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Sample records for super spectral viscosity

  1. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for water hammer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fast and efficient algorithm, Chebyshev super spectral viscosity (SSV method, is introduced to solve the water hammer equations. Compared with standard spectral method, the method's advantage essentially consists in adding a super spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wave numbers of the numerical solution. It can stabilize the numerical oscillation (Gibbs phenomenon and improve the computational efficiency while discontinuities appear in the solution. Results obtained from the Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method exhibit greater consistency with conventional water hammer calculations. It shows that this new numerical method offers an alternative way to investigate the behavior of the water hammer in propellant pipelines.

  2. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for a fluidized bed model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarra, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    A Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method and operator splitting are used to solve a hyperbolic system of conservation laws with a source term modeling a fluidized bed. The fluidized bed displays a slugging behavior which corresponds to shocks in the solution. A modified Gegenbauer postprocessing procedure is used to obtain a solution which is free of oscillations caused by the Gibbs-Wilbraham phenomenon in the spectral viscosity solution. Conservation is maintained by working with unphysical negative particle concentrations

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenković, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths—resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution—the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman [Institute of Planetology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Breuer, Doris, E-mail: Vlada.Stamenkovic@dlr.de, E-mail: Lena.Noack@dlr.de, E-mail: Doris.Breuer@dlr.de, E-mail: Tilman.Spohn@dlr.de [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-20

    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

  5. Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP): Initial Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeffrey; Kong, J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP) has been observing nearby (z analysis of this dataset consists of accurately and robustly measuring the strength and position of various spectral features near maximum brightness. We determine the endpoints, pseudo-continuum, expansion velocity, equivalent width, and depth of each major feature observed in our wavelength range. For objects with multiple spectra near maximum brightness we investigate how these values change with time. From these measurements we also calculate velocity gradients and various flux ratios within a given spectrum which will allow us to explore correlations between spectral and photometric observables. Some possible correlations have been studied previously, but our dataset is unique in how self-consistent the data reduction and spectral feature measurements have been, and it is a factor of a few larger than most earlier studies. We will briefly summarize the contents of the full dataset as an introduction to our initial analysis. Some of our measurements of SN Ia spectral features, along with a few initial results from those measurements, will be presented. Finally, we will comment on our current progress and planned future work. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of NSF grant AST-0908886, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Marc J. Staley Graduate Fellowship in Astronomy.

  6. Thermodynamic properties, melting temperature and viscosity of the mantles of Super Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Spohn, T.; Breuer, D.

    2010-12-01

    The recent dicscovery of extrasolar planets with radii of about twice the Earth radius and masses of several Earth masses such as e.g., Corot-7b (approx 5Mearth and 1.6Rearth, Queloz et al. 2009) has increased the interest in the properties of rock at extremely high pressures. While the pressure at the Earth’s core-mantle boundary is about 135GPa, pressures at the base of the mantles of extraterrestrial rocky planets - if these are at all differentiated into mantles and cores - may reach Tera Pascals. Although the properties and the mineralogy of rock at extremely high pressure is little known there have been speculations about mantle convection, plate tectonics and dynamo action in these “Super-Earths”. We assume that the mantles of these planets can be thought of as consisting of perovskite but we discuss the effects of the post-perovskite transition and of MgO. We use the Keane equation of state and the Slater relation (see e.g., Stacey and Davies 2004) to derive an infinite pressure value for the Grüneisen parameter of 1.035. To derive this value we adopted the infinite pressure limit for K’ (pressure derivative of the bulk modulus) of 2.41 as derived by Stacey and Davies (2004) by fitting PREM. We further use the Lindeman law to calculate the melting curve. We gauge the melting curve using the available experimental data for pressures up to 120GPa. The melting temperature profile reaches 6000K at 135GPa and increases to temperatures between 12,000K and 24,000K at 1.1TPa with a preferred value of 21,000K. We find the adiabatic temperature increase to reach 2,500K at 135GPa and 5,400K at 1.1TPa. To calculate the pressure dependence of the viscosity we assume that the rheology is diffusion controlled and calculate the partial derivative with respect to pressure of the activation enthalpy. We cast the partial derivative in terms of an activation volume and use the semi-empirical homologous temperature scaling (e.g., Karato 2008). We find that the

  7. Deep and wide gaps by super Earths in low-viscosity discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2018-06-01

    Planets can open cavities (gaps) in the protoplanetary gaseous discs in which they are born by exerting gravitational torques. Viscosity counters these torques and limits the depletion of the gaps. We present a simple one-dimensional scheme to calculate the gas density profile inside gaps by balancing the gravitational and viscous torques. By generalizing the results of Goodman & Rafikov (2001), our scheme properly accounts for the propagation of angular momentum by density waves. This method allows us to easily study low-viscosity discs, which are challenging for full hydrodynamical simulations. We complement our numerical integration by analytical equations for the gap's steady-state depth and width as a function of the planet's to star's mass ratio μ, the gas disc's aspect ratio h, and its Shakura & Sunyaev viscosity parameter α. Specifically, we focus on low-mass planets (μ < μth ≡ h3) and identify a new low-viscosity regime, α < h(μ/μth)5, in which the classical analytical scaling relations are invalid. Equivalently, this low-viscosity regime applies to every gap that is depleted by more than a factor of (μth/μ)3 relative to the unperturbed density. We show that such gaps are significantly deeper and wider than previously thought, and consequently take a longer time to reach equilibrium.

  8. SNSEDextend: SuperNova Spectral Energy Distributions extrapolation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierel, Justin D. R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Avelino, Arturo; Bianco, Federica; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew; Hicken, Malcolm; Hounsell, Rebekah; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kessler, Richard; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, Gautham; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Scolnic, Daniel; Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2018-05-01

    SNSEDextend extrapolates core-collapse and Type Ia Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) into the UV and IR for use in simulations and photometric classifications. The user provides a library of existing SED templates (such as those in the authors' SN SED Repository) along with new photometric constraints in the UV and/or NIR wavelength ranges. The software then extends the existing template SEDs so their colors match the input data at all phases. SNSEDextend can also extend the SALT2 spectral time-series model for Type Ia SN for a "first-order" extrapolation of the SALT2 model components, suitable for use in survey simulations and photometric classification tools; as the code does not do a rigorous re-training of the SALT2 model, the results should not be relied on for precision applications such as light curve fitting for cosmology.

  9. Speech Enhancement by MAP Spectral Amplitude Estimation Using a Super-Gaussian Speech Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotter Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents two spectral amplitude estimators for acoustical background noise suppression based on maximum a posteriori estimation and super-Gaussian statistical modelling of the speech DFT amplitudes. The probability density function of the speech spectral amplitude is modelled with a simple parametric function, which allows a high approximation accuracy for Laplace- or Gamma-distributed real and imaginary parts of the speech DFT coefficients. Also, the statistical model can be adapted to optimally fit the distribution of the speech spectral amplitudes for a specific noise reduction system. Based on the super-Gaussian statistical model, computationally efficient maximum a posteriori speech estimators are derived, which outperform the commonly applied Ephraim-Malah algorithm.

  10. Numerical experiments on thermal convection of highly compressible fluids with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity: Implications for mantle convection of super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Masanori; Yamamoto, Mayumi

    2018-01-01

    We conduct a series of numerical experiments of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids in a two-dimensional rectangular box, in order to study the mantle convection on super-Earths. The thermal conductivity and viscosity are assumed to exponentially depend on depth and temperature, respectively, while the variations in thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity and reference density) with depth are taken to be relevant for the super-Earths with 10 times the Earth's. From our experiments we identified a distinct regime of convecting flow patterns induced by the interplay between the adiabatic temperature change and the spatial variations in viscosity and thermal conductivity. That is, for the cases with strong temperature-dependent viscosity and depth-dependent thermal conductivity, a "deep stratosphere" of stable thermal stratification is formed at the base of the mantle, in addition to thick stagnant lids at their top surfaces. In the "deep stratosphere", the fluid motion is insignificant particularly in the vertical direction in spite of smallest viscosity owing to its strong dependence on temperature. Our finding may further imply that some of super-Earths which are lacking in mobile tectonic plates on their top surfaces may have "deep stratospheres" at the base of their mantles.

  11. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

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    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  12. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  13. Spectral parameters for scattering amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Livia; Łukowski, Tomasz; Meneghelli, Carlo; Plefka, Jan; Staudacher, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Planar N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory appears to be a quantum integrable four-dimensional conformal theory. This has been used to find equations believed to describe its exact spectrum of anomalous dimensions. Integrability seemingly also extends to the planar space-time scattering amplitudes of the N=4 model, which show strong signs of Yangian invariance. However, in contradistinction to the spectral problem, this has not yet led to equations determining the exact amplitudes. We propose that the missing element is the spectral parameter, ubiquitous in integrable models. We show that it may indeed be included into recent on-shell approaches to scattering amplitude integrands, providing a natural deformation of the latter. Under some constraints, Yangian symmetry is preserved. Finally we speculate that the spectral parameter might also be the regulator of choice for controlling the infrared divergences appearing when integrating the integrands in exactly four dimensions

  14. Spectrally Resolved and Functional Super-resolution Microscopy via Ultrahigh-Throughput Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Moon, Seonah; Kenny, Samuel J; Xu, Ke

    2018-03-20

    As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples. In this Account, we summarize the rationale, design, and results of our recent efforts toward the integration of the spectral dimension of single-molecule fluorescence with SMLM to achieve spectrally resolved SMLM (SR-SMLM) and functional SRM ( f-SRM). By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing single-molecule fluorescence on-off switching typical of SMLM, we first showed that in densely labeled (bio)samples it is possible to record the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules synchronously within minutes, giving rise to ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and SR-SMLM. This allowed us to first show statistically that for many dyes, single molecules of the same species exhibit near identical emission in fixed cells. This narrow distribution of emission wavelengths, which contrasts markedly with previous results at solid surfaces, allowed us to unambiguously identify single molecules of spectrally similar dyes. Crosstalk-free, multiplexed SRM was thus achieved for four dyes that were merely 10 nm apart in emission spectrum, with the three-dimensional SRM images of all four dyes being automatically aligned within one image channel. The ability to incorporate single-molecule fluorescence measurement with

  15. Recent developments in the super transition array model for spectral simulation of LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed sub-picosecond pulse lasers have been used to create hot, near solid density plasmas. Since these plasmas are nearly in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), their emission spectra involve a huge number of populated configurations. A typical spectrum is a combination of many unresolved clusters of emission, each containing an immense number of overlapping, unresolvable bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Under LTE, or near LTE conditions, traditional detailed configuration or detailed term spectroscopic models are not capable of handling the vast number of transitions involved. The average atom (AA) model, on the other hand, accounts for all relevant transitions, but in an oversimplified fashion that ignores all spectral structure. The Super Transition Array (STA) model, which has been developed in recent years, combines the simplicity and comprehensiveness of the AA model with the accuracy of detailed term accounting. The resolvable structure of spectral clusters is revealed by successively increasing the number of distinct STA's, until convergence is attained. The limit of this procedure is a detailed unresolved transition array (UTA) spectrum, with a term-broadened line for each accessible configuration-to-configuration transition, weighted by the relevant Boltzman population. In practice, this UTA spectrum is actually obtained using only a few thousand to tens of thousands of STA's (as opposed, typically, to billions of UTAs). The central result of STA theory is a set of formulas for the moments (total intensity, average transition energy, variance) of an STA. In calculating the moments, detailed relativistic first order quantum transition energies and probabilities are used. The energy appearing in the Boltzman factor associated with each level in a superconfiguration is the zero order result corrected by a superconfiguration averaged first order correction. Examples and application to recent measurements are presented

  16. Environmentally friendly synthesis of reducing super-heavy oil viscosity; Sintesis amigable con el ambiente de reductores de viscosidad para petroleos Super-pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Sotelo, Laura Veronica [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lcastros@ipn.mx; Flores Oropeza, Eugenio Alejandro [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: eaflores@imp.mx; Hernandez Garcia, Arnulfo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: arte8080@hotmail.com; Vazquez Moreno, Flavio Salvador [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: fvmoreno@imp.mx

    2010-11-15

    There are certain polymers that have the character to be flow modifiers, and this emerges of the chemical structure and molecular interaction that the polymers have with the crude oil. Three polymers were prepared by emulsion polymerization were characterized, they were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Size exclusion Size exclusion chromatography (SEC). To assess its implementation, the polymers were evaluated in heavy crude oils with rotational tests. The polymer concentration was evaluated at 1000 ppm, and it presented an appreciable reduction of viscosity in heavy crude oil. [Spanish] Existen ciertos polimeros que tienen el caracter de ser modificadores de flujo, y esto surge de la estructura quimica y las interacciones moleculares que presentan estos al contacto con el aceite crudo. Se sintetizaron tres polimeros a traves de la tecnica de polimerizacion en emulsion, los polimeros fueron caracterizados por Espectroscopia Infrarroja con transformada de Fourier (FTIR), tambien se utilizo la tecnica de Cromatografia por Exclusion de Tamanos (SEC). Para valorar su aplicacion, se evaluaron en aceites crudos pesados con pruebas rotacionales. La concentracion de los polimeros se valuo en 1000 ppm, y se aprecio un notable abatimiento de la viscosidad del aceite crudo pesado.

  17. A statistical comparison of SuperDARN spectral width boundaries and DMSP particle precipitation boundaries in the morning sector ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining reliable proxies for the ionospheric signature of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB is crucial for making accurate ionospheric measurements of many magnetospheric processes (e.g. magnetic reconnection. This study compares the latitudes of Spectral Width Boundaries (SWBs, identified in the morning sector ionosphere using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN, with Particle Precipitation Boundaries (PPBs determined using the low-altitude Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft, in order to determine whether the SWB represents a good proxy for the ionospheric projection of the OCB. The latitudes of SWBs and PPBs were identified using automated algorithms applied to 5 years (1997-2001 of data measured in the 00:00-12:00 Magnetic Local Time (MLT range. A latitudinal difference was measured between each PPB and the nearest SWB within a ±10min Universal Time (UT window and within a ±1h MLT window. The results show that the SWB represents a good proxy for the OCB close to midnight (~00:00-02:00 MLT and noon (~08:00-12:00 MLT, but is located some distance (~2°-4° equatorward of the OCB across much of the morning sector ionosphere (~02:00-08:00 MLT. On the basis of this and other studies we deduce that the SWB is correlated with the poleward boundary of auroral emissions in the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield ``Long" (LBHL UV emission range and hence, that spectral width is inversely correlated with the energy flux of precipitating electrons. We further conclude that the combination of two factors may explain the spatial distribution of spectral width values in the polar ionospheres. The small-scale structure of the convection electric field leads to an enhancement in spectral width in regions close to the OCB, whereas increases in ionospheric conductivity (relating to the level of incident electron energy flux lead to a reduction in spectral width in regions just equatorward of the OCB.

  18. Spectral modeling of scintillator for the NEMO-3 and SuperNEMO detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyriades, J. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France); Arnold, R. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Augier, C. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France); Baker, J. [INL, Idaho Falls, 83415 (United States); Barabash, A.S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bongrand, M.; Broudin-Bay, G. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91405 Orsay (France); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Caffrey, A.J. [INL, Idaho Falls, 83415 (United States); Cebrian, S. [University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chapon, A. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14032 Caen (France); Chauveau, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Dafni, Th. [University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Daraktchieva, Z. [University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Diaz, J. [IFIC, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Durand, D. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, F-14032 Caen (France); Egorov, V.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Evans, J.J. [University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Fatemi-Ghomi, N. [University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Flack, R. [University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a GEANT4-based detailed software model of photon transport in plastic scintillator blocks and have used it to study the NEMO-3 and SuperNEMO calorimeters employed in experiments designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. We compare our simulations to measurements using conversion electrons from a calibration source of {sup 207}Bi and show that the agreement is improved if wavelength-dependent properties of the calorimeter are taken into account. In this article, we briefly describe our modeling approach and results of our studies.

  19. Statistical characteristics of Doppler spectral width as observed by the conjugate SuperDARN radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hosokawa

    Full Text Available We performed a statistical analysis of the occurrence distribution of Doppler spectral width around the day-side high-latitude ionosphere using data from the conjugate radar pair composed of the CUTLASS Iceland-East radar in the Northern Hemisphere and the SENSU Syowa-East radar in the Southern Hemisphere. Three types of spectral width distribution were identified: (1 an exponential-like distribution in the lower magnetic latitudes (below 72°, (2 a Gaussian-like distribution around a few degrees magnetic latitude, centered on 78°, and (3 another type of distribution in the higher magnetic latitudes (above 80°. The first two are considered to represent the geophysical regimes such as the LLBL and the cusp, respectively, because they are similar to the spectral width distributions within the LLBL and the cusp, as classified by Baker et al. (1995. The distribution found above 80° magnetic latitude has been clarified for the first time in this study. This distribution has similarities to the exponential-like distribution in the lower latitude part, although clear differences also exist in their characteristics. These three spectral width distributions are commonly identified in conjugate hemispheres. The latitudinal transition from one distribution to another exhibits basically the same trend between two hemispheres. There is, however, an interhemispheric difference in the form of the distribution around the cusp latitudes, such that spectral width values obtained from Syowa-East are larger than those from Iceland-East. On the basis of the spectral width characteristics, the average locations of the cusp and the open/closed field line boundary are estimated statistically.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere inter-actions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers

  20. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

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    J.-P. Villain

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  1. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  2. Super-transition-arrays: A model for the spectral analysis of hot, dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Shvarts, D.; Zigler, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the bound-bound emission from a local thermodynamic equilibrium plasma. The total transition array of a specific single-electron transition, including all possible contributing configurations, is described by only a small number of super-transition-arrays (STA's). Exact analytic expressions are given for the first few moments of an STA. The method is shown to interpolate smoothly between the average-atom (AA) results and the detailed configuration accounting that underlies the unresolved transition array (UTA) method. Each STA is calculated in its own, optimized potential, and the model achieves rapid convergence in the number of STA's included. Comparisons of predicted STA spectra with the results of the AA and UTA methods are presented. It is shown that under certain plasma conditions the contributions of low-probability transitions can accumulate into an important component of the emission. In these cases, detailed configuration accounting is impractical. On the other hand, the detailed structure of the spectrum under such conditions is not described by the AA method. The application of the STA method to laser-produced plasma experiments is discussed

  3. Convex relaxations of spectral sparsity for robust super-resolution and line spectrum estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuejie

    2017-08-01

    We consider recovering the amplitudes and locations of spikes in a point source signal from its low-pass spectrum that may suffer from missing data and arbitrary outliers. We first review and provide a unified view of several recently proposed convex relaxations that characterize and capitalize the spectral sparsity of the point source signal without discretization under the framework of atomic norms. Next we propose a new algorithm when the spikes are known a priori to be positive, motivated by applications such as neural spike sorting and fluorescence microscopy imaging. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. [The design and implementation of the web typical surface object spectral information system in arid areas based on .NET and SuperMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Hong-jiang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified .NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the derivative spectral data and its drawings. In addition, the system initially possessed a simple spectral data mining and analysis capabilities, and this advantage provided an efficient, reliable and convenient data management and application platform for the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis's follow-up study in soil salinization. Finally, It's easy to maintain, convinient for secondary development and practically operating in good condition.

  5. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  6. Super Dual Auroral Radar Network observations of fluctuations in the spectral distribution of near range meteor echoes in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available The Doppler shifts of meteor echoes measured by the SuperDARN HF radar network have been used in several studies to observe neutral winds in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. In the absence of accurate height information for individual meteors, it has been necessary to assume a statistical mean meteor layer where the variations in altitude were not correlated to changes in the horizontal winds. Observations of spectral width distribution variations made by the radars allow an independent determination of the systematic error in the height. We have investigated the dependence of this distribution on a number of factors including the radar geometry, diurnal and seasonal cycles, variations in solar UV irradiance and geomagnetic activity. Changes in the altitude of the mean meteor layer observed at different radar ranges provide us with some insight into the structure of the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere within which the meteors are being ablated. An examination of the spectral widths, as measured by the CUT-LASS Finland radar, in the days preceding and following a Storm Sudden Commencement in April 1997, illustrates how the spectral properties of the observed region can be affected. The variations in the widths were consistent with model calculations of the changes to the temperature profile over this interval. Further refinements in the determination of the spectral width are outlined for future experiments.

    Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; instruments and techniques

  7. Volumetric, viscometric, spectral studies and viscosity modelling of binary mixtures of esters and alcohols (diethyl succinate, or ethyl octanoate + isobutanol, or isopentanol) at varying temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorović, Divna M.; Živković, Emila M.; Matija, Lidija R.; Kijevčanin, Mirjana Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densitis and viscosities of four ester + alcohol binary mixtures were measured. • Excess and deviation functions were calculated. • Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis was conducted. • Molecular interactions present in the mixture were analyzed. • Viscosity modelling was performed. - Abstract: Density, viscosity and refractive index of four binary mixtures consisting of diethyl succinate or ethyl octanoate + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 3-methyl-1-butanol have been measured at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range from 288.15 K to 323.15 K. Excess and deviation functions have been calculated from these data and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of excess molar volume and deviation functions, with FT-IR study, were further used in the analysis of molecular interactions present in the mixture as well as the temperature influence on them. Molar excess Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow were additionally calculated from measured density and viscosity data for better understanding of present molecular interactions. Viscosity modelling was done with two approaches, predictive by group contribution models (UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG-VISCO), and correlative by one to three-parameter models (Teja-Rice, Grunberg–Nissan, McAlister, Eyring-UNIQUAC and Eyring-NRTL). The obtained results were compared with experimental data and conclusions about applied approaches and models were made.

  8. Enhancement of the spectral selectivity of complex samples by measuring them in a frozen state at low temperatures in order to improve accuracy for quantitative analysis. Part II. Determination of viscosity for lube base oils using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mooeung; Chung, Hoeil

    2013-03-07

    The use of selectivity-enhanced Raman spectra of lube base oil (LBO) samples achieved by the spectral collection under frozen conditions at low temperatures was effective for improving accuracy for the determination of the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (KV@40). A collection of Raman spectra from samples cooled around -160 °C provided the most accurate measurement of KV@40. Components of the LBO samples were mainly long-chain hydrocarbons with molecular structures that were deformable when these were frozen, and the different structural deformabilities of the components enhanced spectral selectivity among the samples. To study the structural variation of components according to the change of sample temperature from cryogenic to ambient condition, n-heptadecane and pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) were selected as representative components of LBO samples, and their temperature-induced spectral features as well as the corresponding spectral loadings were investigated. A two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was also employed to explain the origin for the improved accuracy. The asynchronous 2D correlation pattern was simplest at the optimal temperature, indicating the occurrence of distinct and selective spectral variations, which enabled the variation of KV@40 of LBO samples to be more accurately assessed.

  9. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  10. Mid infra-red hyper-spectral imaging with bright super continuum source and fast acousto-optic tuneable filter for cytological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Valle, Stefano; Stephens, Gary; Moselund, Peter; Van der Zanden, Koen; Napier, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to offer an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis. Current development of bright super-continuum sources, narrow band acousto-optic tunable filters and fast cameras have made feasible a system that can be used for fast diagnosis of cancer in vivo at point of care. The performance of a proto system that has been developed under the Minerva project is described. (paper)

  11. Super jackstraws and super waterwheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin-Ho

    2007-01-01

    We construct various new BPS states of D-branes preserving 8 supersymmetries. These include super Jackstraws (a bunch of scattered D- or (p, q)-strings preserving supersymmetries), and super waterwheels (a number of D2-branes intersecting at generic angles on parallel lines while preserving supersymmetries). Super D-Jackstraws are scattered in various dimensions but are dynamical with all their intersections following a common null direction. Meanwhile, super (p, q)-Jackstraws form a planar static configuration. We show that the SO(2) subgroup of SL(2, R), the group of classical S-duality transformations in IIB theory, can be used to generate this latter configuration of variously charged (p, q)-strings intersecting at various angles. The waterwheel configuration of D2-branes preserves 8 supersymmetries as long as the 'critical' Born-Infeld electric fields are along the common direction

  12. Super differential forms on super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konisi, Gaku; Takahasi, Wataru; Saito, Takesi.

    1994-01-01

    Line integral on the super Riemann surface is discussed. A 'super differential operator' which possesses both properties of differential and of differential operator is proposed. With this 'super differential operator' a new theory of differential form on the super Riemann surface is constructed. We call 'the new differentials on the super Riemann surface' 'the super differentials'. As the applications of our theory, the existency theorems of singular 'super differentials' such as 'super abelian differentials of the 3rd kind' and of a super projective connection are examined. (author)

  13. Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-Lun Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.

  14. Super families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study on phenomena in the super high energy region, Σ E j > 1000 TeV revealed events that present a big dark spot in central region with high concentration of energy and particles, called halo. Six super families with halo were analysed by Brazil-Japan Cooperation of Cosmic Rays. For each family the lateral distribution of energy density was constructed and R c Σ E (R c ) was estimated. For studying primary composition, the energy correlation with particles released separately in hadrons and gamma rays was analysed. (M.C.K.)

  15. Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  18. A super soliton connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurses, M.; Oguz, O.

    1985-07-01

    Integrable super non-linear classical partial differential equations are considered. A super s1(2,R) algebra valued connection 1-form is constructed. It is shown that curvature 2-form of this super connection vanishes by virtue of the integrable super equations of motion. A super extension of the AKNS scheme is presented and a class of super extension of the Lax hierarchy and super non-linear Schroedinger equation are found. O(N) extension and the Baecklund transformations of the above super equations are also considered. (author)

  19. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  20. Super-Hamiltonian Structures and Conservation Laws of a New Six-Component Super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucai You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-component super-Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (-AKNS hierarchy is proposed by the zero curvature equation associated with Lie superalgebras. Supertrace identity is used to furnish the super-Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear superintegrable hierarchy. Furthermore, we derive the infinite conservation laws of the first two nonlinear super-AKNS equations in the hierarchy by utilizing spectral parameter expansions. PACS: 02.30.Ik; 02.30.Jr; 02.20.Sv.

  1. Dynamic viscosity of polymer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterlin, A

    1982-03-01

    The dynamic viscosity investigation of solutions of long chain polymers in very viscous solvents has definitely shown the existence of the low and high frequency plateau with the gradual transition between them. In both extreme cases the extrapolation of the measured Newtonian viscosities of the plateaus to the infinite dilution yields the limiting intrinsic viscosities. Such a behavior is expected from the dynamic intrinsic viscosity of the necklace model of the linear polymer with finite internal viscosity. The plateau at low frequency shows up in any model of polymer solution. This work shows the constant dynamic intrinsic viscosity in both extreme cases is well reproducible by the necklace model with the internal viscosity acting only between the beads on the same link. 20 references.

  2. Skyrmions and Hall viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the contribution of magnetic Skyrmions to the Hall viscosity and propose a simple way to identify it in experiments. The topological Skyrmion charge density has a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity that is identified in existing experimental data. In an electrically neutral system, the Skyrmion charge density is directly related to the thermal Hall conductivity. These results are direct consequences of the field theory Ward identities, which relate various physical quantities based on symmetries and have been previously applied to quantum Hall systems.

  3. Adinkras, Dessins, Origami, and Supersymmetry Spectral Triples

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, Matilde; Zolman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spectral geometry and spectral action functionals associated to 1D Supersymmetry Algebras, using the classification of these superalgebras in terms of Adinkra graphs and the construction of associated dessin d'enfant and origami curves. The resulting spectral action functionals are computed in terms of the Selberg (super) trace formula.

  4. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael

    1999-01-01

    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves....... The experiments show a significant increase in extensional viscosity with increasing pressure....

  5. The viscosity of dimethyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    and NOx traps are installed. The most significant problem encountered when engines are fuelled with DME is that the injection equipment breaks down prematurely due to extensive wear. This tribology issue can be explained by the very low lubricity and viscosity of DME. Recently, laboratory methods have...... appeared capable of measuring these properties of DME. The development of this is rendered difficult because DME has to be pressurised to remain in the liquid state and it dissolves most of the commercially available elastomers. This paper deals fundamentally with the measurement of the viscosity of DME...... and extends the discussion to the difficulty of viscosity establishing of very thin fluids. The main issue here is that it is not easy to calibrate the viscometers in the very low viscosity range corresponding to about one-fifth of that of water. The result is that the low viscosity is measured at high...

  6. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  7. Super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alice

    1990-01-01

    A super Riemann surface is a particular kind of (1,1)-dimensional complex analytic supermanifold. From the point of view of super-manifold theory, super Riemann surfaces are interesting because they furnish the simplest examples of what have become known as non-split supermanifolds, that is, supermanifolds where the odd and even parts are genuinely intertwined, as opposed to split supermanifolds which are essentially the exterior bundles of a vector bundle over a conventional manifold. However undoubtedly the main motivation for the study of super Riemann surfaces has been their relevance to the Polyakov quantisation of the spinning string. Some of the papers on super Riemann surfaces are reviewed. Although recent work has shown all super Riemann surfaces are algebraic, some areas of difficulty remain. (author)

  8. Supermanifolds and super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The theory of super Riemann surfaces is rigorously developed using Rogers' theory of supermanifolds. The global structures of super Teichmueller space and super moduli space are determined. The super modular group is shown to be precisely the ordinary modular group. Super moduli space is shown to be the gauge-fixing slice for the fermionic string path integral

  9. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  10. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  11. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence

    2017-06-01

    We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  12. Comparison of parallel viscosity with neoclassical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Nakajima, N.

    1996-04-01

    Toroidal rotation profiles are measured with charge exchange spectroscopy for the plasma heated with tangential NBI in CHS heliotron/torsatron device to estimate parallel viscosity. The parallel viscosity derived from the toroidal rotation velocity shows good agreement with the neoclassical parallel viscosity plus the perpendicular viscosity. (μ perpendicular = 2 m 2 /s). (author)

  13. Shear viscosity from Kubo formalism: NJL model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert; Weise, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    A large-N c expansion is combined with the Kubo formalism to study the shear viscosity η of strongly interacting matter in the two-flavor NJL model. We discuss analytical and numerical approaches to η and investigate systematically its strong dependence on the spectral width and the momentum-space cutoff. Thermal effects on the constituent quark mass from spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking are included. The ratio η/s and its thermal dependence are derived for different parameterizations of the spectral width and for an explicit one-loop calculation including mesonic modes within the NJL model. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  15. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  16. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Heidi E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modify viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.

  17. Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated

  18. Viscosity kernel of molecular fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puscasu, Ruslan; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , temperature, and chain length dependencies of the reciprocal and real-space viscosity kernels are presented. We find that the density has a major effect on the shape of the kernel. The temperature range and chain lengths considered here have by contrast less impact on the overall normalized shape. Functional...... forms that fit the wave-vector-dependent kernel data over a large density and wave-vector range have also been tested. Finally, a structural normalization of the kernels in physical space is considered. Overall, the real-space viscosity kernel has a width of roughly 3–6 atomic diameters, which means...

  19. Effect of polycarboxylate ether comb-type polymer on viscosity and interfacial properties of kaolinite clay suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Lu, Qingye; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2012-07-15

    The interactions between kaolinite clay particles and a comb-type polymer (polycarboxylate ether or PCE), so-called PCE super-plasticizer, were investigated through viscosity and surface forces measurements by a rheometer and a Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA). The addition of PCE shows a strong impact on the viscosity of concentrated kaolinite suspensions in alkaline solutions (pH=8.3) but a weak effect under acidic conditions (pH=3.4). In acidic solutions, the high viscosity measured is attributed to the strong electrostatic interaction between negatively charged basal planes and positively charged edge surfaces of clay particles. Under the alkaline condition, the suspension viscosity was found to first increase significantly and then decrease with increasing PCE dosages. The results from surface forces measurement show that PCE molecules at low dosages can bridge the kaolinite particles in the concentrated suspensions via hydrogen bonding, leading to the formation of a kaolinite-PCE "network" and hence an increased suspension viscosity. At high PCE dosages, clay particles are fully covered by PCE molecules, leading to a more dispersed kaolinite suspensions and hence lower suspension viscosity due to steric repulsion between the adsorbed PCE molecules. The insights derived from measuring viscosity and interfacial properties of kaolinite suspensions containing varying amount of comb-type super-plasticizer PCE at different pH provide the foundation for many engineering applications and optimizing industrial processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  1. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  2. Viscosity of particle laden films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timounay Yousra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.

  3. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  4. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  5. Fission hindrance and nuclear viscosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is in exact conformity with all the previous measurements [7,10–13]. The CASCADE calculations (solid lines in figure 1) used in this first level of analysis do not include any viscosity or temperature-dependent nuclear level density parameter a. The γ and particle decay are calculated using the standard prescriptions as ...

  6. Two-reduction of the super-KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    Recursion relations are established for the residues of fractional powers of a two-reduced super-KP operator making use of the Baker-Akhiezer function. These show the integrability of the two-reduced even (or bosonic) flows of the super-KP hierarchy. Similar recursion relations are also proven for the residues of operators associated with the odd (or fermionic) flows of the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. Due to the presence of a spectral parameter and itts fermionic partner in the Baker-Akhiezer function, these recursion relations should be relevant to any attempt to prove or disprove a recent proposal that the integrable hierarchy underlying two-dimensional quantum supergravity is the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. (orig.)

  7. Second viscosity effects in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potupa, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the investigation is to draw attention to two important aspects in the choice of a substance model, namely an allowance for the viscosity and behaviour of the metrics at the later stages of cosmological evolution. It is shown that in homogeneous cosmological models taking into account the viscosity there are solutions which realize interpolation between the Fridman and steady-state regimes. In a closed model a solution is obtained which corresponds to the ''curvature compensation'' regime with an unboundedly increasing radius. The problem of compensation of singularity at t → o is discussed as well as the choice of the equations of state for the early (hadron) stages of cosmological evolution in connection with the hydrodynamic theory of multiple hadron production

  8. Effect of viscosity on learned satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Gosses, A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C.de

    2009-01-01

    A higher viscosity of a food leads to a longer orosensory stimulation. This may facilitate the learned association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. In the current study we investigated the effect of viscosity on learned satiation. In two intervention groups a low viscosity (LV)

  9. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  10. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  11. The super-resolution debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for nanoscopy with super-resolution, consensus from the imaging community is that super-resolution is not always needed and that scientists should choose an imaging technique based on their specific application.

  12. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of expanded rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K

    2003-01-01

    First three non-vanishing sum rules for the bulk and longitudinal stress auto-correlation functions have been evaluated for liquid Rb at six thermodynamic states along the liquid-vapour coexistence curve. The Mori memory function formalism and the frequency sum rules have been used to calculate bulk and longitudinal viscosities. The results thus obtained for the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity have been compared with experimental and other theoretical predictions wherever available. The values of the bulk viscosity have been found to be more than the corresponding values of the shear viscosity for all six thermodynamic states investigated here

  13. Frames in super Hilbert modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define super Hilbert module and investigate frames in this space. Super Hilbert modules are  generalization of super Hilbert spaces in Hilbert C*-module setting. Also, we define frames in a super Hilbert module and characterize them by using of the concept of g-frames in a Hilbert C*-module. Finally, disjoint frames in Hilbert C*-modules are introduced and investigated.

  14. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  15. The shear viscosity of the non-commutative plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Mas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    We compute the shear viscosity of the non-commutative N = 4 super Yang-Mills quantum field theory at strong coupling using the dual supergravity background. Special interest derives from the fact that the background presents an intrinsic anisotropy in space through the distinction of commutative and non-commutative directions. Despite this anisotropy the analysis exhibits the ubiquitous result η/s = 1/4π for two different shear channels. In order to derive this result, we show that the boundary energy momentum tensor must couple to the open string metric. As a byproduct we compute the renormalised holographic energy momentum tensor and show that it coincides with one in the commutative theory

  16. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  17. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Super Refractory Status Epilepticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    et al did retrospective cohort study from 1 January st. 1994 to 31 March 1998 at Presbyterian Medical. Centre in Columbia, to determine the frequency, risk factors and impact on the outcome of RSE. They found out that 69% of seizures recurred after. Key Words: Super refractory status epilepticus, Zambia. Medical Journal of ...

  19. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  20. SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemetz, R.; Selph, F.; Barnes, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of improvements, operations, and research programs at the SuperHILAC. Improvements were made in beam injection, ion sources, and computer control systems. The research efficiency ranged between 70 and 90 percent during most of the year

  1. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  2. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  5. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  6. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  7. Determination of Viscosity-Average Molecular Weight of Chitosan using Intrinsic Viscosity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud

    2011-01-01

    Molecular weight of chitosan can be determined by different techniques such as Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), Static Light Scattering (SLS) and intrinsic viscosity measurement. Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (author)

  8. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  9. EUROv Super Beam Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino Super Beams use conventional techniques to significantly increase the neutrino beam intensity compared to the present neutrino facilities. An essential part of these facilities is an intense proton driver producing a beam power higher than a MW. The protons hit a target able to accept the high proton beam intensity. The produced charged particles are focused by a system of magnetic horns towards the experiment detectors. The main challenge of these projects is to deal with the high beam intensity for many years. New high power neutrino facilities could be build at CERN profiting from an eventual construction of a high power proton driver. The European FP7 Design Study EUROv, among other neutrino beams, studies this Super Beam possibility. This paper will give the latest developments in this direction.

  10. Super-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerold, J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns super-insulation, which also acts as spacing between two pressurized surfaces, where the crossing bars in at least two layers are provided, with interposed foil. The super-insulation is designed so that it can take compression forces and limits thermal radiation and thermal conduction sufficiently, where the total density of heat flow is usually limited to a few watts per m 2 . The solution to the problem is characterized by the fact that the bars per layer are parallel and from layer to layer they are at an angle to each other and the crossover positions of the bars of different layers are at fixed places and so form contact columns. The basic idea is that bars crossing over each other to support compression forces are used so that contact columns are formed, which are compressed to a certain extent by the load. (orig./PW) [de

  11. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  12. Super-Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyl, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the Einstein, Weyl, supergravity and superconformal theories are special cases of gauge transformations in SU(4vertical-barN). This group is shown to contain SU(2,2) x SU(N) x U(1) for its commuting or Bose part, and to contain 8N supersymmetry generators for its anticommuting or Fermi part. Using the electromagnetic Lagrangian as a model, a super-Lagrangian is constructed for vector potentials. Invariance is automatic in free space, but, in the presence of matter, restrictions on the supersymmetry transformations are necessary. The Weyl action and the Einstein cosmological field equations are obtained in the appropriate limits. Finally, a super-Lagrangian is constructed from nongeometric principles which includes the Dirac Lagrangian and except for a sum over symmetry indices resembles the electron-electromagnetic Lagrangian

  13. Viscosity in Modified Gravity 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver Brevik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A bulk viscosity is introduced in the formalism of modified gravity. It is shownthat, based on a natural scaling law for the viscosity, a simple solution can be found forquantities such as the Hubble parameter and the energy density. These solutions mayincorporate a viscosity-induced Big Rip singularity. By introducing a phase transition inthe cosmic fluid, the future singularity can nevertheless in principle be avoided. 

  14. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...... viscosity, of up to a factor of 7 times the Trouton limit of 3 times the zero-shear viscosity....

  15. VISCOSITY TEST OF VEHICLE ENGINE OILS

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Prasetyowati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the value of the kinematic viscosity lubricants motorcycle that has been used at various temperatures and the use of distance. This study also aims to remedy mengtahui how the value of the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant car that has been used in a wide range of temperature variation and distance usage. Viscosity liquid, in this case is the lubricants, can be determined using the Redwood viscometer By using Redwood viscometer, can be measured flow time requir...

  16. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  17. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  18. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  19. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  20. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  1. The experimental viscosity and calculated relative viscosity of liquid In-Sn allcoys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.Q.; Guo, L.J.; Liu, C.S.; Jia, E.G.; Zhu, Z.G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental measured viscosity of liquid pure Sn, In 20 Sn 80 and In 80 Sn 20 alloys was studied, and to make a comparison, the calculated relative viscosity based on the pair distribution functions, g(r), has also been studied. There is one peak in each experimental viscosity and calculated relative-viscosity curve of liquid pure Sn about 1000 deg. C. One valley appears in each experimental viscosity and calculated viscosity curve of liquid In 20 Sn 80 alloy about 700 deg. C. There is no abnormal behavior on In 80 Sn 20 alloy. The behavior of experimental viscosity and calculated relative viscosity is coincident with each other. Those results conformed that the temperature-induced structure anomalies reported before did take place

  2. On the bulk viscosity of relativistic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1978-01-01

    An expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient in terms of the trace of the hydrodynamic energy-stress tensor is derived from the Kubo formula. This, along with a field-theoretic model of an interacting system of scalar particles, suggests that at high temperatures the bulk viscosity tends to zero, contrary to the often quoted resuls of Iso, Mori and Namiki. (author)

  3. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  4. Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.

    1987-01-01

    A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt

  5. Theory of super LIE groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of supergravity has attracted increasing attention in the recent years as a unified theory of elementary particle interactions. The superspace formulation of the theory is highly suggestive of an underlying geometrical structure of superspace. It also incorporates the beautifully geometrical general theory of relativity. It leads us to believe that a better understanding of its geometry would result in a better understanding of the theory itself, and furthermore, that the geometry of superspace would also have physical consequences. As a first step towards that goal, we develop here a theory of super Lie groups. These are groups that have the same relation to a super Lie algebra as Lie groups have to a Lie algebra. More precisely, a super Lie group is a super-manifold and a group such that the group operations are super-analytic. The super Lie algebra of a super Lie group is related to the local properties of the group near the identity. This work develops the algebraic and super-analytical tools necessary for our theory, including proofs of a set of existence and uniqueness theorems for a class of super-differential equations

  6. The Friction Theory for Viscosity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    , in the case when experimental information is available a more accurate modeling can be obtained by means of a simple tuning procedure. A tuned f-theory general model can deliver highly accurate viscosity modeling above the saturation pressure and good prediction of the liquid-phase viscosity at pressures......In this work the one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) general models have been extended to the viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. It is demonstrated that these simple models, which take advantage of the repulsive and attractive pressure terms of cubic equations of state...... such as the SRK, PR and PRSV, can provide accurate viscosity prediction and modeling of characterized oils. In the case of light reservoir oils, whose properties are close to those of normal alkanes, the one-parameter f-theory general models can predict the viscosity of these fluids with good accuracy. Yet...

  7. JAPAN: Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Excavation for the Japanese Super- KAMIOKANDE 50,000-ton water Cherenkov imaging detector was completed at the end of June. The goals include a search for nucleon decay up to a lifetime of 10 33-34 years, high-statistics studies of solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and detection of any nearby supernova explosions. The project was approved in 1991, with the official 'groundbreaking' in December of that year about 1,000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Gifu Prefecture, about 250 km west of Tokyo

  8. The super collider revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC

  9. The super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2010-01-01

    We review here the prospects of a long-term upgrade programme for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN laboratory's new proton-proton collider. The super-LHC, which is currently under evaluation and design, is expected to deliver of the order of ten times the statistics of the LHC. In addition to a non-technical summary of the principal physics arguments for the upgrade, I present a pedagogical introduction to the technological challenges on the accelerator and experimental fronts, and a review of the current status of the planning.

  10. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-05-30

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  11. Determination of viscosity-average molecular weight of chitosan using intrinsic viscosity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Norhashidah Talip; Maznah Mahmud; Nurul Aizam Idayu Mat Sani; Nor Akma Samsuddin; Norafifah Ahmad Fabillah

    2013-01-01

    Determination of molecular weight by intrinsic viscosity measurement is a simple method for characterization of chitosan. To study the effect of radiation on molecular weight, chitosan was first irradiated using electron beam at different doses prior to measurement. Different concentrations of chitosan were prepared and measurement was done at room temperature. The flow time data was used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity by extrapolating the reduced viscosity to zero concentration. The value of intrinsic viscosity was then recalculated into the viscosity-average molecular weight using Mark-Houwink equation. (Author)

  12. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posin, S.B.; Greeley, R.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  13. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  14. Renormalization-group theory for the eddy viscosity in subgrid modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Hossain, Murshed

    1988-01-01

    Renormalization-group theory is applied to incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence so as to eliminate unresolvable small scales. The renormalized Navier-Stokes equation now includes a triple nonlinearity with the eddy viscosity exhibiting a mild cusp behavior, in qualitative agreement with the test-field model results of Kraichnan. For the cusp behavior to arise, not only is the triple nonlinearity necessary but the effects of pressure must be incorporated in the triple term. The renormalized eddy viscosity will not exhibit a cusp behavior if it is assumed that a spectral gap exists between the large and small scales.

  15. Super-multiplex vibrational imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Chen, Zhixing; Shi, Lixue; Long, Rong; Anzalone, Andrew V.; Zhang, Luyuan; Hu, Fanghao; Yuste, Rafael; Cornish, Virginia W.; Min, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions. For instance, fluorescence microscopy faces a ‘colour barrier’, owing to the intrinsically broad (about 1,500 inverse centimetres) and featureless nature of fluorescence spectra that limits the number of resolvable colours to two to five (or seven to nine if using complicated instrumentation and analysis). Spontaneous Raman microscopy probes vibrational transitions with much narrower resonances (peak width of about 10 inverse centimetres) and so does not suffer from this problem, but weak signals make many bio-imaging applications impossible. Although surface-enhanced Raman scattering offers high sensitivity and multiplicity, it cannot be readily used to image specific molecular targets quantitatively inside live cells. Here we use stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions to image target molecules inside living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity (down to 250 nanomolar with a time constant of 1 millisecond). We create a palette of triple-bond-conjugated near-infrared dyes that each displays a single peak in the cell-silent Raman spectral window; when combined with available fluorescent probes, this palette provides 24 resolvable colours, with the potential for further expansion. Proof-of-principle experiments on neuronal co-cultures and brain tissues reveal cell-type-dependent heterogeneities in DNA and protein metabolism under physiological and pathological conditions, underscoring the

  16. Impressive Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olds, F.C.

    1979-01-01

    The 1200-MWe fast breeder reactor, Super Phenix at Creys-Malville, is scheduled for commercial operation in 1983. This is the world's first near-commercial-sized fast breeder. As a near-commercial-sized unit, it represents essentially the technology and hardware of the first fully commercial follow-on units. In its size, its components, its design, the technology it represents, and its project schedule, it is impressive. As of May 1979, the Super Phenix nuclear steam boiler in the Creys-Malville plant bore an estimated cost of $700 million, without fuel. The total cost of the Creys-Malville plant now is estimated at about $1.4 billion. This is about twice the cost of a comparable standardized PWR being built in France today. However, it should be borne in mind that Creys-Malville carries the high cost of a first-of-the-line prototype, and that France's PWRs are standardized, second-generation units. Electricity from Creys-Malville is estimated to cost a little more than electricity would cost from a coal-fired plant complete with flue gas scrubbing

  17. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nogara

    Full Text Available In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  18. All-optical OFDM demultiplexing by spectral magnification and band-pass filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Kong, Deming

    2014-01-01

    We propose a simple OFDM receiver allowing for the use of standard WDM receivers to receive spectrally advanced OFDM signals. We propose to spectrally magnify the optical-OFDM super-channels using a spectral telescope consisting of two time-lenses, which enables reduced inter-carrier-interference...

  19. White Dwarf Model Atmospheres: Synthetic Spectra for Super Soft Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The T\\"ubingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) calculates fully metal-line blanketed white dwarf model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at a high level of sophistication. Such SEDs are easily accessible via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TheoSSA. We discuss applications of TMAP models to (pre) white dwarfs during the hottest stages of their stellar evolution, e.g. in the parameter range of novae and super soft sources.

  20. Passive Standoff Super Resolution Imaging using Spatial-Spectral Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    OPD is mainly influenced by the indices of refraction and thicknesses for the two glass plates/fluids (n1/t1 and n2/t2) and the angle of incidence...the algorithm’s robustness. To be specific, this reconstruction algorithm is shown to be effective on both smoothly varying and point cloud objects...applications in the field of hydrology, oceanography, glaciology, forest, climate , urban, military and meteorology [62]. With remotely sensed images

  1. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  2. Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.

    2015-11-01

    In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.

  3. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  5. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  6. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  7. Laboratory Tests for Dispersive Soil Viscosity Determining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Sobolev, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    There are several widespread methods for soil viscosity determining now. The standard shear test device and torsion test apparatus are the most commonly used installations to do that. However, the application of them has a number of disadvantages. Therefore, the specialists of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering proposed a new device to determine the disperse soil viscosity on the basis of a stabilometer with the B-type camera (viscosimeter). The paper considers the construction of a viscosimeter and the technique for determining soil viscosity inside this tool as well as some experimental verification results of its work.

  8. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  9. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  10. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  11. The super W∞ algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Sezgin, E.; Shen, X.; Romans, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    We construct a higher-spin N=2 superalgebra whose bosonic sector is W ∞ +W 1+∞ . It can be realised in terms of bilinear currents involving free complex bosonic and fermionic fields. We also discuss the spectral flow, and various truncations. (orig.)

  12. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  13. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  14. The Super DREAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. This has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future discoveries in

  15. Super Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fromille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz, herein called super dielectric materials (SDM, can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc., filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution, herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density.

  16. Viscosity effect in Landau's hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, T.F.; Phua, K.K.; Nanyang Univ., Singapore

    1979-01-01

    The Bose-Einstein distribution is used to investigate Landau's hydrodynamical model with viscosity. In case the viscosity dependence on the temperature is T 3 , the correction to the multiplicity behaves like I/E and is found to be negligible for the pp data. A discussion is presented on a possibility of reconciling E 1 / 2 and logE dependence of the multiplicity law. (orig.)

  17. A Simple BODIPY-Based Viscosity Probe for Imaging of Cellular Viscosity in Live Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Su

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that indicates the functioning of cells. In this work, we developed a simple boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-based probe, BTV, for cellular mitochondria viscosity imaging by coupling a simple BODIPY rotor with a mitochondria-targeting unit. The BTV exhibited a significant fluorescence intensity enhancement of more than 100-fold as the solvent viscosity increased. Also, the probe showed a direct linear relationship between the fluorescence lifetime and the media viscosity, which makes it possible to trace the change of the medium viscosity. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BTV could achieve practical applicability in the monitoring of mitochondrial viscosity changes in live cells through fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM.

  18. Viscosity properties of sodium borophosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, S.; Tincher, B.; Petit, L.; Richardson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The viscosity behavior of (1 - x)NaPO 3 -xNa 2 B 4 O 7 glasses (x = 0.05-0.20) have been measured as a function of temperature using beam-bending and parallel-plate viscometry. The viscosity was found to shift to higher temperatures with increasing sodium borate content. The kinetic fragility parameter, m, estimated from the viscosity curve, decreases from 52 to 33 when x increases from 0.05 to 0.20 indicating that the glass network transforms from fragile to strong with the addition of Na 2 B 4 O 7 . The decrease in fragility with increasing x is due to the progressive depolymerization of the phosphate network by the preferred four-coordinated boron atoms present in the low alkali borate glasses. As confirmed by Raman spectroscopy increasing alkali borate leads to enhanced B-O-P linkages realized with the accompanying transition from solely four-coordinated boron (in BO 4 units) to mixed BO 4 /BO 3 structures. The glass viscosity characteristics of the investigated glasses were compared to those of P-SF67 and N-FK5 commercial glasses from SCHOTT. We showed that the dependence of the viscosity of P-SF67 was similar to the investigated glasses due to similar phosphate network organization confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, whereas N-FK5 exhibited a very different viscosity curve and fragility parameter due to its highly coordinated silicate network

  19. Grassmann, super-Kac-Moody and super-derivation algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Sorba, P.

    1989-05-01

    We study the cyclic cocycles of degree one on the Grassmann algebra and on the super-circle with N supersymmetries (i.e. the tensor product of the algebra of functions on the circle times a Grassmann algebra with N generators). They are related to central extensions of graded loop algebras (i.e. super-Kac-Moody algebras). The corresponding algebras of super-derivations have to be compatible with the cocycle characterizing the extension; we give a general method for determining these algebras and examine in particular the cases N = 1,2,3. We also discuss their relations with the Ademollo et al. algebras, and examine the possibility of defining new kinds of super-conformal algebras, which, for N > 1, generalize the N = 1 Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz algebra

  20. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tazima S.; Grebel, Haim

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helm...

  1. The Super-Kamiokande detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Ishitsuka, M.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Namba, T.; Obayashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Oyabu, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Toshito, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Desai, S.; Earl, M.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Wang, W.; Scholberg, K.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Liu, D.W.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Mine, S.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.J.; Hayato, Y.; Ishii, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Maruyama, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Iwashita, T.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Hasegawa, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kato, I.; Maesaka, H.; Nakaya, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Haines, T.J.; Kim, B.K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Blaufuss, E.; Chen, M.L.; Conner, Z.; Goodman, J.A.; Guillian, E.; Sullivan, G.W.; Turcan, D.; Habig, A.; Ackerman, M.; Goebel, F.; Hill, J.; Jung, C.K.; Kato, T.; Kerr, D.; Malek, M.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Inaba, S.; Ito, K.; Kirisawa, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Mitsuda, C.; Miyano, K.; Saji, C.; Takahata, M.; Takahashi, M.; Higuchi, K.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kusano, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Nitta, K.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, H.I.; Kim, S.B.; Yoo, J.; Okazawa, H.; Etoh, M.; Fujita, K.; Gando, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Nishiyama, I.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takayama, T.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Koike, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Nemoto, M.; Nishijima, K.; Takeda, H.; Fujiyasu, H.; Futagami, T.; Ishino, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Morii, M.; Nishihama, H.; Nishimura, H.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Golebiewska, U.; Berns, H.G.; Boyd, S.B.; Doyle, R.A.; George, J.S.; Stachyra, A.L.; Wai, L.L.; Wilkes, R.J.; Young, K.K.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I

  2. Inference of viscosity jump at 670 km depth and lower mantle viscosity structure from GIA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Irie, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    A viscosity model with an exponential profile described by temperature (T) and pressure (P) distributions and constant activation energy (E_{{{um}}}^{{*}} for the upper mantle and E_{{{lm}}}^* for the lower mantle) and volume (V_{{{um}}}^{{*}} and V_{{{lm}}}^*) is employed in inferring the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle from observations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We first construct standard viscosity models with an average upper-mantle viscosity ({\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}}) of 2 × 1020 Pa s, a typical value for the oceanic upper-mantle viscosity, satisfying the observationally derived three GIA-related observables, GIA-induced rate of change of the degree-two zonal harmonic of the geopotential, {\\dot{J}_2}, and differential relative sea level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum sea levels at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf in Australia and for RSL changes at 6 kyr BP for Karumba and Halifax Bay in Australia. Standard viscosity models inferred from three GIA-related observables are characterized by a viscosity of ˜1023 Pa s in the deep mantle for an assumed viscosity at 670 km depth, ηlm(670), of (1 - 50) × 1021 Pa s. Postglacial RSL changes at Southport, Bermuda and Everglades in the intermediate region of the North American ice sheet, largely dependent on its gross melting history, have a crucial potential for inference of a viscosity jump at 670 km depth. The analyses of these RSL changes based on the viscosity models with {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} ≥ 2 × 1020 Pa s and lower-mantle viscosity structures for the standard models yield permissible {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values, although there is a trade-off between the viscosity and ice history models. Our preferred {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} and ηlm (670) values are ˜(7 - 9) × 1020 and ˜1022 Pa s, respectively, and the {\\bar{η }_{{{um}}}} is higher than that for the typical value of oceanic upper mantle, which may reflect a moderate laterally heterogeneous upper

  3. Ranking oil viscosity in heavy-oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie, R.J.M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seccombe, J. [BP Alaska, AK (United States)

    2005-11-01

    This paper discussed attempts to identify lower viscosity zones within the Ugnu formation at Milne Point field in Alaska through the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. To date, only 1 well has been completed in the Ugnu, and BP Alaska is now engaged in studies to find ways to commercialize the formation. While geochemical analysis of oil samples extracted from sidewall cores has successfully identified sweet spots, the costs are prohibitive and they are too slow for real-time decision-making. NMR data acquisition offers a more economical, continuous and almost instantaneous alternative. Two wells were logged and analyzed using both logging while drilling (LWD) NMR and wire log (WL)-NMR tools. With the WL-NMR tool, data were collected in continuous passes and in a series of 45 minute stationary points, acquiring both routine T{sub 2} and diffusion editing data to predict oil viscosity. The LWD-NMR tool was set up to acquire T{sub 1} data when drilling. Forward modelling was used to generate NMR T{sub 2} spectra for reservoir parameters. The NMR logs indicate that the technology is a viable non-radioactive porosity measurement alternative. Data quality had high-vertical resolution and spectral resolution and showed good agreement with density-derived porosity. Zones with viscous oil were located and findings were validated by geochemical analyses. Bandwidth limitation was the only obstacle that prevented real time application of the NMR ranking process. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  4. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Cheng, C.; Chivukula, A.; Doll, D.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Thomas, M.; Zhu, R.; Tatishvili, G.; Andreassen, R.; Fabby, C.; Meadows, B.; Simpson, A.; Sokoloff, M.; Tomko, K.; Fella, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Gianoli, A.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Santoro, V.; Tomassetti, L.; Stoker, D.; Bezshyyko, O.; Dolinska, G.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Bogard, F.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Charlet, D.; Maalmi, J.; Perez Perez, L.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Wallon, S.; Wormser, G.; Brown, D.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  5. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  6. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  7. Convergence of spectral methods for nonlinear conservation laws. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1987-08-01

    The convergence of the Fourier method for scalar nonlinear conservation laws which exhibit spontaneous shock discontinuities is discussed. Numerical tests indicate that the convergence may (and in fact in some cases must) fail, with or without post-processing of the numerical solution. Instead, a new kind of spectrally accurate vanishing viscosity is introduced to augment the Fourier approximation of such nonlinear conservation laws. Using compensated compactness arguments, it is shown that this spectral viscosity prevents oscillations, and convergence to the unique entropy solution follows

  8. Super boson-fermion correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies

  9. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  10. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  11. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 10 14 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  12. Super oil cracking update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulraney, D.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of residual fuel oil to usable middle distillates was discussed. The residue conversion processing paths are usually based on separation, carbon rejection, or hydrogen addition principles. Super Oil Cracking (SOC) uses a slurry catalyst system in a new, tubular reactor to achieve high levels of hydrothermal conversion. SOC can upgrade a variety of heavy, high metals residue feedstocks with high yields of middle distillates. The SOC products can also be further treated into feedstocks for FCC or hydrocracking. The SOC process can be incorporated easily into a refinery to obtain incremental residue conversion directly. It can also be integrated with other residue processes, acting as a demetallization and decarbonization step which results in enhanced overall conversion. The relative rate of coke formation and its handling are distinguishing characteristics between residue upgrading technologies. The SOC process operates at higher temperatures that other residue hydrocracking processes resulting in higher rates of thermal decomposition, thus preventing coke formation. SOC process can operate as a stand-alone upgrader or can be integrated with other bottoms processing steps to extend the refiner's range of options for increasing bottoms conversion.3 tabs., 14 figs

  13. A possible mechanism to detect super-earth formation in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Chiang, Eugene; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2017-06-01

    Using combined gas+dust global hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we calculate the distribution of gas and sub-mm-sized dust in protoplanetary disks with a super-Earth at tens of AU, and examine observational signatures of such systems in resolved observations. We confirm previous results that in a typical disk with a low viscosity ($\\alpha\\lesssim10^{-4}$), a super-Earth is able to open two gaps at $\\sim$scale-height away around its orbit in $\\sim$mm-sized dust (St$\\sim$0.01), due to differential dust drift in a perturbed gas background. Additional rings and gaps may also be produced under certain conditions. These features, particularly a signature ``double-gap'' feature, can be detected in a Taurus target by ALMA in dust continuum under an angular resolution of $\\sim0\\arcsec.025$ with two hours of integration. The features are robust --- it can survive in a variety of background disk profiles, withstand modest planetary radial migration ($|r/\\dot{r}|\\sim$ a few Myr), and last for thousands of orbits. Multiple ring/gap systems observed by ALMA were typically modeled using multiple (Saturn-to-Jupiter sized) planets. Here, we argue that a single super-Earth in a low viscosity disk could produce multiple rings and gaps as well. By examining the prevalence of such features in nearby disks, upcoming high angular resolution ALMA surveys may infer how common super-Earth formation events are at tens of au.

  14. Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)

  15. Viscosity measurements on metal melts at high pressure and viscosity calculations for the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, Vladimir N; Funtikov, Aleksandr I

    2004-01-01

    A review is given of experimental and calculated data on the viscosity of iron-based melts on the melting curve. The interest in these data originates in the division of opinion on whether viscosity increases rather moderately or considerably in the high-pressure range. This disagreement is especially pronounced in the interpretation of the values of molten iron and its compounds in the environment of the earth's outer core. The conclusion on a substantial rise in viscosity mostly follows from the universal law, proposed by Brazhkin and Lyapin [1], of viscosity changing along the metal melting curve in the high-pressure range. The review analyzes available experimental and computational data, including the most recent ones. Data on viscosity of metals under shock wave compression in the megabar pressure range are also discussed. It is shown that data on viscosity of metal melts point to a small increase of viscosity on the melting curve. Specifics are discussed of the phase diagram of iron made more complex by the presence of several phase transitions and by the uncertainty in the position of the melting curve in the high-pressure range. Inaccuracies that arise in extrapolating the results of viscosity measurements to the pressure range corresponding to the earth's core environment are pointed out. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements of bulk viscosity of polar and nonpolar gases, and kinetic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.S.; Wijn, de A.S.; Peters, M.F.E.; Dam, N.J.; Water, van de W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate coherent Rayleigh–Brillouin spectroscopy as an efficient process to measure the bulk viscosity of gases at gigahertz frequencies. Scattered spectral distributions are measured using a Fizeau spectrometer. We discuss the statistical error due to the fluctuating mode structure of the

  17. All-optical OFDM demultiplexing by spectral magnification and band-pass filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palushani, E; Mulvad, H C Hansen; Kong, D; Guan, P; Galili, M; Oxenløwe, L K

    2014-01-13

    We propose a simple OFDM receiver allowing for the use of standard WDM receivers to receive spectrally advanced OFDM signals. We propose to spectrally magnify the optical-OFDM super-channels using a spectral telescope consisting of two time-lenses, which enables reduced inter-carrier-interference in subcarrier detection by simple band-pass filtering. A demonstration on an emulated 100 Gbit/s DPSK optical-OFDM channel shows improved sensitivities after 4-times spectral magnification.

  18. Wavelet Filter Banks for Super-Resolution SAR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Ehsan O.; Deshpande, Manohar; Memarsadeghi, Nargess

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Innovative wavelet-based filter banks designed to enhance the analysis of super resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using parametric spectral methods and signal classification algorithms, SAR finds applications In many of NASA's earth science fields such as deformation, ecosystem structure, and dynamics of Ice, snow and cold land processes, and surface water and ocean topography. Traditionally, standard methods such as Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse Fast-Fourier Transform (IFFT) have been used to extract Images from SAR radar data, Due to non-parametric features of these methods and their resolution limitations and observation time dependence, use of spectral estimation and signal pre- and post-processing techniques based on wavelets to process SAR radar data has been proposed. Multi-resolution wavelet transforms and advanced spectral estimation techniques have proven to offer efficient solutions to this problem.

  19. The Viscosity of Organic Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, C. W.; Trusler, J. P. M.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W. A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the viscosity and density of two heavy hydrocarbon mixtures, Dutrex and Arab Light Flashed Distillate (ALFD), and of their mixtures with hydrogen. The measurements have been carried out with a vibrating-wire device over a range of temperatures from 399 to 547 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. Measurements have also been carried out on systems in which hydrogen at different concentrations has been dissolved in the liquids. The measurements have an estimated uncertainty of ±5% for viscosity and ±2% for density and represent the first results on these prototypical heavy hydrocarbons. The results reveal that the addition of hydrogen reduces both the density and viscosity of the original hydrocarbon mixture at a particular temperature and pressure.

  20. Viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyaev, Dmitriy; Boretsky, Evgeny; Verkhorubov, Dmitriy

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of dynamic viscosity of Ga-Li liquid alloys has been performed using low-frequency vibrational viscometer at five temperatures in the range 313-353 K and four gallium-based dilute alloy compositions containing 0-1.15 at.% Li. It was found that the viscosity of the considered alloys increases with decreasing temperature and increasing lithium concentration in the above ranges. It was shown that dependence of the viscosity of Ga-Li alloys in the investigated temperature range has been described by Arrhenius equation. For this equation the activation energy of viscous flow and pre-exponential factor were calculated. This study helped to determine the conditions of the alkali metals separating process in gallam-exchange systems.

  1. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Heng [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  2. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  3. Super Dielectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-12-22

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 10⁵ at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 10⁸ in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 10⁴. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc. ), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to "short" the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass "supercapacitors" in volumetric energy density.

  4. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  5. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  6. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R; Heyes, David M; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2018-02-28

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  7. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  8. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-01

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U q (sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U q (sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L 2 (R) x C 1 vertical stroke 1 and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  9. Optical stealth transmission based on super-continuum generation in highly nonlinear fiber over WDM network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huatao; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Chen, Dalei

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, the optical stealth transmission carried by super-continuum spectrum optical pulses generated in highly nonlinear fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed transmission scheme, super-continuum signals are reshaped in the spectral domain through a wavelength-selective switch and are temporally spread by a chromatic dispersion device to achieve the same noise-like characteristic as the noise in optical networks, so that in both the time domain and the spectral domain, the stealth signals are hidden in public channel. Our experimental results show that compared with existing schemes where stealth channels are carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise, super-continuum signal can increase the transmission performance and robustness.

  10. Perspectives in Super-resolved Fluorescence Microscopy: What comes next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Birk, Udo

    2016-04-01

    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 has been awarded to three scientists involved in the development of STED and PALM super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM) methods. They have proven that it is possible to overcome the hundred year old theoretical limit for the resolution potential of light microscopy (of about 200 nm for visible light), which for decades has precluded a direct glimpse of the molecular machinery of life. None of the present-day super-resolution techniques have invalidated the Abbe limit for light optical detection; however, they have found clever ways around it. In this report, we discuss some of the challenges still to be resolved before arising SRM approaches will be fit to bring about the revolution in Biology and Medicine envisaged. Some of the challenges discussed are the applicability to image live and/or large samples, the further enhancement of resolution, future developments of labels, and multi-spectral approaches.

  11. Perspectives in Super-resolved Fluorescence Microscopy: What comes next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eCremer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 has been awarded to three scientists involved in the development of STED and PALM super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM methods. They have proven that it is possible to overcome the hundred year old theoretical limit for the resolution potential of light microscopy (of about 200 nm for visible light, which for decades has precluded a direct glimpse of the molecular machinery of life. None of the present-day super-resolution techniques have invalidated the Abbe limit for light optical detection; however, they have found clever ways around it. In this report, we discuss some of the challenges still to be resolved before arising SRM approaches will be fit to bring about the revolution in Biology and Medicine envisaged. Some of the challenges discussed are the applicability to image live and/or large samples, the further enhancement of resolution, future developments of labels, and multi-spectral approaches.

  12. Gluon gas viscosity in nonperturbative region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, S.V.; Mogilevskij, O.A.; Smolyanskij, S.A.; Zinov'ev, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Green-Kubo-type formulae and the cutoff model motivated by Monte Carlo lattice gluodynamics simulations we find the temperature behaviour of shear viscosity of gluon gas in the region of deconfinement phase transition. 22 refs.; 1 fig. (author)

  13. Bulk viscosity in 2SC quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G; Schmitt, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of three-flavour colour-superconducting quark matter originating from the nonleptonic process u + s ↔ u + d is computed. It is assumed that up and down quarks form Cooper pairs while the strange quark remains unpaired (2SC phase). A general derivation of the rate of strangeness production is presented, involving contributions from a multitude of different subprocesses, including subprocesses that involve different numbers of gapped quarks as well as creation and annihilation of particles in the condensate. The rate is then used to compute the bulk viscosity as a function of the temperature, for an external oscillation frequency typical of a compact star r-mode. We find that, for temperatures far below the critical temperature T c for 2SC pairing, the bulk viscosity of colour-superconducting quark matter is suppressed relative to that of unpaired quark matter, but for T ∼> T c /30 the colour-superconducting quark matter has a higher bulk viscosity. This is potentially relevant for the suppression of r-mode instabilities early in the life of a compact star

  14. Jet collimation by turbulent viscosity. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper it is assumed that the subscale turbulent eddies induced in an ambient medium by the emergence of a (already collimated) jet from a galactic nucleus (VLBI jet) are the source of the viscosity which causes material to be entrained into the large-scale (VLA) jet. New analytic solutions are derived by a generalization of the self-similar Ansatz used in the Landau-Squires solution to include variable density and viscosity. It is shown that such a process of viscous collimation of the VLA jets can account for the observed collimation-luminosity correlation, the magnetic flux, and the inferred mass flux of these jets. Order of magnitude comparisons of velocity and density fields with recently observed emission-line flow regions near radio jets are made. All of the viscosity-dependent observational checks imply roughly the same plausible value for the eddy viscosity. It is emphasized that storing the initial VLBI jet energy in the intermediate scales occupied by the turbulent eddies allows this energy to be largely undetected. 35 references

  15. On the measurement of magnetic viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, C. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Efthimiadis, K.G., E-mail: kge@auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    This work is an investigation of the experimental method used for measuring the magnetic viscosity in a hard ferromagnetic material, i.e. the recording of the magnetization under constant applied field and temperature, after the material has been magnetically saturated. It investigates how the experimental results are affected by the initial conditions of the method (saturation field, field change rate and field oscillation prior to its stabilization), and by minor variations of field and temperature during the recording. Based on the arising conclusions and the use of a more complex fitting function of measurements, the accuracy and repeatability of experimental results is improved. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic viscosity is affected by initial measurement conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minor field deviations prior to its stabilization cause large changes in viscosity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viscosity is strongly dependent on the field change rate from saturation to the measurement field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small changes in field and temperature during the experiment can lead to false measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Errors in measurements can be eliminated through the use of a proper fitting function.

  16. Effect of Viscosity on Liquid Curtain Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Francis, Lorraine; Carvalho, Marcio; Dow Chemical Company Collaboration; PUC Rio Collaboration; University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The effect of viscosity on the stability of Newtonian liquid curtains was explored by high-speed visualization. Glycerol/water solutions with viscosity ranging from 19.1 to 210 mPa.s were used as coating liquids. The experimental set-up used a slide die delivery and steel tube edge guides. The velocity along curtain at different positions was measured by tracking small particles at different flow conditions. The measurements revealed that away from edge guides, velocity is well described by free fall effect. However, close to edge guides, liquid moves slower, revealing formation of a viscous boundary layer. The size of boundary layer and velocity near edge guides are strong function of viscosity. The critical condition was determined by examining flow rate below which curtain broke. Curtain failure was initiated by growth of a hole within liquid curtain, close to edge guides. Visualization results showed that the hole forms in a circular shape then becomes elliptical as it grows faster in vertical direction compared to horizontal direction. As viscosity rises, minimum flow rate for destabilization of curtain increased, indicating connection between interaction with edge guides and curtain stability. We would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Dow Chemical Company.

  17. Sensor for Viscosity and Shear Strength Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, J.; Moore, J.E. Jr.; Ebadian, M.A.; Jones, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. The work for this project will be performed in three phases. The first phase, carried out in FY96, involved (1) an evaluation of acoustic and other methods for viscosity measurement; (2) measurement of the parameters of slurries over the range of percent solids found in tanks and transport systems; (3) a comparison of physical properties (e.g., viscosity and density) to percent solids found composition; and (4) the design of a prototype sensor. The second phase (FY97) will involve the fabrication of a prototype hybrid sensor to measure the viscosity and mechanical properties of slurries in remote, high-radiation environments. Two different viscometer designs are being investigated in this study: a magnetostrictive pulse wave guide viscometer; an oscillating cylinder viscometer. In FY97, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), which has printed circuit, thick film, thin film, and co-fired ceramic fabrication capability, will fabricate five probes for demonstration after technology selection and evaluation

  18. Role of viscosity in nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, G V; Peshkin, M A; Polyakov, Ye Ye

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented on laboratory experiments for filtering of gases of liquids in clay, slightly permeable core samples. A method is proposed for processing the results of experiments which makes it possible to isolate the effect of viscosity of the fluid on the defined quantity of maximum pressure differential.

  19. Siting the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Rooney, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering established the Super Collider Site Evaluation Committee to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for the Superconducting Super Collider. Thirty-six proposals were examined by the committee. Using the set of criteria announced by DOE in its Invitation for Site Proposals, the committee identified eight sites that merited inclusion on a ''best qualified list.'' The list represents the best collective judgment of 21 individuals, carefully chosen for their expertise and impartiality, after a detailed assessment of the proposals using 19 technical subcriteria and DOE's life cycle cost estimates. The sites, in alphabetical order, are: Arizona/Maricopa; Colorado; Illinois; Michigan/Stockbridge; New York/Rochester; North Carolina; Tennessee; and Texas/Dallas-Fort Worth. The evaluation of these sites and the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this book

  20. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Hamburg Univ.; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  1. Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru

    1995-01-01

    Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature. (author)

  2. A note on the super AKNS equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yishen; Zhang Lining.

    1986-10-01

    We find some relationships between the usual AKNS scheme with the super one, when its elements take value from the Grassmann algebra on a two-dimensional vector space. The solutions of these super AKNS equations are discussed. (author)

  3. The super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy and its super-Hamiltonian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Xing, Tao; Tie-Cheng, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Based on the constructed Lie superalgebra, the super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is obtained. Then, its super-Hamiltonian structure is obtained by making use of super-trace identity. Furthermore, the super-classical-Boussinesq hierarchy is also integrable in the sense of Liouville. (general)

  4. Research and development of super light water reactors and super fast reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Morooka, S.; Yamakawa, M.; Ishiwatari, Y.; Ikejiri, S.; Katsumura, Y.; Muroya, Y.; Terai, T.; Sasaki, K.; Mori, H.; Hamamoto, Y.; Okumura, K.; Kugo, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ezato, K.; Akasaka, N.; Hotta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Super Light Water Reactors (Super LWR) and Super Fast Reactors (Super FR) are the supercritical- pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWR) that are developed by the research group of University of Tokyo since 1989 and now jointly under development with the researchers of Waseda University, University of Tokyo and other organizations in Japan. The principle of the reactor concept development, the results of the past Super LWR and Super FR R&D as well as the R&D program of the Super FR second phase project are described. (author)

  5. Supergrassmannians, super τ-functions and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgikh, S.N.; Schwarz, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Recently, infinite-dimensional grassmannians and their supergeneralizations were used to study conformal two-dimensional fields and strings. In particular, the super Mumford form (holomorphic square root from the superstring measure on moduli space) was expressed through super analog of Sato τ-function. In this paper we present results of supergrassmannians and super τ-functions. 8 refs

  6. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian; Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daiel; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  7. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  8. Super Virasoro algebra and solvable supersymmetric quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Itaru; Sasaki, Ryu.

    1987-09-01

    Interesting and deep relationships between super Virasoro algebras and super soliton systems (super KdV, super mKdV and super sine-Gordon equations) are investigated at both classical and quantum levels. An infinite set of conserved quantities responsible for solvability is characterized by super Virasoro algebras only. Several members of the infinite set of conserved quantities are derived explicitly. (author)

  9. Temperature dependence of shear viscosity of SU(3)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,9 Institutskii per., 141700, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,1 Pobedy St., Protvino, 142281 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,8 Sukhanova St., 690950, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,25 B. Cheremushkinskaya St., 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-18

    In this paper we study the SU(3)-gluodynamics shear viscosity temperature dependence on the lattice. To do so, we measure the correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the range of temperatures T/T{sub c}∈[0.9,1.5]. To extract the shear viscosity we used two approaches. The first one is to fit the lattice data with a physically motivated ansatz for the spectral function with unknown parameters and then determine the shear viscosity. The second approach is to apply the Backus-Gilbert method allowing to extract the shear viscosity from the lattice data nonparametrically. The results obtained within both approaches agree with each other. Our results allow us to conclude that within the range T/T{sub c}∈[0.9,1.5] the SU(3)-gluodynamics reveals the properties of a strongly interacting system, which cannot be described perturbatively, and has the ratio η/s close to the value 1/4π of the N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  10. Mechanism of viscosity effect on magnetic island rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Konovalov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V.D. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Tsypin, V.S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, SP (Brazil)

    2000-04-01

    It is shown that plasma viscosity does not influence the magnetic island rotation directly. Nevertheless, it leads to nonstationarity of the plasma velocity. This nonstationarity is the reason of the viscosity effect on island rotation. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Relative Blood Viscosity During Menstruation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. The changes in blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate before ... higher (6.78±0.18mm/hr) during the menstrual phase than during the premenstrual phase ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  12. Viscose kink and drift-kink modes in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhajlovskij, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Intristic kink modes in a tokamak are theoretically investigated taking account of longitudinal viscosity of ions and electrons and drift effect. It is marked that dispersion equation of investigated modes coinsides in form with that for ballooning modes. It is shown that five types of intrinsic kink instability may be distinguished in disregard of viscosity and drift effects. Effect of stabilizing quasiideal viscose kink and viscose resistive kink modes by finite Larmuir ion radius is investigated. A branch of viscose reclosure mode which instability is due to electron viscosity is pointed out. A series of other viscose and drift-kink tokamak modes is considered. Both general disperse equations of the above-mentioned kink instability varieties, taking account of viscose and drift ones, and disperse equations of separate branches are presented

  13. Spectral properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P

    2006-01-01

    We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent

  14. Caldera resurgence driven by magma viscosity contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetto, Federico; Acocella, Valerio; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-11-24

    Calderas are impressive volcanic depressions commonly produced by major eruptions. Equally impressive is the uplift of the caldera floor that may follow, dubbed caldera resurgence, resulting from magma accumulation and accompanied by minor eruptions. Why magma accumulates, driving resurgence instead of feeding large eruptions, is one of the least understood processes in volcanology. Here we use thermal and experimental models to define the conditions promoting resurgence. Thermal modelling suggests that a magma reservoir develops a growing transition zone with relatively low viscosity contrast with respect to any newly injected magma. Experiments show that this viscosity contrast provides a rheological barrier, impeding the propagation through dikes of the new injected magma, which stagnates and promotes resurgence. In explaining resurgence and its related features, we provide the theoretical background to account for the transition from magma eruption to accumulation, which is essential not only to develop resurgence, but also large magma reservoirs.

  15. Shear viscosity, cavitation and hydrodynamics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Sreekanth, V.

    2011-01-01

    We study evolution of quark-gluon matter in the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within the frame work of relativistic second-order viscous hydrodynamics. In particular, by using the various prescriptions of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity to the entropy ratio, we show that the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic fluid becomes invalid due to the phenomenon of cavitation. For most of the initial conditions relevant for LHC, the cavitation sets in very early stage. The cavitation in this case is entirely driven by the large values of shear viscosity. Moreover we also demonstrate that the conformal terms used in equations of the relativistic dissipative hydrodynamic can influence the cavitation time.

  16. Pendulum Underwater - An Approach for Quantifying Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, José Costa; Oliveira, Agostinho

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the experiment presented in this paper is to quantify the viscosity of a liquid. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids in pipes, in the bloodstream, in the lubrication of engine parts, and in many other situations. In the present paper, the authors explore the oscillations of a physical pendulum in the form of a long and lightweight wire that carries a ball at its lower end, which is totally immersed in water, so as to determine the water viscosity. The system used represents a viscous damped pendulum and we tried different theoretical models to describe it. The experimental part of the present paper is based on a very simple and low-cost image capturing apparatus that can easily be replicated in a physics classroom. Data on the pendulum's amplitude as a function of time were acquired using digital video analysis with the open source software Tracker.

  17. Viscosity, ion mobility, and the lambda transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A model is presented of the lambda transition in superfluid helium in which fluctuations near the transition are approximated by distinct regions of normal fluid and superfluid. The macroscopic viscosity of such a medium is computed. The ion mobility is also computed, taking into account a region of normal fluid around the ion induced by electrostriction. The results are, for the viscosity, eta/sub lambda/ - eta approx. t/sup 0.67/ and for the mobility μ - μ/sub lambda/ approx. t/sup 0.92/, both in excellent agreement with recent experiments. The model suggests that the lambda transition itself is the point at which superfluid regions become macroscopically connected

  18. An empirical model for the melt viscosity of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrescu, V.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of experimental data for blends of polyethylene with different polymers an empirical equation is proposed to describe the dependence of melt viscosity of blends on component viscosities and composition. The model ensures the continuity of viscosity vs. composition curves throughout the whole composition range, the possibility of obtaining extremum values higher or lower than the viscosities of components, allows the calculation of flow curves of blends from the flow curves of components and their volume fractions. (orig.)

  19. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...

  20. Measurement of viscosity of slush at high shear rates

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 俊一; 川村, 公之; 津川, 圭一; 和泉, 薫; Kobayashi, Shun'ichi; Kawamura, Kimiyuki; Tugawa, Keiichi; Izumi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of viscosity of slush were carried out using a method of flow along an inclined smooth surface in a 0℃cold room. The method was used to get the values of viscosity under high shear rates (25 and 75s^). From our experiments two important results were obtained: 1) the viscosity of slush decreases with increasing shear rates; 2) The fluid behavior is pseudoplastic that the values of non-Newtonian index of viscosity were less than unity.

  1. Super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation from periodic line charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Hangyo, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S; Asakawa, M.R.; Imasaki, K.

    2012-01-01

    Smith–Purcell radiation occurs when an electron passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. The radiation becomes coherent when the length of the electron bunch is smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. A train of periodic bunches can enhance the spectral intensity by changing the angular and spectral distribution of the radiation. This is called super-radiant Smith–Purcell radiation, and has been observed in experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. In this paper, we introduce a new method to study this effect by calculating the reflected waves of an incident evanescent wave from periodic line charges. The reflection coefficients are numerically computed, and the spectral distributions of the super-radiant radiation are demonstrated. These analytical results are in agreement with those obtained through part-in-cell simulations.

  2. Alternative derivation of the parallel ion viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravenec, R.V.; Berk, H.L.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A set of double-adiabatic fluid equations with additional collisional relaxation between the ion temperatures parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field are shown to reduce to a set involving a single temperature and a parallel viscosity. This result is applied to a recently published paper [R. V. Bravenec, A. J. Lichtenberg, M. A. Leiberman, and H. L. Berk, Phys. Fluids 24, 1320 (1981)] on viscous flow in a multiple-mirror configuration

  3. Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelāne, I; Vecstaudža, J; Stepanova, V; Mālers, J; Bērziņa-Cimdiņa, L

    2012-01-01

    Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...

  4. A bulk viscosity driven inflationary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Falcao, R.C.; Chanda, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bulk viscosity associated with the production of heavy particles during the GUT phase transition can lead to exponential or 'generalized' inflation. The condition of inflation proposed is independent of the details of the phase transition and remains unaltered in presence of a cosmological constant. Such mechanism avoids the extreme supercooling and reheating needed in the usual inflationary models. The standard baryongenesis mechanism can be maintained. (Author) [pt

  5. Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.

    2014-03-01

    Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.

  6. Viscosity characteristics of selected volcanic rock melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Sonder, Ingo; Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2011-02-01

    A basic experimental study of the behavior of magma rheology was carried out on remelted volcanic rocks using wide gap viscometry. The complex composition of magmatic melts leads to complicated rheologic behavior which cannot be described with one simple model. Therefore, measurement procedures which are able to quantify non-Newtonian behavior have to be employed. Furthermore, the experimental apparatus must be able to deal with inhomogeneities of magmatic melts. We measured the viscosity of a set of materials representing a broad range of volcanic processes. For the lower viscous melts (low-silica compositions), non-Newtonian behavior is observed, whereas the high-silica melts show Newtonian behavior in the measured temperature and shear rate range (T = 1423 K - 1623 K, γ˙ = 10 - 2 s - 1 - 20 s - 1 ). The non-Newtonian materials show power-law behavior. The measured viscosities η and power-law indexes m lie in the intervals 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 210 3 Pa s, 0.71 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Grímsvötn basalt), 0.9 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 350 Pa s, 0.61 ≤ m ≤ 0.93 (Hohenstoffeln olivine-melilitite), and 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 1.510 4 Pa s, 0.55 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Sommata basalt). Measured viscosities of the Newtonian high-silica melts lie in the range 10 4 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 310 5 Pa s.

  7. Turbulent viscosity optimized by data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Leredde

    Full Text Available As an alternative approach to classical turbulence modelling using a first or second order closure, the data assimilation method of optimal control is applied to estimate a time and space-dependent turbulent viscosity in a three-dimensional oceanic circulation model. The optimal control method, described for a 3-D primitive equation model, involves the minimization of a cost function that quantifies the discrepancies between the simulations and the observations. An iterative algorithm is obtained via the adjoint model resolution. In a first experiment, a k + L model is used to simulate the one-dimensional development of inertial oscillations resulting from a wind stress at the sea surface and with the presence of a halocline. These results are used as synthetic observations to be assimilated. The turbulent viscosity is then recovered without the k + L closure, even with sparse and noisy observations. The problems of controllability and of the dimensions of the control are then discussed. A second experiment consists of a two-dimensional schematic simulation. A 2-D turbulent viscosity field is estimated from data on the initial and final states of a coastal upwelling event.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modelling · Oceanography: physical (turbulence · diffusion · and mixing processes

  8. RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa

    2014-06-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.

  9. Spectral functions and transport coefficients from the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripolt, Ralf-Arno

    2015-06-03

    In this thesis we present a new method to obtain real-time quantities like spectral functions and transport coefficients at finite temperature and density using the Functional Renormalization Group approach. Our non-perturbative method is thermodynamically consistent, symmetry preserving and based on an analytic continuation from imaginary to real time on the level of the flow equations. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by calculating mesonic spectral functions as well as the shear viscosity for the quark-meson model. In particular, results are presented for the pion and sigma spectral function at finite temperature and chemical potential, with a focus on the regime near the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the quark-meson model. Moreover, the different time-like and space-like processes, which give rise to a complex structure of the spectral functions, are discussed. Finally, based on the momentum dependence of the spectral functions, we calculate the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio using the corresponding Green-Kubo formula.

  10. Imagery spectroscopy application for Super Fund mining waste monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, William E.

    2001-06-01

    Image spectroscopy was used to evaluate iron oxide acid mine drainage contamination at two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Super Fund sites located in Colorado and New Mexico. The AVIRIS hyper-spectral remote sensing system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was used to collect the imagery data used in the analysis. The paper presents an overview of mining methods used in the area of the study, the environmental risks of acid mine drainage and the AVIRIS hyper-spectral sensing system. The two sites evaluated are located in Leadville, Colorado and the Ray Mine site in New Mexico. Imagery spectroscopy was evaluated at these two sites for identifying potential mineral pollutants and mapping their location for cleanup planning and monitoring applications. Results indicate the technology can be a very useful tool for this type of application and location.

  11. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC is a hot and dense state of strongly correlated matter. It behaves like an almost-perfect fluid featuring a small ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density. In this thesis we calculate within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model the shear viscosity as function of temperature and chemical potential. A new Kubo formula is developed, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations occurring at Fock level provide the dominant dissipative process. The resulting parameter-free ratio is an overall decreasing function of temperature and chemical potential. In combination with hard-thermal-loop results we nd this ratio to feature a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark.

  12. Shear viscosities from Kubo formalism in a large-Nc Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Robert; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    In this work the shear viscosity of strongly interacting matter is calculated within a two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as a function of temperature and chemical potential. The general Kubo formula is applied, incorporating the full Dirac structure of the thermal quark spectral function and avoiding commonly used on-shell approximations. Mesonic fluctuations contributing via Fock diagrams provide the dominant dissipative processes. The resulting ratio η/s (shear viscosity over entropy density) decreases with temperature and chemical potential. Interpolating between our NJL results at low temperatures and hard thermal loop results at high temperatures a minimum slightly above the AdS/CFT benchmark η/s = 1/4τ is obtained. (orig.)

  13. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Understanding QGP through Spectral Functions and Euclidean Correlators (Volume 89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocsy, A.; Petreczky, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, one of the most important goals of the nuclear physics community has been the production and characterization of the new state of matter--Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Understanding how properties of hadrons change in medium, particularly, the bound state of a very heavy quark and its antiquark, known as quarkonium, as well as determining the transport coefficients is crucial for identifying the properties of QGP and for the understanding of the experimental data from RHIC. On April 23rd, more than sixty physicists from twenty-seven institutions gathered for this three-day topical workshop held at BNL to discuss how to understand the properties of the new state of matter obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (particularly at RHIC-BNL) through spectral functions. In-medium properties of the different particle species and the transport properties of the medium are encoded in spectral functions. The former could yield important signatures of deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration at high temperatures and densities, while the later are crucial for the understanding of the dynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Participants at the workshop are experts in various areas of spectral function studies. The workshop encouraged direct exchange of scientific information among experts, as well as between the younger and the more established scientists. The workshops success is evident from the coherent picture that developed of the current understanding of transport properties and in-medium particle properties, illustrated in the current proceedings. The following pages show calculations of meson spectral functions in lattice QCD, as well as implications of these for quarkonia melting/survival in the quark gluon plasma; Lattice calculations of the transport coefficients (shear and bulk viscosities, electric conductivity); Calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients in field theories using weak coupling

  14. The role of viscosity in TATB hot spot ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Laurence E.; Zepeda-Ruis, Luis; Howard, W. Michael; Najjar, Fady; Reaugh, John E.

    2012-03-01

    The role of dissipative effects, such as viscosity, in the ignition of high explosive pores is investigated using a coupled chemical, thermal, and hydrodynamic model. Chemical reactions are tracked with the Cheetah thermochemical code coupled to the ALE3D hydrodynamic code. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the viscosity of liquid TATB. We also analyze shock wave experiments to obtain an estimate for the shock viscosity of TATB. Using the lower bound liquid-like viscosities, we find that the pore collapse is hydrodynamic in nature. Using the upper bound viscosity from shock wave experiments, we find that the pore collapse is closest to the viscous limit.

  15. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  16. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  17. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  18. swot: Super W Of Theta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Kilbinger, Martin; Medezinski, Elinor

    2017-07-01

    SWOT (Super W Of Theta) computes two-point statistics for very large data sets, based on “divide and conquer” algorithms, mainly, but not limited to data storage in binary trees, approximation at large scale, parellelization (open MPI), and bootstrap and jackknife resampling methods “on the fly”. It currently supports projected and 3D galaxy auto and cross correlations, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and weighted histograms.

  19. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  20. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  1. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  2. Nuclear viscosity of hot rotating 240Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, N. P.; Dioszegi, I.; Mazumdar, I.; Buda, A.; Morton, C. R.; Velkovska, J.; Beene, J. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2000-01-01

    The absolute γ-ray/fission multiplicities from hot rotating 240 Cf, populated at seven bombarding energies using the reaction 32 S+ 208 Pb, are reported. Statistical model calculations including nuclear dissipation have been performed to extract the dependence of the nuclear viscosity on temperature and/or nuclear deformation. The extracted nuclear dissipation coefficient is found to be independent of temperature. Large dissipation during the saddle to scission path provides a good fit to the γ-ray spectra. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Viscosity in the edge of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1993-05-01

    A fluid representation of viscosity has been incorporated into a set of fluid equations that are maximally ordered in the ''short-radial-gradient-scale-length'' (srgsl) ordering that is appropriate for the edge of tokamak plasmas. The srgsl ordering raises viscous drifts and other viscous terms to leading order and fundamentally alters the character of the fluid equations. A leasing order viscous drift is identified. Viscous-driven radial particle and energy fluxes in the scrape-off layer and divertor channel are estimated to have an order unity effect in reducing radial peaking of energy fluxes transported along the field lines to divertor collector plates

  5. On the measurement of magnetic viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2012-08-01

    This work is an investigation of the experimental method used for measuring the magnetic viscosity in a hard ferromagnetic material, i.e. the recording of the magnetization under constant applied field and temperature, after the material has been magnetically saturated. It investigates how the experimental results are affected by the initial conditions of the method (saturation field, field change rate and field oscillation prior to its stabilization), and by minor variations of field and temperature during the recording. Based on the arising conclusions and the use of a more complex fitting function of measurements, the accuracy and repeatability of experimental results is improved.

  6. Viscosity of many-component glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of composition on the viscosity of multicomponent glasses was expressed as a function of temperature and composition for three composition regions containing various subsets of Al2O3, B2O3, Bi2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, F, Fe2O3, K2O, Li2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, NiO, P2O5, SiO2, UO2, and ZrO2. Limits of applicability of the composition models are discussed

  7. Viscosity calculations at molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, E M; Norman, G E

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity and diffusion are chosen as an example to demonstrate the universality of diagnostics methods in the molecular dynamics method. To emphasize the universality, three diverse systems are investigated, which differ from each other drastically: liquids with embedded atom method and pairwise interatomic interaction potentials and dusty plasma with a unique multiparametric interparticle interaction potential. Both the Einstein-Helfand and Green-Kubo relations are used. Such a particular process as glass transition is analysed at the simulation of the aluminium melt. The effect of the dust particle charge fluctuation is considered. The results are compared with the experimental data. (paper)

  8. Influence of Surfactant Sorbitan Monolaurate to Suspension Polymerization of Polyacrylic Acid Super absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi Sondari; Nuri Astrini; Lik Anah; Agus Haryono

    2008-01-01

    A super absorbent polymer has been prepared by suspension polymerization reaction using acrylic acid, sodium hydroxide, cyclohexane, potassium persulfate as initiator and sorbitan monolaurate as surfactant. The effect of different weight ratio of acrylic acid/sorbitan monolaurate 20/1, 20/2 and 20/3 were investigated based on its swelling properties, chemical structure by using Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy and the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The molecular weight of polyacrylic acid super absorbent was determinate by intrinsic viscosity measurements in 2 M aqueous sodium hydroxide at 25 o C. The study showed sample with weight ratio of acrylic acid/sorbitan monolaurate = 20/2 have best swelling properties. (author)

  9. Long-time stability effects of quadrature and artificial viscosity on nodal discontinuous Galerkin methods for gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Bradford; Hackl, Jason; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan

    2017-11-01

    Nodal discontinuous Galerkin schemes present an attractive approach to robust high-order solution of the equations of fluid mechanics, but remain accompanied by subtle challenges in their consistent stabilization. The effect of quadrature choices (full mass matrix vs spectral elements), over-integration to manage aliasing errors, and explicit artificial viscosity on the numerical solution of a steady homentropic vortex are assessed over a wide range of resolutions and polynomial orders using quadrilateral elements. In both stagnant and advected vortices in periodic and non-periodic domains the need arises for explicit stabilization beyond the numerical surface fluxes of discontinuous Galerkin spectral elements. Artificial viscosity via the entropy viscosity method is assessed as a stabilizing mechanism. It is shown that the regularity of the artificial viscosity field is essential to its use for long-time stabilization of small-scale features in nodal discontinuous Galerkin solutions of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. Supported by the Department of Energy Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program Contract DE-NA0002378.

  10. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Using Grad’s method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with η/s obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling αs ∼ 0.3 (with η/s ≈ 0.18) and is a factor of 2–3 larger at a small coupling αs ∼ 0.01. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on η/s, except when employing a small αs . On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small αs , the gluon syst...

  11. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    El, Andrej; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Using the Grad's method we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$ are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with $\\eta/s$ obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.3$(with $\\eta/s\\approx 0.18$) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling $\\alpha_s \\sim 0.01$. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on $\\eta/s$, except when employing a small $\\alpha_s$. On the other hand, we demonstrate th...

  12. Shear viscosity coefficient from microscopic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muronga, Azwinndini

    2004-01-01

    The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green-Kubo formulas. Molecular-dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of π,η,ω,ρ,φ with a uniform phase-space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production, and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green-Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend on the energy density. We do not include hadron strings as degrees of freedom so as to maintain detailed balance. Hence we do not get the saturation of temperature but this leads to longer equilibration times

  13. Shear viscosity and out of equilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El, Andrej; Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten; Muronga, Azwinndini

    2009-01-01

    Using Grad's method, we calculate the entropy production and derive a formula for the second-order shear viscosity coefficient in a one-dimensionally expanding particle system, which can also be considered out of chemical equilibrium. For a one-dimensional expansion of gluon matter with Bjorken boost invariance, the shear tensor and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s are numerically calculated by an iterative and self-consistent prescription within the second-order Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics and by a microscopic parton cascade transport theory. Compared with η/s obtained using the Navier-Stokes approximation, the present result is about 20% larger at a QCD coupling α s ∼0.3 (with η/s≅0.18) and is a factor of 2-3 larger at a small coupling α s ∼0.01. We demonstrate an agreement between the viscous hydrodynamic calculations and the microscopic transport results on η/s, except when employing a small α s . On the other hand, we demonstrate that for such small α s , the gluon system is far from kinetic and chemical equilibrium, which indicates the break down of second-order hydrodynamics because of the strong nonequilibrium evolution. In addition, for large α s (0.3-0.6), the Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics formally breaks down at large momentum p T > or approx. 3 GeV but is still a reasonably good approximation.

  14. Viscosity properties of tellurite-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincher, B.; Massera, J.; Petit, L.; Richardson, K.

    2010-01-01

    The viscosity behavior of glasses with the composition (90-x)TeO 2 -10Bi 2 O 3 -xZnO with x = 15, 17.5, and 20 (TBZ glasses) and 80TeO 2 -(20-y)Na 2 O-yZnO system with y = 0, 5, and 10 (TNZ glasses) have been measured as a function of temperature using a beam-bending (BBV) and a parallel-plate (PPV) viscometer. The structure of the glass' network has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and has been related to the viscosity temperature behavior and the fragility parameter (m) of the glasses. As the concentration of ZnO in the TBZ system (x) increases, the fragility parameter of the glass increases, whereas it decreases with an increase of the ZnO concentration (y) in the TNZ system. In both glasses, these variations in m have been related to the partial depolymerization of the tellurite network associated with the level of modifier content. The depolymerization of the tellurite network is believed to be the result of a reduction in the number of [TeO 4 ] units and the formation of [TeO 3 ] and [TeO 3+1 ] units that occurs with a change in TeO 2 content in the TBZ system and modifier content in the TNZ system.

  15. Optimal super dense coding over memory channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zahra; Kampermann, Hermann; Macchiavello, Chiara; Bruß, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

  16. SuperMAG: Present and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. W.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    SuperMAG is a global collaboration that provides ground magnetic field perturbations from a long list of stations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. This unique high quality dataset provides a continuous and nearly global monitoring of the ground magnetic field perturbation. Currently, only archived data are available on the website and hence it targets basic research without any operational capabilities. The existing SuperMAG software can be easily adapted to ingest real-time or near real-time data and provide a now-casting capability. The SuperDARN program has a long history of providing near real-time maps of the northern hemisphere electrostatic potential and as both SuperMAG and SuperDARN share common software it is relatively easy to adapt these maps for global magnetic perturbations. Magnetometer measurements would be assimilated by the SuperMAG server using a variety of techniques, either by downloading data at regular intervals from remote servers or by real-time streaming connections. The existing SuperMAG analysis software would then process these measurements to provide the final calibrated data set using the SuperMAG coordinate system. The existing plotting software would then be used to produce regularly updated global plots. The talk will focus on current SuperMAG capabilities illustrating the potential for now-casting and eventually forecasting.

  17. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora Rangel, L.; Martinez Martinez, E.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  18. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  19. Super rogue wave in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)

  20. The super W∞ symmetry of the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Sin, S.J.

    1991-11-01

    We show that the Manin-Radul super KP hierarchy is invariant under super W ∞ transformations. These transformations are characterized by time dependent flows which commute with the usual flows generated by the conserved quantities of the super KP hierarchy. (author). 16 refs

  1. Viscosity of glasses containing simulated Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1978-08-01

    The viscosity of glass melts containing four simulated sludge types and two frit candidates (Frits 18 and 21) was measured over the temperature range 750 to 1200 0 C. The viscosity of melts made with either frit was reduced by the addition of high iron sludge, unchanged by average sludge, and increased by composite and high aluminum sludge. High aluminium sludge greatly increased the viscosity. Frit 21 (containing 4 wt % Li 2 O substituted for 4 wt % Na 2 O in Frit 18) was clearly better than Frit 18 in terms of its low viscosity. However, further reductions in viscosity are desirable, especially for glasses containing high aluminum sludge. Changing any frit component by 1 wt % did not significantly affect the viscosity of the glasses. Therefore, variability of 1 wt % in any frit component can be tolerated

  2. Viscosity calculations of simulated ion-exchange resin waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon Woo; Park, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyung Ho; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae; BRUNELOT, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    An induction cold crucible melter (CCM) located in the NETEC-KEPCO has been used to vitrify simulated ion-exchange resin. During vitrification, the CCM operations were tightly constrained by glass viscosity as an important process parameter. Understanding the role of viscosity and quantifying viscosity is highly required in the determination of optimized feed formulations and in the selection of the processing temperature. Therefore, existing process models of glass viscosity based on a relationship between the glass composition, its structure polymerization, and the temperature were searched and adapted to our borosilicate glass systems. Calculated data using a viscosity model based on calculation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) were in good agreement with the measured viscosity data of benchmark glasses

  3. The Super-Kamiokande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment is a multi purpose experiment using a large imaging water Cherenkov detector with 50,000 tons of pure water. The detector is located 1000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Japan, and it can detect particle interactions whose visible energies are between 5 MeV and 100 GeV, so that we can study many physics subjects as follows. Solar neutrino problem is one of the most important unsolved problems in astrophysics. Kamiokande experiment confirmed the deficit of neutrino flux compared to the standard Solar model prediction, which was first reported by R. Davis's pioneering work. Currently it is widely believed that the deficit is due to the neutrino oscillation. The Super-Kamiokande is a unique detector to measure the distortion of the energy spectrum of neutrinos, variation of the neutrino flux between day and night, and the seasonal variation of the flux. Those are related to the neutrino oscillation and independent of the Solar model uncertainty. Atmospheric neutrino anomaly was first announced by Kamiokande experiment, and the Super-Kamiokande recently provided clear evidence for neutrino oscillation as the solution to the anomaly. Observed ratio of muons to electrons is significantly smaller than what is expected. Moreover, zenith-angle distribution of observed muon neutrinos shows the strong up-down asymmetry. The zenith angle distribution of upward-going muons provides another information and the result also supports the oscillation hypothesis. We investigate not only the Solar neutrino problem and atmospheric neutrino anomaly, but also other astrophysical neutrino phenomena such as neutrino bursts from supernova explosions, high energy neutrino emission from point sources, neutrino events in correlation with Solar flares, and gamma-ray bursts. Search for nucleon decay is also one of the primary objectives of our experiment. However no evidence for nucleon decay has been observed yet, and we only set a lower limit on the partial

  4. Notes on super Killing tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  5. Highlights from Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from Super-Kamiokande experiment are reviewed in this paper; Neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated via ν_μ → ν_e oscillation of the atmospheric neutrinos. The event rate, correlation with solar activity, energy spectrum of the solar neutrinos are measured via electron elastic scattering interactions. Neutrino emission from the WIMP annihilation at the center of the Sun are searched in the GeV energy regions. New project, SK-Gd project, to enhance anti-neutrino identification capability, has been approved inside the collaboration group

  6. Study of shear viscosity of SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrakhantsev, N.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Braguta, V.V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,Protvino, 142281 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute),Kashirskoe highway, 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-14

    This paper is devoted to the study of two-point correlation function of the energy-momentum tensor 〈T{sub 12}T{sub 12}〉 for SU(2)-gluodynamics within lattice simulation of QCD. Using multilevel algorithm we carried out the measurement of the correlation function at the temperature T/T{sub c}≃1.2. It is shown that lattice data can be described by spectral functions which interpolate between hydrodynamics at low frequencies and asymptotic freedom at high frequencies. The results of the study of spectral functions allowed us to estimate the ratio of shear viscosity to the entropy density η/s=0.134±0.057.

  7. Modeling of Viscosity and Thermal Expansion of Bioactive Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Saad B. H.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviors of viscosity and thermal expansion for different compositions of bioactive glasses have been studied. The effect of phosphorous pentoxide as a second glass former in addition to silica was investigated. Consequently, the nonlinear behaviors of viscosity and thermal expansion with respect to the oxide composition have been modeled. The modeling uses published data on bioactive glass compositions with viscosity and thermal expansion. -regression optimization technique has been uti...

  8. Viscosity, thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number of nanoparticle suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Buxuan; ZHOU Leping; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Using our reported experimental data of effective thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity for CuO nanoparticle suspensions, the corresponding thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number are calculated. With the hard sphere model and considering effects of particle clustering and surface adsorption, the increase of viscosity for nanoparticle suspension observed is explained. It is shown that the effective thermal conductivity will be strongly affected by the formation and correlated spatial distribution of nanoparticle clusters when compared to viscosity in hosting liquid.

  9. Rotational and spin viscosities of water: Application to nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Bruus, Henrik; Todd, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the rotational viscosity and the two spin viscosities for liquid water using equilibrium molecular dynamics. Water is modeled via the flexible SPC/Fw model where the Coulomb interactions are calculated via the Wolf method which enables the long simulation times required....... We find that the rotational viscosity is independent of the temperature in the range from 284 to 319 K. The two spin viscosities, on the other hand, decrease with increasing temperature and are found to be two orders of magnitude larger than that estimated by Bonthuis et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103...

  10. Applicability of viscosity measurement to the detection of irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Kohyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    Starch is degraded by ionising radiation, resulting in a decrease in viscosity. The viscosities of black and white peppers which contain large amounts of starch are reduced by irradiation so, therefore, viscosity measurement has been proposed as a method to detect the irradiation treatment of these food products. Although detection of irradiated spices by thermoluminescence measurement has been established, it is useful to establish the viscosity measuring technique for detecting irradiated peppers, as this method is carried out widely in the laboratories of food controlling authorities and food processing companies. (author)

  11. Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2017-12-01

    The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.

  12. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.; Moon, D.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  13. Determination of viscosity in recirculating fluidized bed using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, G.G. da.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer for measuring viscosity is proposed. The methodology relates the terminal velocity of a radioactive sphere in interior of fluid with the viscosity, which can be a fluidized bed or total flow of solids. The arrangement is composed by two γ detectors placed externally and along the bed. Both detectors are coupled by amplifier to electronic clock. The drop time of sphere between two detectors is measured. The bed viscosity two detectors is measured. The bed viscosity is calculated from mathematical correlations of terminal velocity of the sphere. (M.C.K.)

  14. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header 'Basics of thermal QCD', reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Boedeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form. (author)

  15. Sensor for viscosity and shear strength measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dillion, J.; Moore, J.; Jones, K.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. Two different viscometer techniques are being investigated in this study, based on: magnetostrictive pulse generated acoustic waves; and an oscillating cylinder. Prototype sensors have been built and tested which are based on both techniques. A base capability instrumentation system has been designed, constructed, and tested which incorporates both of these sensors. It requires manual data acquisition and off-line calculation. A broad range of viscous media has been tested using this system. Extensive test results appear in this report. The concept for each technique has been validated by these test results. This base capability system will need to be refined further before it is appropriate for field tests. The mass of the oscillating system structure will need to be reduced. A robust acoustic probe assembly will need to be developed. In addition, in March 1997 it was made known for the first time that the requirement was for a deliverable automated viscosity instrumentation system. Since then such a system has been designed, and the hardware has been constructed so that the automated concept can be proved. The rest of the hardware, which interfaced to a computer, has also been constructed and tested as far as possible. However, for both techniques the computer software for automated data acquisition, calculation, and logging had not been completed before funding and time ran out.

  16. The peak in anomalous magnetic viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collocott, S.J.; Watterson, P.A.; Tan, X.H.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic viscosity, where the magnetization as a function of time exhibits non-monotonic behaviour, being seen to increase, reach a peak, and then decrease, is observed on recoil lines in bulk amorphous ferromagnets, for certain magnetic prehistories. A simple geometrical approach based on the motion of the state line on the Preisach plane gives a theoretical framework for interpreting non-monotonic behaviour and explains the origin of the peak. This approach gives an expression for the time taken to reach the peak as a function of the applied (or holding) field. The theory is applied to experimental data for bulk amorphous ferromagnet alloys of composition Nd 60−x Fe 30 Al 10 Dy x , x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, and it gives a reasonable description of the observed behaviour. The role played by other key magnetic parameters, such as the intrinsic coercivity and fluctuation field, is also discussed. When the non-monotonic behaviour of the magnetization of a number of alloys is viewed in the context of the model, features of universal behaviour emerge, that are independent of alloy composition. - Highlights: • Development of a simple geometrical model based on the Preisach model which gives a complete explanation of the peak in the magnetic viscosity. • Geometrical approach is extended by considering equations that govern the motion of the state line. • The model is used to deduce the relationship between the holding field and the time it takes to reach the peak. • The model is tested with experimental results for a range of Nd–Fe–Al–Dy bulk amorphous ferromagnets. • There is good agreement between the model and the experimental data

  17. Reduction of 4-dim self dual super Yang-Mills onto super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Restuccia, A.; Martin, I.

    1990-05-01

    Recently self dual super Yang-Mills over a super Riemann surface was obtained as the zero set of a moment map on the space of superconnections to the dual of the super Lie algebra of gauge transformations. We present a new formulation of 4-dim Euclidean self dual super Yang-Mills in terms of constraints on the supercurvature. By dimensional reduction we obtain the same set of superconformal field equations which define self dual connections on a super Riemann surface. (author). 10 refs

  18. Exact solution of super Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanying; Zhao Liu; Zhen Yi

    2000-01-01

    Using Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov construction, the authors obtained the explicit solutions to the super Liouville system in super covariant form and component form. The explicit solution in component form reduces naturally into the Egnchi-Hanson instanton solution of the usual Liouville equation if all the Grassmann odd components are set equal to zero

  19. Viscosity of iodinated contrast agents during renal excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Lengsfeld, Philipp; Lenhard, Diana C.; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Sieber, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Modern iodinated non-ionic contrast agents (CAs) can be classified based on their molecular structure into monomeric and dimeric CAs and have at comparable iodine concentrations a different viscosity and osmolality. During their renal excretion, CAs are concentrated in the renal tubuli which might enhance the viscosity difference between monomeric and dimeric CAs. The viscosity of a CA might have an underestimated importance for renal safety, as suggested by recent publications. In this study, we investigated the viscosities of CAs at the concentrations expected to be present in renal tubules. This concentration process was simulated in vitro using dialysis. Furthermore, we investigated urine viscosity and urine flow in rodents after administration of several non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. Materials and methods: To estimate the viscosity of the CAs in vivo, we performed an in vitro dialysis of monomeric and dimeric CAs at various physiological osmolalities of the renal tubulus (290, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 mOsm/kg H 2 O). Following the dialysis, the iodine concentrations and the viscosities of the CAs were determined. Furthermore, to investigate the concentration process in vivo, we measured the urine viscosity and the urine flow in Han Wister rats after the administration of Iopromide, Iohexol, Ioversol, Iomeprol, Iodixanol, and Iosimenol at comparable iodine concentrations. As a control, saline was injected at the same volume. Results: In vitro dialysis of the dimeric CA increased the iodine concentration and strongly increased the viscosity at all tested osmolalities. In contrast, for the monomeric agents an increase in concentration and viscosity was observed only at 700 as well 1000 mOsm/kg H 2 O but to a lesser extent. In summary, dialysis strongly enhanced the viscosity differences between the non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. The administration of dimeric CAs leads to a strong increase in urine viscosity; this was not observed for the

  20. Viscosity of iodinated contrast agents during renal excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Jost@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, Philipp, E-mail: Philipp.Lengsfeld@bayer.com [Global Medical Affairs Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Lenhard, Diana C., E-mail: Diana.Lenhard@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus, E-mail: Hubertus.Pietsch@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Huetter, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Huetter@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Sieber, Martin A., E-mail: Martin.Sieber@bayer.com [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Modern iodinated non-ionic contrast agents (CAs) can be classified based on their molecular structure into monomeric and dimeric CAs and have at comparable iodine concentrations a different viscosity and osmolality. During their renal excretion, CAs are concentrated in the renal tubuli which might enhance the viscosity difference between monomeric and dimeric CAs. The viscosity of a CA might have an underestimated importance for renal safety, as suggested by recent publications. In this study, we investigated the viscosities of CAs at the concentrations expected to be present in renal tubules. This concentration process was simulated in vitro using dialysis. Furthermore, we investigated urine viscosity and urine flow in rodents after administration of several non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. Materials and methods: To estimate the viscosity of the CAs in vivo, we performed an in vitro dialysis of monomeric and dimeric CAs at various physiological osmolalities of the renal tubulus (290, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 mOsm/kg H{sub 2}O). Following the dialysis, the iodine concentrations and the viscosities of the CAs were determined. Furthermore, to investigate the concentration process in vivo, we measured the urine viscosity and the urine flow in Han Wister rats after the administration of Iopromide, Iohexol, Ioversol, Iomeprol, Iodixanol, and Iosimenol at comparable iodine concentrations. As a control, saline was injected at the same volume. Results: In vitro dialysis of the dimeric CA increased the iodine concentration and strongly increased the viscosity at all tested osmolalities. In contrast, for the monomeric agents an increase in concentration and viscosity was observed only at 700 as well 1000 mOsm/kg H{sub 2}O but to a lesser extent. In summary, dialysis strongly enhanced the viscosity differences between the non-ionic monomeric and dimeric CAs. The administration of dimeric CAs leads to a strong increase in urine viscosity; this was not observed for

  1. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jackie; Chestnut, Amanda; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E. A.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pickler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity, five standard infant formulas, three barium products and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20% weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. Study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the NDD nectar-thick liquid range lower boundary. The study showed differences in viscosity between two 60% w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque® and E-Z-Paque® powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range, and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20kcal and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in consistency when mixed

  2. Whole-blood viscosity and the insulin-resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høieggen, A; Fossum, E; Moan, A; Enger, E; Kjeldsen, S E

    1998-02-01

    In a previous study we found that elevated blood viscosity was linked to the insulin resistance syndrome, and we proposed that high blood viscosity may increase insulin resistance. That study was based on calculated viscosity. To determine whether directly measured whole-blood viscosity was related to the insulin-resistance syndrome in the same way as calculated viscosity had been found to be. Healthy young men were examined with the hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic glucose clamp technique, and we related insulin sensitivity (glucose disposal rate) to other metabolic parameters and to blood viscosity. We established a technique for direct measurement of whole-blood viscosity. There were statistically significant negative correlations between glucose disposal rate and whole-blood viscosity at low and high shear rates (r = -0.41, P = 0.007 for both, n = 42). Whole-blood viscosity was correlated positively (n = 15) to serum triglyceride (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and total cholesterol (r = 0.52, P = 0.05), and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.53, P = 0.04) concentrations. Insulin sensitivity index was correlated positively to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.54, P = 0.04) and negatively to serum triglyceride (r = -0.69, P = 0.005) and to total cholesterol (r = -0.81, P = 0.0003) concentrations. The present results demonstrate for the first time that there is a negative relationship between directly measured whole-blood viscosity and insulin sensitivity as a part of the insulin-resistance syndrome. Whole-blood viscosity contributes to the total peripheral resistance, and these results support the hypothesis that insulin resistance has a hemodynamic basis.

  3. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  4. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    The increasing global urbanisation creates a great demand for new buildings. In the aim to honour this, a new structural system, offering flexibility and variation at no extra cost appears beneficial. Super-Light Structures constitute such a system. This PhD thesis examines Super-Light Structures...... with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...

  5. Formulation strategy towards minimizing viscosity mediated negative food effect on disintegration and dissolution of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Kamran; Langguth, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Food induced viscosity can delay disintegration and subsequent release of API from solid dosage form which may lead to severe reduction in the bioavailability of BCS type III compounds. Formulations of such tablets need to be optimized in view of this postprandial viscosity factor. In this study, three super disintegrants, croscarmellose sodium (CCS), cross-linked polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (CPD), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) were assessed for their efficiency under simulated fed state. Tablets containing these disintegrants were compressed at 10 and 30 KN, while taking lactose as a soluble filler. In addition to other compendial tests, disintegration force of these formulations was measured by texture analysis. Comparison of parameters derived from force - time curves revealed a direct relation of maximum disintegration force (F max ) and disintegration force development rate (DFDR) with compressional force in fasted state, whereas an inverse relationship of F max and DFDR with compressional force was observed in fed state. The gelling tendency of disintegrants influenced the rate of release of API in simulated fed and fasted states when compressional force was changed. These observations recommend the evaluation of formulations in simulated fed state, in the development stage, with an objective of minimizing the negative impact of food induced viscosity on disintegration. Use of disintegrants that act without gelling or can counteract the effect of gelling is recommended for tablet formulations with reduced disintegration time (DT) and mean dissolution time (MDT) in fed state, respectively.

  6. Scaling of Convection and Plate Tectonics in Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, D. C.; O'Connell, R. J.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of three Super-Earths around different stars, possible only in the last year, prompts us to study the characteristics of our planet within a general context. The Earth, being the most massive terrestrial object in the solar system is the only planet that exhibits plate tectonics. We think this might not be a coincidence and explore the role that mass plays in determining the mode of convection. We use the scaling of convective vigor with Rayleigh number commonly used in parameterized convection. We study how the parameters controlling convection: Rayleigh number (Ra), boundary layer thickness (δ), internal temperature (T_i) and convective velocities (u) scale with mass. This is possible from the scaling of heat flux, mantle density, size and gravity with mass which we reported in Valencia, et. al 2006. The extrapolation to massive rocky planets is done from our knowledge of the Earth. Even though uncertainties arise from extrapolation and assumptions are needed we consider this simple scaling to be a first adequate step. As the mass of a planet increases, Ra increases, yielding a decrease in δ and an increase in u, while T_i increases very slightly. This is true for an isoviscous case and is more accentuated in a temperature dependent viscosity scenario. In a planet with vigorous convection (high u), a thin lithosphere (low δ) is easier to subduct and hence, initiate plate tectonics. The lithosphere also has to be dense enough (cold and thick) to have the bouyancy necessary for subduction. We calculate that a convective cycle for an isoviscous planet is τ ~ M^{-0.3} considering whole mantle convection. Meaning that if these planets have continents, the timescale for continental rearrangement is shorter (about half the Earth's for a 5 earth-mass planet). Additionally, we explore the negative feedback cycle between convection and temperature dependent viscosity and estimate a timescale for this effect.

  7. Should you trust your heavy oil viscosity measurement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L.; Miller, K.; Almond, R. [Petrovera Resources Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    For the last 60 years, the heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs from western Canada have been exploited with varying degrees of success. There are many factors that may effect heavy oil and bitumen production rates. Primary production rates, which vary greatly from field to field, were found to improve with the addition of steam. Viscosity is the single most valued criteria in predicting cold production response from a new field. It is also the criteria used to determine whether thermal process are needed to reduce oil viscosity, or whether horizontal or vertical wells should be used. This study examined why production forecasts based on oil viscosity alone have been poor. It is based on an extensive data collection project in the Elk Point area reservoir which has lower than expected and erratic cold production rates. Viscosity values from the same wells were found to vary by a factor of four or more. One of the objectives of this study was to encourage commercial labs to develop an industry-wide standard method of heavy oil sample cleaning and viscosity measurement. It is generally understood that viscosity increases with an increase in the concentration of asphaltenes, but there is little information to quantify the relationship. Some studies suggest that viscosity increases logarithmically with increasing asphaltenes. It was concluded that the prediction of the viscosity of heavy oils and bitumens is very empirical, but there are ways to improve data comparisons and evaluation by applying available information from other scientific fields. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Heritability and Seasonal Changes in Viscosity of Slash Pine Oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. McReynolds

    1971-01-01

    Oleoresin viscosity was measured in slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) trees of known genetic origin over a 1-year period. A strong broad-sense heritability of this trait was found. Seasonal variation followed a definite pattern, with the highest viscosities occurring in early spring and a gradual decline occurring in...

  9. Viscosity of liquids theory, estimation, experiment, and data

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanath, Dabir S; Prasad, Dasika HL; Dutt, Nidamarty VK; Rani, Kalipatnapu Y

    2007-01-01

    Single comprehensive book on viscosity of liquids, as opposed to most of the books in this area which are data books, i.e., a compilation of viscosity data from the literature, where the information is scattered and the description and analysis of the experimental methods and governing theory are not readily available in a single place.

  10. Viscosity of low-temperature substances at pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, N.S.; Slyusar', V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The review presents an analysis of data available on the viscosity coefficients of hydrogen, deuterohydrogen, deuterium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen and methane under pressure in the temperature range from triple points to 300 deg K. Averaged values of viscosity coefficients for all the substances listed above versus temperature, pressure and density are tabulated

  11. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The start-up and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 and 103 kg/mole, and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The monodisperse melts show a maximum in the steady elongational viscosity vs. the elongational...

  12. Effective viscosity of dispersions approached by a statistical continuum method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; Willemse, M.W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the determination of the effective viscosity of disperse systems (emulsions, suspensions) is considered. On the basis of the formal solution of the equations governing creeping flow in a statistically homogeneous dispersion, the effective viscosity is expressed in a series expansion

  13. On-line measurement of food viscosity during flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Sarah Louise; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Sarah L. Mason and Alan Friis discuss some of the principles and equipment used to monitor food viscosity in real time.......Sarah L. Mason and Alan Friis discuss some of the principles and equipment used to monitor food viscosity in real time....

  14. A Riemann problem with small viscosity and dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayyunnapara Thomas Joseph

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove existence of global solutions to a hyperbolic system in elastodynamics, with small viscosity and dispersion terms and derive estimates uniform in the viscosity-dispersion parameters. By passing to the limit, we prove the existence of solution the Riemann problem for the hyperbolic system with arbitrary Riemann data.

  15. Viscosity measurements of molten refractory metals using an electrostatic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-François; Okada, Junpei T; Watanabe, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Viscosities of several refractory metals (titanium, nickel, zirconium, niobium, ruthenium, rhodium, hafnium, iridium and platinum) and terbium have been measured by the oscillation drop method with an improved procedure. The measured data were less scattered than our previous measurements. Viscosities at their melting temperatures showed good agreement with literature values and some predicted values. (paper)

  16. Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...

  17. Viscosity Prediction of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Based on the Friction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    The application and capability of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity predictions of hydrocarbon fluids is further illustrated by predicting the viscosity of binary and ternary liquid mixtures composed of n-alkanes ranging from n-pentane to n-decane for wide ranges of temperature and from...

  18. Fluctuation expressions for fast thermal transport processes: Vortex viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.J.; Hanley, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The vortex viscosity of a model diatomic fluid is calculated using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. The two calculations agree within statistical uncertainties. The results show that vortex viscosity does not have a conventional Kubo-Green relation. An argument as to why this is so is presented

  19. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  20. Impact of initial pulse shape on the nonlinear spectral compression in optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, Sonia; Chaussard, Frederic; Andresen, Esben; Rigneault, Hervé; Finot, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study the effects of the temporal intensity profile of the initial pulse on the nonlinear propagation spectral compression process arising from nonlinear propagation in an optical fibre. Various linearly chirped input pulse profiles are considered, and their dynamics is explained with the aid of time-frequency representations. While initially parabolic-shaped pulses show enhanced spectral compression compared to Gaussian pulses, no significant spectral narrowing occurs when initially super-Gaussian pulses are used. Triangular pulses lead to a spectral interference phenomenon similar to the Fresnel bi-prism experiment.

  1. Super resolution for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  2. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' d, Basil A.

    2009-08-27

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  3. Viscosity of melts in the sodium borosilicate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Mandolesi, D.L.; Rummens, H.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The viscosities of a series of glasses in the sodium borosilicate system (5-35Na 2 O, 5-35B 2 O 3 , 45-80SiO 2 mol%) have been determined between 950 and 1500 deg C, using a rotating bob viscometer. A simplex lattice experimental design was used to define a series of compositions suitable for numerical analysis of the data. The viscosity data were fitted using the Fulcher equation for each composition. Nonlinear regression analysis of the viscosities at constant temperatures gave expressions for the variation in viscosity as a function of composition. The results are displayed as isoviscosity contours on the Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 composition diagram. The viscosity behaviour as a function of composition is discussed in terms of structural bonding in the melt. (author)

  4. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M J; Parker, N G; Povey, M J W

    2011-01-01

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 0 C. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  5. Viscosity Prediction of Natural Gas Using the Friction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    Based on the concepts of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity modeling, a procedure is introduced for predicting the viscosity of hydrocarbon mixtures rich in one component, which is the case for natural gases. In this procedure, the mixture friction coefficients are estimated with mixing...... rules based on the values of the pure component friction coefficients. Since natural gases contain mainly methane, two f-theory models are combined, where the friction coefficients of methane are estimated by a seven-constant f-theory model directly fitted to methane viscosities, and the friction...... coefficients of the other components are estimated by the one-parameter general f-theory model. The viscosity predictions are performed with the SRK, the PR, and the PRSV equations of state, respectively. For recently measured viscosities of natural gases, the resultant AAD (0.5 to 0.8%) is in excellent...

  6. Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'd, Basil A.

    2009-01-01

    The bulk viscosity of several quark matter phases is calculated. It is found that the effect of color superconductivity is not trivial, it may suppress, or enhance the bulk viscosity depending on the critical temperature and the temperature at which the bulk viscosity is calculated. Also, is it found that the effect of neutrino-emitting Urca processes cannot be neglected in the consideration of the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter. The results for the bulk viscosity of strange quark matter are used to calculate the r-mode instability window of quark stars with several possible phases. It is shown that each possible phase has a different structure for the r-mode instability window. (orig.)

  7. Crustal Viscosity Structure Estimated from Multi-Phase Mixing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinevar, W. J.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of lower crustal viscosity are typically constrained by analyses of isostatic rebound, post seismic creep, and laboratory-derived flow laws for crustal rocks and minerals. Here we follow a new approach for calculating the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust. We use Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions. Effective viscosity is then calculated using the rheologic mixing model of Huet et al. (2014) incorporating flow laws for each mineral phase. Calculations are performed along geotherms appropriate for the Basin and Range, Tibetan Plateau, Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault. To assess the role of crustal composition on viscosity, we examined two compositional gradients extending from an upper crust with ~67 wt% SiO2 to a lower crust that is either: (i) basaltic with ~53 wt% SiO2 (Rudnick and Gao, 2003), or (ii) andesitic with ~64% SiO2 (Hacker et al., 2011). In all cases, the middle continental crust has a viscosity that is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that inferred for wet quartz, a common proxy for mid-crustal viscosities. An andesitic lower crust results in viscosities of 1020-1021 Pa-s and 1021-1022 Pa-s for hotter and colder crustal geotherms, respectively. A mafic lower crust predicts viscosities that are an order of magnitude higher for the same geotherm. In all cases, the viscosity calculated from the mixing model decreases less with depth compared to single-phase estimates. Lastly, for anhydrous conditions in which alpha quartz is stable, we find that there is a strong correlation between Vp/Vs and bulk viscosity; in contrast, little to no correlation exists for hydrous conditions.

  8. SuperAGILE onboard electronics and ground test instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacciani, Luigi; Morelli, Ennio; Rubini, Alda; Mastropietro, Marcello; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Rapisarda, Massimo; Soffitta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the electronics of the SuperAGILE X-ray imager on-board AGILE satellite and the instrumentation developed to test and improve the Front-End and digital electronics of the flight model of the imager. Although the working principle of the instrument is very well established, and the conceptual scheme simple, the budget and mechanical constraints of the AGILE small mission made necessary the introduction of new elements in SuperAGILE, regarding both the mechanics and the electronics. In fact the instrument is contained in a ∼44x44x16cm 3 volume, but the required performance is quite ambitious, leading us to equip a sensitive area of ∼1350cm 2 with 6144 Silicon μstrips detectors with a pitch of 121μm and a total length of ∼18.2cm. The result is a very light and power-cheap imager with a good sensitivity (∼15mCrab in 1 day in 15-45keV), high angular resolution (6arcmin) and gross spectral resolution. The test-equipment is versatile, and can be easily modified to test FEE based on self-triggered, data-driven and sparse-readout ASICs such as XA family chips

  9. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  10. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-05-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  11. Wave anisotropy of shear viscosity and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the theory of shear wave propagation in a "soft solid" material possessing anisotropy of elastic and dissipative properties. The theory is developed mainly for understanding the nature of the low-frequency acoustic characteristics of skeletal muscles, which carry important diagnostic information on the functional state of muscles and their pathologies. It is shown that the shear elasticity of muscles is determined by two independent moduli. The dissipative properties are determined by the fourth-rank viscosity tensor, which also has two independent components. The propagation velocity and attenuation of shear waves in muscle depend on the relative orientation of three vectors: the wave vector, the polarization vector, and the direction of muscle fiber. For one of the many experiments where attention was distinctly focused on the vector character of the wave process, it was possible to make a comparison with the theory, estimate the elasticity moduli, and obtain agreement with the angular dependence of the wave propagation velocity predicted by the theory.

  12. Methods of viscosity measurements in sealed ampoules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    1999-07-01

    Viscosity of semiconductors and metallic melts is usually measured by oscillating cup method. This method utilizes the melts contained in vacuum sealed silica ampoules, thus the problems related to volatility, contamination, and high temperature and pressure can be alleviate. In a typical design, the time required for a single measurement is of the order of one hour. In order to reduce this time to a minute range, a high resolution angular detection system is implemented in our design of the viscometer. Furthermore, an electromagnet generating a rotational magnetic field (RMF) is incorporated into the apparatus. This magnetic field can be used to remotely and nonintrusively measure the electrical conductivity of the melt. It can also be used to induce a well controlled rotational flow in the system. The transient behavior of this flow can potentially yield of the fluid. Based on RMF implementation, two novel viscometry methods are proposed in this work: a) the transient torque method, b) the resonance method. A unified theoretical approach to the three methods is presented along with the initial test result of the constructed apparatus. Advantages of each of the method are discussed.

  13. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  14. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  15. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, B.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.

    2012-01-01

    SuperB is a high luminosity e + e - collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B u,d,s , D and τ decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin 2 θ W . In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the Υ(4S) and φ(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over-constraints of the unitarity triangle through

  16. Super-radiance in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N

    2015-01-01

    The theory of the super-radiant mechanism as applied to various phenomena in nuclear physics is presented. The connection between super-radiance and the notion of doorway is presented. The statistics of resonance widths in a many-body Fermi system with open channels is discussed. Depending on the strength of the coupling to the continuum such systems show deviations from the standard Porter-Thomas distribution. The deviations result from the process of increasing interaction of the intrinsic states via the common decay channels. In the limit of very strong coupling this leads to super-radiance. (paper)

  17. THERMAL EVOLUTION AND LIFETIME OF INTRINSIC MAGNETIC FIELDS OF SUPER-EARTHS IN HABITABLE ZONES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachinami, C.; Ida, S.; Senshu, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have numerically studied the thermal evolution of different-mass terrestrial planets in habitable zones, focusing on the duration of dynamo activity to generate their intrinsic magnetic fields, which may be one of the key factors in habitability of the planets. In particular, we are concerned with super-Earths, observations of which are rapidly developing. We calculated the evolution of temperature distributions in the planetary interior using Vinet equations of state, the Arrhenius-type formula for mantle viscosity, and the astrophysical mixing-length theory for convective heat transfer modified for mantle convection. After calibrating the model with terrestrial planets in the solar system, we apply it for 0.1-10 M + rocky planets with a surface temperature of 300 K (in habitable zones) and Earth-like compositions. With the criterion of heat flux at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), the lifetime of the magnetic fields is evaluated from the calculated thermal evolution. We found that the lifetime slowly increases with planetary mass (M p ), independent of the initial temperature gap at the CMB (ΔT CMB ), but beyond the critical value M c,p (∼O(1) M + ) it abruptly declines from the mantle viscosity enhancement due to the pressure effect. We derived M c,p as a function of ΔT CMB and a rheological parameter (activation volume, V*). Thus, the magnetic field lifetime of super-Earths with M p >M p,c sensitively depends on ΔT CMB , which reflects planetary accretion, and V*, which has uncertainty at very high pressure. More advanced high-pressure experiments and first-principle simulation, as well as planetary accretion simulation, are needed to discuss the habitability of super-Earths.

  18. Phenomenological and statistical analyses of turbulence in forced convection with temperature-dependent viscosity under non-Boussinesq condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, S M; Anwer, S F; Sanghi, S

    2013-10-01

    In this work, Thermal Large Eddy Simulation (TLES) is performed to study the behavior of weakly compressible Newtonian fluids with anisotropic temperature-dependent viscosity in forced convection turbulent flow. A systematic analysis of variable-viscosity effects, isolated from gravity, with relevance to industrial cooling/heating applications is being carried out. A LES of a planar channel flow with significant heat transfer at a low Mach number was performed to study effects of fluid property variation on the near-wall turbulence structure. In this flow configuration the top wall is maintained at a higher temperature (T hot ) than the bottom wall (T cold ). The temperature ratio (R θ = T hot /T cold ) is fixed at 1.01, 2 and 3 to study the effects of property variations at low Mach number. Results indicate that average and turbulent fields undergo significant changes. Compared with isothermal flow with constant viscosity, we observe that turbulence is enhanced in the cold side of the channel, characterized by locally lower viscosity whereas a decrease of turbulent kinetic energy is found at the hot wall. The turbulent structures near the cold wall are very short and densely populated vortices but near the hot wall there seems to be a long streaky structure or large elongated vortices. Spectral study reveals that turbulence is completely suppressed at the hot side of the channel at a large temperature ratio because no inertial zone is obtained (i.e. index of Kolmogorov scaling law is zero) from the spectra in these region.

  19. Super-Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems and free super-oscillators: a mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pijush K.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the supersymmetric rational Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS) model of A N+1 -type is equivalent to a set of free super-oscillators, through a similarity transformation. We prescribe methods to construct the complete eigenspectrum and the associated eigenfunctions, both in supersymmetry-preserving as well as supersymmetry-breaking phases, from the free super-oscillator basis. Further we show that a wide class of super-Hamiltonians realizing dynamical OSp(2 vertical bar 2) supersymmetry, which also includes all types of rational super-CMS as a small subset, are equivalent to free super-oscillators. We study BC N+1 -type super-CMS model in some detail to understand the subtleties involved in this method

  20. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  1. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  2. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  3. Design of Oil Viscosity Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad; Arifin, A.

    2018-03-01

    A research of plastic optical fiber based sensors have been studied for measurement of oil viscosity. This sensor was made with straight configuration, U configuration, and gamma configuration have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. Viscosity sensor was made, dipped into an oil sample with a concentration of viscosity percentage about 270 mPa.s - 350 mPa.s. The light from the LED propagated into the optical fiber, then it was received by the photodetector converted to output power. When plastic optical fiber dipped into an oil sample, viscosity of oil affect increase of refractive index on optical fiber resulting in a bigger loss of power so the light intensity will be smaller, consequences the measured output power will be smaller. Sensitivity and resolution viscosity sensor without cladding peel showed the best result rather than viscosity sensor with cladding peel. The best result in the measurement showed in gamma configuration with 3 cm length of cladding peel and the diameter of bending 0,25 cm is the range 103,090 nWatt, sensitivity 1,289 nWatt/mPa.s, and resolution 0,776 mPa.s. This method is effectively and efficiently used as an oil viscosity sensor with high sensitivity and resolution.

  4. A superparticle on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Yasui, Yukinora

    1988-01-01

    A non-relativistic superparticle moving freely on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane is investigated. The lagrangian is invariant under the super Moebius transformations SPL (2, R), so that it can be projected into the lagrangian on the super Riemann surface. The quantum hamiltonian becomes the 'super' Laplace-Beltrami operator in the curved superspace. (orig.)

  5. Superparticle on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, S; Yasui, Yukinora

    1988-03-17

    A non-relativistic superparticle moving freely on the 'super' Poincare upper half plane is investigated. The lagrangian is invariant under the super Moebius transformations SPL (2, R), so that it can be projected into the lagrangian on the super Riemann surface. The quantum hamiltonian becomes the 'super' Laplace-Beltrami operator in the curved superspace.

  6. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chun-Fei; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  7. Singularities and Entropy in Bulk Viscosity Dark Energy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xinhe; Dou Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper bulk viscosity is introduced to describe the effects of cosmic non-perfect fluid on the cosmos evolution and to build the unified dark energy (DE) with (dark) matter models. Also we derive a general relation between the bulk viscosity form and Hubble parameter that can provide a procedure for the viscosity DE model building. Especially, a redshift dependent viscosity parameter ζ ∝ λ 0 + λ 1 (1 + z) n proposed in the previous work [X.H. Meng and X. Dou, Commun. Theor. Phys. 52 (2009) 377] is investigated extensively in this present work. Further more we use the recently released supernova dataset (the Constitution dataset) to constrain the model parameters. In order to differentiate the proposed concrete dark energy models from the well known ΛCDM model, statefinder diagnostic method is applied to this bulk viscosity model, as a complementary to the Om parameter diagnostic and the deceleration parameter analysis performed by us before. The DE model evolution behavior and tendency are shown in the plane of the statefinder diagnostic parameter pair {r, s} as axes where the fixed point represents the ΛCDM model. The possible singularity property in this bulk viscosity cosmology is also discussed to which we can conclude that in the different parameter regions chosen properly, this concrete viscosity DE model can have various late evolution behaviors and the late time singularity could be avoided. We also calculate the cosmic entropy in the bulk viscosity dark energy frame, and find that the total entropy in the viscosity DE model increases monotonously with respect to the scale factor evolution, thus this monotonous increasing property can indicate an arrow of time in the universe evolution, though the quantum version of the arrow of time is still very puzzling. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  8. An eddy viscosity model for flow in a tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, D.; Grandotto, M.

    1998-01-01

    The work described in this paper is part of the development of GENEPI a 3-dimensional finite element code, designed for the thermalhydraulic analysis of steam generators. It focuses on the implementation of two-phase flow turbulence-induced viscosity in a tube bundle. The GENEPI code, as other industrial codes, uses the eddy viscosity concept introduced by Boussinesq for single phase flow. The concept assumes that the turbulent momentum transfer is similar to the viscous shear stresses. Eddy viscosity formulation is reasonably well known for single phase flows, especially in simple geometries (i.e., in smooth tube, around a single body, or behind a row of bars/tubes), but there exists very little information on it for two-phase flows. An analogy between single and two-phases is used to set up a model for eddy viscosity. The eddy viscosity model examined in this paper is used for a tube bundle geometry and, therefore, is extended to include anisotropy to the classic model. Each of the main flow directions (cross flow inline, cross flow staggered, and parallel flows) gives rise to a specific eddy viscosity formula. The results from a parametric study indicate that the eddy viscosity in the staggered flow is roughly 1.5 times as large as that for the inline cross flow, 60 times as large as that for the parallel flow, and 105 as large as that for the molecular viscosity. Then, the different terms are combined with each other to result in a global eddy viscosity model for a steam generator tube bundle flow. (author)

  9. Effect of viscosity on tear drainage and ocular residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Chauhan, Anuj

    2008-08-01

    An increase in residence time of dry eye medications including artificial tears will likely enhance therapeutic benefits. The drainage rates and the residence time of eye drops depend on the viscosity of the instilled fluids. However, a quantitative understanding of the dependence of drainage rates and the residence time on viscosity is lacking. The current study aims to develop a mathematical model for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and also for power-law non-Newtonian fluids of different viscosities. This study is an extension of our previous study on the mathematical model of tear drainage. The tear drainage model is modified to describe the drainage of Newtonian fluids with viscosities higher than the tear viscosity and power-law non-Newtonian fluids with rheological parameters obtained from fitting experimental data in literature. The drainage rate through canaliculi was derived from the modified drainage model and was incorporated into a tear mass balance to calculate the transients of total solute quantity in ocular fluids and the bioavailability of instilled drugs. For Newtonian fluids, increasing the viscosity does not affect the drainage rate unless the viscosity exceeds a critical value of about 4.4 cp. The viscosity has a maximum impact on drainage rate around a value of about 100 cp. The trends are similar for shear thinning power law fluids. The transients of total solute quantity, and the residence time agrees at least qualitatively with experimental studies. A mathematical model has been developed for the drainage of Newtonian fluids and power-law fluids through canaliculi. The model can quantitatively explain different experimental observations on the effect of viscosity on the residence of instilled fluids on the ocular surface. The current study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of fluid drainage from the ocular surface and for improving the design of dry eye treatments.

  10. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  11. Effect of ion viscosity on neoclassical tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeki; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi

    2004-01-01

    Linear stability analysis of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is performed on the basis of four-field reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model which takes account of fluctuating ion parallel flow and ion neoclassical viscosity. The dependence of the growth rate on the kinetic effects is investigated. It is shown that the linear NTM is stabilized by ion neoclassical viscosity and that the stabilizing effect of ion parallel compressibility is weak in the banana-plateau regime. It is found that not only ion neoclassical viscosity but also both ion and electron diamagnetic effects are important for the stabilization of NTM. (author)

  12. Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredos, P; Zizek, B

    1996-03-01

    Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2

  13. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    -Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom-Pom molecule...... it corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum...... in the viscosity at the highest elongational rate....

  14. Shear viscosity of liquid argon and liquid rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiakwelu, O.

    1978-01-01

    A direct evaluation of the shear viscosity coefficient for models of liquid rubidium and liquid argon is presented by neglecting the cross-terms in the autocorrelation function of the transverse component of the momentum stress tensor. The time dependence of the shear viscosity for liquid argon is found to display a long decaying tail in qualitative agreement with a computer calculation of Levesque et al. However, the numerical values of the shear viscosity coefficients are smaller than the experimentally determined values of about 45% for liquid rubidium and 35% for liquid argon

  15. W∞ gravity and super-W∞ gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Shen, X.; Sezgin, E.; Romans, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors construct gauge theories of the W ∞ algebra and its super-extension, and discuss their relation to earlier results for the gauging of the classical contraction to the w ∞ algebra

  16. The Super-TIGER Instrument to Probe Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Binns, W. R.; Bose, R, G.; Braun, D. L.; Christian, E. R.; Daniels, W. M; DeNolfo, G. A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is under construction for the first of two planned Antarctic long-duration balloon flights in December 2012. This new instrument will measure the abundances of ultra-heavy elements (30Zn and heavier), with individual element resolution, to provide sensitive tests of the emerging model of cosmic-ray origins in OB associations and models of the mechanism for selection of nuclei for acceleration. Super-TIGER builds on the techniques of TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements 31Ga, 32Ge, and 34Se. Plastic scintillators together with acrylic and silica-aerogel Cherenkov detectors measure particle charge. Scintillating-fiber hodoscopes track particle trajectories. Super-TIGER has an active area of 5.4 sq m, divided into two independent modules. With reduced material thickness to decrease interactions, its effective geometry factor is approx.6.4 times larger than TIGER, allowing it to measure elements up to 42Mo with high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements up to 56Ba. Super-TIGER will also accurately determine the energy spectra of the more abundant elements from l0Ne to 28Ni between 0.8 and 10 GeV/nucleon to test the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features. We will discuss the implications of Super-TIGER measurements for the study of cosmic-ray origins and will present the measurement technique, design, status, and expected performance, including numbers of events and resolution. Details of the hodoscopes, scintillators, and Cherenkov detectors will be given in other presentations at this conference.

  17. Charm Physics at SuperB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, Brian; Bevan, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The study of Charm Decays at SuperB provide unique opportunities to understand the Standard Model and constrain new physics, both at the Y(4S), and at charm threshold. We discuss the physics potential of such measurements from the proposed SuperB experiment with 75 ab -1 of data at the Y(4S) and a subsequent run dedicated to exploiting quantum correlations at the charm threshold. (author)

  18. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0× 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$, which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced ...

  19. Studies of the Super VELO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156302

    2016-01-01

    The Super VELO is the Run 5 upgrade of the VeloPix detector of the LHCb experiment. Its most challenging task is to cope with a luminosity increase of the factor 10. This study examines the potential physics performance of a detector based on the VeloPix design at high luminosity conditions. It is found that an unmodified VeloPix detector shows poor performance when exposed to 10x design luminosity, most gravely high ghost rates of 40 %. When applying basic assumptions about material changes such as cutting the silicon thickness by half and removing the RF foil, the ghost rate drops by 20 %. When using thin silicon and re-optimizing the tracking algorithm, the ghost rate can even be reduced by 60 %. Applying the additional modification of a pixel area size four times smaller, the ghost rate drops by 88 % and the IP resolution improves. Finally, in a dream scenario with thin silicon, smaller pixels and no RF foil, big gains in resolution and a ghost rate of less than 4 % can be achieved.

  20. The tristan super light facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Photon Factory and its user group have achieved excellent scientific results since its commissioning in 1982, ranging from material science to medical application, by using the synchrotron radiation at the 2.5 GeV PF storage ring, and since 1986, further at the 6.5 GeV Tristan accumulation ring which provides brilliant photons in high energy region. Efforts are exerted currently at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics for the extensive research and development works to study the feasibility of the Tristan e + e - collider main ring to be utilized as an extremely intense and highly advanced light source, which is called Tristan super light facility. What kinds of the application are expected for such highly brilliant source and their scientific significance should be clarified. This design report is an outcome by the joint work of in-house staffs and outside users, and it would serve as an excellent guide for the future studies on a next generation synchrotron radiation light source. The conversion plan of Tristan, the basic design of insertion devices, coherent X-ray sources, beam lines, instrumentation and others are reported. (K.I.)

  1. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0 × 10 35 cm −2 s −1 , which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced by the groove surface with a TiN coating. In the drift space, the electron cloud will be mitigated by the TiN coating and a conventional solenoid field. (author)

  2. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  3. All-optical OFDM demultiplexing by spectral magnification and optical band-pass filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Kong, Deming

    2013-01-01

    We propose spectral magnification of optical-OFDM super-channels using time-lenses, enabling reduced inter-carrier-interference in subcarrier detection by simple band-pass filtering. A demonstration on an emulated 100 Gbit/s DPSK optical-OFDM channel shows improved sensitivities after 4-times spe...

  4. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  5. Molecular dynamics calculation of shear viscosity for molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru

    1993-12-01

    A computer program of molecular dynamics simulation has been made to calculate shear viscosity of molten salt. Correlation function for an off-diagonal component of stress tensor can be obtained as the results of calculation. Shear viscosity is calculated by integration of the correlation function based on the Kubo-type formula. Shear viscosities for a molten KCl ranging in temperature from 1047K to 1273K were calculated using the program. Calculation of 10 5 steps (1 step corresponds to 5 x 10 -15 s) was performed for each temperature in the 216 ions system. The obtained results were in good agreement with the reported experimental values. The program has been vectorized to achieve a faster computation in supercomputer. It makes possible to calculate the viscosity using a large number of statistics amounting to several million MD steps. (author)

  6. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Martys, Nicos S

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to "scientifically" improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis.

  7. Determination of the viscosity by spherical drop using nuclear tecniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.V. da; Qassim, R.Y.; Souza, Roberto de; Rio de Janeiro Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The measurements of the drop limit velocity of a Sphere in a fluid using a radiotracer method are analyzed. The dynamic process involved was observed, identifying the density and viscosity of the fluid. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Diffusivities and Viscosities of Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomers †

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Escobedo, Fernando; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusivities and viscosities of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer melts with 1 to 12 repeat units have been obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TraPPE-UA force field. The simulations generated diffusion coefficients

  9. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous. Unstable layer Instability Convection.

  10. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  11. The viscosity window of the silicate glass foam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    which can offer a practical starting point for the optimisation procedure. The melt viscosity might be the most important parameter for controlling the foaming process and the glass foam density. In this work, we attempt to define a viscosity range in which foaming of different glasses results...... in a maximum of foam expansion. The expansion maximum is obtained for different glasses (labware, E-glass, CRT panel, soda-lime-silica) by foaming with CaCO3 at isokom temperature and from literature data. In general, the viscosity window was found to be within 104–106 Pa s when foaming with MnO2 or metal...... carbonates (CaCO3, Na2CO3, MgCO3, SrCO3, dolomite) whereas SiC requires higher temperatures and correspondingly lower viscosities (103.3–104.0 Pa s). These findings can help assessing the implementation of new resources in the glass foam production....

  12. PVT characterization and viscosity modeling and prediction of crude oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Eduardo Salvador P.; Dalberg, Anders; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    In previous works, the general, one-parameter friction theory (f-theory), models have been applied to the accurate viscosity modeling of reservoir fluids. As a base, the f-theory approach requires a compositional characterization procedure for the application of an equation of state (EOS), in most...... pressure, is also presented. The combination of the mass characterization scheme presented in this work and the f-theory, can also deliver accurate viscosity modeling results. Additionally, depending on how extensive the compositional characterization is, the approach,presented in this work may also...... deliver accurate viscosity predictions. The modeling approach presented in this work can deliver accurate viscosity and density modeling and prediction results over wide ranges of reservoir conditions, including the compositional changes induced by recovery processes such as gas injection....

  13. Shear viscosity enhancement in water–nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Sen, Swarnendu; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2012-01-01

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations characterize the increase in the shear viscosity of water around a suspended silicon dioxide nanoparticle. Water layering on the solid surface decreases the fraction of adjacent fluid molecules that are more mobile and hence less viscous, thereby increasing the shear viscosity. The contribution of the nanoparticle surface area to this rheological behavior is identified and an empirical model that accounts for it is provided. The model successfully reproduces the shear viscosity predictions from previous experimental measurements as well as our simulations. -- Highlights: ► Layering of water on the solid surfaces increases the fraction of less mobile molecules adjacent to them. ► A nondimensional parameter predicts of viscosity enhancement due to particle shape, volume fraction. ► Model predictions agree with the results of atomistic simulations and experimental measurements.

  14. Measurement of viscosity as a means to identify irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, E.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of viscosity is a simple method to identify previous irradiation of some kinds of spices and foods, at least in combination with other methods. A possible change of the soaking capacity was examined up to a storage period of 18 months after irradiation of black pepper, white pepper, cinnamon, ginger and onion powder with a radiation dose of 10 kGy each. After irradiation, either increased or decreased viscosity values were measured; the results showed, also after the 18-months-storage period, considerable differences of the viscosity behaviour in non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The time of storage had no effect to the individual viscosity values, so that this method could also be applied to the examined spices after a longer storage period. (orig.) With 51 figs., 25 tabs [de

  15. Effect of soft mode on shear viscosity of quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Takahiko; Iwasaki, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity of quark matter at finite temperature and density. If we assume that the quark interacts with the soft mode, which is a collective mode of a quark-antiquark pair, the self-energy of the quark is calculated by quasi-particle random phase approximation. It is shown that its imaginary part is large and its mean free path is short. With the use of the Kubo formula, the shear viscosity of quark matter decreases. The Reynolds number of quark matter is estimated to be about 10. As temperature increases, shear viscosity increases gradually for T>200 MeV. Moreover it is shown that the shear viscosity also increases with the chemical potential for μ>200 MeV. (author)

  16. effect of electrochemical oxidation of a viscose rayon based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEYWORDS: Viscose rayon based activated carbon cloth; Sorption isotherms; Electrochemical oxidation; Arsenic .... (AAS ) in acetylene-air flame emission mode. 2.9. Quality ..... of the EO ACC thereby restricting the number of binding sites for ...

  17. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Amanda H; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E A; Steele, Catriona M; Pickler, Laura

    2016-10-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity of five standard infant formulas, three barium products, and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20 % weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. The study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the lower boundary of the NDD nectar-thick liquid range. The study showed differences in viscosity between 60 % w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque(®) and E-Z-Paque(®) powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas, or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque(®) powdered barium was mixed in a 20 % w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20 and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in

  18. Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Nazarov, Murtazo

    2013-02-01

    We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A note on the mixture viscosity using the Shannak definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A note on the mixture viscosity using the Shannak definition is presented. • The Shannak definition gives μ (2ph) > μ f at low x. • Attention must be taken when using the Shannak definition at low x. - Abstract: In this study, a note on the mixture viscosity using the Shannak definition is presented [Shannak, B. A., 2008. Frictional pressure drop of gas liquid two-phase flow in pipes. Nucl. Eng. Des. 238, 3277–3284]. From his definition of the two-phase Reynolds number (Re (2ph) ), an expression of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) is obtained. This expression of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) satisfies the following important limiting conditions: i. at x = 0, μ (2ph) = μ f , and at x = 1, μ (2ph) = μ g . This definition of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) can be used to compute the two-phase frictional pressure gradient using the homogeneous modeling approach in circular pipes, minichannels and microchannels. By plotting μ (2ph) /μ f versus x for air–water system at atmospheric conditions using the Shannak definition as well as the other most commonly used formulas of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) in gas–liquid two-phase flows such as McAdams et al. (1942), Cicchitti et al. (1960), and Awad and Muzychka (2008) (Definition 1, Definition 2, Definition 3, and Definition 4), it is clear that the Shannak definition of the two-phase viscosity gives μ (2ph) > μ f at low x. This is impossible because we must have μ g (2ph) f for 0 < x < 1. Therefore, attention must be taken when using the Shannak definition of the two-phase viscosity at low x

  20. Magnetic viscosity study in FePt/C granular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Butler, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G.C.; Weller, D.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic viscosity of FePt/C granular thin films was studied in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K in order to examine the thermal stability of the nanoparticles. The magnetic viscosity coefficient (S max ) was found to decrease with temperature because of decreased thermal activation. At low temperatures, S max showed an almost linear dependence on temperature. However, S max does not extrapolate to zero but seems to have a finite value at cryogenic temperatures

  1. Effect of Fluid Dynamic Viscosity on the Strength of Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, K.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    The mechanical strength of high porosity and weakly cemented chalk is affected by the fluid in the pores. In this study, the effect of the dynamic viscosity of non-polar fluids has been measured on outcrop chalk from Sigerslev Quarry, Stevns, Denmark. The outcome is that the measured strength...... of the chalk decreases with increasing dynamic viscosity. The proposed qualitative explanation is that pressure difference supports and enhances the generation of microscopic shear and tensile failures....

  2. Coefficients of viscosity for heavy impurity element in tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharif, R N; Bekhit, A M [Plasma Physics dept., NRC, Atomic energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The transport of heavy impurity element in to tokamak was studied theoretically. The viscosity coefficients of chromium impurities has been calculated in 13 and 21 moment approximation, in the limit of strong fields where is the gyrofrequency of species it was found that the off diagonal coefficient approximately tends to zero. This means that the friction force in the off-diagonal direction is very small, for the perpendicular viscosity coefficient the two approximation coincide to each other. 3 figs.

  3. Vanishing Shear Viscosity Limit in the Magnetohydrodynamic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jishan; Jiang, Song; Nakamura, Gen

    2007-03-01

    We study an initial boundary value problem for the equations of plane magnetohydrodynamic compressible flows, and prove that as the shear viscosity goes to zero, global weak solutions converge to a solution of the original equations with zero shear viscosity. As a by-product, this paper improves the related results obtained by Frid and Shelukhin for the case when the magnetic effect is neglected.

  4. Refractive index and viscosity: dual sensing with plastic fibre gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo; Bilro, Lúcia; Marques, Carlos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rogério

    2014-05-01

    A refractive index and viscosity sensor based on FBGs in mPOF is reported for the first time. The refractive index was measured with a sensitivity of -10:98nm=RIU and a resolution of 1 - 10-4RIU. Viscosity measurements were performed with acousto-optic modulation, obtaining a sensitivity of -94:42%=mPa • s and a resolution of 0:06mPa • s.

  5. Viscosity and density models for copper electrorefining electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliomäki Taina; Aji Arif T.; Aromaa Jari; Lundström Mari

    2016-01-01

    Viscosity and density are highly important physicochemical properties of copper electrolyte since they affect the purity of cathode copper and energy consumption [1, 2] affecting the mass and heat transfer conditions in the cell [3]. Increasing viscosity and density decreases the rate in which the anode slime falls to the bottom of the cell [4, 5] and lowers the diffusion coefficient of cupric ion (DCu2+) [6]. Decreasing the falling rate of anode slime increases movement of the slime to other...

  6. Predicting specific gravity and viscosity of biodiesel fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfa, Belachew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is a promising non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel in transport sector. Of all the biodiesel properties, specific gravity and viscosity are the most significant for the effects they have on the utilization of biodiesel fuels in unmodified engines. This paper presents models, which have been derived from experimental data, for predicting the specific gravity and dynamic viscosity of biodiesel at various temperatures and fractions. In addition a model has also been developed ...

  7. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  8. Negative viscosity can enhance learning of inertial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Felix C; Patton, James L; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2009-06-01

    We investigated how learning of inertial load manipulation is influenced by movement amplification with negative viscosity. Using a force-feedback device, subjects trained on anisotropic loads (5 orientations) with free movements in one of three conditions (inertia only, negative viscosity only, or combined), prior to common evaluation conditions (prescribed circular pattern with inertia only). Training with Combined-Load resulted in lower error (6.89±3.25%) compared to Inertia-Only (8.40±4.32%) and Viscosity-Only (8.17±4.13%) according to radial deviation analysis (% of trial mean radius). Combined-Load and Inertia-Only groups exhibited similar unexpected no-load trials (8.38±4.31% versus 8.91±4.70% of trial mean radius), which suggests comparable low-impedance strategies. These findings are remarkable since negative viscosity, only available during training, evidently enhanced learning when combined with inertia. Modeling analysis suggests that a feedforward after-effect of negative viscosity cannot predict such performance gains. Instead, results from Combined-Load training are consistent with greater feedforward inertia compensation along with a small increase in impedance control. The capability of the nervous system to generalize learning from negative viscosity suggests an intriguing new method for enhancing sensorimotor adaptation.

  9. Local viscosity distribution in bifurcating microfluidic blood flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) aggregation phenomenon is majorly responsible for the non-Newtonian nature of blood, influencing the blood flow characteristics in the microvasculature. Of considerable interest is the behaviour of the fluid at the bifurcating regions. In vitro experiments, using microchannels, have shown that RBC aggregation, at certain flow conditions, affects the bluntness and skewness of the velocity profile, the local RBC concentration, and the cell-depleted layer at the channel walls. In addition, the developed RBC aggregates appear unevenly distributed in the outlets of these channels depending on their spatial distribution in the feeding branch, and on the flow conditions in the outlet branches. In the present work, constitutive equations of blood viscosity, from earlier work of the authors, are applied to flows in a T-type bifurcating microchannel to examine the local viscosity characteristics. Viscosity maps are derived for various flow distributions in the outlet branches of the channel, and the location of maximum viscosity magnitude is obtained. The viscosity does not appear significantly elevated in the branches of lower flow rate as would be expected on the basis of the low shear therein, and the maximum magnitude appears in the vicinity of the junction, and towards the side of the outlet branch with the higher flow rate. The study demonstrates that in the branches of lower flow rate, the local viscosity is also low, helping us to explain why the effects of physiological red blood cell aggregation have no adverse effects in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  10. Bulk and shear viscosities of hot and dense hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadam, Guru Prakash; Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the bulk and the shear viscosity at finite temperature and baryon densities of hadronic matter within a hadron resonance gas model which includes a Hagedorn spectrum. The parameters of the Hagedorn spectrum are adjusted to fit recent lattice QCD simulations at finite chemical potential. For the estimation of the bulk viscosity we use low energy theorems of QCD for the energy momentum tensor correlators. For the shear viscosity coefficient, we estimate the same using molecular kinetic theory to relate the shear viscosity coefficient to average momentum of the hadrons in the hot and dense hadron gas. The bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases with chemical potential and is related to the reduction of velocity of sound at nonzero chemical potential. The shear viscosity to entropy ratio on the other hand, shows a nontrivial behavior with the ratio decreasing with chemical potential for small temperatures but increasing with chemical potential at high temperatures and is related to decrease of entropy density with chemical potential at high temperature due to finite volume of the hadrons

  11. A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor

    2003-01-01

    A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K

  12. Temperature dependent kinematic viscosity of different types of engine oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure how the viscosity of engine oil changes with temperature. Six different commercially distributed engine oils (primarily intended for motorcycle engines of 10W–40 viscosity grade have been evaluated. Four of the oils were of synthetic type, two of semi–synthetic type. All oils have been assumed to be Newtonian fluids, thus flow curves have not been determined. Oils have been cooled to below zero temperatures and under controlled temperature regulation, kinematic viscosity (mm2 / s have been measured in the range of −5 °C and +115 °C. Anton Paar digital viscometer with concentric cylinders geometry has been used. In accordance with expected behavior, kinematic viscosity of all oils was decreasing with increasing temperature. Viscosity was found to be independent on oil’s density. Temperature dependence has been modeled using se­ve­ral mathematical models – Vogel equation, Arrhenius equation, polynomial, and Gaussian equation. The best match between experimental and computed data has been achieved for Gaussian equation (R2 = 0.9993. Knowledge of viscosity behavior of an engine oil as a function of its temperature is of great importance, especially when considering running efficiency and performance of combustion engines. Proposed models can be used for description and prediction of rheological behavior of engine oils.

  13. Relaxation-based viscosity mapping for magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkur, M.; Muslu, Y.; Saritas, E. U.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has been shown to provide remarkable contrast for imaging applications such as angiography, stem cell tracking, and cancer imaging. Recently, there is growing interest in the functional imaging capabilities of MPI, where ‘color MPI’ techniques have explored separating different nanoparticles, which could potentially be used to distinguish nanoparticles in different states or environments. Viscosity mapping is a promising functional imaging application for MPI, as increased viscosity levels in vivo have been associated with numerous diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this work, we propose a viscosity mapping technique for MPI through the estimation of the relaxation time constant of the nanoparticles. Importantly, the proposed time constant estimation scheme does not require any prior information regarding the nanoparticles. We validate this method with extensive experiments in an in-house magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) setup at four different frequencies (between 250 Hz and 10.8 kHz) and at three different field strengths (between 5 mT and 15 mT) for viscosities ranging between 0.89 mPa · s-15.33 mPa · s. Our results demonstrate the viscosity mapping ability of MPI in the biologically relevant viscosity range.

  14. Temperature Dependence Viscosity and Density of Different Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to assess the effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME concentration in diesel fuel on its viscosity and density behaviour. The density and dynamic viscosity were observed at various mixing ratios of RME and diesel fuel. All measurements were performed at constant temperature of 40 °C. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and a blend of both (B30, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Temperature range in the experiment was −10 °C to 80 °C. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and reference data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 3rd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.796, −0.948, and −0.974 between measured and calculated values were found. Temperature dependence of density was modeled using a 2nd polynomial degree. Correlation coefficients R −0.994, −0.979, and −0.976 between measured and calculated values were acquired. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  15. Super-quasi-conformal transformation and Schiffer variation on super-Riemann surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahasi, Wataru

    1990-01-01

    A set of equations which characterizes the super-Teichmueller deformations is proposed. It is a supersymmetric extension of the Beltrami equation. Relations between the set of equations and the Schiffer variations with the KN bases are discussed. This application of the KN bases shows the powerfulness of the KN theory in the study of super-Riemann surfaces. (author)

  16. Deterministic phase measurements exhibiting super-sensitivity and super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Ježek, Miroslav; Madsen, Lars S.

    2018-01-01

    Phase super-sensitivity is obtained when the sensitivity in a phase measurement goes beyond the quantum shot noise limit, whereas super-resolution is obtained when the interference fringes in an interferometer are narrower than half the input wavelength. Here we show experimentally that these two...

  17. Irregular conformal block, spectral curve and flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Kwan; Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Irregular conformal block is motivated by the Argyres-Douglas type of N=2 super conformal gauge theory. We investigate the classical/NS limit of irregular conformal block using the spectral curve on a Riemann surface with irregular punctures, which is equivalent to the loop equation of irregular matrix model. The spectral curve is reduced to the second order (Virasoro symmetry, SU(2) for the gauge theory) and third order (W_3 symmetry, SU(3)) differential equations of a polynomial with finite degree. The conformal and W symmetry generate the flow equations in the spectral curve and determine the irregular conformal block, hence the partition function of the Argyres-Douglas theory ala AGT conjecture.

  18. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  19. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preger, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.; Lazzarotto, F.; Evangelista, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE

  20. Learning from errors in super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    A novel framework of learning-based super-resolution is proposed by employing the process of learning from the estimation errors. The estimation errors generated by different learning-based super-resolution algorithms are statistically shown to be sparse and uncertain. The sparsity of the estimation errors means most of estimation errors are small enough. The uncertainty of the estimation errors means the location of the pixel with larger estimation error is random. Noticing the prior information about the estimation errors, a nonlinear boosting process of learning from these estimation errors is introduced into the general framework of the learning-based super-resolution. Within the novel framework of super-resolution, a low-rank decomposition technique is used to share the information of different super-resolution estimations and to remove the sparse estimation errors from different learning algorithms or training samples. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed framework in enhancing the performance of different learning-based algorithms.

  1. The influence of tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M

    2018-06-01

    The ability to generate tongue pressures is widely considered to be critical for liquid bolus propulsion in swallowing. It has been proposed that the application of tongue pressure may also serve the function of collecting sensory information regarding bolus viscosity (resistance to flow). In this study, we explored the impact of age-related reductions in tongue strength on oral viscosity discrimination acuity. The experiment employed a triangle test discrimination protocol with an array of xanthan-gum thickened liquids in the mildly to moderately thick consistency range. A sample of 346 healthy volunteers was recruited, with age ranging from 12 to 86 (164 men, 182 women). On average, participants were able to detect a 0.29-fold increase in xanthan-gum concentration, corresponding to a 0.5-fold increase in viscosity at 50/s. Despite having significantly reduced tongue strength on maximum isometric tongue-palate pressure tasks, and regardless of sex, older participants in this study showed no reductions in viscosity discrimination acuity. In this article, the relationship between tongue strength and the ability to discriminate small differences in liquid viscosity during oral processing is explored. Given that tongue strength declines with age in healthy adults and is also reduced in individuals with dysphagia, it is interesting to determine whether reduced tongue strength might contribute to difficulties in evaluating liquid viscosity during the oral stage of swallowing. Using an array of mildly to moderately thick xanthan-gum thickened liquids, this experiment failed to find any evidence that reductions in tongue strength influence oral viscosity discrimination acuity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Volpe SuperFar V6.0 Software and Support Documentation; Letter Report V324-FB48B3-LR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This Letter Report serves to deliver the third external release version of the USDOT Volpe Centers SuperFAR Spectral Aircraft Noise Processing Software (Version 6.0). Earlier versions of the software were delivered to FAA in February 2015 and Marc...

  3. Determination of Viscosity Versus Pressure by Means of a Clearance Seal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Schmidt Hansen, Niels; Lund, Martin Thomas Overdahl

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple, experimental tool setup that enables determination of the pressure–viscosity relationship for high viscosity oils. Comparing the determined pressure–viscosity relationship with a reference rheometer measuring the viscosity at ambient ...

  4. Pinching parameters for open (super) strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playle, Sam; Sciuto, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to the parametrization of (super) Schottky space obtained by sewing together three-punctured discs with strips. Different cubic ribbon graphs classify distinct sets of pinching parameters; we show how they are mapped onto each other. The parametrization is particularly well-suited to describing the region within (super) moduli space where open bosonic or Neveu-Schwarz string propagators become very long and thin, which dominates the IR behaviour of string theories. We show how worldsheet objects such as the Green's function converge to graph theoretic objects such as the Symanzik polynomials in the α ' → 0 limit, allowing us to see how string theory reproduces the sum over Feynman graphs. The (super) string measure takes on a simple and elegant form when expressed in terms of these parameters.

  5. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  6. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  7. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  8. Calculated viscosity-distance dependence for some actively flowing lavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, D.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of viscosity as a gauge of the various energy and momentum dissipation regimes of lava flows has been realized for a long time. Nevertheless, despite its central role in lava dynamics and kinematics, it remains among the most difficult of flow physical properties to measure in situ during an eruption. Attempts at reconstructing the actual emplacement viscosities of lava flows from their solidified topographic form are difficult. Where data are available on the position of an advancing flow front as a function of time, it is possible to calculate the effective viscosity of the front as a function of distance from the vent, under the assumptions of a steady state regime. As an application and test of an equation given, relevant parameters from five recent flows on Mauna Loa and Kilauea were utilized to infer the dynamic structure of their aggregate flow front viscosity as they advanced, up to cessation. The observed form of the viscosity-distance relation for the five active Hawaiian flows examined appears to be exponential, with a rapid increase just before the flows stopped as one would expect

  9. Viscosity of diluted suspensions of vegetal particles in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szydłowska Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and rheological behaviour of sewage as well as sludge are essential while designing apparatuses and operations employed in the sewage treatment process and its processing. With reference to these substances, the bio-suspensions samples of three size fractions ((i 150÷212 μm, (ii 106÷150 μm and (iii below106 μm of dry grass in water with solid volume fraction 8%, 10% and 11% were prepared. After twenty four hours prior to their preparation time, the suspension samples underwent rheometeric measurements with the use of a rotational rheometer with coaxial cylinders. On the basis of the obtained results, flow curves were plotted and described with both the power model and Herschel-Bulkley model. Moreover, the viscosity of the studied substances was determined that allowed to conclude that the studied bio-suspensions display features of viscoelastic fluids. The experimentally established viscosity was compared to the calculated one according to Manley and Manson equation, recommended in the literature. It occurred that the measured viscosity values substantially exceed the calculation viscosity values, even by 105 times. The observations suggest that it stems from water imbibition of fibrous vegetal particles, which causes their swelling and decreases the amount of liquid phase in the suspension.

  10. Microfluidic method for measuring viscosity using images from smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeong; Kim, Kyung Chun; Yeom, Eunseop

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of a fluid is the most important characteristic in fluid rheology. Many microfluidic devices have been proposed for easily measuring the fluid viscosity of small samples. A hybrid system consisting of a smartphone and microfluidic device can offer a mobile laboratory for performing a wide range of detection and analysis functions related to healthcare. In this study, a new mobile sensing method based on a microfluidic device was proposed for fluid viscosity measurements. By separately delivering sample and reference fluids into the two inlets of a Y-shaped microfluidic device, an interfacial line is induced at downstream of the device. Because the interfacial width (W) between the sample and reference fluid flows was determined by their pressure ratio, the viscosity (μ) of the sample could be estimated by measuring the interfacial width. To distinguish the interfacial width of a sample, optical images of the flows at downstream of the Y-shaped microfluidic device were acquired using a smartphone. To check the measurement accuracy of the proposed method, the viscosities of glycerol mixtures were compared with those measured by a conventional viscometer. The proposed technique was applied to monitor the variations in blood and oil samples depending on storage or rancidity. We expect that this mobile sensing method based on a microfluidic device could be utilized as a viscometer with significant advantages in terms of mobility, ease-of-operation, and data management.

  11. Dynamic viscosity study of barley malt and chicory concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to find optimal conditions for dispersing and subsequent dehydration of liquid food environments in the nozzle spray drying chamber through the study of dynamic changes in viscosity according to temperature, velocities gradients and dry residue content. The objects of study were roasted chicory and malt barley concentrates with dry residue content of 20, 40, 60 and 80%. Research of dynamic viscosity were carried out at the measuring complex based on the rotational viscometer Rheotest II, analog-to-digital converter, module Laurent and a personal computer with a unique software that allows to record in real time (not only on a tape recorder, but also in the form of graphic files the behavior of the viscosity characteristics of concentrates. Registration of changes of dynamic viscosity was carried out at a shear rate gradient from 1,0 с -1 to 27,0 с -1 and the products temperature thermostating : 35, 55, 75˚ C. The research results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of effective viscosity on shear rate and flow curves (dependencies of shear stresses on the velocity gradient, which defined flow regimes, the optimal modes of dispersion concentrates into spray dryer chambers in obtaining of powdered semi-finished products and instanting were found: dry residue content - 40 %, concentrate temperature - 75 ˚C, velocity gradient in the air channel of the nozzle at least 20 c-1

  12. Drop splashing: the role of surface wettability and liquid viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohammadi, Hamed; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    There are seemingly contradictory results in the literature about the role of surface wettability and drop viscosity for the splashing behavior of a drop impacting onto a surface. Motivated by such issues, we conducted a systematic experimental study where splashing behavior for a wide range of the liquid viscosity (1-100 cSt) and surface wettability (hydrophilic to hydrophobic) are examined. The experiments were performed for the liquids with both low and high surface tensions ( 20 and 72 mN/m). We found that the wettability affects the splashing threshold at high or low contact angle values. At the same drop velocity, an increase of the viscosity (up to 4 cSt) promotes the splashing; while, beyond such value, any increase in viscosity shows the opposite effect. It is also found that at a particular combination of liquid surface tension and viscosity (e.g. silicone oil, 10 cSt), an increase in the drop velocity changes the splashing to spreading. We relate such behaviors to the thickness, shape, and the velocity of the drop's lamella. Finally, to predict the splashing, we developed an empirical correlation which covers all of the previous reported data, hence clarifying the ostensible existing contradictions.

  13. Bulk viscosity, interaction and the viability of phantom solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva, Yoelsy; Sepulveda, Mirko [Universidad de Tarapaca, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Arica (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We study the dynamics of a bulk viscosity model in the Eckart approach for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. We have included radiation and dark energy, assumed as perfect fluids, and dark matter treated as an imperfect fluid having bulk viscosity. We also introduce an interaction term between the dark matter and dark energy components. Considering that the bulk viscosity is proportional to the dark matter energy density and imposing a complete cosmological dynamics, we find bounds on the bulk viscosity in order to reproduce a matter-dominated era (MDE). This constraint is independent of the interaction term. Some late time phantom solutions are mathematically possible. However, the constraint imposed by a MDE restricts the interaction parameter, in the phantom solutions, to a region consistent with a null value, eliminating the possibility of late time stable solutions with w < -1. From the different cases that we study, the only possible scenario, with bulk viscosity and interaction term, belongs to the quintessence region. In the latter case, we find bounds on the interaction parameter compatible with latest observational data. (orig.)

  14. The effect of gasses on the viscosity of dimethyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    media, but their effect on DME viscosity is unknown. Argon (Ar), nitrogen (NA carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H-2) and propane (C3H8) have been investigated at pressure levels of 12-15 bar. A Cannon-Manning semi-micro capillary glass viscometer, size 25, enclosed in a cylindrical pressure container......, of glass, submerged completely in a constant temperature bath, has been used. A distinct reduction of efflux times was found only for the gas, CO2. The reduction in efflux time was about 9%. The kinematic viscosity of pure DME was determined to be: 0.188 +/- 0.001 cSt, 25 degrees C. A previously reported...... viscosity of pure DME has been corrected for the surface tension effect. Viscosity determination was initially based on a direct comparison of efflux times of DME with that of distilled water. The calculation gave a revised viscosity of 0.186 +/- 0.002 cSt, 25 degrees C, consistent with the above...

  15. Investigation of viscosity of whole hydrolyze sweetened condensed milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kalinina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Рaper is aimed at developing of low-lactose (hydrolyzed sweetened condensed milk products technology for lactose intolerant people and for the whole population. Materials and methods: Rheological characteristics were determined on a Reotest device by the 2 nd method of viscometry Results and discussion. Reasonability of ß-galactosidase use for milk lactose hydrolyze during the production of canned products with sugar was proved in the previous works. This technology gives possibility to increase the quality of condensed canned foods, to reduce sugar concentration till 50 %, to increase dietary properties. Due to the reducing of saccharose mass part till 22 and 31 % the products had a liquid consistency that’s why was a necessity to increase the viscosity properties of condensed products. One of method to increase the product viscosity is inoculation of stabilization systems. Reasonability of the usage of stabilization system Bivicioc 1L was proved. The researches of viscosity determination in whole hydrolyzed sweetened condensed milk were shown in the work. Relations of viscosity of whole hydrolyzed condensed milk to the deformation rate were presented. Conclusions Viscosity indices of experimental samples in the fresh produced products and during storage are determined and justified.

  16. Analytical SuperSTEM for extraterrestrial materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R

    2009-09-08

    Electron-beam studies of extraterrestrial materials with significantly improved spatial resolution, energy resolution and sensitivity are enabled using a 300 keV SuperSTEM scanning transmission electron microscope with a monochromator and two spherical aberration correctors. The improved technical capabilities enable analyses previously not possible. Mineral structures can be directly imaged and analyzed with single-atomic-column resolution, liquids and implanted gases can be detected, and UV-VIS optical properties can be measured. Detection limits for minor/trace elements in thin (<100 nm thick) specimens are improved such that quantitative measurements of some extend to the sub-500 ppm level. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be carried out with 0.10-0.20 eV energy resolution and atomic-scale spatial resolution such that variations in oxidation state from one atomic column to another can be detected. Petrographic mapping is extended down to the atomic scale using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging. Technical capabilities and examples of the applications of SuperSTEM to extraterrestrial materials are presented, including the UV spectral properties and organic carbon K-edge fine structure of carbonaceous matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), x-ray elemental maps showing the nanometer-scale distribution of carbon within GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides), the first detection and quantification of trace Ti in GEMS using EDS, and detection of molecular H{sub 2}O in vesicles and implanted H{sub 2} and He in irradiated mineral and glass grains.

  17. A statistical approach for identifying the ionospheric footprint of magnetospheric boundaries from SuperDARN observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lointier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and tracking the projection of magnetospheric regions on the high-latitude ionosphere is of primary importance for studying the Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system and for space weather applications. By its unique spatial coverage and temporal resolution, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provides key parameters, such as the Doppler spectral width, which allows the monitoring of the ionospheric footprint of some magnetospheric boundaries in near real-time. In this study, we present the first results of a statistical approach for monitoring these magnetospheric boundaries. The singular value decomposition is used as a data reduction tool to describe the backscattered echoes with a small set of parameters. One of these is strongly correlated with the Doppler spectral width, and can thus be used as a proxy for it. Based on this, we propose a Bayesian classifier for identifying the spectral width boundary, which is classically associated with the Polar Cap boundary. The results are in good agreement with previous studies. Two advantages of the method are: the possibility to apply it in near real-time, and its capacity to select the appropriate threshold level for the boundary detection.

  18. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  19. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.S.; Lindström, University

    2017-01-01

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highest-dimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  20. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,Uppsala, SE-751 20 (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-22

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highest-dimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  1. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas

    in a controlled laboratory environment have been conducted with the element in order to evaluate its performance in airborne and impact sound insulation. These results have been employed in simulations of the flanking transmission to estimate the in-situ performance of the super-light slab element. The flanking...... aggregate (leca) along with a newly developed technology called pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a system for post-tensioning. Here, it is shown how to combine these technologies within a precast super-light slab element, while honoring the requirements of a holistic design. Acoustic experiments...

  2. Super-preshowers (DPG-Fruehjahrstagung 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaepae, Alex [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Based on the current data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, no evidence of cosmic ray photon primaries has been found. However, photon primaries could induce so-called ''super-preshowers'', which have not been considered sofar, but are a promising candidate for explaining the ''composition puzzle'' at ultra-high energies. In this presentation, possible super-preshower processes are examined, and their effects on important Auger parameters, such as the energy deposit and muon production, are studied via simulations.

  3. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  4. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  5. Covariant super reggeon calculus for superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.; Tollsten, A.K.

    1988-07-01

    A previously developed formalism for the bosonic string is extended to the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond string using 2-d superspace techniques throughout. 3-string vertices for NS- and R-strings are constructed, sewing rules developed, and the technique of quasi-superconformal modes is set up for constructing the measure on super moduli space. Symmetries, such as superconformal invariance and BRST-invariance, are guaranteed ab initio. Picture changing and bosonization are avoided. Examples are given. The formalism should allow a superstring loop calculus based on supermoduli. Results concerning the ensuing super-Schottky description are given. (orig.)

  6. Temporal super resolution using variational methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Temporal super resolution (TSR) is the ability to convert video from one frame rate to another and is as such a key functionality in modern video processing systems. A higher frame rate than what is recorded is desired for high frame rate displays, for super slow-motion, and for video/film format...... observed when watching video on large and bright displays where the motion of high contrast edges often seem jerky and unnatural. A novel motion compensated (MC) TSR algorithm using variational methods for both optical flow calculation and the actual new frame interpolation is presented. The flow...

  7. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  8. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  9. The multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) equation hierarchy and its super-integrable coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra, which is used to construct a new loop algebra à M . By using the Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy is generated, which possesses the Hamiltonian structure. As its reduction cases, the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given. Finally, the super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem

  10. On the monodromy group for the super Schwarzian differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Shozo; Yasui, Yukinori.

    1991-03-01

    We calculate the first variation of the monodromy group associated with a super Schwarzian differential equation. The relation between the monodromy period and the Fenchel-Nielsen deformation of a super Riemann surface is presented. (author)

  11. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  12. The thermo magnetic instability in hot viscose plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, A.; Khosravi, A.; Khesali, A.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic Rotational Instability (MRI) can not performed well in accretion disks with strong magnetic field. Studies have indicated a new type of instability called thermomagnetic instability (TMI) in systems where Nernst coefficient and gradient temperature were considered. Nernst coefficient would appear if Boltzman equation could be expanded through ω_{Be} (cyclotron frequency). However, the growth rate of this instability was two magnitude orders below MRI growth (Ωk), which could not act the same as MRI. Therefor, a higher growth rate of unstable modes was needed. In this paper, rotating viscid hot plasma with strong magnetic filed was studied. Firstly, a constant alpha viscosity was studied and then a temperature sensitive viscosity. The results showed that the temperature sensitive viscosity would be able to increase the growth rate of TMI modes significantly, hence capable of acting similar to MRI.

  13. Separation of gold nanorods by viscosity gradient centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Suli; Wang, Yawei; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Qingquan; Liu, Xiaojun; Tu, Yang; Liang, Aiye

    2016-01-01

    Size-uniform gold nanorods (Au-NRs) are used in biosensing, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, drug and gene delivery, and controlled release. Monodisperse Au-NRs are usually obtained by separation steps following their synthesis, and centrifugation is widely used because of the ease of operation, high recovery, and the good availability of equipment. So far, the effect of viscosity on the separation of Au-NRs has not been investigated. We have developed a method for separation of monodisperse Au-NRs that is based on centrifugation in a viscosity gradient. Monodisperse Au-NRs obtained from gold nanoparticles were obtained by centrifugation in viscosity gradient adjusted with poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). Au-NRs in sizes ranging from 25.6 to 26.1 nm in effective radius can be separated 5500 g within 5 min, which appears to be the fastest method for separation of Au-NRs. (author)

  14. Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

  15. Experimental viscosity measurements of biodiesels at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaschke C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of biodiesels of soybean and rapeseed biodiesels blended with mineral diesel fuel were measured at pressures of up to 200 MPa. Using a falling sinker-type viscometer reproducible viscosity data were obtained based on the time taken for a sinker to descend a fixed distance down an enclosed tube under the influence of gravity. Measurements were taken using pressures which correspond to those of interest in automotive common rail diesel engines, and at temperatures of between 25ºC and 80ºC. In all cases, the viscosity of the biodiesel blends were found to increase exponentially for which the blends were noted as being more viscous than pure mineral fuels. A pressure-freezing effect was not observed for the blends.

  16. Estimation of shear viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Event anisotropy measurements at RHIC suggest the strongly interacting matter created in heavy ion collisions flows with very little shear viscosity. Precise determination of 'shear viscosity-to-entropy' ratio is currently a subject of extensive study [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302]. We present preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au+Au interactions at √(s NN )=200 GeV. We compare two differential correlation functions, namely inclusive [J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 72 (2005) 044902] and a differential version of the correlation measure C introduced by Gavin et al. [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302; M. Sharma and C. A. Pruneau, Phys. Rev. C 79 (2009) 024905.]. These observables can be used for the experimental study of the shear viscosity per unit entropy.

  17. Estimation of shear viscosity based on transverse momentum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAR Collaboration; Sharma, Monika; STAR Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    Event anisotropy measurements at RHIC suggest the strongly interacting matter created in heavy ion collisions flows with very little shear viscosity. Precise determination of “shear viscosity-to-entropy” ratio is currently a subject of extensive study [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302]. We present preliminary results of measurements of the evolution of transverse momentum correlation function with collision centrality of Au+Au interactions at s=200 GeV. We compare two differential correlation functions, namely inclusive [J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 72 (2005) 044902] and a differential version of the correlation measure C˜ introduced by Gavin et al. [S. Gavin and M. Abdel-Aziz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 162302; M. Sharma and C. A. Pruneau, Phys. Rev. C 79 (2009) 024905.]. These observables can be used for the experimental study of the shear viscosity per unit entropy.

  18. Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Field Measurement of Liquid Viscosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field measurement of liquid viscosities, especially the high viscous liquids, is challenging and often requires expensive equipment, long processing time, and lots of reagent. We use quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs operating in solution which are also sensitive to the viscosity and density of the contacting solution. QCMs are typically investigated for sensor applications in which one surface of QCM completely immersed in Newtonian liquid, but the viscous damping in liquids would cause not only large frequency shifts but also large losses in the quality factor Q leading to instability and even cessation of oscillation. A novel mass-sensitivity-based method for field measurement of liquid viscosities using a QCM is demonstrated in this paper and a model describing the influence of the liquid properties on the oscillation frequency is established as well. Two groups of verified experiments were performed and the experimental results show that the presented method is effective and possesses potential applications.

  19. Giant Viscosity Enhancement in a Spin-Polarized Fermi Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, H.; Xia, J. S.; Adams, E. D.; Sullivan, N. S.; Candela, D.; Mullin, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The viscosity is measured for a Fermi liquid, a dilute 3 He- 4 He mixture, under extremely high magnetic field/temperature conditions (B≤14.8 T, T≥1.5 mK). The spin-splitting energy μB is substantially greater than the Fermi energy k B T F ; as a consequence the polarization tends to unity and s-wave quasiparticle scattering is suppressed for T F . Using a novel composite vibrating-wire viscometer an enhancement of the viscosity is observed by a factor of more than 500 over its low-field value. Good agreement is found between the measured viscosity and theoretical predictions based upon a t-matrix formalism

  20. Dependence of Helium II viscosity properties on oscillation frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirashvili, Z.S.; Tsakadze, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The causes of a discrepancy in the results of measurements of He II viscosity below Tapprox. =1.6 K obtained with different measurement methods are investigated. It is shown that to obtain correct results in oscillation experiments, the condition delta>>lambda/sub ph/ should obtain, where delta is the depth of viscous wave penetration and lambda/sub ph/ is the phonon free path length. Results of viscosity measurements at different ratios delta/lambda/sub ph/ (by a wire viscometer) are presented. It is shown that for the condition delta>>lambda/sub ph/, the results obtained are in good agreement with the results of Andronikashvili (in which delta/lambda/sub ph/>100). If the mentioned relation is not satisfied, then as the value of the ratio delta/lambda/sub ph/ is decreased, the value measured for the viscosity is increasingly lower than the results of Andronikashvili

  1. Viscosity and transient electric birefringence study of clay colloidal aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakk, Audun; Fossum, Jon O; da Silva, Geraldo J; Adland, Hans M; Mikkelsen, Arne; Elgsaeter, Arnljot

    2002-02-01

    We study a synthetic clay suspension of laponite at different particle and NaCl concentrations by measuring stationary shear viscosity and transient electrically induced birefringence (TEB). On one hand the viscosity data are consistent with the particles being spheres and the particles being associated with large amount bound water. On the other hand the viscosity data are also consistent with the particles being asymmetric, consistent with single laponite platelets associated with a very few monolayers of water. We analyze the TEB data by employing two different models of aggregate size (effective hydrodynamic radius) distribution: (1) bidisperse model and (2) log-normal distributed model. Both models fit, in the same manner, fairly well to the experimental TEB data and they indicate that the suspension consists of polydisperse particles. The models also appear to confirm that the aggregates increase in size vs increasing ionic strength. The smallest particles at low salt concentrations seem to be monomers and oligomers.

  2. Diffusivities and Viscosities of Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomers †

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2010-10-14

    Diffusivities and viscosities of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer melts with 1 to 12 repeat units have been obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TraPPE-UA force field. The simulations generated diffusion coefficients with high accuracy for all of the molar masses studied, but the statistical uncertainties in the viscosity calculations were significantly larger for longer chains. There is good agreement of the calculated viscosities and densities with available experimental data, and thus, the simulations can be used to bridge gaps in the data and for extrapolations with respect to chain length, temperature, and pressure. We explored the convergence characteristics of the Green-Kubo formulas for different chain lengths and propose minimal production times required for convergence of the transport properties. The chain-length dependence of the transport properties suggests that neither Rouse nor reptation models are applicable in the short-chain regime investigated. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Isotropic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadzyn, J.; Czechowski, G.; Lech, T.

    1999-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the shear viscosity measured for isotropic liquids belonging to the three homologous series: 4-(trans-4'-n-alkylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzenes (Cn H2n+1 CyHx Ph NCS; nCHBT, n=0-12), n-alkylcyanobiphenyls (CnH2n+1 Ph Ph CN; nCB, n=2-12) and 1,n-alkanediols (HO(CH2)nOH; 1,nAD, n=2-10) were analysed with the use of Arrhenius equation and its two modifications: Vogel--Fulcher and proposed in this paper. The extrapolation of the isothermal viscosity of 1,n-alkanediols (n=2-10) to n=1 leads to an interesting conclusion concerning the expected viscosity of methanediol, HOCH2OH, the compound strongly unstable in a pure state.

  4. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  5. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  6. Blood viscosity during coagulation at different shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Laddomada, Tommaso; Ranucci, Matteo; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the coagulation process, blood changes from a liquid to a solid gel phase. These changes are reflected by changes in blood viscosity; however, blood viscosity at different shear rates (SR) has not been previously explored during the coagulation process. In this study, we investigated the viscosity changes of whole blood in 10 subjects with a normal coagulation profile, using a cone‐on‐plate viscosimeter. For each subject, three consecutive measurements were performed, at a SR of 20, 40, 80 sec−1. On the basis of the time‐dependent changes in blood viscosity, we identified the gel point (GP), the time‐to‐gel point (TGP), the maximum clot viscosity (MCV), and the clot lysis half‐time (CLH). The TGP significantly (P = 0.0023) shortened for increasing SR, and was significantly associated with the activated partial thromboplastin time at a SR of 20 sec−1 (P = 0.038) and 80 sec−1 (P = 0.019). The MCV was significantly lower at a SR of 80 sec−1 versus 40 sec−1 (P = 0.027) and the CLH significantly (P = 0.048) increased for increasing SR. These results demonstrate that measurement of blood viscosity during the coagulation process offers a number of potentially useful parameters. In particular, the association between the TGP and the activated partial thromboplastin time is an expression of the clotting time (intrinsic and common pathway), and its shortening for increasing SR may be interpreted the well‐known activating effects of SR on platelet activation and thrombin generation. Further studies focused on the TGP under conditions of hypo‐ or hypercoagulability are required to confirm its role in the clinical practice. PMID:24994896

  7. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  8. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu; Uras, R.A.; Chang, Yao-Wen.

    1992-06-01

    The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to harmonic excitations and earthquake ground motions has been studied. A rigid tank of negligible mass, rigidly supported at the base having a diameter of 50 ft. and fluid height of 20.4 ft. was used in the computer analysis. The liquid is assumed to have a density of 1.5 g/ml. Viscosity values, μ = 60, 200, 100, and 10,000 cP, were used in the numerical analyses to study the effects of viscosity on sloshing wave height, impulsive and convective pressure on the tank wall, base shear and base moments. Harmonic excitations as well as earthquake ground motions were used as input motions. The harmonic excitations used in the analyses covers a wide range of frequencies, including both the resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Two earthquake motions were used. One matches the Newmark-Hall median response spectrum and is anchored at 0.24 g for a rock site with a damping of 2% and a time duration of 10 s. The other is the 1978 Tabas earthquake which had a peak ZPA of 0.81 g and a time duration of 29 s. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, was used in the harmonic excitation study to investigate the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid-storage tanks and how the viscosity effect is affected by the size of the storage tank. The results of this study show that for the typical waste storage tank subjected to earthquake motions, the effect of viscosity on sloshing wave height and impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the waste viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP for some tanks

  9. Determination of liquid viscosity at high pressure by DLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K; Asakuma, Y; Maeda, K

    2010-01-01

    The movement of particles with a size smaller than few microns is governed by random Brownian motion. This motion causes the fluid to flow around the particles. The force acting upon Brownian particles as well as their velocities are measured by using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. It provides the relationship between fluid shear stress and shear rate over the Brownian particle and determines the viscosity properties of the fluid. In this study, we propose a new rheometer which is widely applicable to fluid viscosity measurements at both normal and high pressure levels for Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids.

  10. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Morgavi, Daniele; Namur, Olivier; Vetere, Francesco; Perugini, Diego; Mancinelli, Paolo; Pauselli, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    After more than four years of orbiting Mercury, NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft came to an end in late April 2015. MESSENGER has provided many new and surprising results. This session will again highlight the latest results on Mercury based on MESSENGER observations or updated modelling. The session will further address instrument calibration and science performance both retrospective on MESSENGER and on the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Papers covering additional themes related to Mercury are also welcomed. Please be aware that this session will be held as a PICO session. This will allow an intensive exchange of expertise and experience between the individual instruments and mission. NVP melt/magma viscosity: insight on Mercury lava flows S. Rossi1, D. Morgavi1, O. Namur2, D. Perugini1, F.Vetere1, P. Mancinelli1 and C. Pauselli1 1 Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, piazza Università 1, 06123 Perugia, Italy 2 Uni Hannover Institut für Mineralogie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstraβe 3, 30167 Hannover, Germany In this contribution we report new measurements of viscosity of synthetic komatitic melts, used the behaviour of silicate melts erupted at the surface of Mercury. Composition of Mercurian surface magmas was calculated using the most recent maps produced from MESSENGER XRS data (Weider et al., 2015). We focused on the northern hemisphere (Northern Volcanic Province, NVP, the largest lava flow on Mercury and possibly in the Solar System) for which the spatial resolution of MESSENGER measurements is high and individual maps of Mg/Si, Ca/Si, Al/Si and S/Si were combined. The experimental starting material contains high Na2O content (≈7 wt.%) that strongly influences viscosity. High temperature viscosity measurements were carried out at 1 atm using a concentric cylinder apparatus equipped with an Anton Paar RheolabQC viscometer head at the Department of Physics and Geology (PVRG_lab) at the University of Perugia (Perugia, Italy

  11. Shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of nuclear 'pasta'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity η and thermal conductivity κ of a nuclear pasta phase in neutron star crusts. This involves complex nonspherical shapes. We use semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations involving 40, 000 to 100, 000 nucleons. The viscosity η can be simply expressed in terms of the height Z* and width Δq of the peak in the static structure factor S p (q). We find that η increases somewhat, compared to a lower density phase involving spherical nuclei, because Z* decreases from form factor and ion screening effects. However, we do not find a dramatic increase in η from nonspherical shapes, as may occur in conventional complex fluids

  12. Viscosity-Induced Crossing of the Phantom Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver Brevik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We show explicitly, by using astrophysical data plus reasonable assumptions for the bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluid, how the magnitude of this viscosity may be high enough to drive the fluid from its position in the quintessence region at present time t = 0 across the barrier w = −1 into the phantom region in the late universe. The phantom barrier is accordingly not a sharp mathematical divide, but rather a fuzzy concept. We also calculate the limiting forms of various thermodynamical quantities, including the rate of entropy production, for a dark energy fluid near the future Big Rip singularity.

  13. Viscosities in the Gluon-Plasma within a Quasiparticle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, M; Redlich, K

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological quasiparticle model, featuring dynamically generated self-energies of excitation modes, successfully describes lattice QCD results relevant for the QCD equation of state and related quantities both at zero and non-zero net baryon density. Here, this model is extended to study bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon-plasma within an effective kinetic theory approach. In this way, the compatibility of the employed quasiparticle ansatz with the apparent low viscosities of the strongly coupled deconfined gluonic medium is shown.

  14. Composition and Temperature Dependence of Shear Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    HNN- XTHDCPD Binary System IX. VTF Eq. Parameters for Shear Viscosities Using Constant B Parameter X. Results of Fits to Master Viscosity Eqs. (43...T(K) for 5 C10 Hydrocarbons I Fig. 2a. log n versus 103/T(K) for HNNi I Fig. 2b. log n versus 103/T(K) for XTHDCPD Fig. 3. Isothem of log n versus X...CD for CO-MO Binary System Fig. 4. Isotherm of log n versus XNBC for NBC-DMO Binary System ( ~Fig. 5. Isotherm of log n versus XfINN for HNN- XTHDCPD

  15. VARIATION IN MEAT COMPOSITION VISCOSITY DURING THE MIXING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA IANIłCHI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal raw material processing is directly influenced by the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials which also influence their water holding capacity. The various combinations and status of the raw materials used in the food industry determine specific behaviours that may influence the processing equipment performance and construction. The study on meat composition viscosity depending upon the added components, temperature and mixing time length, has shown that viscosity is increasing with lower added water percentage, lower mixing temperature and higher mixing time length.

  16. Time Dependent and Steady Uni-axial Elongational Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens K.; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Here we present measurements of transient and steady uni-axial elongational viscosity, using the Filament Stretching Rheometer1 or FSR1 (see Fig. 1) of the following melts: Four narrow MMD polystyrene (PS) samples with weight-average molar mass Mw in the range of 50k to 390k. Three different bi......-disperse samples, mixed from the narrow MMD PS. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) melts (Lupolen 1840D and 3020D). A steady-state viscosity was kept for 1-2.5 Hencky strain units in all measurements....

  17. Density and viscosity modeling and characterization of heavy oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Creek, J

    2005-01-01

    to thousands of mPa center dot s. Essential to the presented extended approach for heavy oils is, first, achievement of accurate P nu T results for the EOS-characterized fluid. In particular, it has been determined that, for accurate viscosity modeling of heavy oils, a compressibility correction in the way...... are widely used within the oil industry. Further work also established the basis for extending the approach to heavy oils. Thus, in this work, the extended f-theory approach is further discussed with the study and modeling of a wider set of representative heavy reservoir fluids with viscosities up...

  18. Calculation of the viscosity of nuclear waste glass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, R.; Behrman, E.C.; Oksoy, D.

    1990-01-01

    Viscosity is one of the most important processing parameters and one of the most difficult to calculate theoretically, particularly for multicomponent systems like nuclear waste glasses. Here, the authors propose a semi-empirical approach based on the Fulcher equation, involving identification of key variables, for which coefficients are then determined by regression analysis. Results are presented for two glass systems, and compared to results of previous workers and to experiment. The authors also sketch a first-order statistical mechanical perturbation theory calculation for the effects on viscosity of a change in composition of the melt

  19. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  20. Is Quantum Gravity a Super-Quantum Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2013-01-01

    We argue that quantum gravity should be a super-quantum theory, that is, a theory whose non-local correlations are stronger than those of canonical quantum theory. As a super-quantum theory, quantum gravity should display distinct experimentally observable super-correlations of entangled stringy states.

  1. Three dimensional modelling and numerical analysis of super-radiant harmonic emission in FEL (optical klystron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Friedman, A.; Luccio, A.

    1986-09-01

    A full 3-D Analysis of super-radiant (bunched electron) free electron harmonic radiation is presented. A generalized form of the FEL pendulum equation was derived and numerically solved. Both spectral and phasor formulation were developed to treat the radiation in the time domain. In space the radiation field is expanded in terms of either a set of free space discrete modes or plane waves. The numerical solutions reveal some new distinctly 3-D effects to which we provide a physical explanation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Super-Resolution for Color Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    September 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2016‒30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Super...slightly lighter shade of purple. There is slightly less purple coloring on the white paper than with the other 2 color spaces, and the black font is

  3. Super-Kamiokande worth full restoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Mishima, I

    2002-01-01

    While prospects are good that the SuperKamiokande facility will be partially repaired after an accident last November, the government has yet to confirm whether it will spend the estimated 2.5 billion yen needed for a full-scale restoration (1 page).

  4. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place

  5. General super Virasoro construction on affine G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-10-01

    We consider a bosonic current algebra and a theory of free fermions and construct a general N = 1 super Virasoro current algebra. We obtain a master-set of equations which comprises the bosonic master equation for general Virasoro construction on affine G. As an illustration we study the case of the group SU(2). (author). 13 refs

  6. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.

  7. Super-structure and building performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The super-structure consists predominantly of the load- and no-load-bearing walls-including all doors and windows and suspended floor slabs. The building envelope plays a significant role in the performance of a building, especially with regard...

  8. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms.

  9. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R ⊕ , 2–20M ⊕ ) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R ⊕ , 2–6M ⊕ ). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions

  10. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  11. The micromechanics model analysis of the viscosity regulation of ultra-high strength concrete with low viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, F. G.; Wang, F. Z.; Liu, Y. P.

    2017-02-01

    The plastic viscosity of mortar and concrete with different binder content, sand ratio, water-binder ratio, microbead dosage and different class and dosage of fly ash were tested and calculated according tomicromechanics model proposed by A. Ghanbari and B.L. Karihaloo, The correlations between these parameters and fresh concrete workability were also investigated, which showed i. high consistence with the objective reality. When binder content, microbead dosage, fly ash dosage or the water-binder ratio was increased or sand ratio was reduced, the fresh concrete viscosity would decrease correspondingly. However their effects were not that same. The relationships between T50 a, V-funnel and inverted slump time with fresh concrete viscosity were established, respectively.

  12. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, M.; Grauges Pous, E.; Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Venturini, M.; Soni, N.; Bruschi, M.; De Castro, S.; Faccioli, P.; Gabrieli, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Semprini Cesare, N.; Spighi, R.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; Hearty, C.; McKenna, J.; Soni, A.; Khan, A.; Barniakov, A.Y.; Barniakov, M.Y.; Blinov, V.E.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kononov, S.A.; Koop, I.A.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Nikitin, S.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Piminov, P.A.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Shatilov, D.N.; Skovpen, Y.I.; Solodov, E.A.; Cheng, C.H.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D.J.; Porter, F.C.; Asner, D.M.; Pham, T.N.; Fleischer, R.; Giudice, G.F.; Hurth, T.; Mangano, M.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B.T.; Schwartz, A.J.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soffer, A.; Beard, C.D.; Haas, T.; Mankel, R.; Hiller, G.; Ball, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Pennington, M.R.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Abada, A.; Becirevic, D.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Pene, O.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabresi, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Santoro, V.; Stancari, G.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Drago, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Guiducci, S.; Isidori, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Preger, M.A.; Raimondi, P.; Rama, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Zallo, A.; Zobov, M.; De Sangro, R.; Buzzo, A.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Matias, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Borzumati, F.; Eyges, V.; Prell, S.A.; Pedlar, T.K.; Korpar, S.; Pestonik, R.; Staric, M.; Neubert, M.; Denig, A.G.; Nierste, U.; Agoh, T.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Fry, J.R.; Touramanis, C.; Wolski, A.; Golob, B.; Krizan, P.; Flaecher, H.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; George, K.A.; Barlow, R.; Lafferty, G.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Lazzaro, A.; Palombo, F.; Kaidalov, A.; Buras, A.J.; Tarantino, C.; Buchalla, G.; Sanda, A.I.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Ricciardi, G.; Bigi, I.; Jessop, C.P.; Losecco, J.M.; Honscheid, K.; Arnaud, N.; Chehab, R.; Fedala, Y.; Polci, F.; Roudeau, P.; Sordini, V.; Soskov, V.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Vivoli, A.; Wormser, G.; Zomer, F.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Lombardo, V.; Calderini, G.; Ratti, L.; Speziali, V.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Servoli, L.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Dell'Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Mazur, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.; Braun, V.; Lenz, A.; Adams, G.S.; Danko, I.Z.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, Mario; Jackson, P.; Martinelli, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morganti, Silvio; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Voena, C.; Catani, L.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Messi, R.; Santovetti, E.; Satta, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Wilson, F.F.; Godang, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.; Trivedi, A.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Allen, M.T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Brodsky, S.J.; Cai, Y.; Coleman, J.; Convery, M.R.; DeBarger, S.; Dingfelder, J.C.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Haller, G.; Heifets, S.A.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Li, N.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; MacFarlane, D.; Messner, R.; Muller, D.R.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Pivi, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Sullivan, M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W.; Stoeck, H.; Cheng, H.Y.; Li, H.N.; Keum, Y.Y.; Gronau, M.; Grossman, Y.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Gambino, P.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Mussa, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D.A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paradisi, P.; Pich, A.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Roney, J.M.; Back, J.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Petrov, A.A.; Pierini, M.; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  13. Potential biosignatures in super-Earth atmospheres II. Photochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, J L; Gebauer, S; Godolt, M; Palczynski, K; Rauer, H; Stock, J; von Paris, P; Lehmann, R; Selsis, F

    2013-05-01

    Spectral characterization of super-Earth atmospheres for planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars is a key focus in exoplanet science. A central challenge is to understand and predict the expected spectral signals of atmospheric biosignatures (species associated with life). Our work applies a global-mean radiative-convective-photochemical column model assuming a planet with an Earth-like biomass and planetary development. We investigated planets with gravities of 1g and 3g and a surface pressure of 1 bar around central stars with spectral classes from M0 to M7. The spectral signals of the calculated planetary scenarios have been presented by in an earlier work by Rauer and colleagues. The main motivation of the present work is to perform a deeper analysis of the chemical processes in the planetary atmospheres. We apply a diagnostic tool, the Pathway Analysis Program, to shed light on the photochemical pathways that form and destroy biosignature species. Ozone is a potential biosignature for complex life. An important result of our analysis is a shift in the ozone photochemistry from mainly Chapman production (which dominates in Earth's stratosphere) to smog-dominated ozone production for planets in the habitable zone of cooler (M5-M7)-class dwarf stars. This result is associated with a lower energy flux in the UVB wavelength range from the central star, hence slower planetary atmospheric photolysis of molecular oxygen, which slows the Chapman ozone production. This is important for future atmospheric characterization missions because it provides an indication of different chemical environments that can lead to very different responses of ozone, for example, cosmic rays. Nitrous oxide, a biosignature for simple bacterial life, is favored for low stratospheric UV conditions, that is, on planets orbiting cooler stars. Transport of this species from its surface source to the stratosphere where it is destroyed can also be a key process. Comparing 1g with

  14. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, Stefan W; Sahl, Steffen J; Bates, Mark; Jakobs, Stefan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I

    2015-01-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  15. Nonlinear second order evolution inclusions with noncoercive viscosity term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S.; Rădulescu, Vicenţiu D.; Repovš, Dušan D.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we deal with a second order nonlinear evolution inclusion, with a nonmonotone, noncoercive viscosity term. Using a parabolic regularization (approximation) of the problem and a priori bounds that permit passing to the limit, we prove that the problem has a solution.

  16. On the density and viscosity of (water + dimethylsulphoxide) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Grande, Maria del; Julia, Jorge Alvarez; Garcia, Mariano; Marschoff, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    Density and viscosity of (water + dimethylsulphoxide) were measured precisely over the whole composition range at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. Differences between values from different authors are clarified and more reliable partial molar volumes are obtained

  17. Effect of electrochemical oxidation of a viscose rayon based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A viscose rayon based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was electrochemically oxidised to enhance its cation sorption capacity for comparison with as-received ACC. ACCs were characterised by sodium capacity measurement, pH titration, zeta potential measurement, elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmet- Teller surface area ...

  18. Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    the effects of viscous dissipation and variable viscosity on the flow of heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the ..... been solved by Gauss-. Seidel iteration method and numerical values are carried out after executing the computer program for it. In order to prove.

  19. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  20. The Unsteady Variable – Viscosity Free Convection Flow on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unsteady variable-viscosity free convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid near an infinite vertical plate (or wall) is investigated under an arbitrary timedependent heating of the plates, and the governing equations of motion and energy transformed into ordinary differential equations. Employing asymptotic ...

  1. The Asymptotic Solution for the Steady Variable-Viscosity Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under an arbitrary time-dependent heating of an infinite vertical plate (or wall), the steady viscosity-dependent free convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid is investigated. Using the asymptotic method of solution on the governing equations of motion and energy, the resulting Ordinary differential equations were ...

  2. Thermal ignition in a reactive variable viscosity Poiseuille flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we investigate the thermal ignition in a strongly exothermic reaction of a variable viscosity combustible material flowing through a channel with isothermal walls under Arrhenius kinetics, neglecting the consumption of the material. Analytical solutions are constructed for the governing nonlinear boundary-value ...

  3. Measurement of viscosity of gaseous mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficients of viscosity of various types of gas mixtures, including simulated natural-gas samples, have been measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a modified capillary tube method. Pressure drops across the straight capillary tube section of a thermal mass flowmeter were measured for small, well-defined, volume flow rates for the test gases and for standard air. In this configuration, the flowmeter provides the volumetric flow rates as well as a well-characterized capillary section for differential pressure measurements across it. The coefficients of viscosity of the test gases were calculated using the reported value of 185.6 micro P for the viscosity of air. The coefficients of viscosity for the test mixtures were also calculated using Wilke's approximation of the Chapman-Enskog (C-E) theory. The experimental and calculated values for binary mixtures are in agreement within the reported accuracy of Wilke's approximation of the C-E theory. However, the agreement for multicomponent mixtures is less satisfactory, possible because of the limitations of Wilkes's approximation of the classical dilute-gas state model.

  4. Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis is carried out to study the viscous dissipation and variable viscosity effects on the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite vertical porous plate in the presence of chemical reaction. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity ...

  5. Estimation of the viscosities of liquid binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Su, Xiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    As one of the most important physical and chemical properties, viscosity plays a critical role in physics and materials as a key parameter to quantitatively understanding the fluid transport process and reaction kinetics in metallurgical process design. Experimental and theoretical studies on liquid metals are problematic. Today, there are many empirical and semi-empirical models available with which to evaluate the viscosity of liquid metals and alloys. However, the parameter of mixed energy in these models is not easily determined, and most predictive models have been poorly applied. In the present study, a new thermodynamic parameter Δ G is proposed to predict liquid alloy viscosity. The prediction equation depends on basic physical and thermodynamic parameters, namely density, melting temperature, absolute atomic mass, electro-negativity, electron density, molar volume, Pauling radius, and mixing enthalpy. Our results show that the liquid alloy viscosity predicted using the proposed model is closely in line with the experimental values. In addition, if the component radius difference is greater than 0.03 nm at a certain temperature, the atomic size factor has a significant effect on the interaction of the binary liquid metal atoms. The proposed thermodynamic parameter Δ G also facilitates the study of other physical properties of liquid metals.

  6. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  7. Viscosity and Electrical Conductivity of Concentrated Solutions of Soluble Coffee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolík, Václav; Žitný, R.; Tovčigrečko, Valentin; Delgado, M.; Allaf, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 93-98 ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:MSM 212200008 Keywords : coffee extract * soluble coffee * viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2002

  8. Viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear functional parabolic PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei-an

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By the technique of coupled solutions, the notion of viscosity solutions is extended to fully nonlinear retarded parabolic equations. Such equations involve many models arising from optimal control theory, economy and finance, biology, and so forth. The comparison principle is shown. Then the existence and uniqueness are established by the fixed point theory.

  9. Measuring viscosity with a levitating magnet: application to complex fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, C; Bouquet, F; Deloche, B; Remond, J

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10 6 mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex fluids and soft matter physics

  10. A comparative study of regenerated bamboo, cotton and viscose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very little information is available about the validation of these properties through scientific research studies. It is also evident that information about natural bamboo and regenerated bamboo fibre products is often confusing. Regenerated bamboo (also referred to as bamboo viscose or bamboo rayon) is manufactured from ...

  11. Viscosity of aluminum under shock-loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Juan; Liu Fu-Sheng; Zhang Ming-Jian; Sun Yan-Yun

    2011-01-01

    A reliable data treatment method is critical for viscosity measurements using the disturbance amplitude damping method of shock waves. In this paper the finite difference method is used to obtain the numerical solutions for the disturbance amplitude damping behaviour of the sinusoidal shock front in a flyer-impact experiment. The disturbance amplitude damping curves are used to depict the numerical solutions of viscous flow. By fitting the experimental data to the numerical solutions of different viscosities, we find that the effective shear viscosity coefficients of shocked aluminum at pressures of 42, 78 and 101 GPa are (1500±100) Pa·s, (2800±100) Pa·s and (3500±100) Pa·s respectively. It is clear that the shear viscosity of aluminum increases with an increase in shock pressure, so aluminum does not melt below a shock pressure of 101 GPa. This conclusion is consistent with the sound velocity measurement. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Elongational viscosity of monodisperse and bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for two monodisperse polystyrene melts with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole (PS52K) and 103 kg/mole (PS103K), and for three bidisperse polystyrene melts. The bidisperse melts consist of PS103K or PS52K and a monodisperse...... (closed loop proportional regulator) using the laser in such a way that the stretch rate at the neck is kept constant. The rheometer has been described in more detail in (A. Bach, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology, 47 (2003) 429). PS390K show a decrease in the steady viscosity as a power......-law function of the elongational rate (A. Bach, K. Almdal, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 5174). PS52K and PS103K show that the steady viscosity has a maximum that is respectively 100% and 50% above 3 times the zero-shear-rate viscosity. The bidisperse melts show a significant...

  13. Phase and viscosity behaviour of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Garcia, J.; Fernandez, J.

    2005-01-01

    , mainly as a function of the molecular asymmetry. This also has a profound effect in the mixture transport properties. Thus, in this work the general aspects of phase and viscosity behaviour linked to the type of asymmetry found in refrigerant-lubricant mixtures are discussed in the context of phase...

  14. Reduced viscosity interpreted for fluid/gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis predicts decrease in fluid viscosity by comparing pressure profile of fluid/gas mixture with that of power-law fluid. Fluid is taken to be viscous, non-Newtonian, and incompressible; the gas to be ideal; the flow to be inertia-free, isothermal, and one dimensional. Analysis assists in design of flow systems for petroleum, coal, polymers, and other materials.

  15. [Relations between plasma-erythrocyte viscosity factors and ESR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, A; Crippa, A; Crippa, M; Bosoni, T; Moratti, R

    1992-09-01

    The ESR is usually put in relationship: to the real density of the RBCs (erythrocytes) (difference between the RBC specific gravity and the plasma one), and to the resistance that the RBCs meet moving in a medium, which is due to the plasma viscosity and to the total external RBC surface. When the RBCs take shape of aggregates, their external surface is decreased and ESR increases. The most important plasma factor causing changes in ESR is the fibrinogen level followed by the plasma globulins and by the products arising from the tissue damage. The resistance that the RBCs meet moving in the plasma is well expressed by the measurement of the plasma-RBC viscosity considering that is inclusive of both factors that are the plasma viscosity and the external RBC surface. The plasma-RBC viscosity is the resultant of several factors: Fa = Fb - Fe - Fs - Fm, were: Fa is the resultant, Fb the attracting forces due to the proteic macromolecules, Fe the repulsing forces due the negative charges. Fs the repulsing forces due to the shear-stress, Fm the force which opposes itself against the surface tension of the aggregation; it depends on the RBC morphology and on the RBC rigidity. The ESR has been recently used like an index of the RBC aggregation. The Authors study the relationship between several hemorheological parameters and the ESR in infective and inflammatory processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Microfluidics for simultaneous quantification of platelet adhesion and blood viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Platelet functions, including adhesion, activation, and aggregation have an influence on thrombosis and the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a new microfluidic-based method is proposed to estimate platelet adhesion and blood viscosity simultaneously. Blood sample flows into an H-shaped microfluidic device with a peristaltic pump. Since platelet aggregation may be initiated by the compression of rotors inside the peristaltic pump, platelet aggregates may adhere to the H-shaped channel. Through correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) can be estimated without labeling platelets. The platelet function is estimated by determining the representative index IA·T based on APlatelet and contact time. Blood viscosity is measured by monitoring the flow conditions in the one side channel of the H-shaped device. Based on the relation between interfacial width (W) and pressure ratio of sample flows to the reference, blood sample viscosity (μ) can be estimated by measuring W. Biophysical parameters (IA·T, μ) are compared for normal and diabetic rats using an ex vivo extracorporeal model. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the platelet adhesion and blood viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under ex vivo conditions. PMID:27118101

  17. Kinematic viscosity of liquid Al-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, N Yu; Popel, P S

    2008-01-01

    Temperature dependences of kinematic viscosity n of liquid Al 100-x -Cu x alloys (x = 0.0, 10.0, 17.1, 25.0, 32.2, 40.0 and 50.0 at.%) were measured. A technique based on registration of the period and the decrement of damping of rotating oscillations of a cylindrical crucible with a melt was used. Viscosity was calculated in low viscous liquids approximation. Measurements were carried out in vacuum in crucibles of BeO with a temperature step of 30 deg. C and isothermal expositions of 10 to 15 minutes during both heating up to 1100-1250 deg. C and subsequent cooling. We have discovered branching of heating and cooling curves v(T) (hysteresis of viscosity) below temperatures depending on the copper content: 950 deg. C at 10 and 17.1 at.% Cu, 1050 deg. C at 25 and 40 at.% Cu, 850 deg. C at 32.2 at.% Cu. For samples with 10 and 17.1 at.% Cu the cooling curve 'returns' to the heating one near 700 deg. C. An abnormally high spreading of results at repeated decrement measurements was fixed at heating of the alloy containing 50 at.% Cu above 1000 deg. C. During subsequent cooling the effect disappeared. Isotherms of kinematic viscosity have been fitted for several temperatures

  18. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhixian; Jiang, Haiming; Li, Ling; Wang, Hongxing; Qiu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 ) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  19. On the measurement of the relative viscosity of suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrivos, A.; Fan, X.; Mauri, R.

    1994-01-01

    The relative viscosity of a suspension of rigid, noncolloidal particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid was measured in a Couette device and was found to be shear thinning even for values of the solids fraction as low as 20%. Although such behavior was reported previously, no satisfactory explanation appears to have been given thus far. It shall be shown presently, however, that, at least for our systems, this shear-thinning effect was due to a slight mismatch in the densities of the two phases. Moreover, the apparent relative viscosities measured in our apparatus were found to be in excellent agreement with those predicted theoretically using a model, originally proposed by Leighton and Acrivos [Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 1377--1384 (1986)], to describe viscous resuspension, according to which the measured relative viscosity should depend on the bulk particle concentration and on the dimensionless Shields number A, and should attain its correct value for a well-mixed suspension only as A→∞. The predictions of this model are also in excellent agreement with the measured transient response of the apparent relative viscosity due to a sudden change in the shear rate

  20. glutamic acid from high-viscosity fermentation broth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of IR spectrum was performed using an IR spectrophotometer with ... Results: The results showed that the γ-PGA yield was 35 g/L. The viscosity of ... of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), ...

  1. Sensitivity of viscosity Arrhenius parameters to polarity of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, R. B. H.; Alzamel, N. O.; Ouerfelli, N.

    2017-09-01

    Several empirical and semi-empirical equations have been proposed in the literature to estimate the liquid viscosity upon temperature. In this context, this paper aims to study the effect of polarity of liquids on the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence, considering particularly the Arrhenius type equations. To achieve this purpose, the solvents are classified into three groups: nonpolar, borderline polar and polar solvents. Based on adequate statistical tests, we found that there is strong evidence that the polarity of solvents affects significantly the distribution of the Arrhenius-type equation parameters and consequently the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence. Thus, specific estimated values of parameters for each group of liquids are proposed in this paper. In addition, the comparison of the accuracy of approximation with and without classification of liquids, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, shows a significant discrepancy of the borderline polar solvents. For that, we suggested in this paper new specific coefficient values of the simplified Arrhenius-type equation for better estimation accuracy. This result is important given that the accuracy in the estimation of the viscosity-temperature dependence may affect considerably the design and the optimization of several industrial processes.

  2. Temperature dependent viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Prashant B.; Somvanshi, Sandeep B.; Kounsalye, Jitendra S.; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Khirade, Pankaj P.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluid is prepared in 0 to 1 (in the step of 0.2) volume fraction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. The Raman spectra have been deconvoluted into individual Lorentzian peaks. Cobalt ferrite has cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. FT-IR spectra consist of two major absorption bands, first at about 586 cm-1 (υ1) and second at about 392 cm-1 (υ2). These absorption bands confirm the formation of spinel-structured cobalt ferrite. Brookfield DV-III viscometer and programmable temperature-controlled bath was used to study the relationship between viscosity and temperature. Viscosity behavior with respect to temperature has been studied and it is revealed that the viscosity of cobalt ferrite / ethylene glycol ferrofluids increases with an increase in volume fraction of cobalt ferrite. The viscosity of the present ferrofluid was found to decrease with increase in temperature.

  3. Measuring Viscosity with a Levitating Magnet: Application to Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, C.; Bouquet, F.; Remond, J.; Deloche, B.

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10[superscript 6] mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex…

  4. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, Katherine [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may

  5. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Energy-yielding liquids elicit weak suppressive appetite responses and weak compensatory responses, suggesting that liquid calories might lead to a positive energy balance. However, data is often derived from foods differing in many characteristics other than viscosity. Objective: To

  6. Measurement of Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Liquids Using a Microviscometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    The viscosity of normal alkanes, their mixtures, and true boiling point (TBP) fractions (C (sub 6) -C (sub 19)) of four North Sea petroleum reservoir fluids have been measured by use of an automatic rolling ball mixroviscometer at 20°C. The equipment is specially suited for samples of limited amo...

  7. The effects of gold nanoparticles size and concentration on viscosity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate viscosity in relation with the temperature, flow activation energy and dielectric properties for 10, 20 and 50 nm gold nanoparticles size (GNPs) in addition to absorption and fluorescence spectra at different concentrations (0.2 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-2%) in an attempt to cover and understand ...

  8. Bubble Coalescence: Effect of Bubble Approach Velocity and Liquid Viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orvalho, Sandra; Růžička, Marek; Olivieri, G.; Marzocchella, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, SEP 29 (2015), s. 205-216 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bubble coalescence * bubble approach velocity * liquid viscosity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2015

  9. Effects of Nattokinase on Whole Blood Viscosity and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Cengiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nattokinase is a serin protease having potent fibrinolytic effect derived from fermentation of boiled soy bean by the use of Basillus Subtilis Natto. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of intragastric Nattokinase (6 mg/day administration for 7 days prior to formation of sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels, whole blood viscosity and mortality in rats. Materials and Methods: Intraabdominal sepsis were performed by cecal ligation and puncture in rats supplemented with nattokinase or olive oil for 7 days prior to sepsis formation. Plasma fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity analysis and survival analysis was performed after intraabdominal sepsis formation. Results: Mean blood viscosity of rats was lower in Nattokinase and cecal ligation group at lowest shear rate (p<0.05. However, the differences between groups were not significant at higher shear rates. No difference was found in survival rates and survival times of Nattokinase and cecal ligation and cecal ligation and puncture groups. Conclusion: Our results were unable to show the effects of intragastric nattokinase supplementation prior to sepsis on plasma fibrinogen levels or whole blood viscosity, except low shear rate. Nattokinase did not altered survival in septic rats. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9: 85-9

  10. Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)

  11. Empirical Modelling of Nonmonotonous Behaviour of Shear Viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Jiří; Filip, Petr; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, August (2013) ISSN 1687-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : shear viscosity * Galindo-rosales * Carreau-yasuda Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2013/658187/

  12. Relook on fitting of viscosity with undercooling of glassy liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur ... The present approach is on the modification of viscosity fitting of undercooled liquid as a function of ... behaviour of glassy alloys and organic and ionic compounds ...... the present method is applied to calculate the analytical solu-.

  13. Effective viscosity in quantum turbulence: a steady-state approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuin, Simone; Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.; Lévêque, E.; Roche, P.-E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 2 (2014), "24006-1"-"24006-6" ISSN 0295-5075 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum turbulence * effective viscosity * superfluid hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2014

  14. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurement and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.

  15. Steady shear viscosity of stirred yoghurts with varying ropiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, M.E.; van Marle, M.E.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; de Kruif, C.G.; de Kruif, C.G.; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Stirred yogurt was viewed as a concentrated dispersion of aggregates consisting of protein particles. The steady-shear behavior of three types of stirred yogurt with varying ropiness was investigated experimentally. To describe the shear-dependent viscosity, a microrheological model was used which

  16. Metal-silicate Partitioning and Its Role in Core Formation and Composition on Super-Earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Laura; Petaev, M. I.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jacobsen, Stein B.; Remo, John L., E-mail: lschaefer@asu.edu [Harvard University, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 20 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We use a thermodynamic framework for silicate-metal partitioning to determine the possible compositions of metallic cores on super-Earths. We compare results using literature values of the partition coefficients of Si and Ni, as well as new partition coefficients calculated using results from laser shock-induced melting of powdered metal-dunite targets at pressures up to 276 GPa, which approaches those found within the deep mantles of super-Earths. We find that larger planets may have little to no light elements in their cores because the Si partition coefficient decreases at high pressures. The planet mass at which this occurs will depend on the metal-silicate equilibration depth. We also extrapolate the equations of state (EOS) of FeO and FeSi alloys to high pressures, and present mass–radius diagrams using self-consistent planet compositions assuming equilibrated mantles and cores. We confirm the results of previous studies that the distribution of elements between mantle and core will not be detectable from mass and radius measurements alone. While observations may be insensitive to interior structure, further modeling is sensitive to compositionally dependent properties, such as mantle viscosity and core freeze-out properties. We therefore emphasize the need for additional high pressure measurements of partitioning as well as EOSs, and highlight the utility of the Sandia Z-facilities for this type of work.

  17. The molecular dynamics simulation of structure and transport properties of sheared super-cooled liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Liu Xiangfa; Zhang Yanning; Yang Hua; Chen Ying; Bian Xiufang

    2003-01-01

    Much more attention has been paid to the microstructure of liquid metal under non-ordinary condition recently. In this Letter, the pair correlation function (PCF), together with internal energy of sheared super-cooled liquid Co as a function of temperature has been calculated by molecular dynamics simulation based upon the embedded atom method (EAM) and analyzed compared to that under normal condition. The finding indicates that there exist three obvious peaks of PCF for liquid Co; while as the shear stress is applied to the liquid, the first and second peaks of PCF become lower, the third peak disappeared. The concentric shell structure representing short-range order of liquid still exists, however, it is weakened by the addition of shear stress, leading to the increases of disordering degree of liquid metal. The curves of energy versus temperature suggest the higher crystalline temperature compared to that under normal condition at the same cooling rate. In addition, the viscosity of super-liquid Co is calculated by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD)

  18. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA as cross linking agent, and (NH42S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that water absorbency of the resin is 311 g/g, the tap water absorbency is 102 g/g, the normal saline absorbency is 55 g/g, and the artificial urine absorbency is 31 g/g under the optimal synthesis conditions, so the resin has great water absorption rate and water retaining capacity. The FT-IR and SEM analysis shows that the resin with honeycomb network structure is prepared. The successfully synthesized of the resin means that the hemicellulose waste liquid can be highly effectively recycled, and it provides a kind of new raw material for the synthesis of super water absorbent resin.

  19. The Solution Construction of Heterotic Super-Liouville Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhen, Yi

    2001-12-01

    We investigate the heterotic super-Liouville model on the base of the basic Lie super-algebra Osp(1|2).Using the super extension of Leznov-Saveliev analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov linear system, we construct the explicit solution of the heterotic super-Liouville system in component form. We also show that the solutions are local and periodic by calculating the exchange relation of the solution. Finally starting from the action of heterotic super-Liouville model, we obtain the conserved current and conserved charge which possessed the BRST properties.

  20. Detecting Water on Super-Earths Using JAVST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby lower train sequence stars host a class of planets known as Super-Earths, that have no analog in our own solar system. Super-Earths are rocky and/or icy planets with masses up to about 10 Earth masses, They are expected to host atmospheres generated by a number of processes including accretion of chondritic material. Water vapor should be a common constituent of super-Earth atmospheres, and may be detectable in transiting super-Earths using transmission spectroscopy during primar y eclipse, and emission spectroscopy at secondary eclipse. I will discuss the prospects for super-Earth atmospheric measurements using JWST.

  1. Viscosity of komatiite liquid at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Dwyer, L.; Lesher, C. E.; Wang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The viscosities of komatiite liquids at high pressures and temperatures are being investigated by the in-situ falling sphere technique, using the T-25 multianvil apparatus at the GSECARS 13 ID-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL. The refractory and fluid nature of komatiite and other ultramafic liquids relevant to the Earth's deep interior, presents unique challenges for this approach. To reach superliquidus temperatures we use a double reservoir configuration, where marker spheres are placed at the top of both a main melt reservoir and an overlying reservoir containing a more refractory composition. Using this approach, we have successfully measured the viscosity of a komatiite from Gorgona Island (GOR-94-29; MgO - 17.8 wt.%; NBO/T = 1.6) up to 6 GPa and 1900 K. Under isothermal conditions, viscosity increases with pressure, consistent with the depolymerized nature of the komatiite. At 1900 K, viscosity increases from 1.5 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 3.5 GPa to 3.4 (+- 0.3) Pa s at 6 GPa, corresponding to an activation volume of 2.2 cm3/mol. At high pressures, the viscosities of Gorgona Island komatiite melt are an order of magnitude higher than those measured by Liebske et al. (2005, EPSL, v. 240) for peridotite melt (MgO 37.1 wt.%; NBO/T = 2.5), and similar in magnitude to molten diopside (NBO/T = 2) (Reid et al. 2003, PEPI, v. 139). The positive pressure dependence is consistent with the reduction in interatomic space diminishing the free volume of the liquid as it is compressed. Above 6 GPa the free volume reduction may become less important with the production of high-coordinated network formers, as attributed to the reversal of the pressure dependence of viscosity for peridotite melt at ~8.5 GPa and diopside melt at ~10 GPa. Experiments at higher pressures are underway to determine if a similar viscosity maximum occurs for komatiite melt and whether its pressure is greater than 10 GPa, as suggested by the data for peridotite and diopside melts.

  2. Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment - Abstract of Issues 9907W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F.; Freire, F. G.

    1999-11-01

    Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment simulates a series of viscosity experiments. Viscosity is an important subject in chemistry and chemical engineering. It is important when dealing with intermolecular forces in liquids and gases and it has enormous relevance in all technological aspects of equipment dealing with liquids or gases. Most university-level chemistry courses include viscosity to some extent. Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. The Ostwald viscometer simulator and the balance simulator allow the student to find out how composition and temperature influence the density and viscosity of an ethanol-water mixture. The falling-ball viscometer simulator allows the student to determine experimentally the size and density of the ball required to measure viscosity of various liquids. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own. Preparation is not essential. Students can use the program unsupervised, thus saving staff time and allowing flexibility in students' time. The design of the program interface plays a key role in the success of a simulated experiment. Direct manipulation has greater intuitive appeal than alternative interface forms such as menus and has been observed to provide performance and learning advantages (1). We tried to design an interface that is visually attractive, is user friendly with simple and intuitive navigation, and provides appropriate schematic animations to clarify the principles of the laboratory procedures. The opening screen presents the virtual experiments that can be selected. Clicking an icon takes the student to the appropriate section. Viscosity Measurement allows the student to concentrate on the

  3. Viscosity and diffusivity in melts: from unary to multicomponent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong; Huang, Baiyun

    2014-05-01

    Viscosity and diffusivity, two important transport coefficients, are systematically investigated from unary melt to binary to multicomponent melts in the present work. By coupling with Kaptay's viscosity equation of pure liquid metals and effective radii of diffusion species, the Sutherland equation is modified by taking the size effect into account, and further derived into an Arrhenius formula for the convenient usage. Its reliability for predicting self-diffusivity and impurity diffusivity in unary liquids is then validated by comparing the calculated self-diffusivities and impurity diffusivities in liquid Al- and Fe-based alloys with the experimental and the assessed data. Moreover, the Kozlov model was chosen among various viscosity models as the most reliable one to reproduce the experimental viscosities in binary and multicomponent melts. Based on the reliable viscosities calculated from the Kozlov model, the modified Sutherland equation is utilized to predict the tracer diffusivities in binary and multicomponent melts, and validated in Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ce-Ni melts. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated results and the literature data indicate that the experimental tracer diffusivities and the theoretical ones can be well reproduced by the present calculations. In addition, the vacancy-wind factor in binary liquid Al-Ni alloys with the increasing temperature is also discussed. What's more, the calculated inter-diffusivities in liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu alloys are also in excellent agreement with the measured and theoretical data. Comparisons between the simulated concentration profiles and the measured ones in Al-Cu, Al-Ce-Ni and Al-Ag-Cu melts are further used to validate the present calculation method.

  4. NLTE Model Atmospheres for Super-Soft X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas; Werner, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    Spectral analysis by means of fully line-blanketed Non-LTE model atmospheres has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The Tübingen NLTE Model Atmosphere Package (TMAP) is used to calculate plane-parallel NLTE model atmospheres which are in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium. Although TMAP is not especially designed for the calculation of burst spectra of novae, spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated from TMAP models are well suited e.g. for abundance determinations of Super Soft X-ray Sources like nova V4743 Sgr or line identifications in observations of neutron stars with low magnetic fields in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) like EXO 0748-676.

  5. Universality of the high-temperature viscosity limit of silicate liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.; Ellison, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the high-temperature limit of liquid viscosity by analyzing measured viscosity curves for 946 silicate liquids and 31 other liquids including metallic, molecular, and ionic systems. Our results show no systematic dependence of the high-temperature viscosity limit on chemical...... composition for the studied liquids. Based on theMauro-Yue-Ellison-Gupta-Allan (MYEGA) model of liquid viscosity, the high-temperature viscosity limit of silicate liquids is 10−2.93 Pa·s. Having established this value, there are only two independent parameters governing the viscosity-temperature relation...

  6. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  7. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  8. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  9. Non-freely generated W-algebras and construction of N=2 super W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, R.

    1994-07-01

    Firstly, we investigate the origin of the bosonic W-algebras W(2, 3, 4, 5), W(2, 4, 6) and W(2, 4, 6) found earlier by direct construction. We present a coset construction for all three examples leading to a new type of finitely, non-freely generated quantum W-algebras, which we call unifying W-algebras. Secondly, we develop a manifest covariant formalism to construct N = 2 super W-algebras explicitly on a computer. Applying this algorithm enables us to construct the first four examples of N = 2 super W-algebras with two generators and the N = 2 super W 4 algebra involving three generators. The representation theory of the former ones shows that all examples could be divided into four classes, the largest one containing the N = 2 special type of spectral flow algebras. Besides the W-algebra of the CP(3) Kazama-Suzuki coset model, the latter example with three generators discloses a second solution which could also be explained as a unifying W-algebra for the CP(n) models. (orig.)

  10. Superstring field theories on super-flag manifolds: superdiff S1/S1 and superdiff S1/super S1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhiyong; Wu, Ke; Saito, Takesi

    1987-01-01

    We generalize the geometric approach of Bowick and Rajeev [BR] to superstring field theories. The anomaly is identified with nonvanishing of the Ricci curvature of the super-flag manifold. We explicitly calculate the curvatures of superdiff S 1 /S 1 and superdiff S 1 /superS 1 using super-Toeplitz operator techniques. No regularization is needed in this formalism. The critical dimension D=10 is rediscovered as a result of vanishing curvature of the product bundle over the super-flag manifold. (orig.)

  11. SOLAR OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING THE SUPER-TRANSITION-ARRAY METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D.

    2016-01-01

    A new opacity model has been developed based on the Super-Transition-Array (STA) method for the calculation of monochromatic opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atomic code, named STAR (STA-Revised), is described and used to calculate spectral opacities for a solar model implementing the recent AGSS09 composition. Calculations are carried out throughout the solar radiative zone. The relative contributions of different chemical elements and atomic processes to the total Rosseland mean opacity are analyzed in detail. Monochromatic opacities and charge-state distributions are compared with the widely used Opacity Project (OP) code, for several elements near the radiation–convection interface. STAR Rosseland opacities for the solar mixture show a very good agreement with OP and the OPAL opacity code throughout the radiation zone. Finally, an explicit STA calculation was performed of the full AGSS09 photospheric mixture, including all heavy metals. It was shown that, due to their extremely low abundance, and despite being very good photon absorbers, the heavy elements do not affect the Rosseland opacity

  12. Gamma radiation synthesis of super absorbent hydrogels for different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, H.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAP) of carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide (CMC/PAM), carboxymethyl cellulose/acrylamide/Silica (CMC/AM/Si) and carboxymethyl cellulose/Polyvinyl alcohol (CMC/PVA) were synthesized by radiation-induced grafting using γ-irradiation technique. The effects of various parameters, such as irradiation dose, the content of CMC, PAM, PVA, and Silica gel on the swelling percent of produced hydrogels have been evaluated. The kinetic equilibrium swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was studied, it was found that the maximum swelling percent was 5000 % for the CMC/PAM hydrogel, 12000 % for the CMC/PAM/Si composite hydrogel, and 6200 % for the CMC/PVA hydrogel. The gel fraction, equilibrium swelling and effect of ph on the swelling percent were also studied. The prepared copolymers were also characterized by FTIR spectral analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. In order to evaluate its controlled release potential, different prepared hydrogels were loaded with KNO 3 as an agrochemical model and its potential for controlled release of KNO 3 was studied and evaluated with respect to different parameters such as time of release, ph of the medium, and temperatures. The results obtained from swelling, loading of KNO 3 , and release behavior studies suggested and recommended the possible use of prepared hydrogels for enhancing the plantation of Linum Usitatissimum.

  13. SOLAR OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING THE SUPER-TRANSITION-ARRAY METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D., E-mail: menahem.krief@mail.huji.ac.il [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-04-10

    A new opacity model has been developed based on the Super-Transition-Array (STA) method for the calculation of monochromatic opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atomic code, named STAR (STA-Revised), is described and used to calculate spectral opacities for a solar model implementing the recent AGSS09 composition. Calculations are carried out throughout the solar radiative zone. The relative contributions of different chemical elements and atomic processes to the total Rosseland mean opacity are analyzed in detail. Monochromatic opacities and charge-state distributions are compared with the widely used Opacity Project (OP) code, for several elements near the radiation–convection interface. STAR Rosseland opacities for the solar mixture show a very good agreement with OP and the OPAL opacity code throughout the radiation zone. Finally, an explicit STA calculation was performed of the full AGSS09 photospheric mixture, including all heavy metals. It was shown that, due to their extremely low abundance, and despite being very good photon absorbers, the heavy elements do not affect the Rosseland opacity.

  14. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  15. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  16. A model for the viscosity of dilute smectite gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Di; Liu, Longcheng

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A simple yet accurate model describing the viscosity of dilute suspensions of sodium montmorillonite in low ionic strength waters is presented. Taking the clay particle and the surrounding clouds of ions as whole as an uncharged but soft particle, the Huggins' equation is extended in the model to account for both the primary and the secondary electro-viscous effects, by use of the notion of an effective volume fraction. In the model, however, we do not represent the clay particle as a sphere surrounded by immobile water layer with thickness of a Debye length, as did by Adachi et al. (1998) who used the co-volume fraction to approximate the effective volume fraction. We visualize the effective geometry of the particle and the associated ionic atmosphere as an ellipsoid. This representation is more practical and more plausible, because in the limit of large ionic strength, the electrolyte ions have been screened to a significant extent so that the charged particle behaves just like an uncharged one. As a result, the application of the Simha's equation of intrinsic viscosity for ellipsoidal particle following with random Brownian motion enables us to obtain an analytical expression for the primary electro-viscous effect. More importantly, the available models for hard plate-like particles can be used to aid in the quantification of the secondary electro-viscous effect. The development of the model is based firmly on precise measurements of the viscosity of sufficiently dilute suspensions of sodium montmorillonite in low concentration NaCl solutions (at room temperature) using Ostwald capillary viscometers. The obtained data clearly demonstrate the primary and the secondary electro-viscous effects. That is, with an decrease of ionic strength, the intrinsic viscosity which is the intercept of the extrapolation of the plot at zero volume fraction will increase, and the slope of the linear part which appears in

  17. Direct observations of the viscosity of Earth's outer core and extrapolation of measurements of the viscosity of liquid iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smylie, D E; Brazhkin, Vadim V; Palmer, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Estimates vary widely as to the viscosity of Earth's outer fluid core. Directly observed viscosity is usually orders of magnitude higher than the values extrapolated from high-pressure high-temperature laboratory experiments, which are close to those for liquid iron at atmospheric pressure. It turned out that this discrepancy can be removed by extrapolating via the widely known Arrhenius activation model modified by lifting the commonly used assumption of pressure-independent activation volume (which is possible due to the discovery that at high pressures the activation volume increases strongly with pressure, resulting in 10 2 Pa s at the top of the fluid core, and in 10 11 Pa s at its bottom). There are of course many uncertainties affecting this extrapolation process. This paper reviews two viscosity determination methods, one for the top and the other for the bottom of the outer core, the former of which relies on the decay of free core nutations and yields 2371 ± 1530 Pa s, while the other relies on the reduction in the rotational splitting of the two equatorial translational modes of the solid inner core oscillations and yields an average of 1.247 ± 0.035 Pa s. Encouraged by the good performance of the Arrhenius extrapolation, a differential form of the Arrhenius activation model is used to interpolate along the melting temperature curve and to find the viscosity profile across the entire outer core. The viscosity variation is found to be nearly log-linear between the measured boundary values. (methodological notes)

  18. Harmonic R-matrices for scattering amplitudes and spectral regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Livia; Plefka, Jan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Lukowski, Tomasz [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). IRIS Adlershof; Meneghelli, Carlo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 11 - Mathematik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Staudacher, Matthias [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Planar N=4 super Yang-Mills appears to be integrable. While this allows to find this theory's exact spectrum, integrability has hitherto been of no direct use for scattering amplitudes. To remedy this, we deform all scattering amplitudes by a spectral parameter. The deformed tree-level four-point function turns out to be essentially the one-loop R-matrix of the integrable N=4 spin chain satisfying the Yang-Baxter equation. Deformed on-shell three-point functions yield novel three-leg R-matrices satisfying bootstrap equations. Finally, we supply initial evidence that the spectral parameter might find its use as a novel symmetry-respecting regulator replacing dimensional regularization. Its physical meaning is a local deformation of particle helicity, a fact which might be useful for a much larger class of non-integrable four-dimensional field theories.

  19. Mechanistic Insights into Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase Revealed by Solvent Isotope and Viscosity Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ruben [Department; Huang, Gaochao [Department; Meekins, David A. [Department; Geisbrecht, Brian V. [Department; Li, Ping [Department

    2017-08-18

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) are a family of H2O2-dependent heme peroxidases that have shown potential applications in lignin degradation and valorization. However, the DyP kinetic mechanism remains underexplored. Using structural biology and solvent isotope (sKIE) and viscosity effects, many mechanistic characteristics have been determined for the B-class ElDyP from Enterobacter lignolyticus. Its structure revealed that a water molecule acts as the sixth axial ligand and two channels at diameters of ~3.0 and 8.0 Å lead to the heme center. A conformational change of ERS* to ERS, which have identical spectral characteristics, was proposed as the final step in DyPs’ bisubstrate Ping-Pong mechanism. This step is also the rate-determining step in ABTS oxidation. The normal KIE of wild-type ElDyP with D2O2 at pD 3.5 suggested that compound 0 deprotonation by the distal aspartate is rate-limiting in the formation of compound I, which is more reactive under acidic pH than under neutral or alkaline pH. The viscosity effects and other biochemical methods implied that the reducing substrate binds with compound I instead of the free enzyme. The significant inverse sKIEs of kcat/KM and kERS* suggested that the aquo release in ElDyP is mechanistically important and may explain the enzyme’s adoption of two-electron reduction for compound I. The distal aspartate is catalytically more important than the distal arginine and plays key roles in determining ElDyP’s optimum acidic pH. The kinetic mechanism of D143H-ElDyP was also briefly studied. The results obtained will pave the way for future protein engineering to improve DyPs’ lignolytic activity.

  20. Solar neutrinos at super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.

    1999-01-01

    A huge ring imaging water Cherenkov detector, super-Kamiokande, has started data accumulation on April 1st, 1996 as promised. This experiment is expected to give a definite answer to the neutrino oscillation solutions of the long standing solar neutrino problem through high statistics and high precision spectrum and day/night flux measurement. Super-Kamiokande is accumulating 8 B solar neutrino data very quickly and preliminary results obtained from 374 days of data are presented here, instead of 306 days of data presented at the conference. No significant day/night variation nor seasonal variation are found. Systematic errors of energy scale are largely reduced by the LINAC calibrations at various positions. And the experiment is getting closer to the level of the systematic errors where we can definitely discuss about the spectrum distortion. Also implications of those preliminary results are discussed within two neutrino oscillation hypothesis