    2015-04-10

    We will present several new technical and design breakthroughs that enable the creation of a new class of compact linear electron accelerators for industrial purposes. Use of Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities allow accelerators less than 1.5 M in length to create electron beams beyond 10 MeV and with average beam powers measured in 10’s of KW. These machines can have the capability to vary the output energy dynamically to produce brehmstrahlung x-rays of varying spectral coverage for applications such as rapid scanning of moving cargo for security purposes. Such compact accelerators will also be cost effective for many existing and new industrial applications. Examples include radiation crosslinking of plastics and rubbers, creation of pure materials with surface properties radically altered from the bulk, modification of bulk or surface optical properties of materials, sterilization of medical instruments animal solid or liquid waste, and destruction of organic compounds in industrial waste water effluents. Small enough to be located on a mobile platform, such accelerators will enable new remediation methods for chemical and biological spills and/or in-situ crosslinking of materials. We will describe one current design under development at Fermilab including plans for prototype and value-engineering to reduce costs. We will also describe development of new nano-structured field-emitter arrays as sources of electrons, new methods for fabricating and cooling superconducting RF cavities, and a new novel RF power source based on magnetrons with full phase and amplitude control.

  12. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Riepe, K.B.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.

    1985-10-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 X torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column. The column consists of two 28-inch diameter insulator modules made of 85 percent Al2O3 ceramic rings brazed to niobium feedthrough rings to which the electrodes are mechanically attached. Field shaping is used to minimize electron avalanche induced flashover along the inside surface of the ceramic rings. The column is self-supporting and is cantilevered from one end of the containment vessel. A brazed assembly was chosen to provide the required bond strength and high vacuum capability. The HV pulsed power supply is a 2MV Marx generator cantilevered from the opposite end of the containment vessel. The stainless steel pressure vessel (PV) contains a 65 psig mixture of SF6(30%) and nitrogen (70%) to provide the electrical insulation.

  13. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  14. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  16. Study of Mutagenic Effects of M1 Generation of Maize Seeds Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOHong-bing; ZHAOKui; GUOJi-yu; SUILi; NIMei-nan; MEIJun-ping; LUXiu-qin; ZHOUPing; KONGFu-quan; ZHANGGen-fa

    2003-01-01

    In order to study M1 biological effects induced by heavy ion irradiation on maize seeds, the embryos of dry maize seeds are irradiated with 7Li and 12C ions. The experiment is performed at the heavy ion scanning tube of the HI-13 tandem accelerator. The beam goes through a thickness of 25μm. Then the maize seeds are irradiated in the air uniformly.

  17. Benchmarking of Heavy Ion Transport Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ronningen, Reginald M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Heilbronn, Lawrence [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in designing and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  18. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  19. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, T; Noguchi, K; Koseki, S; Barada, D; Ma, Y Y; Ogoyski, A I; Barnard, J J; Logan, B G

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs illumination nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100MHz-1GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  20. Effect of secondary electrons from latent tracks created in YBCO by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Dash, S.K.; Banerjee, T.; Kanjilal, D.; Mishra, N.C.

    2003-01-01

    Swift heavy ions (SHI) with electronic energy loss exceeding a value of 14.4 keV nm−1 create amorphized latent tracks in YBCO type superconductors. In the low fluence regime of an ion beam where tracks do not overlap, a decrease of the superconducting transition temperature as probed through resisti

  1. Heavy ion cocktail beams at the 88 inch Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; McMahan, Margaret A.; Argento, David; Gimpel, Thomas; Guy, Aran; Morel, James; Siero, Christine; Thatcher, Ray; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2002-09-03

    Cyclotrons in combination with ECR ion sources provide the ability to accelerate ''cocktails'' of ions. A cocktail is a mixture of ions of near-identical mass-to-charge (m/q) ratio. The different ions cannot be separated by the injector mass-analyzing magnet and are tuned out of the ion source together. The cyclotron then is utilized as a mass analyzer by shifting the accelerating frequency. This concept was developed soon after the first ECR ion source became operational at the 88-Inch Cyclotron and has since become a powerful tool in the field of heavy ion radiation effects testing. Several different ''cocktails'' at various energies are available at the 88-Inch cyclotron for radiation effect testing, covering a broad range of linear energy transfer and penetration depth. Two standard heavy ion cocktails at 4.5 MeV/nucleon and 10 MeV/nucleon have been developed over the years containing ions from boron to bismuth. Recently, following requests for higher penetration depths, a 15MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail has been developed. Up to nine different metal and gaseous ion beams at low to very high charge states are tuned out of the ion source simultaneously and injected together into the cyclotron. It is therefore crucial to balance the ion source very carefully to provide sufficient intensities throughout the cocktail. The paper describes the set-up and tuning of the ion source for the various heavy ion cocktails.

  2. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  3. Gradient limitations in room temperature and superconducting acceleration structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solyak, N.A.; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    Accelerating gradient is a key parameter of the accelerating structure in large linac facilities, like future Linear Collider. In room temperature accelerating structures the gradient is limited mostly by breakdown phenomena, caused by high surface electric fields or pulse surface heating. High power processing is a necessary procedure to clean surface and improve the gradient. In the best tested X-band structures the achieved gradient is exceed 100 MV/m in of {approx}200 ns pulses for breakdown rate of {approx} 10{sup -7}. Gradient limit depends on number of factors and no one theory which can explain all sets of experimental results and predict gradient in new accelerating structure. In paper we briefly overview the recent experimental results of breakdown studies, progress in understanding of gradient limitations and scaling laws. Although superconducting rf technology has been adopted throughout the world for ILC, it has frequently been difficult to reach the predicted performance in these structures due to a number of factors: multipactoring, field emission, Q-slope, thermal breakdown. In paper we are discussing all these phenomena and the ways to increase accelerating gradient in SC cavity, which are a part of worldwide R&D program.

  4. Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassalleck, Bernd [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fields, Douglas [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-04-28

    This very long-running grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or H-Dibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at J-PARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokai-mura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.

  5. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  6. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  7. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  8. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  9. RF characteristics of IHQ linac for heavy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T.; Sasa, K.; Hayashizaki, N.; Isokawa, K.; Hattori, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Schubert, H. [HSI, Tuerkenstrasse 28, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    At Tokyo institute of technology (TIT), an interdigital-H type quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application in high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio greater than 1/16 from 0.24 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for {sup 16}O{sup +}). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz, the shunt impedance is 252 M{Omega}/m and therefore, the required power to accelerate {sup 16}O{sup +} ion is 39.5 kW. (orig.) 8 refs.

  10. Low power test of IHQ linac for heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Isokawa, Katsushi; Hattori, Toshiyuki [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E.; Schubert, H.

    1997-12-31

    At Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT), An Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application of high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate the particles with charge to mass ratio grater than 1/16 from 0.48 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for {sup 16}O{sup +}). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz and the shunt impedance is 252 M{Omega}/m. Therefore, required power to accelerate {sup 16}O{sup +} ion is 39.5 kW. (author)

  11. RF characteristics of IHQ linac for heavy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Osvath, E.; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Isokawa, Katsushi; Schubert, H.; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    1998-04-01

    At Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT), an Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application in high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio greater than 1/16 from 0.24 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for 16O +). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz, the shunt impedance is 252 MΩ/m and therefore, the required power to accelerate 16O + ion is 39.5 kW.

  12. Simulation of induced radioactivity for Heavy Ion Medical Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Jun-Kui, Xu; Wu-Yuan, Li; Wang, Mao; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xi-Meng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yan; Chong, Xu

    2013-01-01

    For radiation protection and environmental impact assessment purpose, the radioactivity induced by carbon ion of Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) was studied. Radionuclides in accelerator component, cooling water and air at target area which are induced from primary beam and secondary particles are simulated by FLUKA Monte Carlo code. It is found that radioactivity in cooling water and air is not very important at the required beam intensity and energy which is needed for treatment, radionuclides in accelerator component may cause some problem for maintenance work, suitable cooling time is needed after the machine are shut down.

  13. Experience with the LEP Superconducting RF Accelerating System

    CERN Document Server

    Geschonke, Günther

    1998-01-01

    CERN is presently upgrading the large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) to higher energy by installing superconducting RF accelerating cavities. For a total installed circumferential voltage of about 2800 MV, 272 cavities operating at 352 MHz will be needed, representing an active length of 462 m and a cold surface of more than 1600 m2. The series production cavities are made out of copper, sputter-coated with a thin layer of niobium and cooled with liquid He to 4.5 K. The cavities are produced by industry and the acceptance testing is done at CERN. In 1996, 176 cavities had been installed and run successfully at their design gradient of 6 MV/m during physics at a beam energy of 86 GeV. As RF power sources 36 klystrons will finally be installed with a nominal RF output power of 1 MW each. In this paper the superconducting accelerating system in LEP will be described and experience gained during operation for physics as well as new developments will be presented.

  14. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  15. Symplectic Tracking of Multi-Isotopic Heavy-Ion Beams in SixTrack

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal; De Maria, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The software SixTrack provides symplectic proton tracking over a large number of turns. The code is used for the tracking of beam halo particles and the simulation of their interaction with the collimators to study the efficiency of the LHC collimation system. Tracking simulations for heavy-ion beams require taking into account the mass to charge ratio of each particle because heavy ions can be subject to fragmentation at their passage through the collimators. In this paper we present the derivation of a Hamiltonian for multi-isotopic heavy-ion beams and symplectic tracking maps derived from it. The resulting tracking maps were implemented in the tracking software SixTrack. With this modification, SixTrack can be used to natively track heavy-ion beams of multiple isotopes through a magnetic accelerator lattice.

  16. CERN achievements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giuseppe Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after a Letter of Intent by the GSI and LBL groups for the “Study of particle production and target fragmentation in central 20Ne on Pb reactions, at 12 GeV per nucleon energy of the CERN PS external beam" [1], based on the results found by the NA45/CERES, NA49, NA50, and WA97/NA57 experiments at the SPS, CERN announced compelling evidence for the formation of a new state of matter in heavyion collisions at CERN-SPS energies [2]. Some of the experiments were indeed the 2nd or 3rd generation successors of the apparatuses originally proposed by the GSI-LBL collaboration. Actually, the CERN ion program initiated at the SPS with the acceleration of oxygen ions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon only in 1986, and continued with sulphur ions at 200 GeV/nucleon up to 1993. The rest is history: lead-ion beams at 160 GeV/nucleon became available at the SPS in 1994; the LHC accelerated and collided lead beams at a center of mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 2.76 TeV in 2010. Heavy ion physics is definitely in the future program of CERN: ALICE will operate a major upgrade of its detectors during the second long shutdown of the LHC, in 2018-2019, and the associated physics program will span the third and fourth LHC runs, till late 2020s.

  17. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2007-03-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown for a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.

  18. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  19. Evaluation of source term induced by beam loss in the superconducting linear accelerator at RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Su Na; Nam, Shin Woo; Chung, Yon Sei [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    As a new world-class heavy ion accelerator, RAON is able to accelerate heavy ions from proton to uranium with the energy up to -400 MeV/u and produce rare isotopes. These high purity, high intensity, and high energy beams generate the various secondary radiation which will impact on the shielding aspects of the main linear accelerator tunnels. In the main tunnel the secondary neutrons are produced by uniform beam-loss or accident criteria. In this paper evaluations of several source terms induced by beam-loss will be discussed along with the physics model of the Monte Carlo simulation codes. The beam-loss criteria were tested for the evaluation of source term for the main beam line tunnel of the RAON accelerator. It was found that the amount of the secondary neutrons depends on the incident angle of projectile on the beam pipe and the mass and energy of projectile. The influence of selected physics models and libraries of MCNPX and PHITS has been examined. The secondary neutrons were produced most in the CEM and LAQGSM model.

  20. Exploration of multi-fold symmetry element-loaded superconducting radio frequency structure for reliable acceleration of low- & medium-beta ion species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shichun [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Reliable acceleration of low- to medium-beta proton or heavy ion species is needed for future high-current superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerators. Due to the high-Q nature of an SRF resonator, it is sensitive to many factors such as electron loading (from either the accelerated beam or from parasitic field emitted electrons), mechanical vibration, and liquid helium bath pressure fluctuation etc. To increase the stability against those factors, a mechanically strong and stable RF structure is desirable. Guided by this consideration, multi-fold symmetry element-loaded SRF structures (MFSEL), cylindrical tanks with multiple (n>=3) rod-shaped radial elements, are being explored. The top goal of its optimization is to improve mechanical stability. A natural consequence of this structure is a lowered ratio of the peak surface electromagnetic field to the acceleration gradient as compared to the traditional spoke cavity. A disadvantage of this new structure is an increased size for a fixed resonant frequency and optimal beta. This paper describes the optimization of the electro-magnetic (EM) design and preliminary mechanical analysis for such structures.

  1. Cryogenic system for the MYRRHA superconducting linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R.; Junquera, Tomas [Accelerators and Cryogenic Systems, 86, rue de Paris, 91400 Orsay (France); Thermeau, Jean-Pierre [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris Sud, 91400 Orsay (France); Romão, Luis Medeiros; Vandeplassche, Dirk [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-01-29

    SCK⋅CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is designing MYRRHA, a flexible fast spectrum research reactor (80 MW{sub th}), conceived as an accelerator driven system (ADS), able to operate in sub-critical and critical modes. It contains a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting (SC) proton accelerator of 600 MeV, a spallation target and a multiplying core with MOX fuel, cooled by liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi). From 17 MeV onward, the SC accelerator will consist of 48 β=0.36 spoke-loaded cavities (352 MHz), 34 β=0.47 elliptical cavities (704 MHz) and 60 β=0.65 elliptical cavities (704 MHz). We present an analysis of the thermal loads and of the optimal operating temperature of the cryogenic system. In particular, the low operating frequency of spoke cavities makes their operation in CW mode possible both at 4.2 K or at 2 K. Our analysis outlines the main factors that determine at what temperature the spoke cavities should be operated. We then present different cryogenic fluid distribution schemes, important characteristics (storage, transfer line, etc.) and the main challenges offered by MYRRHA in terms of cryogenics.

  2. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna, E-mail: anirban.bhattacharyya@physics.uu.se; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-21

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  3. A Scaling Law for the Snapback in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Bauer, P; Haverkamp, M; Pieloni, T; Sanfilippo, S; Velev, G

    2005-01-01

    The decay of the sextupole component in the bending dipoles during injection and the subsequent snapback at the start of beam acceleration are issues of common concern for all superconducting colliders built or in construction. Recent studies performed on LHC and Tevatron dipole magnets revealed many similarities in the snapback characteristics. Some are expected, e.g. the effect of operational history. One particular similarity, however, is striking and is the subject of this paper. It appears that there is a simple linear relation between the amount of sextupole drift during the decay and the magnet current (or field) change during the ramp required to resolve the snapback. It is surprising that the linear correlation between snapback amplitude and snapback field holds very well for all magnets of the same family (e.g. Tevatron or LHC dipoles). In this paper we present the data collected to date and discuss a simple theory that explains the scaling found.

  4. Minimization of power consumption during charging of superconducting accelerating cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Anirban Krishna; Ziemann, Volker; Ruber, Roger; Goryashko, Vitaliy

    2015-11-01

    The radio frequency cavities, used to accelerate charged particle beams, need to be charged to their nominal voltage after which the beam can be injected into them. The standard procedure for such cavity filling is to use a step charging profile. However, during initial stages of such a filling process a substantial amount of the total energy is wasted in reflection for superconducting cavities because of their extremely narrow bandwidth. The paper presents a novel strategy to charge cavities, which reduces total energy reflection. We use variational calculus to obtain analytical expression for the optimal charging profile. Energies, reflected and required, and generator peak power are also compared between the charging schemes and practical aspects (saturation, efficiency and gain characteristics) of power sources (tetrodes, IOTs and solid state power amplifiers) are also considered and analysed. The paper presents a methodology to successfully identify the optimal charging scheme for different power sources to minimize total energy requirement.

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at a superconducting electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A.; Anwand, W.; Attallah, A. G.; Dornberg, G.; Elsayed, M.; Enke, D.; Hussein, A. E. M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Liedke, M. O.; Potzger, K.; Trinh, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf operates a superconducting linear accelerator for electrons with energies up to 35 MeV and average beam currents up to 1.6 mA. The electron beam is employed for production of several secondary beams including X-rays from bremsstrahlung production, neutrons, and positrons. The secondary positron beam after moderation feeds the Monoenergetic Positron Source (MePS) where positron annihilation lifetime (PALS) and positron annihilation Doppler-broadening experiments in materials science are performed in parallel. The adjustable repetition rate of the continuous-wave electron beams allows matching of the pulse separation to the positron lifetime in the sample under study. The energy of the positron beam can be set between 0.5 keV and 20 keV to perform depth resolved defect spectroscopy and porosity studies especially for thin films.

  6. Superconducting RF Technology R&D for Future Accelerator Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reece, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting rf technology (SRF) is evolving rapidly as are its applications. While there is active exploitation of what one may term the current state-of-the-practice, there is also rapid progress expanding in several dimensions the accessible and useful parameter space. While state-of-the-art performance sometimes outpaces thorough understanding, the improving scientific understanding from active SRF research is clarifying routes to obtain optimum performance from present materials and opening avenues beyond the standard bulk niobium. The improving technical basis understanding is enabling process engineering to both improve performance confidence and reliability and also unit implementation costs. Increasing confidence in the technology enables the engineering of new creative application designs. We attempt to survey this landscape to highlight the potential for future accelerator applications.

  7. Conceptual design of industrial free electron laser using superconducting accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Paper presents conceptual design of free electron laser (FEL) complex for industrial applications. The FEL complex consists of three. FEL oscillators with the optical output spanning the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wave-lengths ({lambda} = 0.3...20 {mu}m) and with the average output power 10 - 20 kW. The driving beam for the FELs is produced by a superconducting accelerator. The electron beam is transported to the FELs via three beam lines (125 MeV and 2 x 250 MeV). Peculiar feature of the proposed complex is a high efficiency of the. FEL oscillators, up to 20 %. This becomes possible due to the use of quasi-continuous electron beam and the use of the time-dependent undulator tapering.

  8. Heavy-Ion Collimation at the Large Hadron Collider Simulations and Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083002; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Bruce, Roderik

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) stores and collides proton and $^{208}$Pb$^{82+}$ beams of unprecedented energy and intensity. Thousands of superconducting magnets, operated at 1.9 K, guide the very intense and energetic particle beams, which have a large potential for destruction. This implies the demand for a multi-stage collimation system to provide protection from beam-induced quenches or even hardware damage. In heavy-ion operation, ion fragments with significant rigidity offsets can still scatter out of the collimation system. When they irradiate the superconducting LHC magnets, the latter risk to quench (lose their superconducting property). These secondary collimation losses can potentially impose a limitation for the stored heavy-ion beam energy. Therefore, their distribution in the LHC needs to be understood by sophisticated simulations. Such simulation tools must accurately simulate the particle motion of many different nuclides in the magnetic LHC lattice and simulate their interaction with t...

  9. Heavy ion compositional signature in /sup 3/He-rich solar particle events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.M.; Reames, D.V.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Vonrosenvinge, T.T.

    1985-10-01

    A survey of the approx. 1 MeV/nucleon heavy ion abundances in 66 He/sup 3/-rich solar particle events was performed using the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The observations were carried out in interplanetary space over the period 1978 October through 1982 June. Earlier observations were confirmed which show an enrichment of heavy ions in HE3-rich events, relative to the average solar energetic particle composition in large particle events. For the survey near 1.5 MeV/nucleon the enrichments compared to large solar particle events are approximately He4:C:O:Ne:Mg:Si:Fe = 0.44:0.66:1.:3.4:3.5:4.1:9.6. Surprising new results emerging from the present broad survey are that the heavy ion enrichment pattern is the same within a factor of approx. 2 for almost all cases, and the degree of heavy ion enrichment is uncorrelated with the He/sup 3/ enrichment. Overall, the features established appear to be best explained by an acceleration mechanism in which the He/sup 3/ enrichment process is not responsible for the heavy ion enrichment, but rather the heavy ion enrichment is a measure of the ambient coronal composition at the sites where the He/sup 3/-rich events occur.

  10. Recent enhancements in MCNPX: Heavy-ion transport and the LAQGSM physics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS K575, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: mrjames@lanl.gov; McKinney, G.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS K575, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS K575, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Moyers, Michael [Loma Linda University Medical Center, 11234 Anderson St., PO Box 2000, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    Calculations involving the transport of energetic heavy ions have recently received more attention from projects such as the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) and from areas such as space radiation shielding. In these areas, the transport and reactions must be calculated for heavy ions such as {sup 56}Fe or {sup 238}U traveling at energies of {>=}1 GeV/nucleon. To serve these needs, recent upgrades to the particle transport code MCNPX have expanded the previously useful ion transport capability from a small suite of light ions (deuterons, tritons, {sup 3}He, and alpha particles) to a nearly complete list of those heavy and light ions that span the Table of Isotopes. To enable nuclear spallation from energetic collisions of these ions and targets, the LAQGSM physics model has been integrated into the MCNPX code. This physics model supplements the existing physics models already contained in the code, only one of which, ISABEL, could handle heavy-ion collisions (and then only over a limited range of masses and energies). The implementation of these new features now greatly expands the usefulness of MCNPX in energetic ion transport. The heavy-ion transport feature also allows the transport of residuals from all nuclear reactions that occur in the physics model regime, even when initiated by non-heavy ions. The implementation and use of heavy ions in MCNPX is explained. Also, computations with MCNPX are compared with benchmark experiments to show agreement with results.

  11. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  12. Advanced Beamline Design for Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokop, Christopher [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab is a new electron accelerator currently in the commissioning stage. In addition to testing superconducting accelerating cavities for future accelerators, it is foreseen to support a variety of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments. Producing the required electron bunches with the expected flexibility is challenging. The goal of this dissertation is to explore via numerical simulations new accelerator beamlines that can enable the advanced manipulation of electron bunches. The work especially includes the design of a low-energy bunch compressor and a study of transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchangers.

  13. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  14. Recent studies in heavy ion induced fission reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R. K.

    2001-08-01

    Nuclear fission process involves large scale shape changes of the nucleus, while it evolves from a nearly spherical configuration to two separated fission fragments. The dynamics of these shape changes in the nuclear many body system is governed by a strong interplay of the collective and single particle degrees of freedom. With the availability of heavy ion accelerators, there has been an impetus to study the nuclear dynamics through the investigations of nucleus--nucleus collisions involving fusion and fission process. From the various investigations carried out in the past years, it is now well recognized that there is large scale damping of collective modes in heavy ion induced fission reactions, which in other words implies that nuclear motion is highly viscous. In recent years, there have been many experimental observations in heavy ion induced fission reactions at medium bombarding energies, which suggest possible occurrence of various non-equilibrium modes of fission such as quasi-fission, fast fission and pre-equilibrium fission, where some of the internal degrees of freedom of the nucleus is not fully equilibrated. We have carried out extensive investigations on the fission fragment angular distributions at near barrier bombarding energies using heavy fissile targets. The measured fragment anisotropies when compared with the standard saddle point model (SSPM) calculations show that for projectile-target systems having zero or low ground state spins, the angular anisotropy exhibits a peak-like behaviour at the sub barrier energies, which cannot be explained by the SSPM calculations. For projectiles or targets with large ground state spins, the anomalous peaking gets washed out due to smearing of the K-distribution by the intrinsic entrance channel spins. Recently studies have been carried out on the spin distributions of fission fragments through the gamma ray multiplicity measurements. The fission fragments acquire spin mainly from two sources: (i) due to

  15. Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  16. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  17. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  18. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Suehiro (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    The facility of the JAERI tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to obtain plenty of fruitful results in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid state physics and materials science, taking an advantage of its prominent performances of heavy ion acceleration. The previous meeting held in 1999 also offered an opportunity to scientists from all over the heavy ion science fields, including nuclear physics, solid state physics and cross-field physics to have active discussions. This meeting included oral presentations with a new plan and with a new scope of fields expected from now on, as an occasion for opening the 21st century in heavy ion science. The 50 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. A heavy load for heavy ions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  20. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  1. The quarkonium saga in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tserruya, Itzhak

    2013-01-01

    J/psi suppression was proposed more than 25 years ago as an unambiguous signature for the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions. After intensive efforts, both experimental and theoretical, the quarkonium saga remains exciting, producing surprising results and not fully understood. This talk focuses on recent results on quarkonium production at RHIC and the LHC.

  2. "Super" Cocktails for Heavy Ion Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael B; Johnson, Michael B.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Galloway, Michelle; Leitner, Daniela; Morel, James R.; Gimpel, ThomasL.; Ninemire, Brien F.; Siero, Reba; Thatcher, Raymond K.

    2007-07-21

    The 4.5 MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail at the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been expanded by incorporating beams from solid material to fill in the linear energy transfer curve. This supercocktail is available by special request and is useful when only normal incidence between the beam and the device under test is possible or desirable.

  3. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  4. Heavy-Ion Physics in a Nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano Tetsufumi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The physics of quark gluon plasma (QGP and heavy ion collisions at the collider energies is briefly reviewed. We first discuss about the discovery of a nearly perfect fluidity of the QGP. We also highlights recent topics on responses of the QGP to initial deformation and propagation of a jet.

  5. Quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi Roberta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of quarkonium states plays a crucial role among the probes to investigate the formation of the plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP in heavy-ion collisions. A review of the charmonium and bottomonium production, mainly focussing on the latest results from the LHC experiments, is presented.

  6. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS: A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.

    2004-03-28

    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  7. Generation of heavy ion beams using high-intensity short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, George; McGuffey, Chris; Thomas, Alec; Krushelnick, Karl; Beg, Farhat

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of ion acceleration from high-Z material irradiated by intense sub-picosecond lasers is presented. The underlying physics of beam formation and acceleration is similar for light and heavy ions, however, nuances of the acceleration process make the heavy ions more challenging. At least four technical hurdles have been identified: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration and poor energy coupling due to high reflectivity of the plasma. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we observed transitions from Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) to the Breakout Afterburner regime (BoA) and to Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) akin to light ions. The numerical simulations predict gold ions beams with high directionality (high fluxes (>1011 ions/sr) and energy (>10 MeV/nucleon) from laser systems delivering >20 J of energy on target.

  8. Modification and Characterisation of Materials by Swift Heavy Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Avasthi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Swift heavy ions (SHI available with 15 million Volt Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC Delhi, formerly known as Nuclear Science Centre, (NSC, provide a unique opportunity to researchers for accelerator based materials science research. The major research areas can be broadly categorised as electronic sputtering, interface modifications, synthesis and modification of nanostructures, phase transitions and ion beam-induced epitaxial crystallisation. In, general, SHI irradiation based-materials may not be economically feasible, still it could be of interest for very specific cases in defence and space research. The paper gives a glimpse of the current research activities in materials science with SHIs, at IUAC.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.401-412, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1540

  9. Failla Memorial lecture. The future of heavy-ion science in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, C A

    1985-07-01

    Interplanetary space contains fluxes of fast moving atomic nuclei. The distribution of these reflects the atomic composition of the universe, and such particles may pose limitations for space flight and for life in space. Over the past 50 years, since the invention of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, advances in accelerator technology have permitted the acceleration of charged nuclei to very high velocities. Currently, beams of any stable isotope species up to uranium are available at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon at the Berkeley Bevalac. Recently, new areas of particle physics research relating to the mechanisms of spallation and fission have opened up for investigation, and it is now realistic to search for nuclear super-dense states that might be produced in heavy nuclear collisions. The heavy ions hold interest for a broad spectrum of research because of their effectiveness in producing a series of major lesions in DNA along single particle tracks and because of the Bragg depth ionization properties that allow the precise deposition of highly localized doses deep in the human body. Individual heavy ions can also interrupt the continuity of membraneous regions in cells. Heavy ions, when compared to low-LET radiation, have increased effectiveness for mammalian cell lethality, chromosome mutations, and cell transformation. The molecular mechanisms are not completely understood but appear to involve fragmentation and reintegration of DNA. Cells attempt to repair these lesions, and many of the deleterious effects are due to misrepair or misrejoining of DNA. Heavy ions do not require the presence of oxygen for producing their effects, and hypoxic cells in necrotic regions have nearly the same sensitivity as cells in well-oxygenated tissues. Heavy ions are effective in delaying or blocking the cell division process. Heavy ions are also strong enhancers of viral-induced cell transformation, a process that requires integration of foreign DNA. Some cell

  10. Researches on a reactor core in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Iinuma, T; Kubo, K; Kato, H; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, a HIB interaction with a background gas, reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and a HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the ...

  11. Monitoring of multiphase flows for superconducting accelerators and others applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Yu. P.; Kakorin, I. D.; Kovrizhnykh, A. M.; Miklayev, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a review on implementation of measuring systems for two-phase helium, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and oil-formation/salty water flows. Two types of such systems are presented. The first type is based on two-phase flow-meters combining void fraction radio-frequency (RF) sensors and narrowing devices. They can be applied for superconducting accelerators cooled with two-phase helium, refueling hydrogen system for space ships and some applications in oil production industry. The second one is based on combination of a gamma-densitometer and a narrowing device. These systems can be used to monitor large two-phase LNG and oil-formation water flows. An electronics system based on a modular industrial computer is described as well. The metrological characteristics for different flow-meters are presented and the obtained results are discussed. It is also shown that the experience gained allows separationless flow-meter for three-phase oil-gas-formation water flows to be produced.

  12. Technical training: RF superconductivity and accelerator cavity applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training

    2016-01-01

    We are happy to announce a new training course organised by the TE-VSC group in the field of the physics and applications of superconductors. The course provides an overview and update of the theory of radiofrequency and superconductors:   RF Superconductivity and Accelerator Cavity Applications https://cern.ch/course/?164VAC19 One timetable only:  Tuesday, 8 March 2016: from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Wednesday, 9 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Thursday, 10 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Monday, 14 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Tuesday, 15 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Wednesday, 16 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Thursday, 17 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Target audience: Experts in radiofrequency or solid state physics (PhD level). Pre-requisites: Basic knowledge of quantum physics and superc...

  13. Superconducting Accelerating Cavity Pressure Sensitivity Analysis and Stiffening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodnizki, J [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel; Ben Aliz, Y [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel; Grin, A [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel; Horvitz, Z [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel; Perry, A [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel; Weissman, L [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel; Davis, G Kirk [JLAB; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion Universtiy

    2014-12-01

    The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) design is based on a 40 MeV 5 mA light ions superconducting RF linac. Phase-I of SARAF delivers up to 2 mA CW proton beams in an energy range of 1.5 - 4.0 MeV. The maximum beam power that we have reached is 5.7 kW. Today, the main limiting factor to reach higher ion energy and beam power is related to the HWR sensitivity to the liquid helium coolant pressure fluctuations. The HWR sensitivity to helium pressure is about 60 Hz/mbar. The cavities had been designed, a decade ago, to be soft in order to enable tuning of their novel shape. However, the cavities turned out to be too soft. In this work we found that increasing the rigidity of the cavities in the vicinity of the external drift tubes may reduce the cavity sensitivity by a factor of three. A preliminary design to increase the cavity rigidity is presented.

  14. Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams - Proceedings of the Riken International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, S.; Ishihara, M.; Takigawa, N.

    1993-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Opening Address * Fusion I * Heavy Ion Fusion at Subbarrier Energies: Progress and Questions * Angular Momentum in Heavy Ion Subbarrier Interaction * Fusion II * High Precision Fusion Excitation Function Measurements: What Can We Learn from Them? * Transfer Reactions for 16O + 144,152Sm near the Coulomb Barrier * Fusion III * Recent Theoretical Developments in the Study of Subbarrier Fusion * Direct Reaction Approach to Heavy Ion Scattering and Fusion at Energies near Coulomb Barrier * Fusion IV * Roles of Multi-Step Transfer in Fusion Process Induced by Heavy Ion Reactions * Special Session * RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF) * Fission I * Bimodal Nature of Nuclear Fission * Systematics of Isotope Production Rates: Mass Excess Dependence of Fission Products * Semiclassical Methods for the Multi-Dimensional Quantum Decay * Dynamics of Di-Nucleus Systems: Molecular Resonances * Fission II * The Competition Between Fusion-Fission and Deeply Inelastic Reactions in the Medium Mass Systems * Unstable Nuclei I * Coulomb Dissociation and Momentum Distributions for 11Li → 9Li+n+n Breakup Reactions * Unstable Nuclei II * Elastic Scattering and Fragmentation of Halo Nuclei * Secondary Reactions of Neutron-Rich Nuclei at Intermediate Energies * Life Time of Soft Dipole Excitation * Unstable Nuclei III * Shell Structure of Exotic Unstable Nuclei * Properties of Unstable Nuclei Within the Relativistic Many-Body Theory * Fusion with Unstable Nuclei * Barrier Distributions for Heavy Ion Fusion * Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams * Heavy Ion Fusion with Neutron-Rich Beams * Superheavy Elements * Study of α Decays Following 40Ar Bombardment on 238U * Production of Superheavy Elements via Fusion: What is Limiting Us? * Panel Session * Comments * List of Participants

  15. Some properties of the central heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wazir, Z; Khan, E U; Haseeb, Mahnaz Q; Ajaz, M; Khan, K H

    2009-01-01

    Some experimental results are discussed in connection with the properties of the central heavy ion collisions. These experiments indicate the regime changes and saturation at some values of the centrality. This phenomenon is considered to be a signal of the percolation cluster formation in heavy ion collisions at high energies. Keywords: heavy ion collisions, theoretical models, centrality, phase transition.

  16. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Xu Tao Guang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  17. The integrated beam experiment - A next step experiment for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, C.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, D.P. Grote; Molvik, A.W.; Sharp, W.M.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Davidson, R.C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is proposing as its next experiment the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). All experiments in the U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program up to this time have been of modest scale and have studied the physics of selected parts of a heavy ion driver. The mission of the IBX, a proof-of-principle experiment, is to demonstrate in one integrated experiment the transport from source to focus of a single heavy ion beam with driver-relevant parameters--i.e., the production, acceleration, compression, neutralization, and final focus of such a beam. Present preconceptual designs for the IBX envision a 5-10 MeV induction linac accelerating one K{sup +} beam. At injection (1.7 MeV) the beam current is approximately 500 mA, with pulse length of 300 ns. Design flexibility allows for several different acceleration and compression schedules, including the possibility of longitudinal (unneutralized) drift compression by a factor of up to ten in pulse length after acceleration, and neutralized drift compression. Physics requirements for the IBX, and preliminary physics and engineering design work are discussed in this paper.

  18. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J.; Courant, E.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gill, R.; Glenn, J.; Huang, H.; Litvinenko, V.; Luccio, A.; Luo, Y.; Pilat, F.; MacKay, W. W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Svirida, D.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2011-05-01

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discoverd by Lee and Tepikian [1]. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonanances is also presented.

  19. Methods of Phase and Power Control in Magnetron Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazadevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Various methods of phase and power control in magnetron RF sources of superconducting accelerators intended for ADS-class projects were recently developed and studied with conventional 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, CW magnetrons operating in pulsed and CW regimes. Magnetron transmitters excited by a resonant (injection-locking) phasemodulated signal can provide phase and power control with the rates required for precise stabilization of phase and amplitude of the accelerating field in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities of the intensity-frontier accelerators. An innovative technique that can significantly increase the magnetron transmitter efficiency at the widerange power control required for superconducting accelerators was developed and verified with the 2.45 GHz magnetrons operating in CW and pulsed regimes. High efficiency magnetron transmitters of this type can significantly reduce the capital and operation costs of the ADSclass accelerator projects.

  20. TNSA Heavy Ion Measurements using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnane, M. K.; Kousar, B.; Slish, J.; Palmisano, K.; Mandanas, S.; Padalino, S. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Regan, S.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    The MTW Laser at LLE utilizes an ultra-intense laser to produce high-energy heavy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). Using the Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) the total number of heavy ions produced by TNSA can be determined, which is needed for stellar nuclear reaction cross section measurements. TNSA heavy ions stop within the thin walled front cup, while light ions pass through it and deposit their remaining charge in the back cup. A two channel storage scope measures voltages produced by the beam currents collected in the cups, respectively. The charge state fraction of plasma ions is modified by passing the heavy ions through a charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance. While passing through the foil, ions equilibrate to known charge states based on their velocities. Using time of flight, the total heavy ion current can be normalized to the correct charge state fraction. A pair of dipole magnets deflect relativistic TNSA electrons from the cup's entrance. They also prevent secondary electrons from escaping the front and back cups. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  1. Statistical properties of planetary heavy ion precipitations toward the Martian ionosphere based on Mars Express observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, T.; Seki, K.; Futaana, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Barabash, S.; Fedorov, A. O.; Yagi, M.; Delcourt, D. C.

    2013-09-01

    Picked-up ion precipitations are a potential mechanism to increase an atmospheric escape from the unmagnetized planet of Mars. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) embedded in the supersonic solar wind is one of the crucial parameters to control the behavior of the Martian planetary heavy ions. We statistically investigated the effects of the IMF orientation on planetary heavy ions precipitating toward the Martian ionosphere by using data obtained from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard the Mars Express (MEX). To compensate for the absence of a magnetometer onboard MEX, we estimated the IMF orientation from the velocity distribution function of exospheric protons observed in the solar wind. The statistical analysis shows that the precipitations of planetary heavy ions tend to be observed in the direction or the anti-parallel direction of the solar wind electric field inferred from the estimated IMF orientation. We defined the IMF polarity for one event via comparisons of the ion velocity distribution function obtained from MEX/IMA observations and a statistical trajectory tracing of test particles. The estimated polarity corresponds to the anti-parallel direction to the solar wind electric field and is consistent with the asymmetrical distribution of planetary heavy ion precipitation in terms of the solar wind electric field derived from the previous numerical simulations. The observed precipitating planetary heavy ions are accelerated only up to a few keV. This feature may reflect the short distance from the picked-up region in the magnetosheath.

  2. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jan-E Alam; K Assamagan; S Chattopadhyay; R Gavai; Sourendu Gupta; B Layek; S Mukherjee; R Ray; Pradip K Roy; A Srivastava

    2004-12-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5–16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop (see also [1] for completeness). The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions.

  3. Recent results on relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munhoz, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions is a very important tool in order to understand the strong interaction described by QCD. The formation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma and the study of its properties is a very challenging quest. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) generates ultra-relativistic Pb + Pb collisions at the TeV scale inaugurating a new era for such studies. Three experiments, ATLAS, CMS and ALICE are able to measure the products of such collisions. In special, the ALICE experiment was designed specifically for the study of heavy ion collisions. In this presentation, I'll discuss the latest results that shed light in the QGP understanding. (author)

  4. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact...... ("ultraperipheral collisions"). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2γ times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25γ....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  5. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is a remarkable phenomenon that stems from highly nontrivial interplay of QCD chiral symmetry, axial anomaly, and gluonic topology. It is of fundamental importance to search for the CME in experiments. The heavy ion collisions provide a unique environment where a hot chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma is created, gluonic topological fluctuations generate chirality imbalance, and very strong magnetic fields $|\\vec{\\bf B}|\\sim m_\\pi^2$ are present during the early stage of such collisions. Significant efforts have been made to look for CME signals in heavy ion collision experiments. In this contribution we give a brief overview on the status of such efforts.

  6. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  7. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  8. Discussion of the metric in characterizing the single-event effect induced by heavy ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ke-Ying; Zhang Feng-Qi; Luo Yin-Hong; Guo Hong-Xia

    2013-01-01

    The single-event effect (SEE) is the most serious problem in space environment.The modern semiconductor technology is concerned with the feasibility of the linear energy transfer (LET) as metric in characterizing SEE induced by heavy ions.In this paper,we calibrate the detailed static random access memory (SRAM) cell structure model of an advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) device using the computer-aided design tool,and calculate the heavy ion energy loss in multi-layer metal utilizing Geant4.Based on the heavy ion accelerator experiment and numerical simulation,it is proved that the metric of LET at the device surface,ignoring the top metal material in the advanced semiconductor device,would underestimate the SEE.In the SEE evaluation in space radiation environment the top-layers on the semiconductor device must be taken into consideration.

  9. Radiation effects of pyrochlore-rich synroc by heavy-ion irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-Wen; XU Yong-Jun; ZHU Sheng-Yun; LUO Shang-Geng

    2005-01-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation is commonly used to study radiation damage of high level radioactive waste (HLW)forms, but S ion was never used before. In this investigation, 100 MeV 32S ions produced by tandem accelerator was used to study radiation effects on pyrochlore-rich synroc which contained simulated actinides. The amorphization and amorphous doses were determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy/select area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). The vacancy defects induced by heavy-ion irradiation were characterized by using positron annihilation technique (PAT). The experimental results show that the amorphous dose is 0.5 dpa, the defects produced by heavy-ion irradiation are mainly voids, and irradiation could continue to intensify the vacancy defects even after the amorphous dose was reached.

  10. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  11. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  12. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  13. Size Effects in Heavy Ions Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrañon, A; Dorso, C O

    2003-01-01

    Rise-Plateau Caloric curves for different Heavy Ion collisions have been obtained, in the range of experimental observations. Limit temperature decreases when the residual size is increased, in agreement with recent theoretical analysis of experimental results reported by other Collaborations. Besides, promptly emitted particles influence on temperature plateau is shown. LATINO binary interaction semiclassical model is used to reproduce the inter-nucleonic forces via Pandharipande Potential and fragments are detected with an Early Cluster Recognition Algorithm.

  14. Surface spectroscopy using high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, B.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Gray, T.J.; Justiniano, E.; Peercy, P.S.

    1983-04-01

    Surface atoms ionized by high energy heavy ions have been detected by time-of-flight and quadrupole mass spectroscopic techniques. The experimental arrangements are described and potential applications are suggested. Both techniques are demonstrated to produce significant improvements in the detection of atomic hydrogen, with the TOF method producing a nine order of magnitude increase in the sensitivity of atomic hydrogen compared to standard nuclear analysis methods.

  15. Heavy ion fusion 2 MV injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.] [and others

    1995-04-01

    A heavy-ion-fusion driver-scale injector has been constructed and operated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector has produced 2.3 MV and 950 mA of K{sup +}, 15% above original design goals in energy and current. Normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr was measured over a broad range of parameters. The head-to-tail energy flatness is less than {+-} 0.2% over the 1 {micro}s pulse.

  16. Heavy Ion Physics with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Takai, H

    2003-01-01

    I guess the first thing that comes to people's mind is why is an experiment such as ATLAS interested in heavy ion physics. What is heavy ion physics anyway? The term heavy ion physics refers to the study of collisions between large nuclei such as lead, atomic number 208. But why would someone collide something as large and extensive as lead nuclei? When two nuclei collide there is a unique opportunity to study QCD at extreme energy densities. This said why do we think ATLAS is a good detector to study this particular physics? Among many of the simultaneous collisions that takes place when two nuclei encouter, hard scattering takes place. The unique situation now is that before hadronization partons from hard scattering may feel the surrounding media serving as an ideal probe for the matter formed in these collisions. As a consequence of this, jets may be quenched and their properties, e.g. fragmentation function or cone radius, modified when compared to proton-proton collisions. This is precisely where ATL...

  17. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  18. Review of Heavy-Ion Inertial Fusion Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata1, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2015-01-01

    In this review paper on heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), the state-of-the-art scientific results are presented and discussed on the HIF physics, including physics of the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, the HIBs-ion illumination on a direct-drive fuel target, the fuel target physics, the uniformity of the HIF target implosion, the smoothing mechanisms of the target implosion non- uniformity and the robust target implosion. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~ 30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50-70 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with the standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. The HIF reactor operation frequency would be ~10~15 Hz or so. Several- MJ HIBs illuminate a fusion fuel target, and the fuel target is imploded to about a...

  19. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION PHYSICS : RESULTS FROM AGS TO RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEINBERG,P.

    2002-06-20

    High-energy collisions of heavy ions provide a means to study QCD in a regime of high parton density, and may provide insight into its phme structure. Results from the four experiments at RHIC (BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR) are presented, and placed in context with the lower energy data from the AGS and SPS accelerators. The focus is on the insights these measurements provide into the time history of the collision process. Taken together, the data point to the creation of a deconfined state of matter that forms quickly, expands rapidly and freezes out suddenly. With the new RHIC data, systematic data now exists for heavy ion collisions as a function of {radical}s over several orders of magnitude and as a function of impact parameter. These data test the interplay between hard and soft processes in a large-volume system where nucleons are struck multiple times. The data is consistent with creating a deconfined state (jet quenching) that forms quickly (saturation models), expands rapidly (radial and elliptic flow) and freezes out suddenly (single freezeout and blast wave fits). There are also intriguing connections with particle production in elementary systems, which point to the role of the energy available for particle production on the features of the final state. Many in this field are optimistic that the careful understanding of this experimental data may lead t o the theoretical breakthroughs that will connect these complex systems to the fundamental lattice predict ions.

  20. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Westenskow, Glen; Grote, D P; Halaxa, Erni; Kwan, Joe W

    2005-01-01

    To provide compact high-brightness heavy-ion beams for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm2 was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. More than 90% of the ions were in the Ar+ state, and the energy spread from charge exchange was found to be small. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of a 61-beamlet injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We will report on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, the test will be carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We will measure the beam’s emittance after the beamlets are merged and have bee...

  1. Superconducting rf development at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kedzie, M.; Clifft, B.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Givens, J.; Potter, J.; Crandall, K. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac began operation in 1978 and has operated nearly continuously since that time, while undergoing a series of upgrades and expansions, the most recent being the ``uranium upgrade`` completed earlier this year and described below. In its present configuration the ATLAS linac consists of an array of 64 resonant cavities operating from 48 to 145 MHz, which match a range of particle velocities .007 < {beta} = v/c < .2. The linac provides approximately 50 MV of effective accelerating potential for ions of q/m > 1/10 over the entire periodic table. Delivered beams include 5 {minus} 7 pnA of {sup 238}U{sup 39+} at 1535 MeV. At present more than 10{sup 6} cavity-hours of operation at surface electric fields of 15 MV/m have been accumulated. Superconducting structure development at ATLAS is aimed at improving the cost/performance of existing low velocity structures both for possible future ATLAS upgrades, and also for heavy-ion linacs at other institutions. An application of particular current interest is to develop structures suitable for accelerating radioactive ion beams. Such structures must accelerate very low charge to mass ratio beams and must also have very large transverse acceptance.

  2. Possible application of an EBIS in preinjectors for large heavy ion colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, H. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Prelec, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-08-01

    High energy, heavy ion nuclear physics has so far been limited to experiments with a fixed target. Presently there are two projects that would greatly extend the available collision energy: the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned at CERN. While RHIC was from the very beginning designed for collisions of all heavy ions up to gold, LHC was initially considered as a p-p and, perhaps eventually, an e-p collider, with the heavy ion option added at a later stage; this option is now included in the planning right from the beginning. The present RHIC scenario for acceleration of gold ions starts with the BNL Tandem injecting Au{sup 14+} ions into the Booster; after acceleration ions are stripped to a charge state of 77+, injected into the AGS, stripped again to 79+ and injected into RHIC, with three bunches per cycle. The LHC scenario for acceleration of lead ions will use as the injector the CERN Heavy Ion Facility: production of ions in a charge state around 27+ in an ECR ion source, followed by an RFQ/linac combination, stripping to Pb{sup 53+} at 4.2 MeV/u, acceleration in the PSB and PS, stripping to the state 82+, and acceleration in the SPS. There would be 144 bunches injected into the LHC per SPS cycle. However, the resulting luminosity would be rather low and several accumulating schemes are being considered as well. In this paper we are considering a next-generation EBIS device as a possible substitution for ion sources in the preinjector stages of the two colliders with the objective of achieving an improved performance.

  3. Power Switches Utilizing Superconducting Material for Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Yang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Power switches that utilize superconducting material find application in superconducting systems. They can be used for the protection of magnets as a replacement for warm DC breakers, as well as for the replacement of cold diodes. This paper presents a comparison of switches made of various superconducting materials having transport currents of up to 600 A and switching times of the order of milliseconds. The switches operate in the temperature range 4.2-77 K and utilize stainless steel clad YBCO tape and MgB2 tape with a nickel, copper, and iron matrix. Results from simulations and tests are reported.

  4. Heavy ion beams from an Alphatross source for use in calibration and testing of diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. J.; Brown, G. M.; Ho, D.; Stockler, B. F. O. F.; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Ion beams from the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator at SUNY Geneseo have been used to test and calibrate many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) diagnostics and high energy density physics (HEDP) diagnostics used at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The ion source on this accelerator, a radio-frequency (RF) alkali-metal charge exchange source called an Alphatross, is designed to produce beams of hydrogen and helium isotopes. There is interest in accelerating beams of carbon, oxygen, argon, and other heavy ions for use in testing several diagnostics, including the Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF). The feasibility of generating these heavy ion beams using the Alphatross source will be reported. Small amounts of various gases are mixed into the helium plasma in the ion source bottle. A velocity selector is used to allow the desired ions to pass into the accelerator. As the heavy ions pass through the stripper canal of the accelerator, they emerge in a variety of charge states. The energy of the ion beam at the high-energy end of the accelerator will vary as a function of the charge state, however the maximum energy deliverable to target is limited by the maximum achievable magnetic field produced by the accelerator's steering magnet. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  6. Stopping of relativistic heavy ions in various media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, C. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Crawford, H. J.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Heckman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The residual ranges of (900 + or - 3)-MeV/amu gold nuclei accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have been measured in several different media. The energy of the beam of nuclei was measured directly using a new time-of-flight system. The ranges were measured by absorption in linear wedges of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead and in circular wedges of polystyrene, aluminum, and gold, and by total absorption in nuclear emulsion. The measured ranges were significantly different from those calculated from the best available theoretical estimates of the energy loss of highly charged nuclei. It is concluded that at present energy losses and residual ranges of relativistic heavy ions in an arbitrary medium cannot be predicted with better than an approximately 2 percent accuracy.

  7. NUMEN Project @ LNS : Heavy Ions Double Charge Exchange as a tool towards the 0νββ Nuclear Matrix Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Branchina, V.; Calabrese, S.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Colonna, M.; Foti, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Lanzalone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Longhitano, F.; Muoio, A.; Pandola, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-06-01

    The NUMEN Project, proposed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) in Catania, has the aim to access the nuclear matrix elements, entering the expression of the life time of double beta decay, by relevant cross sections of double charge exchange reactions. The basic point, on which it is based this innovative technique, is the coincidence of the initial and final state wave-functions in the two classes of processes and the similarity of the transition operators. A key aspect of the Project is the use of MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, for the detection of the ejectiles, and of the INFN LNS K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), for the acceleration of the required high resolution and low emittance heavy-ion beams.

  8. Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern

    2010-12-13

    Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)

  9. Recent studies in heavy ion induced fission reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Choudhury

    2001-08-01

    Nuclear fission process involves large scale shape changes of the nucleus, while it evolves from a nearly spherical configuration to two separated fission fragments. The dynamics of these shape changes in the nuclear many body system is governed by a strong interplay of the collective and single particle degrees of freedom. With the availability of heavy ion accelerators, there has been an impetus to study the nuclear dynamics through the investigations of nucleus–nucleus collisions involving fusion and fission process. From the various investigations carried out in the past years, it is now well recognized that there is large scale damping of collective modes in heavy ion induced fission reactions, which in other words implies that nuclear motion is highly viscous. In recent years, there have been many experimental observations in heavy ion induced fission reactions at medium bombarding energies, which suggest possible occurrence of various non-equilibrium modes of fission such as quasi-fission, fast fission and pre-equilibrium fission, where some of the internal degrees of freedom of the nucleus is not fully equilibrated. We have carried out extensive investigations on the fission fragment angular distributions at near barrier bombarding energies using heavy fissile targets. The measured fragment anisotropies when compared with the standard saddle point model (SSPM) calculations show that for projectile-target systems having zero or low ground state spins, the angular anisotropy exhibits a peak-like behaviour at the sub barrier energies, which cannot be explained by the SSPM calculations. For projectiles or targets with large ground state spins, the anomalous peaking gets washed out due to smearing of the -distribution by the intrinsic entrance channel spins. Recently studies have been carried out on the spin distributions of fission fragments through the gamma ray multiplicity measurements. The fission fragments acquire spin mainly from two

  10. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul's data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  11. Multifragmentation and dynamics in heavy ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Roy

    2001-07-01

    A midrapidity zone formed in heavy-ion collisions has been investigated through special selections of light particles and intermediate mass fragments detected in the reaction 35Cl on 12C at 43 MeV/nucleon and the reactions 58Ni on 12C, 24Mg, and 197Au at 34.5 MeV/nucleon, and of neutron energy spectra measured in the reaction 35Cl on natTa. Properties of the observables have been examined to characterize the neck-like structure formed between the two reaction partners.

  12. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzetta, E. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  13. Thermodynamical Aspects in Heavy Ion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Fabbri, S.; Fuschini, E.; Geraci, E.; Guiot, B.; Vannini, G.; Verondini, E.; Gulminelli, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; Nannini, A.; Barlini, S.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.; Lanchais, A.; Vannucci, L.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Margagliotti, G. V.

    2005-12-01

    The excited nuclear systems formed in heavy ion collisions can be studied from a thermodynamical point of view. Charged finite systems have different behaviors with respect to infinite ones. After experimental selection of such equilibrated systems the extraction of thermodynamic coordinates is performed. Different signals compatible with a liquid-gas phase transition have been obtained. In particular a bimodal distribution of the asymmetry between the first two heaviest fragments is presented. Abnormally large fluctuations, which in thermodynamic equilibrium are associated to a negative branch of the heat capacity give indications of a first order phase transition. Perspectives for new generation experiments are indicated.

  14. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Belov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron–positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  15. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  16. Helicity separation in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Baznat, Mircea; Sorin, Alexander; Teryaev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    We study the P-odd effects related to the vorticity of the medium formed in noncentral heavy ion collisions. Using the kinetic Quark-Gluon Strings Model we perform the numerical simulations of the vorticity and hydrodynamical helicity for the various atomic numbers, energies and centralities. We observed the vortical structures typically occupying the relatively small fraction of the fireball volume. In the course of numerical simulations the noticeable hydrodanamical helicity was observed manifesting the specific mirror behaviour with respect to the reaction plane. The effect is maximal at the NICA and FAIR energy range.

  17. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  18. Powering and Machine Protection of the Superconducting LHC Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, M

    2004-01-01

    A very large number of magnets, both superconducting and conventional copper conductor magnets, are installed in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) for the guidance of the two proton beams around the circumference. In total, the LHC counts 1614 different electrical circuits with 1712 power converters for DC powering of the superconducting and normal conducting magnets. Besides the electrical circuits connecting main magnets for bending and focusing of the two counter-rotating beams, the demanding requirements on the quality of the magnetic fields require a large number of circuits for corrector magnets distributed around the circumference. In total, more than 10000 magnets will need to be connected to the power converters via a large inventory of electrical components such as normal conducting cables and tubes, energy extraction systems, current feedthroughs and superconducting busbars. Depending on the complexity and importance of these electrical circuits and their components, various systems will interact for...

  19. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H.J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  20. Design and test of a superconducting magnet in a linear accelerator for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Quanling, E-mail: pengql@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Fengyu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang 150006 (China); Wang, Ting [Beijing Huantong Special Equipment Co., LTD, Beijing 100192 (China); Yang, Xiangchen [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Anbin [Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang 150006 (China); Wei, Xiaotao [Beijing Huantong Special Equipment Co., LTD, Beijing 100192 (China); Gao, Yao; Hou, Zhenhua; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Haoshu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-11-11

    A batch superconducting solenoid magnet for the ADS proton linear accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested in a vertical dewar in Sept. 2013. A total of ten superconducting magnets will be installed into two separate cryomodules. Each cryomodule contains six superconducting spoke RF cavities for beam acceleration and five solenoid magnets for beam focusing. The multifunction superconducting magnet contains a solenoid for beam focusing and two correctors for orbit correction. The design current for the solenoid magnet is 182 A. A quench performance test shows that the operating current of the solenoid magnet can reach above 300 A after natural quenching on three occasions during current ramping (260 A, 268 A, 308 A). The integrated field strength and leakage field at the nearby superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. The vertical test checked the reliability of the test dewar and the quench detection system. This paper presents the physical and mechanical design of the batch magnets, the quench detection technique, field measurements, and a discussion of the residual field resulting from persistent current effects.

  1. Thermo-magnetic instabilities in Nb3Sn superconducting accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordini, Bernardo [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    2006-09-01

    The advance of High Energy Physics research using circulating accelerators strongly depends on increasing the magnetic bending field which accelerator magnets provide. To achieve high fields, the most powerful present-day accelerator magnets employ NbTi superconducting technology; however, with the start up of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007, NbTi magnets will have reached the maximum field allowed by the intrinsic properties of this superconductor. A further increase of the field strength necessarily requires a change in superconductor material; the best candidate is Nb3Sn. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are currently working on developing Nb3Sn accelerator magnets, and although these magnets have great potential, it is suspected that their performance may be fundamentally limited by conductor thermo-magnetic instabilities: an idea first proposed by the Fermilab High Field Magnet group early in 2003. This thesis presents a study of thermo-magnetic instability in high field Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. In this chapter the following topics are described: the role of superconducting magnets in High Energy Physics; the main characteristics of superconductors for accelerator magnets; typical measurements of current capability in superconducting strands; the properties of Nb3Sn; a description of the manufacturing process of Nb3Sn strands; superconducting cables; a typical layout of superconducting accelerator magnets; the current state of the art of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets; the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab; and the scope of the thesis.

  2. Multiplicity and theremalization time in heavy-ions collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, Irina

    2016-10-01

    We present a concise review of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ions collisions within the holographic approach. In particular, we discuss how to get the total multiplicity in heavy ions collision to fit the recent experimental data. We also discuss theoretical estimations of time formation of QGP in heavy ions collision and show that different observables can give the different times of QGP formation.

  3. Multiplicity and theremalization time in heavy-ions collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref’eva Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a concise review of quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ions collisions within the holographic approach. In particular, we discuss how to get the total multiplicity in heavy ions collision to fit the recent experimental data. We also discuss theoretical estimations of time formation of QGP in heavy ions collision and show that different observables can give the different times of QGP formation.

  4. Resonance propagation in heavy-ion scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijoy Kundu; B K Jain

    2001-06-01

    The formalism developed earlier by us for the propagation of a resonance in the nuclear medium in proton–nucleus collisions has been modified to the case of vector boson production in heavy-ion collisions. The formalism includes coherently the contribution to the observed di-lepton production from the decay of a vector boson inside as well as outside the nuclear medium. The medium modification of the boson is incorporated through an energy dependent optical potential. The calculated invariant mass distributions are presented for the -meson production using optical potentials estimated within the VDM and the resonance model. The shift in the invariant mass distribution is found to be small. To achieve the mass shift (of about 200 MeV towards lower mass) as indicated in the high energy heavy-ion collision experiments, an unusually strong optical potential of about -120 MeV is required. We also observe that, for not so heavy nuclear systems and/or for fast moving resonances, the shape, magnitude and peak position of the invariant mass distribution is substantially different if the contributions from the resonance decay inside and outside are summedup at the amplitude level (coherently) or at the cross section level (incoherently).

  5. QCD and Heavy Ions RHIC Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the most violent heavy ion collisions available to experimental study occur at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. There, gold ions collide at psNN = 200 GeV. The early and most striking RHIC results were summarised in 2005 by its four experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, in their so-called white papers [1, 2, 3, 4] that will be largely referenced thereafter. Beyond and after this, a wealth of data has been collected and analysed, providing additional information about the properties of the matter created at RHIC. It is categorically impossible to give a comprehensive review of these results in a 20 minutes talk or a 7 pages report. Here, I have made a selection of some of the most striking or intriguing signatures: jet quenching in Section 2, quarkonia suppressions in Section 3 and thermal photons in Section 4. A slightly longer and older version of this review can be found in [5]. Some updates are given here, as well as emphasis on new probes ...

  6. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  7. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  8. Future of the ATLAS heavy ion program

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS-Collaboration, The; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the heavy ion program at the LHC is to study the properties of deconfined strongly interacting matter, often referred to as ``quark-gluon plasma'' (QGP), created in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. That matter is found to be strongly coupled with a viscosity to entropy ratio near a conjectured quantum lower bound. ATLAS foresees a rich program of studies using jets, Upsilons, measurements of global event properties and measurements in proton-nucleus collisions that will measure fundamental transport properties of the QGP, probe the nature of the interactions between constituents of the QGP, elucidate the origin of the strong coupling, and provide insight on the initial state of nuclear collisions. The heavy ion program through the third long shutdown should provide one inverse nb of 5.5~TeV Pb+Pb data. That data will provide more than an order of magnitude increase in statistics over currently available data for high-pT observables such as gamma-jet and Z-jet pairs. However, potentia...

  9. Heavy ion upgrade of the Bevatron local injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, J.; Gough, R.; Abbott, S.; Dwinell, R.; Halliwell, J.; Howard, D.; Richter, R.; Stover, G.; Tanabe, J.; Zajec, E.

    1984-05-01

    A new heavy ion injector system for the Bevatron, consisting of a PIG ion source, an RFQ linac, and two Alvarez linacs, is nearing completion. It will make available to the Bevatron a source of ions up to mass 40 independent of the SuperHILAC, enhancing the operational flexibility of the Bevalac complex. The RFQ accelerator, made operational in mid 1983, accelerates ions with q/A greater than or equal to 0.14 to 200 keV/n. The RFQ is followed by a new 200 MHz Alvarez linac operating in the 2..beta..lambda mode which further accelerates the ions to 800 keV/n. This linac is followed by a foil stripper and a portion of the old injector linac, rebuilt to accelerate beams with q/A greater than or equal to 0.35 to 5 MeV/n in the 2..beta..lambda mode. Details are given of the configuration, equipment modifications, and project status.

  10. Recent progress in molecule modification with heavy ion beam irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The research into heavy ion beam biology started in the 1960s, and so far it has become an important interdisciplinary study. Heavy ion beam is more suitable for molecule modification than other sorts of radiation, for it has many superiorities such as the energy transfer effect and the mass deposition effect. Molecule modification with heavy ion beam irradiation can be applied to developing new medicines and their precursors, genetic engineering, protein engi neering, outer space radiobiology, etc. Retrospect and prospect of the research and development of molecule modifica tion with heavy ion beam irradiation are given.

  11. Computation of Normal Conducting and Superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Availabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2000-07-11

    A brief study was conducted to roughly estimate the availability of a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (LINAC) as compared to a normal conducting (NC) one. Potentially, SC radio frequency cavities have substantial reserve capability, which allows them to compensate for failed cavities, thus increasing the availability of the overall LINAC. In the initial SC design, there is a klystron and associated equipment (e.g., power supply) for every cavity of an SC LINAC. On the other hand, a single klystron may service eight cavities in the NC LINAC. This study modeled that portion of the Spallation Neutron Source LINAC (between 200 and 1,000 MeV) that is initially proposed for conversion from NC to SC technology. Equipment common to both designs was not evaluated. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer-event-driven simulation (EDS) computer computations were performed. The estimated gain in availability when using the SC option ranges from 3 to 13% under certain equipment and conditions and spatial separation requirements. The availability of an NC LINAC is estimated to be 83%. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer EDS modeling gave the same 83% answer to within one-tenth of a percent for the NC case. Tabular fault-tree calculations of the availability of the SC LINAC (where a klystron and associated equipment drive a single cavity) give 97%, whereas EDS computer calculations give 96%, a disagreement of only 1%. This result may be somewhat fortuitous because of limitations of tabular fault-tree calculations. For example, tabular fault-tree calculations can not handle spatial effects (separation distance between failures), equipment network configurations, and some failure combinations. EDS computer modeling of various equipment configurations were examined. When there is a klystron and associated equipment for every cavity and adjacent cavity, failure can be tolerated and the SC availability was estimated to be 96%. SC availability decreased as

  12. Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Added, N. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the Rf cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 42 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K.

  13. Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the Rf cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 42 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K.

  14. Latest Development in Superconducting RF Structures for beta=1 Particle Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Kneisel

    2006-06-26

    Superconducting RF technology is since nearly a decade routinely applied to different kinds of accelerating devices: linear accelerators, storage rings, synchrotron light sources and FEL's. With the technology recommendation for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a year ago, new emphasis has been placed on improving the performance of accelerating cavities both in Q-value and in accelerating gradients with the goal to achieve performance levels close to the fundamental limits given by the material parameters of the choice material, niobium. This paper will summarize the challenges to SRF technology and will review the latest developments in superconducting structure design. Additionally, it will give an overview of the newest results and will report on the developments in alternative materials and technologies.

  15. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. C.; Riepe, K. B.; Ballard, E. O.; Meyer, E. A.; Shurter, R. P.; Van Haaften, F. W.; Humphries, S.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al+ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid wil control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of ɛnlaser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 μs, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  16. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.C.; Riepe, K.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Humphries S. Jr.

    1986-01-21

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al/sup +/ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid wil control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of epsilon/sub n/<3x10/sup -7/..pi..-m-rad with Al/sup +/ ions. An 800 kV Marx prototype with a laser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 ..mu..s, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  17. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.C.; Riepe, K.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al/sup +/ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid will control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of epsilon/sub n/ < 3.10/sup -7/..pi..-m-rad with Al/sup +/ ions. An 800 kV Marx prototype with a laser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 ..mu..s, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  18. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  19. Jet Structure in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    We review recent theoretical developments in the study of the structure of jets that are produced in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions. The core of the review focusses on the dynamics of the parton cascade that is induced by the interactions of a fast parton crossing a quark-gluon plasma. We recall the basic mechanisms responsible for medium induced radiation, underline the rapid disappearance of coherence effects, and the ensuing probabilistic nature of the medium induced cascade. We discuss how large radiative corrections modify the classical picture of the gluon cascade, and how these can be absorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter $\\hat q $. Then, we analyze the (wave)-turbulent transport of energy along the medium induced cascade, and point out the main characteristics of the angular structure of such a cascade. Finally, color decoherence of the in-cone jet structure is discussed. Modest contact with phenomenology is presented towards the end of the review.

  20. Electromagnetic probes in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hees H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their penetrating nature, electromagnetic probes, i.e., lepton-antilepton pairs (dileptons and photons are unique tools to gain insight into the nature of the hot and dense medium of strongly-interacting particles created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, including hints to the nature of the restoration of chiral symmetry of QCD. Of particular interest are the spectral properties of the electromagnetic current-correlation function of these particles within the dense and/or hot medium. The related theoretical investigations of the in-medium properties of the involved particles in both the partonic and hadronic part of the QCD phase diagram underline the importance of a proper understanding of the properties of various hadron resonances in the medium.

  1. Dilepton Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, R

    2013-01-01

    The properties of electromagnetic radiation from hot fireballs as created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. We first outline how the medium effects in the electromagnetic spectral function, which governs thermal production rates, relate to the (partial) restoration of chiral symmetry. In particular, we show how chiral and QCD sum rules, together with constraints from lattice QCD, can render these relations quantitative. Turning to dilepton data, we elaborate on updates in the space-time evolution and quark-gluon plasma emission rates from lattice-QCD calculations. With a now available excitation function in dilepton spectra from the RHIC beam-energy scan connecting down to SPS energies, we argue that a consistent interpretation of dilepton data emerges. Combining well-constrained space-time evolutions with state-of-the-art emission rates identifies most of the radiation to emanate from around the pseudo-critical temperature, and thus confirms resonance melting as the prevalent mechanism...

  2. System size in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-Yang; ZHAO Lin-Jie; YUAN Zhong-Sheng; ZHANG Dan-Dan; FANG Wei; XU Ming-Mei

    2011-01-01

    System size is more than a geometrical quantity in relativistic heavy ion collisions; it is closely related to evolution process,i.e.a different system size corresponds to a different evolution process,and whether QGP is produced depends on the system size.We propose that the system size should be under the same level when comparing the measurements from different colliding nuclei.The equivalence of the peripheral collisions of Au-Au and the central collisions of smaller nuclei is studied using the Monte Carlo method.Comparing the transverse overlapping area of the colliding nuclei,the number of participant nucleons and the number of nucleon-nucleon binary collisions in various colliding nuclei,we give an estimate of the correspondence in system size.This is helpful in the experimental comparison of the measurements from different colliding nuclei.

  3. Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu

    2009-05-19

    Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards

  4. Theory overview of Heavy Ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lappi, T

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses some recently active topics in the theoretical interpretation of high energy heavy ion collisions at the LHC and at RHIC. We argue that the standard paradigm for understanding the spacetime evolution of the bulk of the matter produced in the collision is provided by viscous relativistic hydrodynamics, which can be used to systematically extract properties of the QCD medium from experimental results. The initial conditions of this hydrodynamical evolution are increasingly well understood in terms of gluon saturation, and can be quantified using Classical Yang-Mills fields and QCD effective kinetic theory. Hard and electromagnetic probes of the plasma provide additional constraints. A particularly fascinating subject are high multiplicity proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, where some of the characteristics previously attributed to only nucleus-nucleus collisions have been observed.

  5. Hydrodynamic Approaches in Relativistic Heavy Ion Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Rafael Derradi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation with the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to...

  6. Heavy Ion results from RHIC-BNL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esumi Shinlchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent results from heavy ion collision experiments from RHIC at BNL are presented and discussed in terms of Quark Gluon Plasm properties, such as partonic collectivity and partonic energy loss. The experimental results with direct photons and heavy quarks have given important additional insights of the plasma on top of what has been known with light hadrons. Higher order event anisotropies and the related results have provided the geometrical, temporal and dynamical information of the plasma. The beam energy dependence of the various measurements could reveal the structure of QCD phase diagram and possibly the critical point in the diagram, where the properties of phase transition are expected to change drastically.

  7. Identifying multiquark hadrons from heavy ion collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  8. Application of hydrodynamics to heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felsberger, Lukas

    2014-12-02

    The Bjorken model is a simple tool for making rough predictions of the hydrodynamic evolution of the thermalized matter created in a heavy ion collision. The advantage of the model clearly lies in its simplicity, rather than accuracy. As it is still used for making rough estimations 'by hand', in this thesis, I investigate in which cases the Bjorken model gives useful results and in which it is not recommended. For central collisions, I show which critical size the nuclei should have so that the Bjorken model can be applied. For non-central collisions, I demonstrate that using Glauber initial conditions combined with the Bjorken evolution, leads to reasonable results up to large impact parameters. Finally, I study the case of a non-ideal (viscous) description of the thermalized matter which leads to strongly differing results if first- or second-order hydrodynamics is applied.

  9. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Simon S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Tauschwitz, A.; Grote, D.; Deadrick, F.

    1996-03-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K+ ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 in. curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 μs. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm mrad is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

  10. Production of Charge in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, Scott; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic-Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that pictures where balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  11. Holography, Hydrodynamization and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the past several years holography has emerged as an ab initio tool in exploring strongly-time-dependent phenomena in gauge theories. These lecture notes overview recent developments in this area driven by phenomenological questions concerning applicability of hydrodynamics under extreme conditions occurring in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The topics include equilibration time scales, holographic collisions and hydrodynamization from the point of view of the asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion. The emphasis is put on concepts rather than calculational techniques and particular attention is devoted to present these developments in the context of the most recent advances and some of the open problems.

  12. Particle Interferometry in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, Ulrich W

    1997-01-01

    By measuring hadronic single-particle spectra and two-particle correlations in heavy-ion collisions, the size and dynamical state of the collision fireball at freeze-out can be reconstructed. I discuss the relevant theoretical methods and their limitations. By applying the formalism to recent pion correlation data from Pb+Pb collisions at CERN we demonstrate that the collision zone has undergone strong transverse growth before freeze-out (by a factor 2-3 in each direction), and that it expands both longitudinally and transversally. From the thermal and flow energy density at freeze-out the energy density at the onset of transverse expansion can be estimated from conservation laws. It comfortably exceeds the critical value for the transition to color deconfined matter.

  13. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Cold fission as heavy ion emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.; Ivascu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Gherghescu, R.

    1987-11-01

    The last version of the analytical superasymmetric fission model is applied to study cold fission processes. Strong shell effects are present either in one or both fission fragments. A smooth behaviour is observed when the proton or the neutron numbers are changed by four units. Increasing Z and N, in the transuranium region, a sharp transition from asymmetry with a large peak-to-valley ratio to symmetry at Z=100 and/or N=164 is obtained. The transition toward asymmetry at higher Z and N is much smoother. The most probable cold fission light fragments from /sup 234/U, /sup 236/U, /sup 239/Np and /sup 240/Pu are /sup 100/Zr, /sup 104/Mo, /sup 106/Mo and /sup 106/Mo, respectively, in good agreement with experimental data. The unified treatment of alpha decay, heavy ion radioactivities and cold fission is illustrated for /sup 234/U - the first nucleus in which all three groups have been already observed.

  15. Novel Ways of Heat Removal from Highly Irradiated Superconducting Windings in Accelerator Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielert, Erwin R.; Verweij, Arjan P.; Kate, ten Herman H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Novel ideas of heat removal from superconducting windings in accelerator type magnets are investigated with the help of a recently developed and validated thermal model of a magnet cold mass implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. Here the focus is on how to improve heat removal from the midplane of a s

  16. High energy heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, S L; Guo, H Y; Tu, C Q; Wang, Y L; Doke, T; Kato, T; Ozaki, K; Kyan, A; Piao, Y; Murakami, T

    1999-01-01

    Bubble detectors which are commonly used as neutron detectors have been demonstrated through this study to be good detectors for registration of high energy heavy ion tracks. Large size bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy were irradiated to heavy ions Ar and C up to 650 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u, respectively. Very clear features of stringy tracks of high energy heavy ions and their fragmentations are manifested and distinguishable. A single track created by a specific high energy heavy ion is composed of a line of bubbles, which is visible by naked eyes and retained for months without reduction in size. The creation of heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors is governed by a threshold whose essence is approximately a critical value of energy loss rate (dE/dX) sub c similar to that of etch track detectors. Ranges of heavy ions in bubble detectors are apparent and predictable by existing formulas. Identification of high energy heavy ions and the applications to heavy ion physics, cosmic rays, exot...

  17. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of barium strontium titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, W. B.; Johnston, P. N.; Walker, S. R.; Bubb, I. F.; Scott, J. F.; Cohen, D. D.; Dytlewski, N.; Martin, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate have been analysed using heavy ion recoil spectrometry with 77 and 98 MeV 127I ions at the new heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. New calibration procedures have been developed for quantitative analysis. Energy spectra for each of the elements present reveal interdiffusion that was not previously known.

  18. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark Gluon Plasma, the Color Glass Condensate, the Glasma and Quarkyonic Matter. A novel effect that may be associated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts and explain how they may be seen in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  19. Quarkonia at finite temperature in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen Datta

    2015-05-01

    The behaviour of quarkonia in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is reviewed. After a detailed discussion of the current theoretical understanding of quarkonia in a static equilibriated plasma, we discuss quarkonia yield from the fireball created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision experiments. We end with a brief discussion of the experimental results and outlook.

  20. More than mass proportional heating of heavy ions by supercritical collisionless shocks in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new model for explaining the observations of more than mass proportional heating of heavy ions in the polar solar corona. We point out that a large number of small scale intermittent shock waves can be present in the solar corona. The energization mechanism is, essentially, the ion reflection off supercritical quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks in the corona and the subsequent acceleration by the motional electric field ${\\bf E} = - (1/c) {\\bf V} \\times {\\bf B}$. The acceleration due to ${\\bf E}$ is perpendicular to the magnetic field, in agreement with observations, and is more than mass proportional with respect to protons, because the heavy ion orbit is mostly upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock foot. The observed temperature ratios between O$^{5+}$ ions and protons in the polar corona, and between $\\alpha$ particles and protons in the solar wind are easily recovered.

  1. Heavy ion tracks in polycarbonate. Comparison with a heavy ion irradiated model compound (diphenyl carbonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1993-09-01

    The chemical modifications induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC) film are determined by GPC, HPLC, ESR, TGA, IR and UV spectrophotometry. The main results of the irradiation are creation of radicals, chain scission, cross-linking and appearance of new chemical groups in the main polymer chain. As far as the creation of new groups is concerned, they are determined by means of a model compound of PC: the diphenyl carbonate (DPC). The following compounds are identified after energetic heavy ion irradiation of DPC: salicylic acid, phenol, 4,4'-biphenol, 2,4'-biphenol, 2,2'-biphenol, 4-phenoxyphenol, 2-phenoxyphenol, phenyl ether, phenyl benzoate, phenyl salicylate, 2-phenylphenol and 2-phenoxyphenyl benzoate. A similarity between the heavy ion irradiation and a heat treatment has also been established with DPC. On the basis of these results, we try to give an explanation of the preferential attack along the tracks of the irradiated film. Also, an explanation of the well-known beneficial effect of an UV exposition of the irradiated film on the selectivity of this preferential chemical attack is suggested.

  2. Proceedings of the Workshop on open problems in heavy ion reaction dynamics at VIVITRON energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F.A.

    1993-07-01

    Some problems of heavy ion reaction dynamics at the VIVITRON tandem accelerator and the experimental facilities are discussed at the meeting. Topics include light dinuclear systems, collision dynamics at low energies, fission evaporation and fusion of heavy nuclei and others. Most documents consist of transparencies presented at the workshop, texts of papers are missing. All items are indexed and abstracted for the INIS database. (K.A.).

  3. Measurement of Total Reaction Cross-sections with Heavy Ions at the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the measurement of heavy ion total reaction cross-sections in the energy range 40-86 MeV/A with the anti-coincidence beam attenuation technique. A system of 19 @DE scintillation detectors together with a time-of-flight measurement is used for detection of the residual beam. The results will complete measurements at the Grenoble cyclotron and post accelerator over the energy range 10-40 MeV/A.

  4. Genetic Algorithms for the Optimal Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, S

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the use of genetic algorithms with the concept of niching for the optimal design of superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider, LHC at CERN. The method provides the designer with a number of local optima which can be further examined with respect to objectives such as ease of coil winding, sensitivity to manufacturing tolerances and local electromagnetic force distribution. A 6 block dipole coil was found to have advantages compared to the standard 5 block version which was previously designed using deterministic optimization methods. Results were proven by a short model magnet recently built and tested at CERN.

  5. Heavy-ion transport codes for radiotherapy and radioprotection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancusi, Davide

    2006-06-15

    Simulation of the transport of heavy ions in matter is a field of nuclear science that has recently received attention in view of its importance for some relevant applications. Accelerated heavy ions can, for example, be used to treat cancers (heavy-ion radiotherapy) and show some superior qualities with respect to more conventional treatment systems, like photons (x-rays) or protons. Furthermore, long-term manned space missions (like a possible future mission to Mars) pose the challenge to protect astronauts and equipment on board against the harmful space radiation environment, where heavy ions can be responsible for a significant share of the exposure risk. The high accuracy expected from a transport algorithm (especially in the case of radiotherapy) and the large amount of semi-empirical knowledge necessary to even state the transport problem properly rule out any analytical approach; the alternative is to resort to numerical simulations in order to build treatment-planning systems for cancer or to aid space engineers in shielding design. This thesis is focused on the description of HIBRAC, a one-dimensional deterministic code optimised for radiotherapy, and PHITS (Particle and Heavy- Ion Transport System), a general-purpose three-dimensional Monte-Carlo code. The structure of both codes is outlined and some relevant results are presented. In the case of PHITS, we also report the first results of an ongoing comprehensive benchmarking program for the main components of the code; we present the comparison of partial charge-changing cross sections for a 400 MeV/n {sup 40}Ar beam impinging on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium, copper, tin and lead targets.

  6. Digital base-band rf control system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating field in superconducting cavities has to be stabilized in amplitude and phase by a radio-frequency (rf control system. Because of their high loaded quality factor superconducting cavities are very susceptible for microphonics. To meet the increased requirements with respect to accuracy, availability, and diagnostics, the previous analog rf control system of the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC has been replaced by a digital rf control system. The new hardware consists of two components: An rf module that converts the signal from the cavity down to the base-band and a field-programmable gate array board including a soft CPU that carries out the signal processing steps of the control algorithm. Different algorithms are used for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities. To improve the availability of the control system, techniques for automatic firmware and software deployment have been implemented. Extensive diagnostic features provide the operator with additional information. The architecture of the rf control system as well as the functionality of its components will be presented along with measurements that characterize the performance of the system, yielding, e.g., an amplitude stabilization down to (ΔA/A_{rms}=7×10^{-5} and a phase stabilization of (Δϕ_{rms}=0.8° for superconducting cavities.

  7. Conceptional Design of Heavy Ion Linac Injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Xia, Jiawen; Yin, Xuejun; Yin, Dayu; Li, Xiaoni; Xie, Xiucui; Du, Heng; Li, zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of CSRm (the main Cooler Storage Ring) at HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ion with maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and injection kinetic energy of 7.272MeV/u for CSRm, and the pulsed beam intensity is 3emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector SFC (Sector Focusing Cyclotron), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48MHz 4-rod RFQ accelerates ion beam from 4keV/u to 300keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with 3.07m long vanes. The phase advance has been taken into account to analysis the error tolerance, and parametric resonance have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. KONUS IH-DTLs, which follow the RFQ, accelerate the ions up to the energy of 7.272MeV/u and inject into HIRFL-CSRm. Th...

  8. Quench simulations for superconducting elements in the LHC accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnemann, F

    2000-01-01

    The design of he protection system for he superconducting elements in an accel- erator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),now under construction at CERN, requires a detailed understanding of the hermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic pro- cesses during a quench.A numerical program (SPQR -Simulation Program for Quench Research)has been developed o evaluate temperature and voltage dis ri- butions during a quench as a func ion of space and ime.The quench process is simulated by approximating the heat balance equation with the finite di fference method in presence of variable cooling and powering conditions.The simulation predicts quench propagation along a superconducting cable,forced quenching with heaters,impact of eddy curren s induced by a magnetic field change,and heat trans- fer hrough an insulation layer in o helium,an adjacen conductor or other material. The simulation studies allowed a better understanding of experimental quench data and were used for determining the adequ...

  9. The status of RandD for the relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Formal development of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has been funded for the past three years. Prototype superconducting magnets and cryostats have been tested. Detailed designs have been prepared for the arc sections, the insertion regions and injection and ejection systems. The rf system has undergone significant revisions in order to enhance the experimental capability of RHIC. Progress has been made with the design of detectors. We are putting in place a management information system in anticipation of an expeditious start of construction. 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The Phases of QCD in Heavy Ion Collisions and Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, K

    2000-01-01

    I review arguments for the existence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryon chemical potential. I describe how heavy ion collision experiments at the SPS and RHIC can discover the tell-tale signatures of such a critical point, thus mapping this region of the QCD phase diagram. I then review the phenomena expected in cold dense quark matter: color superconductivity and color-flavor locking. I close with a snapshot of ongoing explorations of the implications of recent developments in our understanding of cold dense quark matter for the physics of compact stars.

  11. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  12. Experimental study of heavy-ion computed tomography using a scintillation screen and an electron-multiplying charged coupled device camera for human head imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, Hiroshi; Hara, Hidetake; Abe, Shinji; Yokose, Mamoru; Watanabe, Takara; Takeda, Tohoru; Koba, Yusuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a heavy-ion computed tomography (IonCT) system using a scintillation screen and an electron-multiplying charged coupled device (EMCCD) camera that can measure a large object such as a human head. In this study, objective with the development of the system was to investigate the possibility of applying this system to heavy-ion treatment planning from the point of view of spatial resolution in a reconstructed image. Experiments were carried out on a rotation phantom using 12C accelerated up to 430 MeV/u by the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). We demonstrated that the reconstructed image of an object with a water equivalent thickness (WET) of approximately 18 cm was successfully achieved with the spatial resolution of 1 mm, which would make this IonCT system worth applying to the heavy-ion treatment planning for head and neck cancers.

  13. The ISAC post-accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Marchetto, M.

    2014-01-01

    The acceleration chain of the ISAC facility boosts the energy of both radioactive and stable light and heavy ions for beam delivery to both a medium energy area in ISAC-I and a high energy area in ISAC-II. The post-accelerator comprises a 35.4 MHz RFQ to accelerate beams of A/q ≤ 30 from 2 keV/u to 150 keV/u and a post stripper, 106.1 MHz variable energy drift tube linac (DTL) to accelerate ions of A/q ≤ 6 to a final energy between 0.15 MeV/u to 1.5 MeV/u. A 40 MV superconducting linac further accelerates beam from 1.5 MeV/u to energies above the Coulomb barrier. All linacs operate cw to preserve beam intensity.

  14. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  15. Superconducting cyclotrons at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, H. G.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the status of the three superconducting cyclotrons which are in operation or under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The oldest of these, the K500, has been in operation since September 1982 supporting a national user program in heavy ion nuclear physics. A second large research cyclotron, the K800, is now nearing completion. This cyclotron will accelerate lighter heavy ions to 200 MeV/nuc and heavier particles up to energies given by 1200 Q2/ A MeV/nucleon. The magnet for this cyclotron came into operation in May 1984 and has performed smoothly and reliably in three extended operating periods. At present, K800 construction activity centers on fabrication and installation of the rf system, the extraction system, and the ECR injection line. The third NSCL superconducting cyclotron is a smaller 50 MeV deuteron cyclotron to be used for neutron therapy in the radiation oncology center of a major Detroit hospital (Harper Hospital). Design features of this small, application oriented, cyclotron are described in some detail.

  16. CHICO, a heavy ion detector for Gammasphere

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, M W; Wu, C Y; Gray, R W; Teng, R; Long, C

    2000-01-01

    A 4 pi position-sensitive heavy-ion detector system, CHICO, has been developed primarily for use in conjunction with the 4 pi gamma-ray facility, Gammasphere. The CHICO detector comprises an array of 20 Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) covering 12 deg.

  17. Heavy Ion Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Morsch, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for HEP99, Tampere, Finland, 15-21 July 1999The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN is also planned as a heavy ion collider with lead ions colliding at an energy of 5.5 TeV. This corresponds to collisions of matter with cosmic rays of the highest energies observed so far promising the study of new and exciting aspects of physics. In addition to the heaviest system (Pb--Pb), collisions of lower mass ions are foreseen as a means to study collisions at different energy density and proton-nucleus (p--A) collisions provide indispensable reference data for the A--A collisions.ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the only detector fully dedicated to the physics of nuclear collisions. It is designed to cover the full richness of hadronic and leptonic signals expected at the LHC allowing to establish and to study the phase transition from hadronic matter to deconfined partonic matter, the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The CMS experiment is optimised for the study of hard proce...

  18. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  19. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  20. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  1. Electromagnetic Radiations from Heavy Ion Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed the different sources of photons and dileptons produced in heavy ion collision (HIC. The transverse momentum (pT spectra of photons for different collision energies are analyzed with a view of extracting the thermal properties of the system formed in HIC. We showed the effect of viscosity on pT spectra of produced thermal photons. The dilepton productions from hot hadrons are considered including the spectral change of light vector mesons in the thermal bath. We have analyzed the pT and invariant mass (M spectra of dileptons for different collision energies too. As the individual spectra are constrained by certain unambiguous hydrodynamical inputs, so we evaluated the ratio of photon to dilepton spectra, Rem, to overcome those quantities. We argue that the variation of the radial velocity extracted from Rem with M is indicative of a phase transition from the initially produced partons to hadrons. In the calculations of interferometry involving dilepton pairs, it is argued that the nonmonotonic variation of HBT radii with invariant mass of the lepton pairs signals the formation of quark gluon plasma in HIC. Elliptic flow (v2 of dilepton is also studied at sNN=2.76 TeV for 30–40% centrality using the (2+1d hydrodynamical model.

  2. High Gluon Densities in Heavy Ions Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of heavy ion collisions are dominated by high density systems of gluons that carry each a small fraction $x$ of the momenta of the colliding nucleons. A distinguishing feature of such systems is the phenomenon of "saturation" which tames the expected growth of the gluon density as the energy of the collision increases. The onset of saturation occurs at a particular transverse momentum scale, the "saturation momentum", that emerges dynamically and that marks the onset of non-linear gluon interactions. At high energy, and for large nuclei, the saturation momentum is large compared to the typical hadronic scale, making high density gluons amenable to a description with weak coupling techniques. This paper reviews some of the challenges faced in the study of such dense systems of small $x$ gluons, and of the progress made in addressing them. The focus is on conceptual issues, and the presentation is both pedagogical, and critical. Examples where high gluon density could play a visible role in hea...

  3. A radial TPC for heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Garabatos, C

    2000-01-01

    The CERES experiment at the CERN SPS has been recently upgraded with a TPC with radial drift field, the first one of its sort. Constructed during 1998, it has been successfully operated in commissioning and physics runs, with muon, proton, and heavy-ion beams. A high voltage electrode of about 0.5 m radius is surrounded by sixteen 2 m long readout chambers, placed at a radius of 1.3 m, with chevron-shaped readout pads. The field cage is enclosed by two low-mass voltage degraders at each end of the cylindrical structure. A Ne-CO/sub 2/ [80-20] gas mixture allows for a safe operation and good transport properties under drift fields ranging from 200 to 600 V/cm. A spatial resolution better than 700 microns and 350 microns in r and rdelta (phi), respectively, has been achieved in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field. Details of its construction as well as results of the operation and performance in a high multiplicity environment are presented. (0 refs).

  4. Performance of Superconducting Magnet Prototypes for LCLS-II Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, Vladimir [Fermilab; Andreev, Nikolai [Fermilab; DiMarco, Joseph [Fermilab; Makarov, Alexander [Fermilab; Tartaglia, Michael [Fermilab; Velev, George [Fermilab

    2016-12-30

    The new LCLS-II Linear Superconducting Accelerator at SLAC needs superconducting magnet packages installed inside SCRF Cryomodules to focus and steer an electron beam. Two magnet prototypes were built and successfully tested at Fermilab. Magnets have an iron dominated configuration, quadrupole and dipole NbTi superconducting coils, and splittable in the vertical plane configuration. Magnets inside the Cryomodule are conductively cooled through pure Al heat sinks. Both magnets performance was verified by magnetic measurements at room temperature, and during cold tests in liquid helium. Test results including magnetic measurements are discussed. Special attention was given to the magnet performance at low currents where the iron yoke and the superconductor hysteresis effects have large influence. Both magnet prototypes were accepted for the installation in FNAL and JLAB prototype Cryomodules.

  5. A short introduction to heavy-ion physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions provide the only laboratory tests of relativistic quantum field theory at finite temperature. Understanding these is a necessary step in understanding the origins of our universe. These lectures introduce the subject to experimental particle physicists, in the hope that they will be useful to others as well. The phase diagram of QCD is briefly touched upon. Kinematic variables which arise in the collisions of heavy-ions beyond those in the collisions of protons or electrons are introduced. Finally, a few of the signals studied in heavy-ion collisions, and the kind of physics questions which they open up are discussed.

  6. Thermal, chemical and spectral equilibration in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Almási, Gábor András

    2014-01-01

    We have considered the equilibration in a relativistic heavy ion collision using our transport model. We applied periodic boundary conditions to close the system in a box. We found that the thermal equilibration takes place in the first 20-40 fm/c which time is comparable to the duration of a heavy ion collision. The chemical equilibration is a much slower process and the system does not equilibrate in a heavy ion collision. We have also shown that the mass spectra of broad resonances immediately follows their in-medium spectral functions.

  7. Development of diagnostic method for deep levels in semiconductors using charge induced by heavy ion microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, Wataru [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Yuya [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iwamoto, Naoya; Onoda, Shinobu; Makino, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hoshino, Norihiro; Tsuchida, Hidekazu [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Kojima, Kazutoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hanaizumi, Osamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Ohshima, Takeshi, E-mail: ohshima.takeshi20@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: •Charge Transient Spectroscopy using heavy ion microbeams (HIQTS) was developed. •HIQTS system is connected with 3 MeV Tandem accelerator at JAEA Takasaki. •Defects in 4H Silicon Carbide (SiC) Schottky diodes were evaluated using HIQTS. •6H-SiC pn diodes with partial damaged areas were also evaluated using HIQTS. -- Abstract: In order to study defects that create deep energy levels in semiconductors which act as carrier traps, Charge Transient Spectroscopy using heavy ion microbeams (HIQTS) was developed at JAEA Takasaki. The HIQTS system was connected with the heavy ion microbeam line of the 3 MV Tandem accelerator. Using the HIQTS system, deep levels in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes irradiated with 3 MeV-protons were studied. As a result, a HIQTS peak with an activation energy of 0.73 eV was observed. In addition, local damage in 6H-SiC pn diodes partially irradiated with 12 MeV-O ion microbeams was studied using HIQTS. With increasing 12 MeV-O ion fluence, charge collection efficiency in locally damaged areas decreased and HIQTS signals increased.

  8. Heating heavy ions in the polar corona by collisionless shocks: A one-dimensional simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Giuseppe; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new model for explaining the observations of preferential heating of heavy ions in the polar solar corona was proposed (Zimbardo, 2010, 2011). In that model the ion energization mechanism is the ion reflection off supercritical quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks in the corona and the subsequent acceleration by the motional electric field E = -V × B/c. The mechanism of heavy ion reflection is based on ion gyration in the magnetic overshoot of the shock. The acceleration due to the motional electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field, giving rise to large temperature anisotropy with T⊥ ≫ T∥, in agreement with SoHO observations. Such a model is tested here by means of a one dimensional test particle simulation where ions are launched toward electric and magnetic profiles representing the shock transition. We study the dynamics of O5+, as representative of coronal heavy ions for Alfvénic Mach numbers of 2-4, as appropriate to solar corona. It is found that O5+ ions are easily reflected and gain more than mass proportional energy with respect to protons.

  9. Control of fuel target implosion non-uniformity in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Iinuma, T; Kondo, S; Kubo, T; Kato, H; Suzuki, T; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration dg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy ion beams (HIBs) in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). The dg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non- uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in (Kawata, et al., 1993). In this paper it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled dg(t) and that dg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.

  10. Localized Beampipe Heating due to $e^{-}$ Capture and Nuclear Excitation in Heavy Ion Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, S R

    2001-01-01

    At heavy ion colliders, two major sources of beam loss are expected to be $e^+e^-$ production, where the $e^-$ is bound to one of the nuclei, and photonuclear excitation and decay via neutron emission. Both processes alter the ions charged to mass ratio by well defined amounts, creating beams of particles with altered magnetic rigidity. These beams will deposit their energy in a localized region of the accelerator, causing localized heating, The size of the target region depends on the collider optics. For medium and heavy ions, at design luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider, local heating may be more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. This could cause magnet quenches if the local cooling is inadequate. The altered-rigidity beams will also produce localized radiation damage. The beams could also be extracted and used for fixed target experiments.

  11. Spatial distributions of photons in plastic scintillator detected by multi-anode photomultiplier for heavy-ion position determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omika, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T., E-mail: yamaguti@phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsunaga, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagae, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Nishimura, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sawahata, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-10-11

    The spatial distributions of scintillation photons in a plastic scintillation detector were measured using a multi-anode photomultiplier H7546A coupled with 1-mm-diameter optical fibers. A row of several tens of fibers connected to the scintillator generates one-dimensional spatial distributions of photons induced by the swift passage of heavy ions. The pulse heights from each channel change depending on the beam position. This can be utilized to determine the positions of the heavy ions. To test the performance of the proposed detection method, an experiment using a {sup 84}Kr beam with intermediate energies ranging from 40 to 85 MeV/nucleon was performed at the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The photon spatial distributions were successfully observed. By optimizing the photomultiplier bias voltage and threshold in the pulse height analyses, a detection efficiency of 98% and a position resolution of 1.1 mm in σ were achieved simultaneously.

  12. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.

    2012-01-01

    impregnated with epoxy and mounted between a support of stainless steel and a collar made from aluminum. The cold mass consisting of the coil assembly and a laminated steel yoke is cooled by two cryocoolers from via copper bars to below 20 K. Current leads were made from the same batch of HTS tape. Cryogen...... for accelerator applications in many fields, in particular where cryogenic liquid cooling is not an option....

  13. Status and Plans for a Superconducting RF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfritz, J.; Andrews, R.; Baffes, C.M.; Carlson, K.; Chase, B.; Church, M.D.; Harms, E.R.; Klebaner, A.L.; Kucera, M.; Martinez, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) is being constructed at Fermilab. The existing New Muon Lab (NML) building is being converted for this facility. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and conducting various beam tests, and a high power beam dump. When completed, it is envisioned that this facility will initially be capable of generating a 750 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. An expansion of this facility was recently completed that will provide the capability to upgrade the accelerator to a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. Two new buildings were also constructed adjacent to the ASTA facility to house a new cryogenic plant and multiple superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule test stands. In addition to testing accelerator components, this facility will be used to test RF power systems, instrumentation, and control systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.

  14. Multiphysics Analysis of Frequency Detuning in Superconducting RF Cavities for Proton Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awida, M. H. [Fermilab; Gonin, I. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab; Sukanov, A. [Fermilab; Khabiboulline, T. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2016-01-22

    Multiphysics analyses for superconducting cavities are essential in the course of cavity design to meet stringent requirements on cavity frequency detuning. Superconducting RF cavities are the core accelerating elements in modern particle accelerators whether it is proton or electron machine, as they offer extremely high quality factors thus reducing the RF losses per cavity. However, the superior quality factor comes with the challenge of controlling the resonance frequency of the cavity within few tens of hertz bandwidth. In this paper, we investigate how the multiphysics analysis plays a major role in proactively minimizing sources of frequency detuning, specifically; microphonics and Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) in the stage of RF design of the cavity and mechanical design of the niobium shell and the helium vessel.

  15. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Meier, W.R. [Shafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Wakefield, MA (United States)

    1993-05-19

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs.

  16. Effects of heavy ion radiation on digital micromirror device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan D.; Pellish, Jonny; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-09-01

    There is a pressing need in the astronomical community for space-suitable multiobject spectrometers (MOSs). Several digital micromirror device (DMD)-based prototype MOSs have been developed for ground-based observatories; however, their main use will come with deployment on a space-based mission. Therefore, the performance of DMDs under exoatmospheric radiation needs to be evaluated. DMDs were rewindowed with 2-μm thick pellicle and tested under accelerated heavy-ion radiation (control electronics shielded from radiation), with a focus on the detection of single-event effects (SEEs) including latch-up events. Testing showed that while DMDs are sensitive to nondestructive ion-induced state changes, all SEEs are cleared with a soft reset (i.e., sending a pattern to the device). The DMDs did not experience single-event induced permanent damage or functional changes that required a hard reset (power cycle), even at high ion fluences. This suggests that the SSE rate burden will be manageable for a DMD-based instrument when exposed to solar particle fluxes and cosmic rays in orbit.

  17. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samit Mandal; J Gerl; H Geissel; K Hauschild; M Hellström; Z Janas; I Kojouharov; Y Kopatch; R C Lemmon; P Mayet; Z Podolyak; P H Regan; H Schaffner; C Schlegel; J Simpson; H J Wollersheim

    2001-07-01

    Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  18. Heavy ion physics with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zampolli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    ALICE is the experiment at the LHC collider at CERN dedicated to heavy ion physics. In this report, the ALICE detector will be presented, together with its expected performance as far as some selected physics topics are concerned.

  19. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  20. Elastic recoil detection analysis on the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, R.; Orlic, I.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    The heavy ion microprobe at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is capable of focussing heavy ions with an ME/ q2 of up to 100 amu MeV. This makes the microprobe ideally suited for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). However, beam currents on a microprobe are usually very small, which requires a detection system with a large solid angle. We apply microbeam heavy ion ERDA using a large solid angle ΔE- E telescope with a gas ΔE detector to layered structures. We demonstrate the capability to measure oxygen and carbon with a lateral resolution of 20 μm, together with determination of the depth of the contamination in thin deposited layers.

  1. Failure Analysis of Heavy-Ion-Irradiated Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we use high- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images to identify and describe the failure locations in heavy-ion-irradiated Schottky diodes.

  2. Status of Chemical Equilibrium in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cleymans, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on chemical equilibrium in heavy ion collisions is reviewed. The energy dependence of thermal parameters is discussed. The centrality dependence of thermal parameters at SPS energies is presented.

  3. Two alpha, three alpha and multiple heavy-ion radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania))

    1985-07-01

    New decay modes by spontaneous emission of two and three ..cap alpha.. particles and two identical or different heavy ions, are predicted. The analytical variant of the superasymmetric fission model is used to estimate the half lives.

  4. Two alpha, three alpha and multiple heavy-ion radioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.

    1985-01-01

    New decay modes by spontaneous emission of two and three α particles and two identical or different heavy ions, are predicted. The analytical variant of the superasymmetric fission model is used to estimate the half lives.

  5. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  6. Status of chemical equilibrium in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Cleymans

    2003-04-01

    Recent work on chemical equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions is reviewed. The energy dependence of thermal parameters is discussed. The centrality dependence of thermal parameters at SPS energies is presented.

  7. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  8. Isogeometric Simulation of Lorentz Detuning in Superconducting Accelerator Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Corno, Jacopo; De Gersem, Herbert; Schöps, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Cavities in linear accelerators suffer from eigenfrequency shifts due to mechanical deformation caused by the electromagnetic radiation pressure, a phenomenon known as Lorentz detuning. Estimating the frequency shift up to the needed accuracy by means of standard Finite Element Methods, is a complex task due to the non exact representation of the geometry and due to the necessity for mesh refinement when using low order basis functions. In this paper, we use Isogeometric Analysis for discretising both mechanical deformations and electromagnetic fields in a coupled multiphysics simulation approach. The combined high-order approximation of both leads to high accuracies at a substantially lower computational cost.

  9. String theory and relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Joshua J.

    It has long been known that string theory describes not only quantum gravity, but also gauge theories with a high degree of supersymmetry. Said gauge theories also have a large number of colors in a regime with a large effective coupling constant that does not depend on energy scale. Supersymmetry is broken in nature, if it is present at all, however the gauge theory described by string theory shares many common features with QCD at temperatures above the quark deconfinement transition. It is generally though not entirely accepted that collisions of gold nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produce a thermalized Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at temperatures distinctly above the transition temperature as determined from lattice simulations. Hence, we might hope that a string theoretic description of gauge dynamics can elucidate some otherwise intractable physics of the strongly coupled plasma. Here we use string theory to calculate the outgoing energy flux from a RHIC process called "jet quenching", in which a high-momentum quark or gluon traverses a large distance in the QGP. Our setup is in the context of the highly supersymmetric string dual gauge theory, but we nevertheless find that the gross features of the resulting stress-energy tensor match reasonably well with experimental data. We will furthermore discuss the technology behind computations of the leading-order corrections to gauge theory observables that are uniquely string-induced, and we will describe a potential solution to string theory that could resolve a number of discrepancies between the traditional highly supersymmetric setup and QCD---in particular, a significant reduction in the amount of supersymmetry, and a finite effective coupling that is still greater than unity but does depend on energy scale.

  10. Phenomenology of Heavy Flavors in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Isayev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Some recent experimental results obtained in collisions of heavy nuclei ($\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV) at BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are discussed. The probes of dense matter created in heavy-ion collision by quarkonia, $D$ and $B$ mesons containing heavy charm and beauty quarks are considered. The centrality, rapidity and transverse momentum dependences of the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow coefficient are presented and their possible theoretical interpretation is provided.

  11. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    OpenAIRE

    Kurosaki, T; Kawata, S.; Noguchi, K.; Koseki, S; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Barnard, J. J.; Logan, B. G.

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and s...

  12. Experimental results on charge fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Pant, L M; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We present a subset of experimental results on charge fluctuation from the heavy-ion collisions to search for phase transition and location of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Measurements from the heavy-ion experiments at the SPS and RHIC energies observe that total charge fluctuations increase from central to peripheral collisions. The net-charge fluctuations in terms of dynamical fluctuation measure $\

  13. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references. (RWR)

  14. Classical gluon production amplitude in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirilli Giovanni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of quarks and gluons produced in the initial stages of nuclear collisions, known as the initial condition of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation, is the fundamental building block of heavy-ion theory. I will present the scattering amplitude, beyond the leading order, of the classical gluon produced in heavy-ion collisions. The result is obtained in the framework of saturation physics and Wilson lines formalism.

  15. Heavy ions at the LHC: Physics perspectives and experimental program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Schukraft

    2001-08-01

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is entering the new era of collider experiments with the start-up of RHIC at BNL and construction for detectors at LHC well under way. At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  16. 1999 Review of superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CERN, Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules Geneve (Switzerland)

    1999-12-01

    The quest for elementary particles has promoted the development of particle accelerators producing beams of increasingly higher energies. In a synchrotron-type accelerator, the particle energy is directly proportional to the product of the machine's radius times the bending magnets' field strength. Present proton experiments at the TeV scale require facilities with circumferences ranging from a few to tens of kilometers and relying on a large number (several hundreds to several thousands) of high field dipole magnets and high field gradient quadrupole magnets. These electro-magnets use high current density, low critical temperature superconducting cables and are cooled down at liquid helium temperature. They are among the most costly and the most challenging components of the machine. After explaining what are the various types of accelerator magnets and why they are needed (section 1), we present a brief history of large superconducting particle accelerators, and we detail ongoing superconducting accelerator magnet R and D programs around the world (Section 2). Then, we review the superconducting materials that are available at industrial scale (chiefly, NbTi and Nb3Sn), and we describe the manufacturing of NbTi wires and cables (section 3). We also present the difficulties of processing and insulating Nb3Sn conductors which, so far, have limited the use of this material in spite of its superior performances. We continue by presenting the complex formalism used to represent two-dimensional fields (section 4), and we discuss the two-dimensional current distributions that are the most appropriate for generating pure dipole and pure quadrupole fields (section 5). We explain how these ideal distributions can be approximated by so-called cos{theta} and cos{sup 2}{theta} coil designs and we describe the difficulties of realizing coil ends. Next, we present the mechanical design concepts that have been developed to restrain magnet coils and to ensure proper

  17. Raising gradient limitations in 2.1 GHz superconducting photonic band gap accelerator cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya I., E-mail: smirnova@lanl.gov; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Haynes, W. Brian; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Suvorova, Natalya A.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terry L. [Niowave, Inc., 1012 North Walnut Street, Lansing, Michigan 48906 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We report results from recent 2.1 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) photonic band gap (PBG) resonator experiments at Los Alamos. Two 2.1 GHz PBG cells with elliptical rods were fabricated and tested at high power in a liquid helium bath at the temperatures of 4 K and below 2 K. The described SRF PBG cells were designed with a particular emphasis on changing the shape of the PBG rods to reduce peak surface magnetic fields and at the same time to preserve its effectiveness at damping higher-order-modes. The superconducting PBG cavities have great potential for damping long-range wakefields in SRF accelerator structures without affecting the fundamental accelerating mode. The cells performed in accordance with simulation's predictions and the maximum achieved accelerating gradient was 18.3 MV/m. This represents a 30% increase over gradients previously demonstrated in superconducting PBG cavities with round rods.

  18. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  19. Planned High-brightness Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab's Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Ben [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, Daniel [NICADD, DeKalb; Panuganti, Harsha [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, Philippe [Fermilab; Brau, Charles [Vanderbilt U.; Choi, Bo [Vanderbilt U.; Gabella, William [Vanderbilt U.; Ivanov, Borislav [Vanderbilt U.; Mendenhall, Marcus [Vanderbilt U.; Lynn, Christopher [Swarthmore Coll.; Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab; Wagner, Wolfgang [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf

    2014-07-01

    In this contribution we describe the technical details and experimental setup of our study aimed at producing high-brightness channeling radiation (CR) at Fermilab’s new user facility the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA). In the ASTA photoinjector area electrons are accelerated up to 40-MeV and focused to a sub-micron spot on a ~40 micron thick carbon diamond, the electrons channel through the crystal and emit CR up to 80-KeV. Our study utilizes ASTA’s long pulse train capabilities and ability to preserve ultra-low emittance, to produce the desired high average brightness.

  20. NF-kB activation and its downstream target genes expression after heavy ions exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Schmitz, Claudia; Koch, Kristina; Feles, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions (which constitute the most important radiation type in space) with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern not only for space missions but also for new regimes of tumor radiotherapy. In the current research study, the contribution of NF-κB in response to space-relevant radiation qualities was determined by a NF-κB reporter cell line (HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo L2). The NF-κB dependent reporter gene expression (d2EGFP) after ionizing radiation (X-rays and heavy ions) exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry. Because of differences in the extent of NF-κB activation after X-irradiation and heavy ions exposure, it was expected that radiation quality (LET) might play an important role in the cellular radiation response. In addition, the biological effectiveness (RBE) of NF-κB activation and reduction of cellular survival was examined for heavy ions having a broad range of LET (˜0.3 - 9674 keV/µm). Furthermore, the effect of LET on NF-κB target gene expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study it was proven that NF-κB activation and NF-κB dependent gene expression comprises an early step in cellular radiation response. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression by heavy ions are highest in the LET range of ˜50-200 keV/μupm. The up-regulated chemokines and cytokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, IL-8 and TNF) might be important for cell-cell communication among hit as well as unhit cells (bystander effect). The results obtained suggest the NF-κB pathway to be a

  1. Comparing Tsallis and Boltzmann temperatures from relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider heavy-ion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.-Q.; Liu, F.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles produced in Au + Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider and in Pb + Pb collisions at the large hadron collider with different centrality intervals are described by the multisource thermal model which is based on different statistic distributions for a singular source. Each source in the present work is described by the Tsallis distribution and the Boltzmann distribution, respectively. Then, the interacting system is described by the (two-component) Tsallis distribution and the (two-component) Boltzmann distribution, respectively. The results calculated by the two distributions are in agreement with the experimental data of the Solenoidal Tracker At Relativistic heavy ion collider, Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment, and A Large Ion Collider Experiment Collaborations. The effective temperature parameters extracted from the two distributions on the descriptions of heavy-ion data at the relativistic heavy ion collider and large hadron collider are obtained to show a linear correlation.

  2. Conceptional design of a heavy ion linac injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue-Jun; Du, Heng; Li, Zhong-Shan

    2014-10-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 m long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.

  3. Antiradiation vaccine: Technology and development of prophylaxis, prevention and treatment of biological consequences from Heavy Ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav

    Introduction: An anti-radiation vaccine could be an important part of a countermeasures reg-imen for effective radioprotection, immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of the acute radi-ation syndromes (ARS) after gamma-irradiation, neutron irradiation or heavy ion irradiation. Reliable protection of non-neoplastic regions of patients with different forms of cancer which undergo to heavy ion therapy ( e.g. Hadron-therapy) can significantly extend the efficiency of the therapeutic course. The protection of cosmonauts astronauts from the heavy ion ra-diation component of space radiation with specific immunoprophylaxis by the anti-radiation vaccine may be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Meth-ods and experiments: 1. The Antiradiation Vaccine preparation -standard (mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins -SRD-group) which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Car-diovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins Specific Radiation Determinant Group were isolated from a central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestiinal, Hematopoi-etic forms of ARS. Devices for γ-radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator -UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy -2000-2600 KeV mkm, 600 MeV U. Absorbed Dose -3820 Rad. 3. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A -control -10 rabbits; Group B -placebo -5 rabbits; Group C -radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation -5 rabbits; Group D -radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine -400mg kg ), -5 rabbits; Group E -Antiradiation Vaccine: subcuta-neus administration or IM -2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation -5 rabbits. 4

  4. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  5. Study of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions at LHC using ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Štefko, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most extreme states of matter which exists only in extraordinary conditions of heavy-ion collisions that can be achieved at particle accelerators. Interactions between the partons and the hot, dense QGP are expected to cause the loss of the jet energy, which is phenomenon called jet quenching. In this talk we provide an introduction to the problematics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and we show how the jet quenching can be used to analyze the properties of QGP. We also present some “work in progress” results of the jet analysis done on the data taken by the ATLAS detector during the 2011 heavy-ion run at the LHC. Jets are studied as a function of collision centrality and dijet energy imbalance. Dijets are observed to be increasingly asymmetric with increasing centrality. The study of charged particles indicates an increase of yields of low- p T tracks in events with strongly quenched jets

  6. Ultra-high vacuum in superconducting accelerator rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanov, A. M.; Butenko, A. V.; Galimov, A. R.; Lugovnin, A. K.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Achieving the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) in the collider and booster of the NICA project is one of the main challenges when creating this device. It determines the need for a serious approach to this issue and conducting research in this direction. First, it is necessary to understand the effect of the various components of the vacuum systems on the degree of vacuum. It is also necessary to carry out studies of pumping devices for producing the required vacuum (10-9 Pa) in the beam chamber and choose the most optimal pumping scheme. At the same time, it is necessary to figure out how various operations are carried out with the vacuum chamber: preparation of vacuum surfaces, letting in the atmosphere, and warming the chamber after closing the influence on the degree of vacuum and the composition of the residual gas. The temperature may vary from room temperature to liquid helium temperature due to the difficulty of keeping the beam-chamber walls at a constant temperature, including the inner components. This complicates the processes taking place within it. Additional complexity arises due the heating of the chamber walls by various processes during the operation of the accelerator (for example, cycling the magnetic field).

  7. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Suehiro [eds.

    2000-01-01

    The tandem accelerator established at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1982 has been one of the most prominent electrostatic accelerators in the world. The accelerator has been serving for many researches planned by not only JAERI staff but also researchers of universities and national institutes. After the completion of the tandem booster in 1993, four times higher beam energy became available. These two facilities, the tandem accelerator and the booster, made great strides in heavy ion physics and a lot of achievements have been accumulated until now. The research departments of JAERI were reformed in 1998, and the accelerators section came under the Department of Materials Science. On this reform of the research system, the symposium 'Heavy Ion Science in Tandem Energy Region' was held in cooperation with nuclear and solid state physicists although there has been no such symposium for many years. The symposium was expected to stimulate novel development in both nuclear and solid state physics, and also interdisciplinary physics between nuclear and solid state physics. The 68 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. The effects of heavy ion radiation on digital micromirror device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travinsky, Anton; Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Raisanen, Alan D.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Robberto, Massimo; Heap, Sara

    2016-07-01

    There is a pressing need in the astronomical community for space-suitable multi-object spectrometers (MOSs). Several digital micromirror device (DMD)-based prototype MOSs have been developed for ground-based observatories; however, their main use will come with deployment on a space based mission. Therefore, performance of DMDs under exoatmospheric radiation needs to be evaluated. In our previous work we demonstrated that DMDs are tolerant to heavy ion irradiation in general and calculated upset rate of 4.3 micromirrors in 24 hours in orbit for 1-megapixel device. The goal of this additional experiment was to acquire more data and therefore increase the accuracy of the predicted in-orbit micromirror upset rate. Similar to the previous experiment, for this testing 0.7 XGA DMDs were re-windowed with 2 μm thick pellicle and tested under accelerated heavy-ion radiation (with control electronics shielded from radiation) with a focus on detection of single-event upsets (SEUs). We concentrated on ions with low levels of linear energy transfer (LET) 1.8 - 13 MeV•cm2•mg-1 to cover the most critical range of the Weibull curve for those devices. As during the previous experiment, we observed and documented non-destructive heavy ion-induced micromirror state changes. All SEUs were always cleared with a soft reset (that is, sending a new pattern to the device). The DMDs we tested did not experience single-event induced permanent damage or functional changes that required a hard reset (power cycle), even at high ion fluences. Based on the data obtained in the experiments we predict micromirror in-orbit upset rate of 5.6 micromirrors in 24 hours in-orbit for the tested devices. This suggests that the heavy-ion induced SEU rate burden for a DMD-based instrument will be manageable when exposed to solar particle fluxes and cosmic rays in orbit.

  9. Status and Plans for a Superconducting RF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Leibfritz, J; Baffes, C M; Carlson, K; Chase, B; Church, M D; Harms, E R; Klebaner, A L; Kucera, M; Martinez, A; Nagaitsev, S; Nobrega, L E; Piot, P; Reid, J; Wendt, M; Wesseln, S J

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Acccelerator (ASTA) is being constructed at Fermilab. The existing New Muon Lab (NML) building is being converted for this facility. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, multiple downstream beamlines for testing diagnostics and conducting various beam tests, and a high power beam dump. When completed, it is envisioned that this facility will initially be capable of generating a 750-MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. An expansion of this facility was recently completed that will provide the capability to upgrade the accelerator to a total beam energy of 1.5-GeV. Two new buildings were also constructed adjacent to the ASTA facility to house a new cryogenic plant and multiple superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule test stands. In addition to testing accelerator components, this facility will be used to test RF power systems, instrumentation, and control systems for future SRF a...

  10. Niobium Coatings for the HIE-ISOLDE QWR Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Jecklin, N; Delaup, B; Ferreira, L; Mondino, I; Sublet, A; Therasse, M; Venturini Desolaro, W

    2013-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy at ISOLDE) project is the upgrade of the existing ISOLDE (Isotope Separator On Line DEvice) facility at CERN, which is dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for nuclear physics experiments. A new linear accelerator made of 20 ȕ=10.3% and 12 ȕ=6.3% quarter-wave resonators (QWR) superconducting (SC) accelerating cavities at 101 MHz will be built, and in a first phase two cryomodules of 5 high-ȕ cavities each are scheduled to accelerate first beams in 2015. The cavities are made of a copper substrate, with a sputter-coated superconductive niobium (Nb) layer, operated at 4.5 K with an accelerating field of 6 MV/m at 10W Radio-Frequency (RF) losses (Q=4.5· 108). In this paper we will discuss the baseline surface treatment and coating procedure which allows obtaining the required performance, as well as the steps undertaken in order to prepare series production of the required number of cavities guaranteeing their quality and functional...

  11. Structural analysis of superconducting dipole prototype for HIAF

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Ni, Dongsheng; Chen, Yuquan; Wu, Wei; Ma, Lizhen

    2015-01-01

    The High Intensity Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facility is a new project in the Institute of Modern Physics. The dipole magnets of all rings are conceived as fast cycled superconducting magnet with high magnetic field and large gap, the warm iron and superconducting coil structure (superferric) is adopted. The reasonable structure design of coil and cryostat is very important for reliable operation. Based on the finite element software ANSYS, the mechanical analysis of electromagnetic stress, the thermal stress in the cooling down and the stress in the pumping are showed in detail. According to the analysis result, the supporter structure is the key problem of coil system. With reasonable support's structure design, the stress and the deformation of coil structure can be reduced effectively, which ensure the stable operation of superconducting coil system.

  12. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike D. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States); Collings, Edward W. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States)

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  13. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulriya, P. K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd2Ti2O7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd2Ti2O7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 1012 ions/cm2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures.

  14. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.

  15. Status of a cylindrical superconducting undulator for the laser wakefield accelerator in Jena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica; Bernhard, Axel; Grau, Andreas; Haerer, Bastian; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Weber, Marc; Widmann, Christina [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaluza, Malte; Nicolai, Maria; Rinck, Thorsten; Saevert, Alexander [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena (Germany); Jaeckel, Oliver; Reuter, Maria [Helmholtz Institute Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser-Wakefield accelerators (LWFA) produce electron bunches with several 100 MeV energy within a few millimeters acceleration length, however, with a relatively large energy spread (a few percent). Undulators provide monochromatic radiation with high brilliance. The working principle of undulators requires a small energy spread of the electron beam in the order of 0.1 %. To produce monochromatic undulator radiation with LWF accelerated electrons, a novel iron-free cylindrical superconducting undulator (SCU) is under development at the KIT. This talk gives an overview about the design and the optimisation of the SCU tailored to the particular beam properties of the JETI-LWFA at the University of Jena. In addition a short model test and the construction status of the full scale undulator are shown.

  16. Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY HIGH-POWER APPLICATIONS Electric power generation/transmission Energy storage Acoustic projectors Weapon launchers Catapult Ship propulsion • • • Stabilized...temperature superconductive shields could be substantially enhanced by use of high-Tc materials. 27 28 NRAC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY SHIP PROPULSION APPLICATIONS...motor shown in the photograph. As a next step in the evolution of electric-drive ship propulsion technology, DTRC has proposed to scale up the design

  17. Study of Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Accelerating Structures for Linac Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, Marcel; Welsch, C P

    2011-01-01

    Higher Order Modes (HOMs) can severely limit the operation of superconducting cavities in a linear accelerator with high beam current, high duty factor and complex pulse structure. Therefore, the full HOM spectrum has to be analysed in detail to identify potentially dangerous modes already during the design phase and to define their damping requirements. For this purpose a dedicated beam dynamics simulation code, Simulation of higher order Mode Dynamics (SMD), focusing on beam-HOM interaction, has been developed in the frame of this project. SMD allows to analyse the beam behaviour under the presence of HOMs, taking into account many important effects, such as for example the HOM frequency spread, beam input jitter, different chopping patterns, as well as klystron and alignment errors. SMD is used to investigate in detail into the effects of HOMs in the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN and in particular their potential to drive beam instabili- ties in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Based...

  18. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada -- From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  19. Accelerator Science and Technology in Canada — From the Microtron to TRIUMF, Superconducting Cyclotrons and the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. K.; Laxdal, R. E.

    As elsewhere, accelerators in Canada have evolved from modest beginnings to major facilities such as TRIUMF (currently with the highest-power driver for rare isotope beam production) and the third generation Canadian Light Source. Highlights along the way include construction of the first microtron, the first racetrack microtron and the first superconducting cyclotron (to which list might have been added the first pulse stretcher ring, had it been funded sooner). This article will summarize the history of accelerators in Canada, documenting both the successes and the near-misses. Besides the research accelerators, a thriving commercial sector has developed, manufacturing small cyclotrons and linacs, beam line components and superconducting rf cavities.

  20. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  1. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first SC heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerating System), which began regularly scheduled operation in 1978. To date, more than 40,000 hours of bean-on target operating time has been accumulated with ATLAS. The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop SC RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the SC linac has, up to the present, has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. It should be noted that this has been accomplished while at the same time maintaining a vigorous operating schedule in support of the nuclear and atomic physics research programs of the division. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began development of SC RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. This work has included the evaluation of RF properties of high-{Tc} oxide superconductors, both for the above and for other applications. The two divisions collaborated while they worked on several applications of RF SC, and also worked to develop the technology generally. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  3. Optics measurement and correction for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaozhe

    The quality of beam optics is of great importance for the performance of a high energy accelerator like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data can be used to derive beam optics. However, the accuracy of the derived beam optics is often limited by the performance and imperfections of instruments as well as measurement methods and conditions. Therefore, a robust and model-independent data analysis method is highly desired to extract noise-free information from TBT BPM data. As a robust signal-processing technique, an independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm called second order blind identification (SOBI) has been proven to be particularly efficient in extracting physical beam signals from TBT BPM data even in the presence of instrument's noise and error. We applied the SOBI ICA algorithm to RHIC during the 2013 polarized proton operation to extract accurate linear optics from TBT BPM data of AC dipole driven coherent beam oscillation. From the same data, a first systematic estimation of RHIC BPM noise performance was also obtained by the SOBI ICA algorithm, and showed a good agreement with the RHIC BPM configurations. Based on the accurate linear optics measurement, a beta-beat response matrix correction method and a scheme of using horizontal closed orbit bumps at sextupoles for arc beta-beat correction were successfully applied to reach a record-low beam optics error at RHIC. This thesis presents principles of the SOBI ICA algorithm and theory as well as experimental results of optics measurement and correction at RHIC.

  4. Design study of the KIRAMS-430 superconducting cyclotron magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Kang, Joonsun; Hong, Bong Hwan; Jung, In Su

    2016-07-01

    Design study of superconducting cyclotron magnet for the carbon therapy was performed at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS). The name of this project is The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and a fixed frequency cyclotron with four spiral sector magnet was one of the candidate for the accelerator type. Basic parameters of the cyclotron magnet and its characteristics were studied. The isochronous magnetic field which can guide the 12C6+ ions up to 430 MeV/u was designed and used for the single particle tracking simulation. The isochronous condition of magnetic field was achieved by optimization of sector gap and width along the radius. Operating range of superconducting coil current was calculated and changing of the magnetic field caused by mechanical deformations of yokes was considered. From the result of magnetic field design, structure of the magnet yoke was planned.

  5. Morphology of High-Multiplicity Events in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Naselsky, P; Christensen, P R; Damgaard, P H; Frejsel, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A; Hansen, M; Kim, J; Verkhodanov, O; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss opportunities that may arise from subjecting high-multiplicity events in relativistic heavy ion collisions to an analysis similar to the one used in cosmology for the study of fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). To this end, we discuss examples of how pertinent features of heavy ion collisions including global characteristics, signatures of collective flow and event-wise fluctuations are visually represented in a Mollweide projection commonly used in CMB analysis, and how they are statistically analyzed in an expansion over spherical harmonic functions. If applied to the characterization of purely azimuthal dependent phenomena such as collective flow, the expansion coefficients of spherical harmonics are seen to contain redundancies compared to the set of harmonic flow coefficients commonly used in heavy ion collisions. Our exploratory study indicates, however, that these redundancies may offer novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of those event-wise fluctuations t...

  6. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter - the quark-gluon plasma primarily - and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  7. Study of the heavy ion bunch compression in CSRm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Da-Yu; LIU Yong; YUAN You-Jing; YANG Jian-Cheng; LI Peng; LI Jie; CHAI Wei-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of attaining nanosecond pulse length heavy ion beam is studied in the main ring (CSRm)of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou.Such heavy ion beam can be produced by non-adiabatic compression,and it is implemented by a fast rotation in the longitudinal phase space.In this paper,the possible beam parameters during longitudinal bunch compression are studied with the envelope model and Particle in Cell simulation,and the results are compared.The result shows that the short bunch 238U28+ with the pulse duration of about 50 ns at the energy of 200 MeV/u can be obtained which can satisfy the research of high density plasma physics experiment.

  8. Benchmarking of neutron production of heavy-ion transport codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States); Ronningen, R. M. [Michigan State Univ., National Superconductiong Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Univ. of Tennessee, 1004 Estabrook Rd., Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required. (authors)

  9. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  10. Calibration of Threshold Values of Bubble Detections by High Energy Heavy Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILi; T.Doke; J.Kikuchi; T.Murakami; GUOShi-lun

    2001-01-01

    Calibration of five types of bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy has been carried out by heavy ion beams of 150 MeV/u 4He, 490 MeV/u 28Si and 500 MeV/u 56Fe from the HIMAC accelerator in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. Their threshold values are respectively 8.4 (T-15 type), 1 536±232 (T-34 type), 1 628±4 (T-12 type), 2 335±332

  11. Recent results from HADES on electron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Galatyuk, T; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Díaz, J; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gil, A; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Lang, S; Lange, J S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Morinière, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V; Zhou, P

    2009-01-01

    Systematic investigations of dilepton production are performed at the SIS accelerator of GSI with the HADES spectrometer. The goal of this program is a detailed understanding of di-electron emission from hadronic systems at moderate temperatures and densities. New results obtained in HADES experiments focussing on electron pair production in elementary collisions are reported here. They pave the way to a better understanding of the origin of the so-called excess pairs earlier on observed in heavy-ion collisions by the DLS collaboration and lately confirmed in two measurements of the HADES collaboration using C+C and Ar+KCl collisions. Results of these studies are discussed.

  12. A spectrometer for study of high mass objects created in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Barish, K.N.; Batsouli, S.; Bennett, M.J.; Bennett, S.J.; Chikanian, A.; Coe, S.D.; Cormier, T.M.; Davies, R.R.; De Cataldo, G.; Dee, P.; Diebold, G.E.; Dover, C.B.; Ewell, L.A.; Emmet, W.; Fachini, P.; Fadem, B.; Finch, L.E.; George, N.K.; Giglietto, N.; Greene, S.V.; Haridas, P.; Hill, J.C. E-mail: jhill@iastate.edu; Hirsch, A.S.; Hoversten, R.A.; Huang, H.Z.; Jaradat, H.; Kim, B.; Kumar, B.S.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lainis, T.; Lewis, R.A.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Libby, B.; Majka, R.D.; Miller, T.E.; Munhoz, M.G.; Nagle, J.L.; Petridis, A.; Pless, I.A.; Pope, J.K.; Porile, N.T.; Pruneau, C.; Rabin, M.S.Z.; Reid, J.D.; Rimai, A.; Riso, J.; Rose, A.; Rotondo, F.S.; Sandweiss, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Skank, H.; Slaughter, A.J.; Sleage, G.; Smith, G.A.; Spinelli, P.; Srivastava, B.K.; Tincknell, M.L.; Toothacker, W.S.; Van Buren, G.; Wilson, W.K.; Wohn, F.K.; Wolin, E.J.; Xu, Z.; Zhao, K

    1999-11-21

    Experiment E864 at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator uses a high sensitivity, large acceptance spectrometer, designed to search for strangelets and other novel forms of matter produced in high-energy heavy ion collisions. The spectrometer has excellent acceptance and rate capabilities for measuring the production properties of known particles and nuclei such as p-bar, d-bar and {sup 6}He. The experiment uses a magnetic spectrometer and employs redundant time of flight and position detectors and a hadronic calorimeter. In this paper we describe the design and performance of the spectrometer.

  13. An Induction Linac Driver For A 0.44 MJ Heavy-Ion Direct Drive Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.; Lee, E.P.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    2010-02-08

    The conceptual design of a heavy ion fusion driver system is described, including all major components. Particular issues emerging from this exercise are identified and discussed. The most important conclusion of our study is that due to stringent requirements on ion pulse phase space, we are unable to find a credible accelerator design that meets the requirements of the example target. Either the target design must be modified to accept larger ion ranges and larger focal spot sizes, or we must consider other target options.

  14. Clinical trial of cancer therapy with heavy ions at heavy ion research facility in lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    With collaborative efforts of scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences and hospitals in Gansu, initial clinical trial on cancer therapy with heavy ions has been successfully carried out in China. From November 2006 to December 2007, 51 patients with superficially-placed tumors were treated with carbon ions at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) within four beam time blocks of 6-11 days, collaborating with the General Hospital of Lanzhou Command and the Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province. Patients and Methods: There were 51 patients (31 males and 20 females) with superficially-placed tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, malignant skin melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, breast cancer, metastatic lymph nodes of carcinomas and other skin lesions). The tumors were less than 2.1 cm deep to the skin surface. All patients had histological confirmation of their tumors. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of all patients was more than 70. The majority of patients were with failures or recurrences of conventional therapies. Median age at the time of radiotherapy (RT) was 55.5 years (range 5-85 years). Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion or a head mask and irradiated by carbon ion beams with energy 80-100 MeV/u at spread-out Bragg peak field generated from HIRFL, with two and three-dimensional conformal irradiation methods. Target volume was defined by physical palpation [ultrasonography and Computerized tomography (CT), for some cases]. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the gross total volume GTV with a 0.5-1.0cm margin axially. Field placement for radiation treatment planning was done based on the surface markings. RBE of 2.5-3 within the target volume, and 40-75 GyE with a weekly fractionation of 7 × 3-15 GyE/fraction were used in the trial. Patients had follow-up examinations performed 1 month after treatment, in 1 or 2 months for the first 6 months, and 3

  15. The effects of heavy ion particles on the developing murine cerebellum, with special reference to cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Chikako; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan). Research Inst. for Neurological Diseases and Geriatrics; Nojima, Kumie [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Internatinal Space Radiation Lab.

    2003-07-01

    We report here the effects of heavy ion beams on postnatal mouse cerebellar development, with reference to cell death. Eight-day-old B6C3F1 mice were irradiated with single doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy, using a carbon beam of 290 MeV delivered from a heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). To compare the effects of X-rays with those of accelerated carbon ions, 8-day-old mice were exposed to X-rays single doses of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Pups were fixed at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hr after exposure to HIMAC beams or X-rays. Four-{mu}m-thick parasagittal sections of the cerebella were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining as well as for staining with the TUNEL (terminal dUTP nick-end labeling) technique. The density of fragmented nuclei in the external granular layer increased with time, peaking at 6 hr after exposure, in both the HIMAC and X-irradiated groups. In the HIMAC groups, the density was significantly higher in those animals exposed to 0.25 Gy or more compared to 0 Gy, whereas in the X-irradiated groups it was significantly higher in those mice exposed to 0.5 Gy or more. Electron microscopic examinations revealed chromatin condensation in the cell nuclei in the HIMAC groups. This is the first in vivo evidence that apoptotic cell death is induced in developing mouse cerebellum after exposure to heavy ion particles. The difference in the frequency of dying cells between exposure to heavy ion particles and to X-rays may reflect the high linear energy transfer (LET) associated with a heavy ion beam. (author)

  16. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  17. Complexified boost invariance and holographic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    At strong coupling holographic studies have shown that heavy ion collisions do not obey normal boost invariance. Here we study a modified boost invariance through a complex shift in time, and show that this leads to surprisingly good agreement with numerical holographic computations. When including perturbations the agreement becomes even better, both in the hydrodynamic and the far-from-equilibrium regime. One of the main advantages is an analytic formulation of the stress-energy tensor of the longitudinal dynamics of holographic heavy ion collisions.

  18. Search for Exotic Strange Dibaryon in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOChong-Shou

    2003-01-01

    The exotic strange dibaryon particle (ΩΩ)0+ with S = -6 can be produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The yields of this kind of exotic strange dibaryon particles can increase signitlcantly soon as the formation of QGP does exhibit after the collision. If there is no phase transition after the collision, the upper bound of the production of this diomega can be estimated from the free hadronic gas model for nuclear matter. The relative yield ratio of diomega to deuteron is less than 0.000205, this means that if there is no QGP creation it is difficult to observe the production of diomega in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  19. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  20. Hydrodynamics in heavy-ion collisions: recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Amaresh

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the collective behaviour of the QCD matter produced in high energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We briefly review the latest developments in the hydrodynamical modeling of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Essential ingredients of the model such as the hydrodynamic evolution equations, dissipation, initial conditions, equation of state, and freeze-out process are reviewed. We discuss observable quantities such as particle spectra and anisotropic flow as well as the event-by-event fluctuations of these quantities. We also discuss the extraction of transport coefficients of the hot and dense QCD matter from the experimental data of collective flow.

  1. Swift heavy ions for materials engineering and nanostructuring

    CERN Document Server

    Avasthi, Devesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Ion beams have been used for decades for characterizing and analyzing materials. Now energetic ion beams are providing ways to modify the materials in unprecedented ways. This book highlights the emergence of high-energy swift heavy ions as a tool for tailoring the properties of materials with nanoscale structures. Swift heavy ions interact with materials by exciting/ionizing electrons without directly moving the atoms. This opens a new horizon towards the 'so-called' soft engineering. The book discusses the ion beam technology emerging from the non-equilibrium conditions and emphasizes the power of controlled irradiation to tailor the properties of various types of materials for specific needs.

  2. Quark vs Gluon jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Drauksas, Simonas

    2017-01-01

    The project concerned quark and gluon jets which are often used as probes of Quantum Chromodynamics(QCD) matter created in nuclear collisions at collider energies. The goal is to look for differences between quark and gluon jets, study their substructure, look for distinguishing features in unquenched (pp collisions) and quenched (heavy ion collisions) jets by using multi-variate analysis which was carried out with the help of ROOT's \\href{https://root.cern.ch/tmva}{TMVA} tool. Mapping out the modification of jets due to medium interactions could give valuable input to constraining the time evolution of the Quark Gluon Plasma created in heavy ion collisions.

  3. The elbe accelerator facility starts operation with the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2010-01-01

    As the first superconducting rf photo-injector (SRF gun) in practice, the FZD 3+1/2 cell SRF gun is successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE. This setting will improve the beam quality for ELBE users. It is the first example for an accelerator facility fully based on superconducting RF technology. For high average power FEL and ERL sources, the combination of SRF linac and SRF gun provides a new chance to produce beams of high average current and low emittance with relative low power consumption. The main parameters achieved from the present SRF gun are the final electron energy of 3 MeV, 16 μA average current, and rms transverse normalized emittances of 3 mm mrad at 77 pC bunch charge. A modified 3+1/2 cell niobium cavity has been fabricated and tested, which will increase the rf gradient in the gun and thus better the beam parameters further. In this paper the status of the integration of the SRF gun with the ELBE linac will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will ...

  4. Studies on heavy ion losses from collimation cleaning at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, P D; Jowett, J M; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B M; Valentino, G; Wollmann, D

    2015-01-01

    The LHC collimation system protects superconducting magnets from beam losses. By design, it was optimized for the high-intensity proton challenges but so far provided adequate protection also during the LHC heavy-ion runs with 208Pb82+ ions up to a beam energy of 4 Z TeV. Ion beam cleaning brings specific challenges due to different physical interactions with the collimator materials and might require further improvements for operation at 7 Z TeV. In this article, we study heavy-ion beam losses leaking out of the LHC collimation system, both in measurement and simulations. The simulations are carried out using both ICOSIM, with a simplified ion physics model implemented, and SixTrack, including more detailed starting conditions from FLUKA but without including online scattering in subsequent collimator hits. The results agree well with measurements overall, although some discrepancies are present. The reasons for the discrepancies are investigated and, on this basis, the requirements for an improved simulatio...

  5. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-15

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  6. Application of International Linear Collider superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on π-mode to provide a maximum accelerating gradient. A significant research and development effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its rf system which resulted in excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above ∼1.2  GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for β_{G}=0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H^{-} from ∼420  MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new β_{G}=0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9π-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  7. HOM damping properties of fundamental power couplers in the superconducting electron gun of the energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.

    2011-03-28

    Among the accelerator projects under construction at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is an R and D energy recovery LINAC (ERL) test facility. The ERL includes both a five-cell superconducting cavity as well as a superconducting, photoinjector electron gun. Because of the high-charge and high-current demands, effective higher-order mode (HOM) damping is essential, and several strategies are being pursued. Among these is the use of the fundamental power couplers as a means for damping some HOMs. Simulation studies have shown that the power couplers can play a substantial role in damping certain HOMs, and this presentation discusses these studies along with measurements.

  8. First Beam and High-Gradient Cryomodule Commissioning Results of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Darren; et al.

    2015-06-01

    The advanced superconducting test accelerator at Fermilab has accelerated electrons to 20 MeV and, separately, the International Linear Collider (ILC) style 8-cavity cryomodule has achieved the ILC performance milestone of 31.5 MV/m per cavity. When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one ILC-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We report on the results of first beam, the achievement of our cryomodule to ILC gradient specifications, and near-term future plans for the facility.

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  10. Method and Apparatus for measuring Gravitational Acceleration Utilizing a high Temperature Superconducting Bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R.

    1998-11-06

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operative temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling maybe accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  11. Beam Dynamics Design Studies of a Superconducting Radioactive Ion Beam Post-accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, MA; Pasini, M

    2011-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN proposes a superconducting upgrade to increase the energy range and quality of the radioactive ion beams produced at ISOLDE, which are currently post- accelerated by the normal conducting REX linac. The specification and design choices for the HIE-ISOLDE linac are outlined along with a comprehensive beam dynamics study undertaken to understand and mitigate the sources of beam emittance dilution. The dominant cause of transverse emittance growth was attributed to the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motions through the phase dependence of the rf defocusing force in the accelerating cavities. A parametric resonance induced by the coupling was observed and its excitation surveyed as a function of trans- verse phase advance using numerical simulations and analytic models to understand and avoid the regions of transverse beam instability. Other sources of emittance growth were studied and where necessary ameliorated, including the beam steering force in the quarter-wa...

  12. Development of the superconducting 3.9-GHz accelerating cavity at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, T.; Bauer, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Boffo, C.; Borissov, E.; Carter, H.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Gonin, I.; Khabibouline, T.; Mishra, S.; Mitchell, D.; Polubotko, V.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    A superconducting third harmonic 3.9 GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam quality in the TTF-like photoinjector [1]. Fermilab has developed, built and tested several prototypes, including two copper 9-cell cavities, one niobium 3-cell cavity, and one 9-cell cavity. The helium vessel and frequency tuner for the 9-cell cavity was built and tested as well. In cold tests, we achieved a peak surface magnetic field of {approx}100mT, well above the 70mT specification. The accelerating gradient was likely limited by thermal breakdown. Studies of the higher order modes in the cavity revealed that the existing cavity design with two HOM couplers will provide sufficient damping of these modes. In this paper we discuss the cavity design, results of the studies and plans for further development.

  13. Performance analysis of superconducting rf cavities for the CERN rare isotope accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatroni, S.; Miyazaki, A.; Rosaz, G.; Sublet, A.; Venturini Delsolaro, W.; Vaglio, R.; Palmieri, V.

    2016-09-01

    The first cryomodule of the new HIE-ISOLDE rare isotope accelerator has recently been commissioned with beam at CERN, with the second cryomodule ready for installation. Each cryomodule contains five superconducting low-beta quarter wave cavities, produced with the technology of sputtering a thin niobium film onto the copper substrate (Nb /Cu ). This technology has several benefits compared to the bulk niobium solution, but also drawbacks among which the most relevant is the increase of surface resistance with accelerating field. Recent work has established the possible connection of this phenomenon to local defects in the Nb /Cu interface, which may lead to increased thermal impedance and thus local thermal runaway. We have analyzed the performance of the HIE-ISOLDE cavities series production, as well as of a few prototypes', in terms of this model, and found a strong correlation between the rf properties and one of the model characteristic quantities, namely the total surface having increased interface thermal impedance.

  14. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.

  15. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  16. Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Liu, Hong; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2014-06-01

    1. Opening remarks; 2. A heavy ion phenomenology primer; 3. Results from lattice QCD at nonzero temperature; 4. Introducing the gauge/string duality; 5. A duality toolbox; 6. Bulk properties of strongly coupled plasma; 7. From hydrodynamics for far-from-equilibrium dynamics; 8. Probing strongly coupled plasma; 9. Quarkonium mesons in strongly coupled plasma; 10. Concluding remarks and outlook; Appendixes; References; Index.

  17. Evolution of clusters in energetic heavy ion bombarded amorphous graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Akhtar, M N; Ahmad, Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Carbon clusters have been generated by a novel technique of energetic heavy ion bombardment of amorphous graphite. The evolution of clusters and their subsequent fragmentation under continuing ion bombardment is revealed by detecting various clusters in the energy spectra of the direct recoils emitted as a result of collision between ions and the surface constituents.

  18. Subthreshold photons in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, G

    1998-01-01

    In the present talk, I discuss about the properties of the energetic photons produced in heavy-ion reactions. I show that they are sensitive to the maximum density reached in the first stage of the nuclear reaction. Then, the existence of a thermal contribution to the photon differential cross-secti

  19. Ionization of Sodium Cluster by Heavy Ion Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Energetic ions have recently been used as an efficient means to produce highly charged cold clusters~[1]. There are two ways to obtain highly-charged clusters: low-fluence nano-second lasers irradiation and energetic highly charged ions impact. Compared to the low-density laser, heavy ions, e.g. delivered by ECR sources, have the

  20. Charm resonance production in heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of charmonium states plays an important role among the probes to investigate the formation of a plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP in heavy-ion collisions. A review of the main J/ψ and ψ(2S results is presented, focussing on the most recent achievements from the LHC experiments.